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avTandil nikoleiSvili

vasil barnovis `armazis msxvreva~ religiur-


saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobisaTvis qarTveli xalxis
brZolis konteqstSi

vasil barnovis (1857-1934 ww.) SemoqmedebaSi saqarTvelos istoriis


calkeuli epizodebi zogjer CvenSi tradiciulad damkvidrebuli
Sexedulebebisagan arsebiTad gansxvavebuli TvalTaxedviTaa gansjil-
gaazrebuli. istoriuli movlenebisa da pirovnebebisadmi mwerlis amgvar
damokidebulebas safuZvlad, upirveles yovlisa, misi erovnul-
patriotuli TvalTaxedva udevs. v. barnovi romantikuli gznebiTa da
aSkarad gamovlenili mamuliSviluri tendenciurobiT iazrebs Cveni
istoriis sakvanZo problemebs da, rogorc mxatvruli sityvis didostati,
yvelafers akeTebs qarTveli kacis cnobierebaSi erovnuli TviTSegnebis
gansamtkiceblad da gasaZliereblad.
mwerlis Semoqmedebis magisitralur mimarTulebad damkvidrebuli es
mizanswrafva arsebiTad ewinaaRmdegeba im partiul-ideologiur
principebs, romelTac bolSevikuri xelisufleba sabWoTa mwerlobis
umTavres msoflmxedvelobriv safuZvlad acxadebda.
aqve xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos isic, rom istoriuli warsulis zemoT
aRniSnuli TvalTaxedviT aRqma-warmosaxvis azrobrivi qveteqstebi xSirad
Tavad mwerlis droindel epoqalur movlenebTanacaa xolme misadagebuli
advilad Sesacnobi formiT. v. barnovis im nawarmoebTagan, romlebSic
xazgasmulma tendenciam yvelaze masStaburi gamoxatuleba hpova, upirveles
yovlisa, farTod cnobili romani _ `armazis msxvreva" (1925 w.) unda
davasaxeloT. zemoT xsenebuli tendencia am nawarmoebSi imdenad cxadad
da araorazrovnadaa gamovlenili, rom masSi aRwerili movlenebi SeiZleba
zusti adekvaturobiTac ki mivusadagoT im rTul viTarebas, romelic
saqarTveloSi Seiqmna sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Sedegad.
magaliTad, a. gomarTelis azriT, `armazis msxvreva" 1921 wlis
tragediisa da misi Semdgomi viTarebis `daSifruli da daqaragmebuli"
gaazrebis mcdelobas warmoadgens. `yoveli didi idea, qristianoba iqneba
igi Tu socializmi, mravalricxovani imperiebisaTvis sxvaTa dapyrobisa da
damonebis saSualebaa. kritikosis SefasebiT, swored esaa dedaazri
romanisa.
1801 wels ruseTi marTlmadideblobis dacvis misiiT Semovida
saqarTveloSi. 1921 wels ukve aTeisturi qveyana socializmis ideiT
gvimonebs. am tragikuli nacionaluri realobis mxatvruli ukufenaa
`armazis msxvreva". realoba verafers sanugeSos eubneba mwerals da masac
momavalSi gadaaqvs imedi erovnuli aRorZinebisa (a. gomarTeli, 1997, gv.
110).
samwuxarod, am momavlis dadgomis dro romanSi dakonkretebuli ar
aris. marTalia, mwerals Rrmad ki swams, rom `dasZlevs bolos qarTvelT
RmerTi saqarTveloSi", `qarTveli xalxi kvlav daubrundeba Zvel
salocavT da kvlav gabrwyindeba ukvdav xatTa saxeli CvenSi", magram
rodis moxdeba es, am kiTxvaze v. barnovs konkretuli da zusti pasuxi ar
moepoveba.
`armazis msxvreva" yvelaze meti radikalizmiT avlens v. barnovis
sarwmunoebriv mrwamss. avtoris religiuri rwmenis safuZvelTa safuZvlad
romanSi erovnul-patriotuli TvalTaxedvaa qceuli. uwinaresad swored
am poziciidan sjis da afasebs mwerali movlenebs, riTac siRrmiseulad
warmoaCens niRabaxdili istoriuli viTarebis namdvil arss. igi
realisturi damajereblobiT gviCvenebs im agresiuli politikis saxifaTo
mizanswrafvas, romelsac irani da bizantia atarebdnen saqarTvelos
winaaRmdeg religiur-sarwmunoebrivi niRbiT.
da am SemTxvevaSi xazgasmiT aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom movlenaTa
avtoriseuli gansja istoriuli sinamdvilis Rrma mecnierul codnasa da
maxvilgonivrul analizs efuZneba. v. barnovma sruliad axleburad gaiazra
da Seafasa saqarTvelos istoriidan kargad cnobili iseTi movlena,
rogoric meoTxe saukunis 20-30 wlebSi CvenSi qristianobis damkvidreba
da saxelmwifoebriv religiad gamocxadebaa. am mniSvnelovan istoriul
