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CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

MatterProperties and Changes


Section 3.1 Properties of Matter

b. Iron is more dense than aluminum.

pages 7075

physical

Problem-Solving Lab

c. Magnesium burns brightly when ignited.

1. Explain why the flow of a compressed gas must

be controlled for practical and safe use.


The flow of compressed gas must be controlled
to control the amount and the rate at which gas
is released.

chemical

d. Oil and water do not mix.


physical

e. Mercury melts at 39C.

2. Predict what would happen if the valve on a full

tank of compressed gas were suddenly opened


all the way or if the tank were accidentally
punctured.
Without the regulator device, the gas would rush
out of the tank with a force powerful enough to
transform the tank into a dangerous, uncontrolled
projectile.

Section 3.1 Assessment


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page 75

physical

4. Organize Create a chart that compares

physical and chemical properties. Give two


examples for each type of property.
The chart should make clear that physical
properties can be observed without changing
the composition of the sample, which is not the
case for chemical properties. Mass and density
are examples of physical properties. Fermentation
and rusting are examples of chemical properties.

1. Create a table that describes the three common

states of matter in terms of their shape, volume,


and compressibility.
Volume

Shape

Compressibility

Solid

Definite

Definite

Incompressible

Liquid

Definite

Takes shape of
container and
fills container
to the extent of
its own volume

Virtually
incompressible

Takes shape of
container

Compressible

Gas

Fills
volume of
container

Section 3.2 Changes in Matter


pages 7679

Practice Problems
page 78

5. Use the data in the table to answer the

following questions.
Aluminum and Liquid Bromine Reaction

2. Describe the characteristics that identify a

Aluminum
Liquid bromine
Compound

Before Reaction

After Reaction

10.3 g

0.0 g

100.0 g

8.5 g

0.0 g

sample of matter as being a substance.


The sample of matter must have a uniform and
unchanging composition to be a substance.

3. Classify each of the following as a physical or

chemical property.
a. Iron and oxygen form rust.

How many grams of bromine reacted? How


many grams of compound were formed?
amount of bromine that reacted 
100.0 g  8.5 g  91.5 g
amount of compound formed 
100.0 g  10.3 g  8.5 g  101.8 g

chemical
Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

35

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

6. From a laboratory process designed to sepa-

rate water into hydrogen and oxygen gas, a


student collected 10.0 g of hydrogen and 79.4 g
of oxygen. How much water was originally
involved in the process?
massreactants  massproducts

massproducts  masshydrogen  massoxygen


masswater electrolyzed  masshydrogen  massoxygen
masswater electrolyzed  10.0 g  79.4 g  89.4 g

7. A student carefully placed 15.6 g of sodium in

a reactor supplied with an excess quantity of


chlorine gas. When the reaction was complete,
the student obtained 39.7 g of sodium chloride.
Calculate how many grams of chlorine gas
reacted. How many grams of sodium reacted?

Section 3.2 Assessment


page 79

10. Classify each example as a physical change or

a chemical change.
a. crushing an aluminum can
physical

b. recycling used aluminum cans to make new


physical

chloride

masssodium  15.6 g
chloride

Yes. Mass of reactants equals mass of products.

aluminum cans

massreactants  massproducts

masssodium

unknown amount of NH3(g) to produce 157.5 g


of NH4Cl(s). How many grams of NH3(g)
reacted? Is the law of conservation of mass
observed in the above reaction? Justify your
answer.
157.5 g  106.5 g  51 g

massreactants  masswater electrolyzed

masssodium  masschlorine  masssodium

9. Challenge 106.5 g of HCl(g) react with an

 39.7 g

Substituting and solving for masschlorine yields


15.6 g  masschlorine  39.7 g
masschlorine  39.7 g  15.6 g  24.1 g used in the
reaction.
Because the sodium reacts with excess chlorine,
all of the sodium (15.6 g) is used in the reaction.

c. aluminum combining with oxygen to form

aluminum oxide
chemical

11. Describe the results of a physical change and

list three examples of physical change.


During a physical change, a substance is altered
but its composition does not change. Examples
will vary but may include changes such as
melting, freezing, boiling, bending, and tearing.

8. A 10.0-g sample of magnesium reacts with

oxygen to form 16.6 g of magnesium oxide.


How many grams of oxygen reacted?
massreactants  massproducts
massmagnesium  massoxygen  massmagnesium oxide
massmagnesium  10.0 g
massmagnesium oxide  16.6 g

12. Describe the results of a chemical change. List

four indicators of chemical change.


During a chemical change, the composition of
a substance is altered. Possible indicators of
chemical change include a change in color, odor,
temperature, and the formation of a gas or solid
from a liquid.

