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TinaTin zaqaraSvili

axali ambebis miwodebis Tanamedrove


formebi

Jurnalistika _ sityvis saSualebiT sinamdvilis movlenaTa


adekvaturi warmoCena da maTi sazogadoebriv RirebulebaTa Sesabamisad
gaazrebaa.
cxovrebiseuli sinamdvile JurnalistikaSi mravalferovnad,
sxvadasxva xerxiT aisaxeba. faqtebi, movlenebi, problemebi specifikuri
formebiT gamoixateba, romelTac maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli struqturul-
kompoziciur niSanTa erToblioba gamoarCevs. maT movlenis xasiaTi
gansazRvravs, agreTve am movlenisadmi avtoris damokidebuleba da mis
winaSe dasaxuli amocana.
Jurnalisturi masala Sinaarsisa da formis mixedviT sxvadasxva tipis
arsebobs. esenia axali ambebi da analizi, mosazreba. SinaarsSi igulisxmeba
masalaTa daniSnuleba da ganzogadeba-daskvnaTa masStabebi, formaSi _
literaturul-stilisturi saSualebebi.
axali ambebis amsaxveli masalebis umravlesoba exeba movlenebs,
romlebsac uamrav adamianze aqvs gavlena, aRwers uCveulo an
gansakuTrebul, adre ucnob situaciebs, an mogviTxrobs cnobil da
gamoCenil adamianebze.
Jurnalisturi gagebiT, axali ambavi aris informacia, romelic
gaSuqebamde ucnobi iyo sazogadoebisTvis. axali ambebis Jurnalistikis
umTavresi Semadgeneli axali ambavia. axali ambebis mravali ganmartebidan
ar arsebobs universaluri, anu iseTi, romelic yvelas daakmayofilebs da
axsnis, Tu ra aris namdvili axali ambavi, rogor gamovarCioT is
yoveldRiurad mimdinare movlenaTa da SemTxvevaTa nakadidan.
axali ambavi iseTi informaciaa, romelSic warmodgenilia
Tanamedrove xedva sinamdvileze konkretul sakiTxTan, movlenasa Tu
procesTan mimarTebaSi. masSi Tvali miedevneba individisa Tu
sazogadoebisTvis mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs, romlebic gadmoicema tipuris
da sazogadod miRebulis konteqstSi. axali ambebi iqmneba imis gaTvliT,
Tu ra ainteresebs auditorias da aseve im Sida da gare SezRudvebis
gaTvaliswinebiT, romelTac ejaxeba redaqcia.
axali ambebis JurnalistikaSi zogadad gamoarCeven axali ambebis
Semdeg saxeebs: movlenas, SemTxvevas, RonisZiebas, saqmianobis Sedegebs.
dasavluri media sxvagvar diferenciacias gvTavazobs da Semdeg
kategoriebs gamoyofs:
1. axali ambavi, romelic garkveuli mniSvnelobis matarebelia:
socialuri, ekonomikuri, politikuri, adamianuri;
2. axali ambavi - “drama”;
3. axali ambavi - siurprizi;
4. axali ambavi pirovnebaze;
5. skandaluri axali ambavi, maT Soris kriminaluri;
6. axali ambavi masStabur movlenaze.
dResdReobiT axali ambebis Jurnalistika mediasivrcis mniSvnelovan
nawils moicavs mravalferovani informaciiT _ ekonomikuri iqneba,
politikuri, sportuli Tu skandaluri. axali ambebi gansakuTrebuli
literaturuli produqtia, romelic udidesi moTxovniT sargeblobs
postindustriul sazogadoebaSi, sadac informacia mTavari saqonelia. is
miewodeba publikas mimzidvelad, sensaciurad “SefuTuli”.
axali ambebis Jurnalistika garkveulwilad ideologiur sivrceze da
auditoriis xasiaTzea damokidebuli, romelSic funqcionirebs da
romlisTvisac arsebobs.
Cvens droSi axali ambebis ideologiuri warmoebis erT-erT