faqts mwerali aratradiciuli TvalTaxedviT sjis da afasebs, saukuneTa
ganmavlobaSi farTod damkvidrebuli Sexedulebisagan gansxvavebulad.
romanis mixedviT, imdroindeli saqarTvelo religiur SejaxebaTa
asparezad iqca. v. barnovi uRrmesi mamuliSviluri gulistkiviliT
gviambobs, rogor Seewira Cveni qveynis saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba
im fsevdoreligiur imperiul politikas, romelsac bizantia atarebda
imxanad mezobeli saxelmwifoebis dasapyrobad. iranisa da bizantiis
magaliTze nawarmoebidan naTlad Cans, TavianTi agresiuli gegmebis
praqtikuli realizaciis gzaze ra did rolsa da mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen
agresori qveynebi sarwmunoebas.
v. barnovis azriT, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi momavali imxanad
arsebiTad gansazRvra im mZafrma da ukompromiso brZolam, romelic
religiuri niSniT mimdinareobda qristianul bizantiasa da warmarTul
sparseT-saqarTvelos Soris. qarTlis imJamindeli mefe miriani iZulebuli
iyo isic CarTuliyo bizantiasa da sparseTs Soris warmoqmnil am saomar
dapirispirebaSi da saqveynod gaecxadebina Tavisi arCevani _ romis imperia
Tu sparseTi. v. barnovis romanSi ara marto am arCevanisTvis Tanamdevi
sirTuleebia siRrmiseulad warmoCenil-gaazrebuli, aramed is sabediswero
movlenebic, romlebic Cveni qveynis politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi
orientaciis ganmsazRvrel am arCevanTan iqneboda momavalSi
dakavSirebuli.
imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom qarTvelTa imJamindeli mTavari RvTaeba _
armaz brwyinvale sparseTidan iyo Semosuli da Tavad mirianic am
warmarTul-sparsuli kerpis Tayvanismcemeli iyo, saboloo arCevanis
gakeTebis dros qarTlis mefem upiratesoba qarTvelebisa da sparselebis
religiur naTesaobas mianiWa da sparseTis mokavSireoba Cveni qveynisaTvis
ufro sasargeblo saqmed miiCnia.
rogorc iTqva, romanSi araerTgzis esmeba xazi im garemoebas, rom
qarTvelebis mier imxanad TavianTi qveynis mTavar mfarvel RvTaebad
dasaxuli armaz brwyinvale qarTuli rwmenis niadagze ar yofila
amozrdili da Tavis droze isic ucxo Zalis aqtiuri mcdelobisa da
agresiuli politikis Sedegad gabatonda saqarTveloSi. misma aRzevebam
jer safuZvlebi Seuryia, SemdegSi ki TiTqmis mTlianad daasamara sakuTriv
erovnuli wiaRidan aRmocenebuli Zveli qarTuli kerpTayvanismcemloba.
`qarTvelTa modgmis darajad mdgomi" ZvelqarTuli warmarTuli kerpebi:
ciSub-Tarxuji, iTruSani da sxvani nel-nela miecnen daviwyebas da maTi
adgili ucxo RvTaebebma daiWires. ase rom, mwerlis TqmiT, armazica da
qristec CvenTvis `oriv sxva" iyo, `sxvadgan mosuli" RmerTebi, romelTac
qarTvelTa cnobierebaSi erovnul niadagze aRmocenebuli mamapapuri
sjuli daTrgunes da Zveli qarTuli warmarTuli kerpebis batonobas
maTsave qveyanaSi wertili dausves. v. barnovis SefasebiT, am movlenam
kidev erTxel daadastura is WeSmariteba, rom `did bedisweras TviT
RmerTnic hmorCileben! Turme ewera gangebis wignSi: dadgeba Jami:
daenacvlos ciSub didebuls ucxo armazi, cariel iqmnas savane misi.
Tumca, amisda miuxedavad, mwerlis mier warmosaxul `Zvel RmerTTa
mmosav" personaJebs, romelnic armazsac uarhyofdnen da jvarsac, Rrmad
da daueWveblad swamdaT, rom es yvelaferi droebiTi movlena iyo da
saqarTveloSi odesme usaTuod dadgeboda dro, roca Zveli qarTuli
warmarTuli kerpebi mkvdreTiT aRdgebodnen da Zvel didebas
daibrunebdnen. swored amis naTel gamoxatulebas warmoadgens is faqti,
rom es adamianebi kvlavac tradiciuli erTgulebiT cdilobdnen
uRalatod daecvaT da aResrulebinaT maTi ganmadidebeli RvTaebrivi
ritualebi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom v. barnovis romanSi qarTuli warmarTuli
sarwmunoebis damcvel-ganmadidebeli araerTi personaJi gvxvdeba, maTgan
Tavad mwerlis erovnul-sarwmunoebriv mrwamss yvelaze metad gandegilad
mcxovrebi RvTismsaxuri mangiuri gamoxatavs. mangiuris azriT, odesme