10.0 g  massoxygen  16.6 g


massoxygen  16.6 g  10.0 g  6.6 g

36

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER

13. Calculate Solve each of the following.


a. In the complete reaction of 22.99 g of

sodium with 35.45 g of chlorine, what mass


of sodium chloride is formed?
masssodium chloride  masssodium  masschloride
masssodium chloride  22.99 g  35.45 g  58.44 g

b. A 12.2-g sample of X reacts with a sample

of Y to form 78.9 g of XY. What is the mass


of Y that reacted?
massX  massY  massXY
massY  massXY  massX 
78.9 g  12.2 g  66.7 g

14. Evaluate A friend tells you, Because

composition does not change during a physical


change, the appearance of a substance does not
change. Is your friend correct? Explain.

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

17. Describe the separation technique that could be

used to separate each of the following mixtures.


a. two colorless liquids
distillation

b. a nondissolving solid mixed with a liquid


filtration

c. red and blue marbles of same size and mass


manually separating the marbles by color

18. Concept Map Sketch a rough chart that

summarizes the relationship between matter,


elements, mixtures, compounds, pure
substances, homogeneous mixtures, and
heterogeneous mixtures.
Chart will be similar to Figure 3.19.
Matter

The statement is incorrect. While the composition


does not change, a change in appearance often
accompanies a physical change.
Mixtures

Physical
changes

Pure substances

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Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter


pages 8083

Section 3.3 Assessment


page 83

Chemical
changes
Heterogeneous
mixtures

Homogeneous
mixtures

Elements

Compounds

dirt, blood,
milk

lemonade, gasoline,
steel

oxygen, gold,
iron

salt, baking soda,


sugar

15. Classify each of the following as either a

heterogeneous or homogeneous mixture.


a. tap water
homogeneous

b. air
homogeneous

c. raisin muffin
heterogeneous

16. Compare mixtures and substances.


Substances have a constant composition, mixtures
do not. Each substance in a mixture retains
its own properties, whereas the properties of
a substance are different from those of the
elements that comprise it.

Solutions Manual

Section 3.4 Elements and


Compounds
pages 8490

Practice Problems
page 88

19. A 78.0-g sample of an unknown compound

contains 12.4 g of hydrogen. What is the percent


by mass of hydrogen in the compound?
Percent by masshydrogen 

mass
__
 100
mass

Percent by masshydrogen 

12.4 g
_
 100  15.9%

hydrogen

compound

78.0 g

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

37

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

20. If 1.0 g of hydrogen reacts completely with

19.0 g of fluorine, what is the percent by mass


of hydrogen in the compound that is formed?
masscompound  1.0 g  19.0 g  20.0 g
percent by masshydrogen 

mass
__
 100
mass

percent by masshydrogen 

1.0 g
_
 100  5.0%

hydrogen

compound

20.0 g

21. If 3.5 g of X reacts with 10.5 g of Y to form the

compound XY, what is the percent by mass of X


in the compound? The percent by mass of Y?
massXY  3.50 g  10.5 g  14.0 g
percent by massX 
percent by massX

mass
_
 100
mass
X

XY

3.50 g
 _  100  25% X
14.0 g

massY
 100
percent by massY 
massXY
percent by massY

10.5 g
 _  100  75% X
14.0 g

22. Two unknown compounds are tested.

Compound I contains 15.0 g of hydrogen and


120.0 g of oxygen. Compound II contains
2.0 g of hydrogen and 32.0 g of oxygen. Are
the compounds the same?

Section 3.4 Assessment


page 90

24. Compare and contrast elements and

compounds.
Elements cannot be broken down into simpler
substances by ordinary chemical means, whereas
compounds can.

25. Describe the basic organizational feature of

the periodic table of elements.


The periodic table is organized by rows (called
periods) and columns (called groups or
families). Elements in the same group have similar
chemical and physical properties. The patterns of
similar properties repeat from period to period.

26. Explain how the law of definite proportions

applies to compounds.
The law of definite proportions describes the
mass composition of a substance.

27. State the type of compounds that are compared

in the law of multiple proportions?


The law of multiple proportions relates the
compositions of two compounds composed of the
same elements.

28. Complete the table, and then analyze the

Compound I: mass percentagehydrogen 


15.0 g /(15.0 g  120.0 g)  11.1%

data to determine if Compounds I and II are


the same compound. If the compounds are
different, use the law of multiple proportions to
show the relationship between them.

Compound II: mass percentagehydrogen 


2.0 g (2.0 g  32.0)  5.9%

Analysis Data of Two Iron Compounds

Because the mass compositions of the compounds


are different, the compounds themselves must be
different.

Compound

Total
Mass (g)

Mass
Fe (g)

Mass
O (g)

Mass
% Fe

Mass
%O

75.00

52.46

22.54

69.05

30.05

II

56.00

43.53

12.47

77.73

22.27

23. Challenge All you know about two unknown

compounds is that they have the same percent


by mass of carbon. With only this information,
can you be sure the two compounds are the
same? Explain.
No, you cannot be sure. Having the same
mass percentage of a single element does
not guarantee that the composition of each
compound is the same.