saSualebad axali ambebis Temis arCevis procedura iTvleba. am
proceduris mixedviT, faqti misi warmoSobis realuri konteqstidan aris
amoglejili, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes misi moTavseba axal, simbolur
konteqstSi: radgan axali ambebis vargisianobas gaSuqebisas Temebi
gansazRvravs, amitom yuradReba, romelic movlenas eqceva, SeiZleba ar
Seesabamebodes mis mniSvnelobas, aqtualobas da droulobas.
aseTi tipis Jurnalisturi produqciisadmi mTavari moTxovnebia:
operatiuloba, lakonuroba, kompaqturoba, sizuste. dasavleli
mkvlevarebi gamohyofen 12 faqtors, romlebic gansazRvraven faqts
rogorc axal ambavs. esenia: ganmeorebis sixSire, masStaburoba, azris
sizuste, adaptirebuloba (faqtis aRqmis sociokulturuli konteqstis
gaTvaliswineba), Tanxvedra (SeTanxmeba) auditoriis molodinTan,
sensaciuroba, dinamizmi (rodesRac dawyebuli movlenis uwyveti
ganviTareba), kombinirebuloba (seriozulisa da gasarTobis Serwyma),
msoflios wamyvani qveynebis movlenebTan Sexeba, politikisa da kulturis
sferos “varskvlavTa” cxovrebis asaxva, personificireba (im pirovnebebis
cxovreba, vinc igivdeba garkveul socialur an politikur movlenasTan),
movlenis Sedegebis mosalodneli negatiuroba. mxolod aseTi
kriteriumebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeuZlia Jurnalists daainteresos
auditoria Tavisi SetyobinebiT. CamonaTvalidan pirveli eqvsi iTvleba
ufro mniSvnelovan faqtorad. Tanamedrove axali ambebis JurnalistikaSi
dinamiuri ganviTarebisas axali ambavi sam ZiriTad stadias gadis, esenia:
1. realuri movlena;
2. informacia, romelic masmediaSi moxvda;
3. informacia, romelic aRqmuli iyo mkiTxvelis, msmenelis,
mayureblis mier rogorc axali ambavi.
amgvarad, mniSvnelovani axali ambebia gadarCeuli, gaanalizebuli da
maqsimaluri auditoriis mier aRqmuli maskomunikaciebis saSualebebiT,
rogorc pirovnebis, jgufis, organizaciis, kacobriobis socialuri
gamocdileba gasuli drois monakveTSi.
rac Seexeba drois faqtors, is sul ufro da ufro mcirdeba. Tu
teleepoqam axali ambebis gavrcelebis dro dRedan saaTebamde Seamcira,
internetma _ wuTebamde da wamebamde.
axali ambebis obieqtebia _ codna da movlenebi, sagani ki _
konkretuli, imwuTieri Sefaseba, perspeqtiuli prognozi. axali ambavi ara
TavisTavad, ganyenebulad mdgomareobs movlenebsa Tu codnaSi, aramed im
arsSi, romelsac mas sZens auditoria.
axali ambis (mokle iqneba is Tu gavrcobili) siuJeti daRmavalis
principisaa. yoveli momdevno abzaci naklebad mniSvnelovania, vidre wina.
ra Tqma unda, is specialuri leqsikis gamoyenebiT iwereba, romelic
gasagebi unda iyos potenciuri auditoriis maqsimaluri nawilisaTvis.
nebismieri mkiTxvelis, msmenelisa Tu mayureblisaTvis sulac ar aris
mniSvnelovani da saintereso yovelgvari informacia.
axali ambebi diferencirebul Sefasebas moiTxovs. informacia
yvelasaTvis _ es is Jurnalisturi produqtia, romelic pirobiTad
SeiZleba davyoT or kategoriad: pirveli orientirebulia iseT
auditoriaze, romelsac “nacrisfer masas” uwodeben da moicavs
sxvadasxvagvari obivateluri xasiaTis informacias, romelic Sorsaa
sazogadoebis ekonomikuri Tu socialur-politikuri problemebisagan;