usaTuod dadgeboda dro, roca kvlav aRmobrwyindeboda Suqmomfinari mze
RmerTTa RmerT ciSub-Tarxujisa. mangiuris es rwmena iluziuri
warmosaxvis nayofs rom ar warmoadgenda da Zveli qarTuli warmarTuli
kerpebisadmi msgavsi optimisturi damokidebuleba qarTvelTa Soris
sakmaod bevrs rom hqonda, amas romanis Tundac is epizodic naTlad
adasturebs, sadac bizantielebTan omSi damarcxebuli sparselebi
SeSfoTebiT saubroben mama-papuri sjulisadmi qarTvelebis uRalato
erTgulebaze.
naTqvamisaTvis meti damajereblobis misacemad davimowmeb Sesabamis
fragments nawarmoebidan: `saSiS arian qarTvelebi: jer kidev axsovT Tvisi
sjuli mama-papuri. ar swamT maT armaz; Tayvans scemen mxolod garewrad.
_ welma samasma ver aTvisa axals sjuls, yofas?!
_ jiutia qarTveli eri Tavis rwmenaSi, yovlad ucvleli. isev
Tayvans scems ZvelisZvel RmerTebs. hmarTaven gasaWirSi adgilis xatebs.
ukareblad miaCniaT maTi savane, Tund carieli, wmidaTa wmidad. ver
SevZeli gagvexadna Cveni sjuli qarTvelTa rwmenad da armazi saqarTvelos
mfarvel did RmerTad. sasoebiT ixseneben iTruSans, ciSubs, iaRsars,
ilors.
yovelive zemoTqmulis gamo, mangiuri da qarTuli warmarTuli
kerpebis moTayvane misi sxva Tanamemamuleebi udidesi imediT adevnebdnen
Tvals religiuri dapirispirebis saburvelSi gaxveul im saomar
operaciebs, romelnic bizantiasa da sparseTs Soris mimdinareobda
imxanad. maTi rwmeniT, am brZolaSi sparseTis damarcxeba sabolood
daasrulebda am qveynis eqspansiis Sedegad saqarTveloSi upirveles
RvTaebad gamocxadebuli armazis batonobis xanas. romaelebis RmerTTan
WidilSi ki sabolood qarTvelTa RmerTebi gamovidodnen gamarjvebulni.
yovelive amas aseTi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba, pirvel yovlisa,
imitomac unda mivaqcioT, rom `armazis msxvrevis" zemoT moxseniebul
personaJTa erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi TvalTaxedva uwinaresad Tavad
mwerlis msoflmxedvelobrivi mrwamsis gamovlinebas warmoadgens. v.
barnovis amgvari agresiuli damokidebuleba sparsuli
kerpTayvanismcemlobisa da TviT qristianuli sarwmunoebisadmic ki,
upirveles yovlisa, imiT iyo ganpirobebuli, rom orive religia
ucxoeTidan iyo Semosuli saqarTveloSi. `qarTvelni da maTni RmerTni ki
erTni arian: qarTvelebi miwierni, igiv qarTvelni zeciurni. ver SeiTvisebs
qarTveloba RmerTs sxvidan mosuls.
rogorc zemoT ukve damowmebuli fragmentebidanac TvalnaTliv Cans,
`armazis msxvrevaSi" yovelgvari orazrovnebis gareSe vlindeba v. barnovis
antiqristianuli pozicia. am garemoebis ganmapirobebel umTavres
faqtorad, pirvel yovlisa, is faqti iyo qceuli, rom qristianuli
sarwmunoeba, mwerlis azriT, bizantielebis mier saqarTvelosa da sxva
mezobeli qveynebis dasapyrobad da dasamoneblad gatarebuli agresiuli
saxelmwifoebrivi politikis ganmaxorcielebel realur Zalas
warmoadgenda. v. barnovi niRabaxdili saxiT warmoaCens am politikis
namdvil arss da erovnul-patriotuli poziciebidan gviCvenebs, rogor
moxerxebulad iyenebdnen romis keisrebi qristianul moZRvrebas TavianTi
imperiuli zraxvebis dasafarad.
naTqvamis naTelsayofad davimowmeb konkretul epizods romanidan:
bizantielTa agresiuli politikiT SeSfoTebulma sparseTis Sahma
dasaxmareblad mirian mefes mimarTa. qarTlSi specialurad warmogzavnili
despanisTvis gamotanebul ustarSi igi mirians SeZrwunebiT auwyebda
bizantiis keisris mier Tavisi dampyrobluri gegmebis gansaxorcielebel
umTavres iaraRad qceuli `im axali sjulis Sesaxeb, romelic uyenebel
mewyeriviT modioda dasavleTidan. daemonebina igi moZRvreba romis
keisars, gaexadna TanamebrZolad, gaemZRvarebina aRmosavleTisaken mis
dasapyroblad.
mwerlis xazgasmiT, mdgomareobas kidev ufro metad arTulebda da
saSiSs xdida is garemoeba, rom `axal sjuls frTebi gaeSalna oTxsave
mxares. win miiwevda misreTiT Tu zRvis kideebiT; arabeTi jvarcmul
qristes aRiarebda; romaelni Tu elinni am RmerTisaken gadmoxriliyvnen;
