MEASURES TO IMPROVE YARN QUALITY IN RING FRAME

Getachew Adhena Demesew Ephrem Kibur H/mariam

DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY JUNE, 2009

Measures to Improve Yarn Quality in Ring Frame
A project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE In TEXTILE ENGINEERING

By
Getachew Adhena Demesew Ephrem Kibur H/mariam ENG®/552/98 ENG®/548/98 ENG®/564/98

Under the Guidance of Mr. Gashaw Ashagre

Department of Textile Engineering Faculty of Engineering Bahir Dar University

June, 2009

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Our heartfelt respect and thanks go to our advisor, Mr. Gashaw Ashagre (MSc), for his maximum devotion and listening to our heartbeat to help us carry out our final year project on Measures to Improve Yarn Quality in Ring Frame and for his wonderful and endless advice and for being extremely considerate to introduce us to use many dedicated books and make us awake to collect more data for accomplishing the project work.

Many thanks also goes to Ato Yossef, Vice Manager of Bahir Dar Textile Share Company, for allowing us to take required data as needed; spinning quality control head Ato Amanuel; spinning quality control laboratory assistant, Ato Bekele, for providing us the standard value data and all the necessary testing records format; and spinning production head, Ato Admtie to giving us the ring frame cop for testing.

Unforgettably, we would like to mention and give deep emphasis to our families for their support and continual back up both financially and morally through out our academic lives. At last but not least, we would like to say many thanks to the secretary of our department, Wrt. Lemlem for printing and editing the manuscript.

Name of candidate
1. Getachew Adhena 2. Demesew Ephrem 3. Kibur H/mariam

Signature

June, 2009

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ABSTRACT
The basic problem in the cotton textile mill is the manufacture of a standard product from an essentially non-standard and highly variable raw material. This project deals with the measures that if taken into consideration would improve the quality of yarn at the ring frame. Evaluation of the test data and its application to the control of the textile process, raw material, intermediate products, and final product are taken into account. Quality of yarn is affected by men, material and machine. Quality affected by men means improper cleaning of the machine, mixing of different roving bobbin during creeling and other related activities. Quality affected by material deals with the factors affecting yarn count, strength and twist. Quality affected by machine deals with the ring frame machine setting, drafting system and other parts (traveler, ring, apron, and tape drive and roller coat) which are very important for production of superior quality of yarn. Explanation of the results is presented in chapter four. The mill taken into consideration for this study produces yarn of inferior quality. The reasons for the production of low quality yarn are identified and solutions are suggested.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No. Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………….............. i Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………….ii Contents……………………………………………………………………………………...iii List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………............v List of Symbols and Abbreviations………………………………………………….............vi Chapter One Introduction…………………………………………………………………….1
1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5.

What is quality?……………………………………………………………....2 Why quality is important……………………………………………………..2 General aspects of quality control……………………………………………2 Why there is a problem……………………………………………………....3 The objective of the project…………………………………………………..4

Chapter Two Literature Review……………………………………………………………...5 2.1. Factor affecting yarn quality ………………………………………………...….5 2.1.1. Quality affected by men…………………………………………….….5
2.1.2. Quality affected by material……………………………………….....6

2.1.2.1. Yarn appearance……………………………………………..6 2.1.2.2. Yarn count…………………………………………………...8 2.1.2.3. Yarn twist………………………………………………….....9 2.1.2.4. Yarn strength …………………………………………........10
2.1.3. Quality affected by machine………………………………………...12

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2.1.3.1. Drafting……………………………………………………..13 2.1.3.2. Spindle and yarn guide device…………………………...…15 2.1.3.3. Ring and traveler combination……………………………...17 2.1.3.4. Material of traveler…………………………………………20 2.1.3.5. Spinning geometry……………………………………….....23 Chapter Three Methodology ……………………………………………………………......25 3.1. Data collection……………………………………………………………….....25
3.1.1. Questionnaire……………………………...………………………...25 3.1.2. Factory observation…………………………………..……………..25 3.1.3. Sample testing………………………………………...……………..25

Chapter Four Result and Discussion…………………………………………..…………….26 4.1. Data collection……………………………………………………………….....26 4.2. Testing procedure…………………………..………….……………………… 26 4.3. Test results …………………………………………………………………….31 4.4. Analyzing of data………………………………………………………...…….50 4.4.1. Analyzing of 20s count……………………………………………...…. 50 4.4.2. Analyzing of 14s count………………….………………………...…… 51 4.4.3. Analyzing of 10s count………………………...…………….………… 52 4.5. Possible causes and remedies………………………….……………………….54 4.5.1. Count………………………………………………………...…………. 54 4.5.2. Strength…………………………………………………………………..54

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4.5.3. Twist …………………………..……………………………………….. 54 Chapter Five Conclusion …………………………………………………………………...56 Recommendation ………………………………………………………………………..….57 Future scope of work…………………………………………………………………..……58 Reference ………………………………………………………………………………..….59 Index ……………………………………………………………………………………..…60

LIST OF TABLES
Chapter No. Table No. Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Name of Table Page