meore kategoria gankuTvnilia im adamianebisTvis, romelTac ar
akmayofilebT e. w. obivateluri informacia, magram maT cnobebis miRebis
sxva wyaroebi ar gaaCniaT. informaciis momxmarebelTa am nawils ar
daukargavs interesi politikuri, ekonomikuri cxovrebisadmi, magram isini
daxmarebas saWiroeben mdgradi Sexedulebebis formirebisas.
masmedias sul ufro da ufro gansazRvruli roli eniWeba
Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi, upirvelesad biznesisa da politikur
sferoSi. Jurnalisturi informacia seriozulad zemoqmedebs
sazogadoebaze, uyalibebs maT cnobierebas.
axali ambebis Jurnalistika did mniSvnelobas miakuTvnebs movleniT
sababs. sababi SeiZleba iyos rogorc spontanuri, aseve gamogonebuli anu
inicirebuli. yvelaze popularul sababis Sesaqmnel xerxebad miiCneva
pres-konferencia, pres-relizi da a.S.
specialuri movlenebi ki axali ambebis JurnalistikaSi mediaze-
moqmedebis xerxebs aZlierebs. maT aseve yovelTvis dahkravT sensaciis
elferi “organizebis” TvalsazrisiT, rac auditoriis damatebiT da mzard
interess iwvevs da sazogadoebriv-politikuri ideebisa da aqciebis
popularizacias axdens.
sensacia (iseve rogorc axali ambebi) yovelTvis fenomenaluri
(movlenuri) xasiaTisaa. amboben, Tu araferi ar xdeba, sensaciac ar
arsebobso. yovelgvari sensacia axali ambavia, magram yoveli axali ambavi
rodia sensacia.
sensaciasTan erTad auditoria did interess avlens _ es aris
realuri floba iseTi informaciisa, romelic sxvas ar gaaCnia.
aranakleb mimzidvelia axali ambebis JurnalistikaSi informaciuli
konteqst-rebusis Seqmna, romlis “axsna” garkveul dromde SeuZlebelia da
masSi garkveva mis avtorzea damokidebuli.
ukve kargad aprobirebuli xerxia Tanamedrove axali ambebis
JurnalistikaSi, romelic movlenas Tavdasxmis da zedmetad emociur
elfers sZens. masSi aSkarad igrZnoba vinmes an raimes provocirebis
(gamowvevis) mcdeloba, rac gaTvlilia SemdgomSi auditoriisa Tu
personis reaqciis aucileblad gamowvevaze. es poziciebisa da moqmedebebis
demonstraciuli, mwvave, uapelacio, regularuli TavdasxmiTi kritikaa.
axali ambebis kategorias miakuTneben agreTve aratradiciul
sareklamo kampaniebs, skandalebs, sasamarTlo procesebs da a.S.
axali ambebis JurnalistikaSi Zalian bevri, Tu yvelaferi ara,
damokidebulia movlenisa Tu problemis aqtualobaze, magram xSirad
masalis miwodebis saintereso formaze. magaliTad, informaciis
“aqtualizeba” SeiZleba yuradRebis ama Tu im xelsayrel aspeqtebze
gamaxvilebiT, anu e.w. “axali ambebis faseulobebis” gamokveTiT.
nebismieri moculobis axali ambebi gansxvavdeba gaSuqebis formatis,
formis an meTodebis mixedviT. erT-erTi aseTi meTodia axali ambis e.w.
“gaTamaSeba”. mkiTxvels, msmenels da mayurebels ar ainteresebs Tu ra
JanrSi gadawyvetil movlenas gavacnobT mas da gamocada, Tu ara
Jurnalistma situacia Tavis Tavze, ganavrco Txroba statistikuri
monacemebiT, Tu gaarkvia movlenis istoriuli kanonzomierebani.
infoteimentSi movlenisa Tu faqtis sxvadasxva kuTxiT “gaTamaSeba” xdeba
ama Tu im aspeqtis gamovlena sxvadasxvagvari midgomiT.
infoteimenti ramdenime _ 8-10 Jurnalistur masalas moicavs da ukve