38

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Compound I mass percent Fe  69.95%; mass percent


O  30.05%. Compound II mass percent Fe  77.73%;
mass percent O  22.27%. The compounds are not the
same.
Compound I: Fe:O  52.46 g/22.54 g  2.327
Compound II, Fe:O  43.53 g/12.47 g  3.491.
The relative mass ratio of Fe in compound I and
compound II is 2.327:3.491 0.667 2:3.

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

29. Calculate the mass percent of hydrogen in

water and the mass percent of oxygen in water.


Mass % of hydrogen in water 
20
 100%  11%
100

Mass % of oxygen in water 

160
_
 100%  89%
180

30. Graph Create a graph that illustrates the law of

multiple proportions.
Graph should be similar to Figure 3.20.

Compound I

Mass (g)

2.000

Chapter 3 Assessment
pages 9497

Section 3.1
Mastering Concepts
31. List three examples of substances. Explain why
each is a substance.
Answers will vary. Water, salt, and sugar are all
substances. Each is a substance because it has a
unique and unchanging composition.

32. Is carbon dioxide gas a pure substance?

Explain.
Yes. Carbon dioxide has a constant composition.

Cu

33. List at least three physical properties of water.


Cl

1.000

Answers will vary. Water is odorless, colorless, a


liquid, freezes at approximately 0C, and boils at
approximately 100C.

34. Identify each of the following as an extensive


b

Compound II

Mass (g)

1.000

intensive
Cu

Cl

b. mass
extensive

c. density
intensive

Mass Ratio
Comparison
2.000

Mass (g)

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2.000

or intensive physical property.


a. melting point

d. length
extensive

35. Properties are not affected by changes in


1.000

II

temperature and pressure. Is this statement true


or false? Explain.
The statement is false. Properties are affected by
changes in temperature, pressure. For example,
the phase of a substance is determined by
its temperature and pressure. Other specific
examples will vary.

Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

39

CHAPTER

36. List the three states of matter and give an

example for each state. Differentiate between a


gas and a vapor.
Solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (helium).
Substances that are in the gas phase at room
temperature are referred to as gases, whereas
substances such as water vapor that are not gases
at room temperature are vapors.
Vapors of volatile solvents such as acetone and
methanol escape if the solvent is left opened at
room temperature.

37. Classify each as either solid, liquid, or gas at

room temperature.
a. milk
liquid

b. air
gas

c. copper

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

e. silver tarnishes
chemical

f. mercury is a liquid at room temperature


physical

39. A carton of milk is poured into a bowl.

Describe the changes that occur in the milks


shape and volume.
The volume of the milk remains unchanged. Milk,
which is a liquid, conforms to the shape of its
container, thus the shape of the milk changes as it
is poured from the carton into the bowl.

40. Boiling Water At what temperature would

250 mL of water boil? 1000 mL? Is the boiling


point an intensive or extensive property?
Explain.
100C. 100C. Boiling point is an intensive
property since it is independent of quantity or
amount.

d. helium
gas

e. diamond
solid

f. candle wax
solid

38. Classify each as a physical property or a

chemical property.
a. aluminum has a silvery color
physical

b. gold has a density of 19 g/cm3


physical

c. sodium ignites when dropped in water


chemical

Mastering Problems
41. A scientist is given the task of identifying an
unknown compound on the basis of its physical
properties. The substance is a white solid at
room temperature. Attempts to determine
its boiling point were unsuccessful. Using
Table 3.6, name the unknown compound.
Physical Properties of Common Substances
Substance

Color

State at
25C

Boiling Point
(C)

Oxygen

colorless

gas

183

Water

colorless

liquid

100

Sucrose

white

solid

decomposes

Sodium chloride

white

solid

1413

Table 3.6 shows two compounds that are white


solids. Sucrose decomposes before a boiling point is
determined. Therefore, the unknown substance is
sucrose.

d. water boils at 100C


physical

40

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

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solid

CHAPTER

Section 3.2

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

47. Salt Sodium and chlorine combine to form

Mastering Concepts
42. Label each set of diagrams in Figure 3.22 as
physical or chemical change.

sodium chloride. List the reactants and products


of this reaction.
Sodium and chlorine are the reactants, while
sodium chloride is the product formed. Iron 
oxygen 0 iron oxide.

48. Burning Candle After burning for three

hours, a candle has lost half of its mass. Explain


why this example does not violate the law of
conservation of mass.
The mass of the candle is conserved if you
consider the gaseous products from the reaction.
a. physical

b. chemical

43. Classify each as a physical change or a

chemical change.
a. breaking a pencil in two
physical

b. water freezing and forming ice


physical

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. frying an egg
chemical

d. burning wood
chemical

e. leaves turning color in the fall


chemical

44. Ripening Is the process of the ripening a

chemical or physical change? Explain.