Yarn grade and index…………………………….…7 Conversion of yarn count………………...................9 Standard value of count……………………………27 Standard value of lea strength……………………..28 Standard value of twist per inch…………………....28 Standard value of twist per meter………………….28 20s yarn count test………………………................29 14s yarn count test………………………………....31 10s yarn count test…………………………………33

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4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13

20s yarn lea strength test…………………………..35 14s yarn lea strength test………………………......36 10s yarn lea strength test…………………………..37 20s yarn twist test………………………………….40 14s yarn twist test………………………………….43 10s yarn twist test……………………….…………47

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LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBRIVATIONS

ASTM BDTSC C.V Den Nm Ne
0

American Society for Testing Material Bahir Dar Textile Share Company Coefficient of Variation Denier metric count English count degree Centigrade Relative Humidity Count Strength Product millimeter Machine kilo Gram Twist per inch Twist Per Meter Standard Deviation Number

C

R.H C.S.P m.m M/C K.G T.p.i T.P.M S.D No

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
The basic problem in the cotton textile mill is the manufacture of a standard product from an essentially non-standard and highly variable raw material. The quality of yarn should conform to certain accepted norms depending on the end use. It is equally important that this is achieved at the minimum cost possible. It is the function of quality control to ensure that these twin objectives are realized (Ratnam and Chellmani, 1999). Quality control should be exercised at all key stages of processing so that variation in the final product can, if necessary, is traced back to the variation in raw material or from the process from which it originated. It is also essential to keep the products under continuous observation to obtain immediate warning of any new source of variation, which might have been caused by the development of a defect in a machine (Ratnam and Chellmani, 1999). The emphasis should be to prevent defects before they occur by exercising appropriate technical controls at different stages, good machinery maintenance, and application of statistical techniques for the analysis and consideration and interpretation of data. Norms or standards for quality should be fixed by the mill not only for the raw material and the yarn but also for the product at various stages of processing (Ratnam and Chellmani 1999). Quality control is concerned with the evaluation of test data and its application to the control of the textile process, raw material, intermediate products, and final product. It is concerned not only with the quality level and the cost of maintaining this level, but also with the presentation of tangible values to measure quality and changes in quality. Testing provides the back ground and data, and quality control applies the results (Ratnam and Chellmani 1999).

1.1.

What is quality?

To many people, quality is simple or too obvious even to think about or pay attention to. The simplest way to answer “what is quality?” is to look it up in a dictionary. According to Webster’s II New Revised University Dictionary, QUALITY is essential character: nature,

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an ingredient or distinguishing attribute: property, character train, superiority of kind, degree of grade or excellence (Kothari, 1999). Quality can also mean to meeting or exceeding customer expectations all the time. The more educated and sophisticated the customer, the higher and more specific are the expectations of quality and more precise the ability of the customers to explore those expectations (Kothari 1999).

1.2.

Why Quality is important?

According to Kothari (1999), various reports have indicated the following six benefits of quality: • • • • • • Greater market share Higher growth rate Higher earnings Premium price Loyal customers Highly motivated employees

1.3.

General aspects of Quality control

A program of quality control should include a testing program involving the performance on a periodic basis of certain routine tests designed to measure the characteristics of the raw or processed material. The data obtained here can be analyzed statistically. The control desired might be aimed at meeting: 1. Standards established by an individual organization 2. Established scientific specifications

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3. Market requirements or standards 4. Consumer needs or demands
5. The needs of improving the ratio of quality to cost (Grover, 1960).

1.4.

Why there is a problem faced to produce quality yarn in Bahir Dar Textile Share Company in the ring frame?

This is the main question of this project. As known Bahir Dar Textile Share Company (BDTSC) can produce different counts of cotton yarn; the most popular being 10s, 14s, and 20s though there are also 16s and 21s. These produced yarns have no good quality in terms of strength, appearance and twist. The main problems in the mill are as follows:  Improper air conditioning system
 Lack of motivated and skilled workers

 Outdated ring frame machines  Raw material problems  Ring frame machine setting problems

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1.5.

THE OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

Customer expectation of quality of textile has increased considerably over the years. Quality of textile can prove decisive in the success or failure of the companies in the fiercely competitive global market. The general objective of our project is to produce better quality of yarn. The specific objectives are as follows: • To improve the yarn count, twist, strength, appearance • Increase the productivity of machine with better quality yarn • To improve or increase the ratio of quality to cost. • In order to meet the customer expectations for the quality of yarn

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CHAPTER TWO LITRATURE REVIEW
2.1 FACTORS AFFECTING YARN QUALITY

There are many factors concerned in the production of the desired quality of yarn. But in order to have better understandings of the factors, this project grouped the parameters into three. These are:
1. Men. 2. Material. 3. Machine (Booth,1968).

2.1.1. QUALITY AFFECTED BY MEN The following are the main defects which are caused by men engaged in yarn production process.    

Handling the roving bobbin with soiled hand Mixing of different roving bobbin during creeling Improper cleaning of the machine Improper piecing of yarn during breakage Lack of skilled labor.