xazareTis da skviTeTis karni SeaRo; ponti, haistan, maxlobeli da sxva
qveynebi xelT daeWira; mZled mosuliyo saqarTvelos dedaqalaqSi.
rogorc zemoT ukve aRiniSna, `armazis msxvrevisadmi" interess
mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs is garemoeba, rom bizantiis imperiuli
politikis mxilebiT, v. barnovma arapirdapiri gziT sabWouri koloniuri
mmarTvelobiTi sistemac dagmo da amxila SeniRbulad. Tu pirveli
agresori Tavisi dampyrobluri politikis safuZvlad qristianul
religias iyenebda, meorem am mizniT socialistur ideologias mimarTa. es
yvelaferi romanSi iseTi sicxadiT Cans, rom bizantielTa dampyrobluri
gegmebis realurad ganxorcielebis saqmeSi qristianuli religiis
gamoyenebis avtoriseuli daxasiaTeba SeiZleba yovelgvari orazrovnebis
gareSe mivusadagoT im funqcias, romelic socialistur ideologias
ekisreboda ganaxlebuli rusuli imperiis Seqmnisa da ganmtkicebis gzaze.
kerZod, qveynierebis jvriT dapyrobaze meocnebe konstantine keisris
fsevdointernacionalur miswrafebaTa mxilebiT v. barnovma imavdroulad
sabWoTa kavSiris imperiuli politikac amxila arapirdapiri, magram
advilad Sesacnobi formiT. am TvalsazrisiT uaRresad sainteresoa
Sinagani dialogis formiT dawerili romanis is epizodi, sadac
konstantines mzakvruli mizandasaxulobis arsi amgvari sicxadiTaa
daxasiaTebuli.
`_ aRvadgen mcire erTa samflobeloebs, romis mfarvelobis qveS
davayeneb maT, gars Semovartyam saltad did irans da imaT xeliT
movswurav imas.
_ rogor? Sen ginda aRadgino TviT arseboba mcire erebis, romelni
romma daimona da gardaqmna romaelebad?!
_ mxolod daimona! ver waarTva maT saxe maTi, verc siyvaruli Tavis
mamulis. maTi Relva ara scxreba, verc dawynardeba. gaixsene amboxebani
karTagenSi, misreTSi, palestinaSi, haistanSi, pontSi da sxvagan yvelgan.
sisxliT vaqrobdiT aCenil kocons. naperwkali mainc rCeboda da
Rvivdeboda. migveca maTTvis sakuTari qveyanac, saxec; earnaT Cveni
mfarvelobiT sakuTari gziT. Zvirfasi Seiqmneboda imaTTvis romi;
siZulvilis wil TanagrZnobas movipovebdiT. TavisTavad miiRebdnen
barbarosni Cven ganaTlebas, mogvbaZavdnen cxovrebis gzazed da..."
da yvelaferi naTelia. mkiTxveli advilad xvdeba mravalwertiliT
SeniRbuli saTqmelis namdvil, qveteqstur azrs, naTlad da
araorazrovnad acnobierebs avtoriseuli mizanswrafvis namdvil arss.
yovelive zemoTqmulis TvalsazrisiT aseve metad mniSvnelovania
`dakninebulTa mfarveli sjulis" avtoriseuli daxasiaTebis Sedareba-
Sepirispirebac socialistur ideologiasTan. mravlismTqmelia is
garemoeba, rom qristianuli sarwmunoebis Sesaxeb saubris dros mweralma
wina planze, pirvel yovlisa, swored is principebi wamoswia, romlebic
socialisturma ideologiam swored am sarwmunoebisgan waritaca da
socialurad daCagruli xalxis gulis mosageb populistur lozungebad
aqcia: `dakninebulT mfarvelobda sjuli qristesi. ityoda Zmobas,
Tavisuflebas, erTobas Tu Tanasworobas. uarhyofda warCinebas
STamomavlobiT. kacadkacs gaarCevda pirad qmedebiT. hgmobda qonebis
usworobiT ganawilebas.
xalxic erTi ojaxia, TumcaRa didi: TviTeul wevrs Tanabari hqondes
ufleba!"...
marTalia, qarTlis samefo karsac da warCinebul mamuliSvilTac
kargad hqondaT gacnobierebuli is faqti, rom axali sjulis damkvidreba-
gabatonebas saqarTveloSi usaTuod mohyveboda `bizantielTa uflebebis
damyareba", magram isini mainc uZlurni iyvnen win aRdgomodnen `bedisweris
am mZlavr Zalas".
romanis umTavres siuJetur qargad v. barnovma `qarTlis
cxovrebidan" da `ninos cxovrebidan" kargad cnobili is epizodebi aqcia,
romlebic Cvens qveyanaSi wminda ninos Semosvlis, qristianuli religiis
qadagebisa da mefe mirianisa da misi ojaxis mier am sarwmunoebaze moqcevis
ambavs mogviTxroben. miuxedavad imisa, rom am monaTxrobSi, rogorc ukve
iTqva, siuJeturi TvalsazrisiT arsebiTad axali araferia, am istoriuli
movlenis barnoviseuli gaazreba da Sefaseba principulad gansxvavdeba
tradiciulad damkvidrebuli TvalTaxedvisagan.