It is a chemical change. A green banana has
different properties compared to a yellow banana.

45. Is a change in phase a physical or a chemical

change?
Its a physical change. The composition of the
substance does not change.

46. List four indicators that a chemical change has

probably taken place.

49. Describe the difference between a physical

change and a chemical change.


A physical change alters a substance without
changing its composition, while a chemical
change involves a change in composition.

Mastering Problems
50. Ammonia Production A 28.0-g sample of

nitrogen gas combines completely with 6.0 g


of hydrogen gas to form ammonia. What is the
mass of ammonia the formed?
massnitrogen  masshydrogen  massammonia
massammonia  28.0 g  6.0 g  34.0 g

51. A 13.0-g sample of X combines with a 34.0-g

sample of Y to form the compound XY2. What


is the mass of the reactants?
X and Y are the reactants. The formula of the
compound formed is not important.
massreactants  massproducts  13.0 g  34.0 g 
47.0 g

52. If 45.98 g of sodium combines with an excess

of chlorine gas to form 116.89 g sodium chloride, what mass of chlorine gas is used in the
reaction?
masssodium  masschlorine  masssodium
masschlorine  masssodium

chloride

chloride

 masssodium

masschlorine  116.89 g 45.98 g  70.91 g

Probable indicators of a chemical reaction include


a change in color, odor, or temperature, and/or
the production of a gas or a solid upon mixing.
Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

41

CHAPTER

53. A substance breaks down into its component

elements when it is heated. If 68.0 g of the


substance is present before it is heated, what is
the combined mass of the component elements
after heating?

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

57. Name the separation method illustrated in

Figure 3.23.

massreactants  massproducts  68.0 g


Regardless of what the compound decomposes
into, mass must be conserved.

54. Copper sulfide is formed when copper and

masssulfur used in the reaction  initial mass of sulfur 


mass remaining after reaction
masssulfur  masssulfur used in the reaction 
41 g  9 g  32 g
masscopper sulfide  masscopper  masssulfur 
127 g  32 g  159 g

55. When burning 180 grams of glucose in the

presence of 192 grams of oxygen, water and


carbon dioxide are produced. If 108 grams of
water are produced; how many grams of CO2
are produced?
massglucose  massoxygen  masscarbon dioxide
 masswater
180 g  192 g  108 g  masscarbon dioxide
masscarbon dioxide  264 g.

Section 3.3
Mastering Concepts
56. Describe the characteristics of a mixture.
Mixtures are a physical blend of two or more
substances in any proportion. Mixtures do not
have a constant composition. The properties of
the mixture are largely those of its component
substances.

42

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

distillation

58. Describe a method that could be used to

separate each of the following mixtures.


a. iron filings and sand
A magnet can be used to draw the iron filings
from the sand.

b. sand and salt


Add water to the mixture to dissolve the salt.
Filter the mixture to remove the sand, and then
boil off the water so only the salt remains.

c. the components of ink


Paper chromatography should be used
to separate the components of the ink. If
enough ink is available, distillation may also
be used, but is far more complicated than
chromatography.

d. helium and oxygen gases


Cool the gas mixture until it condenses, then
distill the condensate.

59. A mixture is the chemical bonding of two

or more substances in any proportion. Is this


statement true or false. Explain.
The statement is false because mixtures are
physical blends of substances, not a chemical
bonding of substances.

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sulfur are heated together. In this reaction,


127 g of copper reacts with 41 g of sulfur. After
the reaction is complete, 9 g of sulfur remains
unreacted. What is the mass of copper sulfide
formed?

CHAPTER

60. Which of the following are the same and which

are different?
a. a substance and a pure substance
same

b. a heterogeneous mixture and a solution


different

c. a substance and a mixture


different

d. a homogeneous mixture and a solution


same

61. Describe how a homogeneous mixture differs

from a heterogeneous mixture.


Homogeneous mixtures contain a single phase.
Heterogeneous mixtures may have many phases.

62. Seawater is composed of salt, sand and water.

Is seawater a heterogeneous or homogeneous


mixture? Explain.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Heterogeneous mixture. Composition is not


uniform.

63. Iced Tea Use iced tea with and without ice

cubes as examples to explain homogeneous


and heterogeneous mixtures. If you allow all
of the ice cubes to melt, what type of mixture
remains?
Iced tea with ice cubes is a heterogeneous
mixture.
Iced tea without ice cubes is a homogeneous
mixture.
When all ice cubes melt the remaining mixture is
homogeneous.

64. Chromatography What is chromatography

and how does it work?


Chromatography is a technique used to separate
components of a mixture.

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Section 3.4
Mastering Concepts
65. State the definition of element.
An element is a substance that cannot be broken
down into simpler substances by physical or
chemical means.