The result or the effects of the above defects are:
 Dirty yarn will be produced.  Produce yarn with different uniformity.  Oiled and greased yarn.

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 Higher end breakage in the next weaving preparatory process (Booth, 1968).

2.1.2. QUALITY AFFECTED BY MATERIAL Yarn occupies the intermediate position in the production of fabric from raw material. Yarn results are very essential, both for estimating the quality of raw material and for controlling the quality of fabric produced. The important characteristics of yarn being tested are: A. Yarn appearance B. Yarn Count C. Yarn Twist D. Yarn Strength

2.1.2.1

YARN APPEARANCE

ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials) defines yarn appearance as the visual effect obtained by viewing a sample of yarn wound with a designated traverse on a black board of designated size. Yarn appearance grade provides important additional information that can be used to correlate with the appearance to be expected in fabrics made from the yarn. It is based on the composite visual evaluation of several factors, such as unevenness, fuzziness, nippiness and visible foreign matter. ASTM cotton yarn appearance standards were first adopted in 1938 and have been revised several times since then. ASTM standard test method for grading spun yarn appearance describes the five yarn grades as follows:

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1. GRADE A YARN_It may have no large neps, a yarn must have good uniformity, and
good cover without excessive fuzziness. No foreign matter may be present in grade A yarn.

2. GRADE B YARN_It may have no large neps, but may have few small ones and it
may be slightly more irregular and may have slightly more fuzzed than a grade A yarn.

3. GRADE C YARN_It may have more neps, and larger ones as well as more fuzziness
and a greater amount of foreign matter than grade B yarn. The contrast between the thick and thin with the grade B yarn resulting in an overall rougher appearance.

4. GRADE D YARN_It may have more neps, neps of a larger size, more thick and thin
places, more fuzz and more foreign matter than grade C yarn. Grade D yarn has an over all rougher appearance than grade C yarn.

5. YARN BELOW GRADE D_ It may have more defects and overall rougher
appearance than grade D yarn (Kothari, 1999).

Factors affecting yarn appearance
 Yarn irregularity. If there is the same dimension of yarn throughout its length or no

thin and thick place formations, the yarn has good appearance.
 Nippiness. If there is the formation of high neps on yarn, there is bad appearance of

yarn.
 Fiber hairiness. When yarn is produced with more hair fiber, it will have bad

appearance.
 Fiber fineness. Fine fiber produces fine count yarn which has good appearance; the

coarse fiber will produce the yarn with lower appearance. The permitted number of defects for any grade should be determined by comparison with spun yarn appearance standard photographs (Kothari, 1999).

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Table 2.1. Yarn grade and index

(Grover, 1960)

Grade A and above B+ B C+ C D+ D BG

Designation Excellent Very good Good Average Fair Poor Very poor Below Grade

Index 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60

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2.1.2.2.

YARN COUNT

The fineness of the yarn is usually expressed in terms of its linear density or count. There are a number of systems and units for expressing yarn fineness. But they are classified as follows. Direct system: In the direct system, the yarn number or count is the mass of a unit length of yarn. There are two methods to express the count. 1. Tex 2. Denier Indirect system: In an in direct system, the yarn number or the count is the number of ‘unit lengths’ of the yarn per ‘unit of mass’. There are two methods to express the count. 1. English count 2. Metric count (Nm) 1. Ne: Number of 840 yards yarn weighing in One pound. 2. Nm: Number of one-kilometer yarn weighing in One Kilogram. 3. Tex: Weight in grams of 1000-meter (1 kilometer) yarn. 4. Denier: Weight in grams of 9000-meter (9 kilometer) yarn (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

Factors affecting yarn count

Moisture. When there is higher amount of moisture available in yarn, the mass of the yarn increased and it makes coarser yarn in direct count system (mass per unit length), and if there is no moisture (dry), there will be more end breakage and will produce undesirable count. So optimum moisture should require.

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Fiber length. Longer fiber will give better count (fine) yarn. Shorter fiber length will produce coarser count yarn.

For the determination of the count of yarn, it is necessary to determine the weight of a known length of the yarn. For taking out known lengths of yarns, a wrap-reel is used. The length of yarn reeled off depends upon the count system used. One of the most important requirements for a spinner is to maintain the average count and count variation within control (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

Yarn Count Variation

The term count variation is generally used to express variation in the weight of a lea and this is expressed as C.V. %. The number of samples and the length being considered for count checking affects this. While assessing count variation, it is very important to test adequate number of leas. After reeling the appropriate length of yarn, the yarn is conditioned in the standard atmosphere for testing before its weight is determined. The standard atmosphere for textile testing involves a temperature of 20+2oC, and 65+2% RH. In tropical regions, maintaining a temperature of 27+2oC, 65+2%RH is legitimate. Prior to testing, the samples must be conditioned under constant standard atmospheric condition to attain the moisture equilibrium. To achieve this it requires at least 24 hours (M.R.Textiles, 2007). Table 2.2. Conversion Table for Yarn Counts Tex Ne Den Nm Den /9 590.54/ Tex Tex * 9 1000/Tex 1000 / Nm Nm * 0.5905 9000/Nm 9000/Den (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

2.1.2.3.

