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ekaterine kaxiZe

qarTvel samocianelTa ganmanaTlebluri da


patriotuli demokratizmi (ilia WavWavaZe)

ganmanaTlebloba dasavleT evropaSi jer kidev XVIII saukuneSi


warmoiSva. igi klasikuri formiT safrangeTSi ganviTarda da aqedan
gavrcelda evropasa da aziaSi. frangi ganmanaTleblebis ideebi TiTqmis
XIX saukunis bolomde batonobda im qveynebis xalxTa azrovnebaSi, sadac
yvela sazogadoebrivi sakiTxi batonymobisa da misi naSTebis winaaRmdeg
brZoliT ganisazRvreboda. erT-erTi amgvari qveyana iyo ruseTi, sadac
ganmanaTleblobis epoqa dasavleT evropis qveynebTan SedarebiT ufro
xangrZlivi, magram TiTqmis ufro nayofieri gamodga.
rusul ganmanaTleblur revoluciur-demokratiul da utopiur-
socialistur azrovnebasTan da misi meSveobiT dasavleT evropul
ganmanaTleblobasTan mWidro kavSirSi viTardeboda imperiaSi Semavali
xalxebis, kerZod, qarTveli xalxis ganmanaTlebluri da socialisturi
azrovneba.
XVIII saukunis rusi ganmanaTleblebidan rusuli azrovnebis
ganviTarebaSi gansakuTrebiT didi roli Seasrules nikoloz novikovma da
aleqsandre radiSCevma, rusuli revoluciuri azrovnebis fuZemdebelma.
swored didma rusma ganmanaTleblebma moaxdines gavlena qarTvel
ganmanaTlebelTa msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibebaze. eseni iyvnen: al.
gerceni (1817-1870), besarion belinski (1812-1848), nikoloz CerniSevski
(1828-1889) da nikoloz dobroliubovi (1836-1861).
didi rusi ganmanaTleblebis sazogadoebriv-politikuri programis
umTavresi Sinaarsi batonymobis winaaRmdeg brZolas gamoxatavs.
qarTuli ganmanaTleblobis axali, ufro maRali etapi iwyeba
TergdaleulTa gamosvliT samoRvaweo asparezze, romelTac samocianelebs,
revolucioner demokrat ganmanaTleblebs uwodeben da romelTa Soris
TavianTi RvawliT gansakuTrebiT gamoirCevian: ilia WavWavaZe (1837-1907),
akaki wereTeli (1840-1919), iakob gogebaSvili (1840-1913), giorgi wereTeli
(1842-1900), niko nikolaZe (1843-1928).
rogorc zemoT vTqviT, qarTulma ganmanaTleblobam ganicada rogorc
dasavleT evropis, ise ruseTis ganmanaTlebelTa ideebis gavlena.
samocianelebi, Tergdaleulebi ruseTis umaRles saswavleblebSi
swavlobdnen da rusi ganmanaTleblebis, revoluciuoner-demokratebis
gavlenas ganicdidnen. amasTan, unda iTqvas, rom ilia WavWavaZes arc rusi
ganmanaTleblebis da arc evropelebis ideebi saqarTveloSi ar
gadmoutania pirdapir. igi mudam imis cdaSi iyo, rom qarTul
ganmanaTlebloba dafuZnebuli yofiliyo erovnul tradiciebze, qarTul
klasikur, renesansul ganmanaTleblobaze.
ilia kargad xedavda, rom rusi revolucioner-demokratebis
SexedulebaTa xelaRebiT saqarTveloSi gadmotana SeuZlebeli iyo
imitomac, rom ruseTs sxva satkivari hqonda, saqarTvelos ki _ sxva.
ruseTs, rogorc dampyrobel ers, mxolod erTi satkivari hqonda _
socialuri; saqarTvelos ki, romelic ruseTis kolonias warmoadgenda,
ori ZiriTadi satkivari hqonda: erovnuli da socialuri. amaTgan ilia
wina planze ayenebda erovnul sakiTxs, radgan qarTveli eris yofna-
aryofnis sakiTxi idga. jer macocxle da mere gamabedniereo _ ambobda
ilia. jer ers arseboba unda SeenarCunebina, amitom igi dasva nomer
pirvel sakiTxad.
Svidi saukune ijaxira humanisturma azrovnebam saSinao da sagareo
mterTagan Seviwrovebul saqarTveloSi. mas hqonda aRmavlobis da
daRmavlobis etapebi, magram mTlianad TviT XIV-XV saukuneTa
Znelbedobis Jamsac ar Camqrala. XVIII saukuneSi CvenSi ganmanaTleblurma
ideebmac iwyes gavrceleba da qarTuli ganmanaTleblobis epoqac swored
XVIII saukunis Sua xanebSi iRebs saTaves. qarTuli humanisturi da
ganmanaTlebluri ideebi klasikuri xanis (XIX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebis)
ganmanaTlebluri ideologiis saxiT iReben srulyofil saxes. qarTuli
ganmanaTleblobis mTel epoqas met-naklebad gasdevs saRmrTosa da saeros,
amqveynierebisa da imqveynierebis, keTilisa da borotis _ erTsa da imave
dros ori WeSmariti koncefciis _ mecnierebisa da rwmenis aRiarebis
kvali (a. baqraZe, 1984, gv. 105).
XVIII saukunis meore naxevrisa da XIX saukunis pirveli naxevris
qarTveli ganmanaTleblebis _ vaxuSti bagrationis, anton bagrationis,