mkiTxvelis gadasawyvetia, gaecnos mas mTlianad, Tu mis mxolod romelime
nawils.
axali ambebis miwodebis kidev erTi Tanamedrove meTodia problemaze
gamoxmaurebebis logikur daskvnamde miyvana. finiSingi perspeqtiul
mimarTulebad iTvleba axali ambebis JurnalistikaSi. mis winamorbedad
SeiZleba CaiTvalos adreuli rubrikebi: “vubrundebiT dabeWdils”,
“Semosuli werilebis kvaldakval”. magram finiSingi iseTi Jurnalisturi
svla da xerxia, romelic mediagamosvlis rezonansis gadaTamaSebas
cdilobs, situaciis erTi an ramdenime aspeqtis aRdgenas ukve axali,
moulodneli rakursiT. finiSingi 2-3 publikacias moicavs, aq mTavaria
wamoWrili sakiTxis finiSamde _ praqtikul gadawyvetilebamde miyvana.
axali ambebis organizebisa da miwodebis es formac aqtiurad
gamoiyeneba dRevandel JurnalistikaSi da detalur damuSavebas da
momzadebas saWiroebs. ivenT-eqSeni _ provocirebuli movlenaa.
provocirebuli situacia saSualebas aZlevs Jurnalistebs ufro Rrmad
Cawvdnen, “iqeqon” situaciaSi.
kidev erT perspeqtiul mimarTulebad axal ambebTan muSaobaSi
iTvleba aqcia, moqmedeba, romelic mimarTulia raime miznis misaRwevad.
JurnalistikaSi, rogorc wesi, aqciebi humanitaruli xasiaTis
matarebelia. Jurnalisturi aqciebi mravaletapiania da Sedgeba:
1. gancxadebiT aqciis dawyebis Sesaxeb;
2. sponsorTa gacnobiT;
3. Sedegebis dajamebiT.
aqciebis mTavari mizani ki konkretuli praqtikuli daxmarebis
gawevaa.
da, raRa Tqma unda, mniSvnelovani adgili Tanamedrove media
sivrceSi uWiravs e.w. arasensaciuri xasiaTis informacias mimdinare
movlenebis (yofiTisa da yoveldRiuris) Sesaxeb. magram aseTi tipis
Jurnalisturi teqstebi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas saWiroeben sakiTxis
gaSuqebis TvalsazrisiT.
amrigad, Tanamedrove axali ambebis JurnalistikaSi informaciis
miwodebis faseulobebis, Janrebis, formebisa da meTodebis mZlavri
gadafaseba xdeba.

damowmebuli literatura

1. Васильева Л.А. «Делаем новости». М.,2003


2. Денис Э., Мерим Д. Беседы о масс-медиа. М.,1997
3. Ильина Т., Корб В. Делаем хорошие новости., О.,2002
http:// jour.ru ; http://kebat.ru/journ/

TINATIN ZAKARASHVILI
.
MODERN FORMS OF BROADCASTING NEWS

There are various types of contests and genre of journalistic materials. These are
the news and analysis, consideration. The contests mean materials setting and
generalization –conclusion scales. In the form literately-stylistically means.
According to the journalistically conception – the news is the information, which
was unknown to the society till reporting. The news is the main component of
journalistically news. There is no such universal explanation of news, which will satisfy
everybody and will explain what news is, how we can distinguish it from daily and casual
stream.
News is such information which presents contemporary view on reality towards the
concrete issue, event or process. Individual or society changes are reviewed in it that are
presented in typical and generally accepted context. The news is reported according to
what is interested to the audience, providing the internal and external limitation, which
the editorial staff encounters with.