YARN TWIST

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Twist is defined as the spiral disposition of the components of yarn, which is generally expressed as the number of turns per unit length of yarn, e.g. turns per inch, turns per meter, etc. With increase in twist, the yarn strength increases first, reaches a maximum and then decreases (M.R.Textiles, 2007). Depending on the end use, two or more single yarns are twisted together to form "plied yarns" or "folded yarns" and a number of plied yarns twisted together to form "cabled yarn". Among the plied yarns, the most commonly used are the doubled yarns, wherein two single yarns of identical twist are twisted together in a direction opposite to that of the single yarns. Thus for cabled and plied yarns, the direction of twist and the number of turns per unit length of the resultant yarn as well as of each component have to be determined for a detailed
analysis. Direction of twist is expressed as "S"-Twist or "Z"-Twist. Direction depends upon

the Direction of rotation of the twisting element (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

Factors affecting yarn twist
 Fineness of fiber. Coarser yarn has lower twist, and finer yarn has more twist.  Speed of front roller. When the speed is increased lower amount of twist is produced

and reduce the speed will give higher twist yarn (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

2.1.2.4.

YARN STRENGTH

Strength has long been accepted by many as one of the most vital characteristics of yarn. It is measurable property of the yarn.

Factors affecting yarn strength
In considering yarns spun from staple, there are many inherent variables that influence the final strength of the spun yarn. Some of these variables for cotton are listed herewith together with the resulting effects.

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 Staple length. Longer staple cotton gives higher strength.  Fiber fineness. Fine fibers give greater yarn strength than coarse fibers when spun in

to a given yarn size: this is due to the greater internal friction provided by the more numerous fibers.
 Fiber strength. Strong fiber produces a stronger yarn than weak fiber  Evenness. The greater the uniformity of a spun yarn, the higher is its strength, and

the more uneven a yarn, the lower is its strength.
 Fiber length distribution. Variation in the distribution of fiber lengths will cause a

variation in yarn strength. The greater the percentage of short fibers, the lower the strength of the yarn.
 Other causes. There are other variables that have defined effect on the strength of

yarn. The position of and individual elongation characteristics of the fibers. For example, if two fibers having the same strength are twisted together so that one is loose and the other is tight, the tight fibers assumes the load and the strength of the pair is that of the single fiber ( Grover 1960). Breaking strength, elongation, elastic modulus, resistance abrasion etc. are some important factors, which will represent the performance of the yarn during actual use or further processing. Strength testing is broadly classified into two methods: 1. Single End Strength Testing 2. Lea Strength 1. Tensile strength of single yarn During routine testing, both the breaking load and extension of yarn at break are usually recorded for assessing the yarn quality. Most of the instruments record the load-elongation diagram also. Various parameters such as initial elastic modulus, the yield point, the tenacity or elongation at any stress or strain, breaking load, breaking extension, etc. can be obtained from the load-extension diagram (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

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Two types of strength can be determined for a yarn: 1. Tensile strength - load is applied gradually. 2. Ballistic strength - applying load under rapid impact conditions (M.R.Textiles, 2007). 2. Skein strength or lea strength The skein breaking strength was the most widely used measure of yarn quality in the cotton textile industry. The measurement of yarn quality by this method has certain drawbacks.
 Firstly, in most of the subsequent processing, such as winding, warping or weaving,

yarn is used as single stranding not in the form of a skein except occasionally when sizing, bleaching, mercerizing or dyeing treatments are carried out on hanks.

 Secondly, in the method used for testing skein strength, the rupture of a single strand

at a weak place affects the result for the whole skein. Further, this method of test does not give an indication of the extensibility and elastic properties of a yarn, the characters which play and important role during the weaving operations. However, since a large size sample is used in a skein test as against that in a single strand test, the sampling error is less. The skein used for strength test can be used for determination of the linear density of the yarn as well (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

After finding out skein strength, broken skeins are also weighed to determine the linear density. The most common skein used is the lea and the results of lea strength tests are expressed as C.S.P (Count Strength Product), which is the product of the linear density (count) of the yarn in the English system (Ne) and the lea breaking strength expressed in lbs. In view of the fact that C.S.P. is much less dependent on yarn count than on strength, especially when count differences are small, C.S.P. is the most widely used measure of yarn quality. (M.R.Textiles, 2007).

2.1.3. QUALITY AFFECTED BY MACHINE

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The ring spinning will continue to be the most widely used form of spinning machine in the near future, because it exhibits significant advantages in comparison with the new spinning processes. Following are the advantages of ring spinning frame
• • •

It is universally applicable, that is any material can be spun to any required count. It delivers a material with optimum characteristics, especially with regard to structure and strength. It is simple and easy to master. • The know-how is well established and accessible for everyone (Vijayakumar, 2003) Functions of ring frame are: • • • To draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved. To impart strength to the fiber by inserting twist. To wind up the twisted strand (yarn) in a form suitable for storage, transportation and further processing (Vijayakumar, 2003).