aleqsandre amilaxvaris, daviT guramiSvilis, daviT bagrationis, ioane
bagrationis, iona xelaSvilis, aleqsandre WavWavaZis, grigol orbelianis,
solomon dodaSvilis, nikoloz baraTaSvilis, giorgi erisTavis, dimitri
yifianis, gerasime qiqoZis msoflmxedvelobaSi naTlad Cans
konservatorulisa da progresulis winaaRmdegobrioba.
`adrindeli ganmanaTleblobiT, anu rogorc iv. javaxiSvili uwodebda,
`ganaxlebis xanis" istorikos-moazrovneTagan uebro Suamavlad
warmogvidgeba vaxuSti bagrationi (1696-1757), romelmac qarTul
saistorio mwerlobaSi pirvelma Seqmna mZlavri kritikuli mimarTuleba.
vaxuSti bagrations gaerTianebuli saqarTvelo warmodgenili aqvs
erTmefobis saxiT, xolo amis maCveneblad miaCnia rjuli qarTuli, ena
qarTuli da damwerloba qarTuli" (T. yubaneiSvili, 2000, gv. 57).
70-ian wlebSi ilia WavWavaZem kidev ufro gamokveTa Tavisi
politikuri radikalizmi, roca sul ufro SesamCnevi gaxda carizmis
koloniuri politikis gamkacreba. mefis mTavroba aSkarad daadga
saqarTvelos sruli rusifikaciis, qarTveli erisa da misi kulturis
mospobis gzas. am miznis misaRwevad carizmi gansakuTrebul rols aniWebda
skolas.
ilias Rrmad swamda, rom burji eris vinaobisa enaa, misi
siwmindisaTvis brZola erovnulisaTvis brZolaa. rom axali epoqa
gadaudeblad moiTxovda enis demokratizacias. `sami RvTaebrivi saunje
dagvrCa, _ werda ilia, _ Cven mama-papaTagan: mamuli, ena, sarwmunoeba, Tu
amaTac ar upatroneT, ra kacebi viqnebiT, ra pasuxs gavcemT
STamomavlobas? sxvisi ar vici da Cven ki mSobel mamasac ar davuTmobdiT
Cveni mSobliuri enis miwasTan gasworebas. ena saRvTo ram aris, sazogado
sakuTrebaa. magas kaci codvilis xeliT ar unda Seexos" (i. WavWavaZe, 1955,
gv. 114).
eris didma moZRvarma, ilia WavWavaZem Tavad Seqmna sakuTari
politikuri ideali da samoqmedo programa, romelic saqarTvelos
erovnul ZalTa Sekrebas, qarTveli xalxis socialuri da erovnuli
Cagvrisagan ganTavisuflebas da mamulisTvis daucxromel samsaxurs
gulisxmobda.
XIX saukunis meore naxevris saqarTveloSi carizmis winaaRmdeg
mimarTulma demokratiulma moZraobam erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli
moZraobis forma miiRo. igi warmoadgenda ori nakadis _ feodalur-
batonymuri gadmonaSTebisa da mefis TviTmpyrobelobis winaaRmdeg
mimarTul moZraobaTa SeerTebas. saqarTveloSi erovnuli Cagvris
pirobebSi nacionaluri sakiTxi erT-erTi yvelaze mtkivneuli
sazogadoebrivi problema iyo... nacionaluri momenti erTian banakad
aerTianebda umTavres progresul Zalebs.
`pirveldaseli qarTveli ganmanaTleblebi, Tergdaleulebi
`samocianelebi" iyvnen da darCnen erovnul-demokratebad", romlebsac ver
gavaigivebT verc rus revolucioner-demokrat ganmanaTleblebTan da verc
qarTvel burJuaziul-demokrat ganmanaTleblebTan, radgan belinskisa da
CerniSevskis msoflmxedvelobisagan ilia WavWavaZisa da akaki wereTlis
msoflmxedveloba patriotul-demokratiuli formiT gansxvavdeba, niko
nikolaZisa da giorgi wereTlis msoflmxedveloba ilia WavWavaZisa da
akaki wereTlis msoflmxedvelobisagan ki _ utopiuri socializmis
formiT" (T. yubaneiSvili, 2000, gv. 62).
Tergdaleulebma saqarTvelos yvelaze mZime erovnuli satkivari
mamuliSvilobis diadi grZnobis daviwyebaSi dainaxes... upirvelesi saqme
axali Taobisa, qveynis WeSmariti patriotebisa am senis mkurnaloba unda
yofiliyo. mxolod mamuliSvilobisa da qarTvelobis grZnobis
gamoRviZebis Semdeg SeiZleboda koloniuri uRlisagan Tavis daRweva.
axlac Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tergdaleulebma eris satkivars
swori diagnozi dausves da misi mkurnalobis gzac sworad airCies... Cven
vfiqrobT, rom TergdaleulTa ideuri moZraoba arc 70-ian wlebis
miwuruls da arc 80-iani wlebis dasawyisSi ar daSlila, igi ganagrZobda
arsebobas da erTgvarad emsaxureboda Tavis idealebs. man me-20 saukuneSic
SeaRwia da mtkice demokratiuli pozicia daikava pirvel revoluciaSi
(1905-1907). es moZraoba socialisturi revoluciis gamarjvebamde SerCa
qarTul sinamdviles, rogorc erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis
demokratiuli nakadi.
damowmebuli literatura