66. Correct the following statements:


a. An element is a combination of two or more

compounds.
A compound is combination of two or more
elements.

b. When a small amount of sugar is completely

dissolved in water, a heterogeneous solution


is formed.
When a small amount of sugar is completely
dissolved in water, a homogeneous solution is
formed.

67. Name the elements contained in the following

compounds.
a. sodium chloride (NaCl)
sodium and chlorine

b. ammonia (NH3)
nitrogen and hydrogen

c. ethanol (C2H6O)
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

d. bromine (Br2)
bromine

68. What was Dmitri Mendeleevs major contribu-

tion to the field of chemistry?


Mendeleev developed the first widely accepted
periodic table of elements.

69. Is it possible to distinguish between an element

and a compound? Explain.


Yes, elements can be distinguished from
compounds. Compounds can be broken down
into their component elements, whereas elements
cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

43

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

70. How are the properties of a compound related

to those of the elements that comprise it?


The properties of a compound are unique to that
compound and are different from those of its
component elements.

71. Which law states that a compound always

contains the same elements in the same proportion by mass?


The law of definite proportions

72. a. What is the percent by mass of carbon in

44 grams of carbon dioxide, CO2?


Percent by mass 

mass
__
 100
mass
carbon

carbon dioxide

12 g
 100  27%

44 g

b. What is the percent by mass of oxygen in

44 grams of carbon dioxide, CO2?


Percent by mass 


mass
__
 100
mass

32 g
_
 100  73%

oxyegn

carbon dioxide

44 g
or (100%  27%  73% ) if you use the result
from part (a)

73. Complete Table 3.7 by classifying the

following compounds as: 1:1 or 2:2, 1:2 or


2:1, and 1:3 or 3:1.
Ratios of Elements in Compounds
Compound

Simple Whole-Number Ratios


of Elements

NaCl

1:1

CuO

1:1

H2O

2:1

H2O2

2:2

magnesium oxide. If 10.57 g of magnesium reacts


completely with 6.96 g of oxygen, what is the
percent by mass of oxygen in magnesium oxide?
Mass percentageoxygen  6.96 g/(10.57 g  6.96 g)
 39.7%

76. When mercury oxide is heated, it decomposes

into mercury and oxygen. If 28.4 g of mercury


oxide decomposes, producing 2.0 g of oxygen,
what is the percent by mass of mercury in
mercury oxide?
Mass Percentagemercury 

mass
__
 100
mass
mercury

mercury oxide

__

28.4 g  2.0 g

 93.0%
28.3 g  100

77. Carbon reacts with oxygen to form two

different compounds. Compound I contains


4.82 g of carbon for every 6.44 g of oxygen.
Compound II contains 20.13 g of carbon for
every 53.7 g of oxygen. What is the ratio of
carbon to a fixed mass of oxygen for the two
compounds?
Compound

massC
(g)

massO
(g)

massC/massO

4.82

6.44

4.82 g/6.44 g 0.748

II

20.13

53.7

20.13 g/53.7 g 0.375

(mass ratiocompound I/mass ratiocompound II)


 (0.748/0.375)  1.99  ~2
The ratio of carbon to a fixed mass of oxygen
in compound I is 0.748:1, while in compound II
it is 0.375:1. The ratio of carbon to oxygen in
Compound I is twice that in Compound II.

78. A 100-g sample of an unknown salt contains

Mastering Problems
74. A 25.3-g sample of an unknown compound
contains 0.8 g of oxygen. What is the percent
by mass of oxygen in the compound?
Mass Percentageoxygen 

75. Magnesium combines with oxygen to form

64 g of chlorine. What is the percent by mass of


chlorine in the compound?
Mass Percentagechlorine 


64 g
_
 100  64%

mass
__
 100
mass
chlorine

compound

100 g

mass
__
 100 
mass
oxygen

compound

0.8 g
_
 100  3%
25.3 g

44

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

79. Which law would you use to compare CO and

heterogeneous.
a. brass (an alloy of zinc and copper)

The law of multiple proportions. CO2 will have


the highest percent by mass of oxygen because it
has more oxygen atoms for the same number of
carbon atom.

b. a salad

Compound

Mass
% of
Oxygen

Mass of
Second
Element
in the
Compound
(g)

CuO

80.0

16

20

64

H2O

18.0

16

89

H2O2

34.0

32

94

CO

28.0

16

57

12

CO2

44.0

32

73

12

Mixed Review
81. Which state(s) of matter are compressible?
Which state(s) of matter are not compressible?
Explain.
Gases are the most compressible state of
matter, solids the least. Liquids are virtually
incompressible. Compressibility is determined by
the amount of space between particles in each
state. Gases have the greatest amount of space
between particles, solids the least.