2.1.3.1.

DRAFTING

Drafting arrangement is the most important part of the machine. It influences mainly evenness and strength. The following points are therefore very important.
  

Drafting type. Design of drafting system. Drafting settings. Selection of drafting elements like cots, apron, drafting roller. Choice of appropriate draft. Service and maintenance (Vijayakumar, 2003).


 

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Drafting arrangement influence the economics of the machine - directly by affecting the end break rate and in directly by the maximum draft possible. If higher drafts can be used with a drafting arrangement, then coarser roving can be used as a feeding material. This results in higher production rate at the roving frame and thus reducing the number roving machines required, space, personnel and so on (Vijayakumar,2003). In fact increase in draft affects the yarn quality beyond certain limit. Within the limit some studies show that increase in draft improves yarn quality. The following draft limits have been established for practical operation:
 Carded cotton – up to 35.

 Carded blends up to 40.
 Combed cotton and blends (medium counts) – up to 40.  Combed cotton and blends (fine counts) – up to 45.  Synthetic fibers – up to 50 (Vijayakumar, 2003).

The break draft must be adapted to the total draft in each case since the main draft should not exceed 25 to 30. It should be noted that higher the break draft, more critical is the break draft setting (Vijayakumar, 2003). The front top roller is set slightly forward by a distance of 2 to 4mm relative to the front bottom roller, while the middle top roller is arranged a short distance of 2mm behind the middle bottom roller. The arrangement of the front top roller reduces the size of the spinning triangle; a reduction in the spinning triangle reduces the incidence of end breaks and twist is enabling to flow better (Vijayakumar, 2003). Rubber cots with hardness less than 60 degrees shore are normally unsuitable because they cannot recover from the deformation caused by the pressure on the top roller while running. Soft rubber cots for top rollers have a greater area of contact, enclose the fiber strand more completely and therefore provide better guidance for the fibers. However softer cots wear out significantly faster and tend to form more laps. Normally harder rubber cots are used

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for back top rollers, because the roving which enters the back roller is compact, little twisted and it does not require any additional guidance for better fiber control (Vijayakumar, 2003). In the front top roller, only few fibers remain in the strand and these exhibits a tendency to slide apart. Additional fiber guidance is therefore necessary. Therefore rubber cots with hardness levels of the order 80 degrees to 85 degrees shore are mostly used at the back roller and 63 degrees and 65 degrees at the front roller. If coarse yarns are being spun, harder rubber cots are used at the front roller because of increased wear (Vijayakumar, 2003). The fiber strand in the main drafting field consists of only a few remaining fibers. There is hardly any friction field and fiber guidance provided by the rollers alone is inadequate. Special fiber guiding devices are therefore needed to carry out a satisfactory drafting operation. Double apron drafting arrangements with longer bottom aprons is the most widely used guiding system in all the modern ring frames (Vijayakumar, 2003). In double apron drafting system two revolving aprons driven by the middle rollers form a fiber guiding assembly. In order to be able to guide the fibers, the upper apron must be pressed with controlled force against the lower apron. For this purpose, a controlled spacing (exit opening), precisely adapted to the fiber volume is needed between the two aprons at the delivery. This spacing is set by "spacer" or "distance clips”. Long bottom aprons have the advantage in comparison with short ones that they can be easily replaced in the event of damage and there is less danger of choking with fluff (Vijayakumar, 2003). Three kinds of top roller weighting (loading) are presently in use
1. Spring loading. 2. Pneumatic loading. 3. Magnetic weighting.

With pneumatic loading system, the total pressure applied to all top rollers is obtained by simple adjustment of the pressure in the hose using pressure reducing valve. Moreover, the

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rubber cots will not get deformed if the machine is stopped for a longer duration, because the pressure on top rollers can be released to the minimum level (Vijayakumar, 2003). 2.1.3.2. SPINDLE AND YARN GUIDE DEVICE

Spindles and their drive have a great influence on power consumption and noise level in the machine. The running characteristics of a spindle, especially imbalance and eccentricity relative to the ring flange, also affect yarn quality and of course the number of end breakage. Almost all yarn parameters are affected by poorly running spindles. Hence it should be ensured that the centering of the spindles relative to the rings is as accurate as possible. Since the ring and spindle form independent units and are able to shift relative to each other in operation, these two parts must be re-centered from time to time. Previously, this was done by shifting the spindle relative to the ring, but now it is usually carried out by adjusting the ring (Klien, 1987). In comparison with tangential belt drive, the 4-spindle drive has the advantages of lower noise level and energy consumption, and tapes are easier to replace. Lappet guide performs the same sequence of movements as the ring rail, but with a shorter stroke, this movement of the guide ensures that differences in the balloon height caused by changes in the ring rail positions do not become too large. This helps to control the yarn tension variation with in control, so that ends down rate and yarn characteristics are under control (Klien, 1987). Spindles used today are relatively long. The spacing between the ring and the thread guide is correspondingly long, thus giving a high balloon. This has two negative influences 