i. WavWavaZe, 1955 - i. WavWavaZe, Txzulebani, t. V, kritika, Tb., 1955.


a. baqraZe, 1984 - a. baqraZe, ilia WavWavaZe, Tb., 1984.
v. guruli, m. vaCnaZe, 1999 - v. guruli, m. vaCnaZe, qarTuli social-
demokratiis istoria, Tb., 1999.
a. surgulaZe, 1973 - a. surgulaZe, qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azri
XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi, Tb., 1973.
T. yubaneiSvili, 2000 - T. yubaneiSvili, qarTveli politikuri
moazrovneebi, quTaisi, 2000.

EKATERINE KAKHIDZE

ENLIGHTENING AND PATRIOTIC DEMOCRACY OF THE


GEORGIAN PUBLIC MEN OF 60S OF 19TH CENTURY
(ILIA CHAVCHAVADZE)

The new and higher stage of the Georgian educationalists starts with Tergdaleulebi
generation who are also referred as Of Sixties or Revolutionary-democrat Enlighteners
the most distinguished figures of which were Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, Iakob
Gogebashvili, Giorgi Tsereteli, and Niko Nikoladze.
Ilia Chavchavadze had clear vision on the question that the direct grafting of the
Russian Revolutionary-democrat ideas on the Georgian soil inappropriate and impossible
as Russia and Georgia had their own specific problems.
Being a great teacher of his nation Ilia Chavchavadze created himself the political
ideal and the action plan whose implications were directed to the unification of the
national forces, liberation from social and national oppression and the tireless service to
the homeland.