Solutions Manual

heterogeneous

c. blood

d. powdered drink mix dissolved in water

Elements in Compounds

Mass of
Mass of
Compound Oxygen
(g)
(g)

homogeneous

heterogeneous

80. Complete Table 3.8.

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82. Classify each mixture as homogeneous or

CO2? Explain. Without doing any calculation,


which of the two compounds CO and CO2 has
the highest percent by mass of oxygen in the
compound.

homogeneous

83. Phosphorus combines with hydrogen to

form phosphine. In this reaction, 123.9 g of


phosphorus combines with excess hydrogen
to produce 129.9 g of phosphine. After the
reaction, 310 g of hydrogen remains unreacted.
What mass of hydrogen is used in the reaction?
What was the initial mass of hydrogen before
the reaction?
Masshydrogen 129.9 g  123.9 g  6.0 g
Initial masshydrogen  310 g  6.0 g  316 g

84. If you have 100 particles of hydrogen and

100 particles of oxygen, how many units of


water can you form? Will you use all the
particles of both elements? If not, what will
remain?
50 units of water can be formed.
No, 50 particles of oxygen will remain.

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

45

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

85. Classify each substance as a pure substance,

88. Ice Cream You might have noticed that while

a homogeneous mixture, or a heterogeneous


mixture.
a. air

eating ice cream on a very hot day some of


the ice cream begins to melt. Are the observed
changes in the state of the ice cream a physical
or chemical change? Justify your answer.

homogeneous mixture

b. aerosol
heterogeneous mixture

c. soil
homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture
depending on the soil sample

d. water
pure substance

e. sediment
heterogeneous mixture

f. muddy water

Ice cream melting is a physical change since the


chemical composition remains constant.

89. Pizza Is pizza a homogeneous or heteroge-

neous mixture? Explain.


A pizza is a heterogeneous mixture because
the individual parts of the pizzadough, sauce,
cheese, toppingsremain separate.

90. Sodium reacts chemically with chlorine to form

sodium chloride. Is sodium chloride a mixture


or a compound?
Sodium chloride is a compound because it is a
substance composed of the two elements sodium
and chlorine, and it is formed by a chemical
reaction.

heterogeneous mixture

91. Is air a solution or heterogeneous mixture?

heterogeneous mixture, a compound, or an


element.
a. Pure drinking watercompound
b. Salty waterhomogenous mixture
c. Heliumelement
d. Seawaterheterogeneous mixture
e. Airhomogenous mixture
87. Cooking List physical properties of eggs

before and after they are cooked. Based on


your observations, does a physical change or
chemical change occur when eggs are cooked?
Justify your answer.

What technique can be used to separate air into


its components?
Air is a solution. Air can be separated into its
components, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon
dioxide by using gas chromatography.

92. Does the combination of the following elements

yield a compound or a mixture:


a. H2(g) O2(g) 0 Water
compound

b. N2(g) O2(g) 0 Air


mixture

Eggs before cooking: liquid, white (clear) and


bright yellow
Eggs after cooking: solid opaque white and dull
yellow
Chemical change.

46

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86. Indicate each as a homogenous mixture, a

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Think Critically

95. Analyze Is gas escaping from an opened

93. Interpret Data A compound contains

elements X and Y. Four samples with different


masses were analyzed, and the masses of X
and Y in each sample were plotted on a graph
shown in Figure 3.24. The samples are labeled
I, II, III, and IV.

Mass of X (g)

96. Apply Give examples of heterogeneous

mixtures for the systems listed in Table 3.9.


Heterogeneous Mixtures

30

System
III

20
10

I
0

Example

Liquid-liquid

Water and oil

Solid-liquid

Sand and water

Solid-solid

Iron filings and sugar

II

IV

10

Mass of Y (g)

a. Which samples are from the same

compound? How do you know?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Physical change. The composition of CO2 gas is


the same inside and outside of the soft drink.

Masses of Elements

40

soft drink an example of chemical or physical


change? Explain.

Samples I, III, and IV are the same compound.


A straight line can be drawn through these
three plotted points. The slope of the line is
equivalent to ratio MassX/MassY. The fact that
all three points are on the same line shows
that they all have the same mass ratio of X to
Y and must be the same compound.

b. What is the approximate ratio of mass X

to mass Y in the samples that are from the


same compound?
Mass ratio of X to Y for samples I, III, and IV is
3.75:1.

c. What is the approximate ratio of mass X to

mass Y in the sample(s) that are not from


the same compound?
Sample II mass ratio is 1.9:1

94. Apply Air is a mixture of many gases,

primarily nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Could


distillation be used to separate air into its
component gases? Explain.

Challenge Problem
97. A sample of a certain lead compound contains
6.46 grams of lead for each gram of oxygen.
A second sample has a mass of 68.54 g and
contains 28.76 g of oxygen. Are the two
samples the same?
Sample I: masslead/massoxygen  6.46
Sample II: masslead/massoxygen
 (68.54 g  28.76 g)/28.76 g  1.383
The two samples are not the same because the
two masslead/massoxygen ratios are not the same.