A high balloon results in large bobbin diameter leading to space problems Larger the balloon diameter, higher the air drag on the yarn. This in turn causes increased deformation of the balloon curve out of the plane intersecting the spindle axis. This deformation can lead to balloon stability; there is increase danger of collapse

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Both these disadvantages result in higher yarn tension, thereby higher end breaks. In order to avoid this, balloon control rings are used. It divides the balloon into two smaller subballoons. In spite of its large overall height, the double-balloon created in this way is thoroughly stable even at relatively low yarn tension (Klien, 1987). Balloon control rings therefore help to run the machine with long spindles (longer lift) and at high spindle speed, but with lower yarn tension. Since the yarn rubs against the control ring, it may cause roughening of the yarn. Lappet which is provided above each spindles and the function is to guide the yarn centrally over the spindles. The lappet consists of a thread guide, support arm and lappet rail (Klien, 1987). 2.1.3.3. RING AND TRAVELLER COMBINATION

The following factors should be considered.
• • • • • • •

Materials of the ring traveler. Surface characteristics. The forms of both elements. Wear resistance. Smoothness of running. Running-in conditions. Fiber lubrication (Klien, 1987).

For the rings two dimensions are of primarily importance. 1. Internal diameter 2. Flange width. Anti-wedge rings exhibit an enlarged flange inner side and is markedly flattened on it upper surface. This type of profile permitted to use travellers with a lower centre of gravity and precisely adapted bow (elliptical travellers), which in turn helped to run the machine with higher spindle speeds. Anti wedge rings and elliptical travellers belong together and can be used in combination (Klien, 1987). Low crown profile has the following advantage. Low crown ring has a flattened surface top and this gives space for the passage of the yarn so that the curvature of the traveller can also be reduced and the centre of gravity is lowered. In comparison with anti wedge ring, the low

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crown ring has the advantage that the space provided for passage of the yarn is somewhat larger and that all current traveller shapes can be applied, with the exception of the elliptical traveller. The low crown ring is the most widely used ring form now (Klien, 1987). A good ring in operation should have the following features:
• • • • • • • • • •

Best quality raw material. Good, but not too high, surface smoothness. An even surface. Exact roundness. Good, even surface hardness, higher than that of the traveller. Should have been run in as per ring manufacturer’s requirement. Long operating life. Correct relationship between ring and bobbin tube diameters. Perfectly horizontal position. It should be exactly centered relative to the spindle (Klien, 1987).

In reality, the traveller moves on a lubricating film which builds up itself and which consists primarily of cellulose and wax. This material arises from material abraded from the fibers. If fiber particles are caught between the ring and traveller, then at high traveller speeds and with correspondingly high centrifugal forces the particles are partially ground to a paste of small, colorless, transparent and extremely thin platelets. The platelets are continually being replaced during working. The traveller smoothes these out to form a continuous running surface (Klien, 1987). The position, form and structure of lubricating film are depends on;
    

Yarn fineness. Yarn structure. Fiber raw material. Traveller mass. Traveller speed.

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Modern ring and traveller combination with good fiber lubrication enable traveller speeds up to 40m/sec. Traveller imparts twist to the yarn. Traveller and spindle together help to wind the yarn on the bobbin. Length wound up on the bobbin corresponds to the difference in peripheral speeds of the spindle and traveller. The difference in speed should correspond to length delivered at the front rollers. Since traveller does not have a drive on its own but is dragged along behind by the spindle (Vijayakumar, 2003). High contact pressure (up to 35 N/square mm) is generated between the ring and the traveller during winding, mainly due to centrifugal force. This pressure leads to generation of heat. Low mass of the traveller does not permit dissipation of the generated heat in the short time available. As a result the operating speed of the traveller is limited (Vijayakumar, 2003). When the spindle speed is increased, the friction work between ring and traveller (hence the build up) increases as the 3rd power of the spindle rpm. Consequently if the spindle speed is too high, the traveler sustains thermal damage and fails. This speed restriction is felt particularly when spinning cotton yarns of relatively high strength (Vijayakumar, 2003). If the traveller speed is raised beyond normal levels, the thermal stress limit of the traveller is exceeded; a drastic change in the wear behavior of the ring and traveller ensues. Owing to the strongly increased adhesion forces between ring and traveller, welding takes place between the two. These seizures inflict massive damage not only to the traveller but to the ring as well. Due to this unstable behavior of the ring and traveller system the wear is at least an order of magnitude higher than during the stable phase. The traveller temperature reaches 400 to 500 degrees Celsius and the danger of the traveller and failing is very great (Vijayakumar, 2003). The spinning tension is proportional;
  

To the friction coefficient between ring and traveler. To the traveller mass. To the square of the traveler speed.

41

And inversely proportional
 

To the ring diameter. And the angle between the connecting line from the traveller-spindle axis to the piece of yarn between the traveller and cop (Vijayakumar, 2003).

The yarn strength is affected only little by the spinning tension. On the other hand the elongation diminishes with increasing tension, for every tensile load of the fibers lessens the residual elongation in the fibers and hence in the yarn. Increasing tension leads also to poorer Uster regularity. If the spinning tension is more, the spinning triangle becomes smaller. As the spinning triangle gets smaller, there is less hairiness (Vijayakumar, 2003).