damowmebuli literatura

v. barnovi, 1962 - v. barnovi, Txzulebani aT tomad, t. V, 1962.


a. gomarTeli, 1997 - a. gomarTeli, qarTuli simbolisturi proza,
1997.
a. nikoleiSvili, 2000 - a. nikoleiSvili, meoce saukunis qarTuli
literaturis istoriis narkvevebi, t. III, 2000.

AVTANDIL NIKOLEISHVILI

VASIL BARNOV’S “TEARING OFF ARMAZ” IN THE CONTEXT OF THE


GEORGIAN PEOPLE’S STRUGGLE FOR THE RELIGIOUS AND STATE
INDEPENDENCE

Vasil Barnov’s “Tearing off Armaz”(1925) reveals the author’s religious creed with
an utmost radicalism. Above all V.Barnov’s vision of the nation in the novel is the basis
of his religious belief. The author describes with the most realistic pictures the aggressive
policy carried out in the guise of religion by both Iran and Byzantium in the 4th c.
Georgia.
In the novel “Tearing off Armaz” V.Barnov makes completely original assessments
of the well-known events in the history of Georgia. e.g. the establishment of Christianity
in Georgia as a state religion. The author provides non-traditional evaluations of this
important historical fact.
According to the author Georgia’s future of statehood was determined by the non-
compromised fight of the heathen Iran and Georgia against Christian Byzantium.
Together with other important factors the alliance of Iran and Georgia was conditioned
with the religious kinship of the two countries of that period. The faith that had had
centuries old footing by that time was originally brought from Persia that ‘had been
visibly featured in Armaz, the principal deity.’
Without whatever ambiguity “Tearing off Armaz” reveals Vasil Barnov’s deep
respect to the Georgian heathenism, as, in the first place, these pagan idols originated
from the national consciousness.