Cumulative Review
98. What is chemistry? (Chapter 1)
Chemistry is the study of matter and the
changes that it undergoes.

99. What is mass? Weight? (Chapter 1)


Mass is the measure of the amount of matter
an object contains. It is measured on a balance.
The weight of an object is the amount of
gravitational pull acting on the mass of an
object. It is measured on a scale.

Yes. If the mixture of gases is cooled sufficiently,


it will condense into a mixture of liquids. This
mixture could then be distilled.

Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

47

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

100. Express the following in scientific notation.

(Chapter 2)
a. 34,500

103. Graph the data in Table 3.10. What is the

slope of the line? (Chapter 2)


Energy Released by Carbon

3.45  104

Mass (g)

Energy Released (kJ)

1.00

33

2.00

66

3.00

99

4.00

132

b. 2665
2.665 

103

c. 0.9640
9.640  101

Energy Released by Carbon

d. 789

140

7.89  102
120

7.56  104

f. 0.002189
2.189  103

101. Perform the following operations. (Chapter 2)


a. 107 103

Energy released (kJ)

e. 75,600

100
80
60
40

1010

7.1  108

c. (2

103)

20
0

(4

105)

8  102

1.00

2.00
3.00
Mass (g)

4.00

Slope: 33 kJ/g

102. Convert 65C to kelvins. (Chapter 2)


273  65C  338 K

Writing in Chemistry
104. Synthetic Elements Select a synthetic

element, and prepare a short written report


on its development. Be sure to discuss recent
discoveries, list major research centers that
conduct this type of research, and describe the
properties of the synthesized element.
Student answers will vary. Students can obtain
some information on the elements from the
Merck Index or the CRC Handbook of Chemistry
and Physics.

48

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b. (1.4 103) (5.1 105)

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Document-Based Questions
Pigments Long before scientists understood the
properties of elements and compounds, artists used
chemistry to create pigments from natural materials.
Table 3.11 gives some examples of such pigments
used in ancient times.
Data obtained from: Orna, Mary Virginia. 2001. Chemistry,
color, and art. Journal of Chemical Education 78 (10): 1305

Common Artists Pigments


Used in Early Times
Common
Name

Chemical Identity

Comments

elemental carbon
(carbon black)

produced by dry
distillation of wood in
a closed vessel

calcium copper
tetrasilicate,
CaCuSi4O10

crystalline compound
containing some glass
impurity

Indigo

indigotin,
C16H10N202

derived from different


plants of the genus
indigofera

Iron
oxide
red

Fe2O3

in continuous use in
all geographic regions
and time periods

Verdigris

dibasic acetate of
copper
Cu(C2H3O2)2
2Cu(OH)2

other copper
compounds, including
carbonate, are also
called verdigris.

Charcoal

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Egyptian
blue

105. a. Determine the mass percent of carbon in

charcoal, indigo and verdigris.


Charcoal: mass percentcarbon  100%
Indigo: mass percentcarbon  73%
Verdigris: mass percentcarbon  14%

b. Determine the mass percent of oxygen in

iron oxide and Egyptian blue.


Iron oxide: mass percentoxygen  30%,
Egyptian blue: mass percentoxygen  43%

106. List an example of an element and a

107. Is the process of charcoal production from

the dry distillation of dry wood a chemical or


physical change? Explain.
Chemical change. The composition of the dry
wood changes into that of charcoal.

Standardized Test Practice


pages 9899

Mass Analysis of Two Chlorine-Fluorine


Samples
Mass of
Chlorine
(g)

Mass of
Fluorine
(g)

13.022

II

5.753

Sample

% Cl

%F

6.978

65.11

34.89

9.248

Multiple Choice
1. What are the values for % Cl and % F,
respectively, for Sample II?
a. 0.6220 and 61.65
b. 61.65 and 38.35
c. 38.35 and 0.6220
d. 38.35 and 61.65
d
%Cl 
%F 

5.753 g
__
 100  38.35%
5.753 g  9.248 g

9.248 g
__
 100  61.65%
5.753 g  9.248 g

2. Which statement best describes the relationship

between the two samples?


a. The compound in Sample I is the same as
in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of
Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of
definite proportions.
b. The compound in Sample I is the same as
in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of
Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of
multiple proportions.

compound from Table 3.11.


ElementC and compound Fe2O3

Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

49

CHAPTER

c. The compound in Sample I is not the same

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Use the diagram below to answer Questions 6 and 7.

as in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of


Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of
definite proportions.
d. The compound in Sample I is not the same
as in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of
Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of
multiple proportions.