Shape of the traveller:
The traveller must be shaped to match exactly with the ring in the contact zone, so that a single contact surface, with the maximum surface area is created between ring and traveller. The bow of the traveller should be as flat as possible, in order to keep the centre of gravity low and thereby improve smoothness of running. However the flat bow must still leave adequate space for passage of the yarn. If the yarn clearance opening is too small, rubbing of the yarn on the ring leads to roughening of the yarn, a high level of fiber loss as fly, deterioration of yarn quality (Vijayakumar, 2003).

Wire profile of the traveller:
Wire profile influences both the behavior of the traveller and certain yarn characteristics, they are
• • • • • •

Contact surface of the ring. Smooth running. Thermal transfer. Yarn clearance opening. Roughening effect. Hairiness (Vijayakumar, 2003).

41

2.1.3.4.

MATERIAL OF THE TRAVELLER

The traveller should
 

Generate as little heat as possible. Quickly distribute the generated heat from the area where it develops over the whole volume of the traveler. Transfer this heat rapidly to the ring and the air . Be elastic, so that the traveller will not break as it is pushed on to the ring. Exhibit high wear resistance. Be less hard than the ring, because the traveller must wear out in use in preference to the ring (Klien, 1987).

   

In view of the above said requirements, traveller manufacturers have made efforts to improve the running properties by surface treatment. "Breaker" has developed a new process in which certain finishing components diffuse into the traveller surface and are fixed in place there. The resulting layer reduces temperature rise and increases wear resistance. Traveller mass determines the magnitude of frictional forces between the traveller and the ring, and these in turn determine the winding and balloon tension (Klien,1987). Mass of the traveller depends upon:
• • • •

Yarn count. Yarn strength. Spindle speed. Material being spun.

If traveller weight is too low, the bobbin becomes too soft and the cop content will be low. If it is unduly high, yarn tension will go up and will result in end breaks. If a choice is available between two traveller weights, then the heavier is normally selected, since it will give greater cop weight, smoother running of the traveller and better transfer of heat out of traveller (Klien, 1987).

41

When the yarn runs through the traveller, some fibers are liberated. Most of these fibers float away as dust in to the atmosphere, but some remain caught on the traveller and they can accumulate and form a tuft. This will increase the mass of traveller and will result in end break because of higher yarn tension. To avoid this accumulation, traveller clearers are fixed close to the ring, so that the accumulation is prevented. They should be set as close as possible to the traveller, but without affecting its movement. Exact setting is very important (Vijayakumar, 2003).

Specific shape of the cop is achieved by placing the layers of yarn in a conical arrangement. In the winding of a layer, the ring rail is moved slowly but with increasing speed in the upward direction and quickly but with decreasing speed downwards. This gives a ratio between the length of yarn in the main (up) and cross (down) windings about 2:1. The total length of a complete layer (main and cross windings together) should not be greater than 5m (preferably 4 m) to facilitate unwinding. The traverse stroke of the ring rail is ideal when it is about 15 to 18% greater than the ring diameter (Vijayakumar, 2003). End break suction system has a variety of functions.

It removes fibers delivered by the drafting arrangement after an end break and thus prevents multiple end breaks on neighboring spindles. It enables better environmental control, since a large part of the return air-flow of the air condition system is led past the drafting system, especially the region of the spinning triangle. In modern installations, approx. 40 to 50 % of the return air-flow passes back into the duct system of the air conditioning plant via the suction tubes of pneumatic suction system. A relatively high vacuum must be generated to ensure suction of waste fibers
o o

for cotton - around 800 Pascal’s for synthetic - around 1200 Pascal’s

41

A significant pressure difference arises between the fan and the last spindle. This pressure difference will be greater, the longer the machine and greater the volume of air to be transported. The air flow rate is normally between 5 and 10 cubic meter / hour. Remember that the power needed to generate an air-flow of 10 cubic meter/ hour , is about 4.5 times the power needed for an air-flow of 6 cubic meter/ hour, because of the significantly higher vacuum level developed at the fan (Vijayakumar, 2003).

2.1.3.5.

SPINNING GEOMETRY

From Roving bobbin to cop, the fiber strand passes through drafting arrangement, thread guide, balloon control rings and traveller. These parts are arranged at various angles and distances relative to each other. The distances and angles together are referred to as the spinning geometry, has a significant influence on the spinning operation and the resulting yarn. They are:
     

Yarn tension. Number of end breaks. Yarn irregularity. Binding-in of the fibers. Yarn hairiness. Generation of fly (Vijayakumar, 2003).