6. Which best describes Figure A?

3. After two elements react to completion in a

closed container, the ratio of their masses in


the container will be the same as before the
reaction. Which law describes this principle?
a. law of definite proportions
b. law of multiple proportions
c. law of conservation of mass
d. law of conservation of energy
c

a.
b.
c.
d.

element
mixture
solution
compound

7. Which statement is false?


a. Figure B is composed of two different

compounds.
b. Figure C is composed of two different

a. forms solid crystals at room temperature


b. appears a white crystals
c. breaks down into carbon and water vapor

when heated
d. tastes sweet
c

5. Which describes a substance that is in the solid

state?
a. Its particles can flow past one another.
b. It can be compressed into a smaller volume.
c. It takes the shape of its container.
d. Its particles of matter are close together.

compounds.
c. Figure B represents 13 total atoms.
d. Three different types of elements are

represented in Figure C.
b

8. Na, K, Li, and Cs all share similar chemical

properties. In the periodic table of elements,


they most likely belong to the same
a. row.
b. period.
c. group.
d. element.
c

50

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4. Which is NOT a physical property of table sugar?

CHAPTER

9. Magnesium reacts explosively with oxygen to

form magnesium oxide. Which is NOT true of


this reaction?
a. The mass of magnesium oxide produced
equals the mass of magnesium consumed
plus the mass of oxygen consumed.
b. The reaction describes the formation of a
new substance.
c. The product of the reaction, magnesium
oxide, is a chemical compound.
d. Magnesium oxide has physical and chemical
properties similar to both oxygen and
magnesium.
d

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Short Answer
10. Compare and contrast the independent variable
in an experiment with the dependent variable.
Both the independent and the dependent
variables can have different values during the
course of an experiment. The independent
variable has specific values that are
predetermined by the researcher, while the
dependent variable has values that are measured
as a result of the experiment and therefore
cannot be determined in advance.

11. A student reports the melting point of a gas as

295C. Explain why his claim is unlikely to


be correct.
The value of 295C is equivalent to 22 K. This
answer does not make sense because 0 K is
absolute zero and no temperature can be below
this.

12. Place the following metric prefixes in order

from the smallest value to the largest value:


deci, kilo, centi, micro, mega, milli, giga, nano.

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Extended Response
Use the table below to answer Questions 13 to 15.
Selected Properties of Substances in
a Mixture
Item

Soluble Soluble in Density Particle


in Water? Alcohol? (g/cm 3) Size (mm)

Sawdust

no

no

0.21

Mothball
flakes

no

yes

1.15

Table
salt

yes

no

2.17

13. Is the mixture described in the table homo-

geneous or heterogeneous? Explain how you


can tell.
The mixture is heterogeneous. Based on particle
size and color, the different substances can be
readily distinguished.

14. Do the data describe chemical or physical prop-

erties? Explain your answer.


These are physical properties because they
depend only on the substance itself. Chemical
properties depend on the behavior of substances
as they react with other substances.

15. Propose a method to separate the three

substances based on the properties described


above.
Use the solubility of mothballs in alcohol first:
dissolve the mothballs and filter or decant the
liquid. Use crystallization to remove the alcohol.
Next, add water to the remaining substances: the
sawdust will float since its density is less than
that of water, and the salt will dissolve. Filter or
decant to separate the two substances. Crystallize
the salt to remove the water.

nano, micro, milli, centi, deci, kilo, mega, giga

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

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CHAPTER

16. Explain the difference between a chemical

change and a physical change. Is the combustion of gasoline a chemical change or a physical
change? Explain your answer.
A physical change does not change the
composition of the substance, whereas a chemical
change is a process in which one or more
substances are changed into new substances.
The combustion of gasoline is a chemical change
because the gasoline is changed into other
substances during combustion.

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Use the table below to answer Questions 18 and 19.


Percent by Mass of Carbon, Hydrogen, and
Oxygen in Selected Compounds
Compound

%H

%C

%O

Carbonic acid (H 2CO 3)

3.2

19.4

77.4

Acetic acid (CH 3COOH)

6.7

40.0

53.3

Methanol (CH 3OH)

12.5

37.5

40.0

Methanal (H 2CO)

6.7

40.0

53.3

Isopropanol (C 3H 8O)

13.3

60.0

26.7

18. You have a 125-g sample of one of these


17. Which is a correct statement about methods for

separating mixtures?
a. Distillation results in the formation of solid
particles of a dissolved substance.
b. Filtration depends on differences in sizes of
particles.
c. Separations depend on the chemical
properties of the substances involved.
d. Chromatography depends on the different
boiling points of substances.
e. Sublimation can be used to separate two
gases present in a mixture.
b

substances. You determine that it is made


of 16.7 g H, 75.0 g C, and 33.0 g O. Which
compound is it?
a. acetic acid
b. carbonic acid
c. methanal
d. methanol
e. isopropanol
e

19. In another experiment, you determine that a

sample of acetic acid consists of 56.8% oxygen.


What is your percent error?
a. 3.50%
b. 6.57%
c. 1.07%
d. 12.6%
e. 2.06%
b

52

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SAT Subject Test: Chemistry