Spinning Triangle
Twist in a yarn is generated at the traveller and travel against the direction of yarn movement to the front roller. Twist must run back as close as possible to the nip of the rollers, but it never penetrates completely to the nip because, after leaving the rollers, the fibers first have to be diverted inwards and wrapped around each other. There is always a triangular bundle of fibers without twist at the exit of the rollers; this is called as spinning triangle. Most of the end breaks originate at this point. The length of the spinning triangle

41

depends upon the spinning geometry and upon the twist level in the yarn (Vijayakumar, 2003). The top roller is always shifted 2 to 4 mm forward compared to bottom roller. This is called top roller over hang. This gives smoother running and smaller spinning triangle. The overhang must not be made too large, as the distance from the opening of the aprons to the roller nip line becomes too long resulting in poorer fiber control and increased yarn irregularity (Vijayakumar, 2003). Continuous variation of the operating conditions arises during winding of a cop. The result is that the tensile force exerted on yarn must be much higher during winding on the bare tube than during winding on the full cop, because of the difference in the angle of attack of the yarn on the traveller. When the ring rail is at the upper end of its stroke, in spinning onto the tube, the yarn tension is substantially higher than when the ring rail is at its lower most position. This can be observed easily in the balloon on any ring spinning machine (Vijayakumar, 2003). The tube and ring diameters must have a minimum ratio, between approx. 1:2 and 1:2.2, in order to ensure that the yarn tension oscillations do not become too great. Yarn tension in the balloon is the tension which finally penetrates almost to the spinning triangle and which is responsible for the greater part of the thread breaks. It is reduced to a very small degree by the deviation of the yarn at the thread guide. Equilibrium of forces must be obtained between the yarn tension and balloon tension (Vijayakumar, 2003).

41

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
The methods followed are in reference with the relevant text books and internet.

3.1. Data collection
The standard values of strength, count and twist of yarn are taken from spinning quality control of Bahir Dar Textile Share Company. 3.1.1. Questionnaire The prepared questionnaire is used to find the general yarn processing system and it is based on the written literature. Operators working at 10s, 14s and 20s yarn producing ring frames and concerned persons, like quality control head and spinning production head are asked depending on the prepared questionnaires about the yarn processing and the faults that occur during yarn production. 3.1.2. Factory observation Visiting and observation of Bahir Dar Textile Factory and how they produce yarn with different count using the same ring frame but classified for particular count is one of the methodology for our project.. 3.1.3. Sample testing The spinning production department provided us seven ring frame bobbins (cop) for each count of 10s, 14s and 20s in order to test yarn count, strength and twist. The testing of lea strength of yarn is done in their quality control department testing room using motorized lea strength tester and the remaining count and twist testing are done in textile engineering department spinning laboratory using motorized twist tester for twist, and quadrant balance and fast count analyzer interfaced with computer count testing.

41

CHAPTER FOUR RESULT AND DESCUSSION
4.1. Data collection
The data for this project is collected from BDTSC under the department of spinning quality control. The factory has standard value of count, twist and strength and is familiar with the standard values. These standard values are taken from ASTM. The table listed below (except standard values) are taken from testing of the sample in the factory and in textile engineering spinning testing laboratory.

4.2. Testing procedure
A. Testing procedure for count measurement Procedure for direct quadrant and fast count analyzer: • Take a representatives sample of seven ring bobbins and place each of the bobbins in the creel. Thread the yarn through the yarn guides and the tension rod; the ends of the yarns on the nails of the reel on one of the arms of the reel. • • Set the counter to 110m for the determination count in English system. Start the reeling manually by hand. when the reeling operation is about to be over, the reel starts rotating slowly and comes to the correct stop position, at the end break the yarn as near the nails as possible and tie the ends of the yarn in each of the leas. • • • • • Collapse the reel and remove the leas and take the required number of leas following the same procedure as above. Select a suitable quadrant scale. Level the equipment and ensure the pointer rests in zero position with out any material on the hook. Place the leas one by one on the hook and read the count directly on the appropriate scale. Switch on the computer and adjust the count measuring unit, length of yarn, total sample testing. Level the electro balancing equipment and ensure the digits are in zero position with out any material on the weighting balance.

41

• •

Place the leas one by one on the weighting balance and read directly the result from computer. At the end of testing calculated value of maximum value, minimum value, mean value, standard value and coefficient of variation.

B. Testing procedure for twist Testing procedure for motorized twist tester: • Calculate the count in Tex system. The tension to be applied to the test specimens is given by the relation Tension in grams = Tex count of yarn/ 2 • • • Check the gauge length of testing. Set the counter to zero Find out the direction of twist by visual examination or by untwisting a small portion of the yarn. Remove the first few meters of the yarn from the ring bobbin without breaking the yarn. Slide a small length of the yarn into the groove of the rotating jaw and press open the jaw. The yarn slides into the center of rotating jaw. Now, break the yarn. • Fix the drum of the fixed jaw by locking it to the frame. Guide the other end of the yarn over the top surface of drum of the fixed jaw and at the other end; suspend the tension weights (as calculated in the first step). • Switch the main supply. Operate the motor of the rotating jaw by the hand operated device. When the pointer is close to the initial zero position, stop the motor and rotate by hand the jaw to get the exact end point-the point at which the pointer coincides exactly the initial zero position. • Note the counter reading and after recording the values, set the counters to zero again. Removed the tested specimen and mount another specimen by the same procedure in the above and take equal number of readings from each package (in our present case, four reading per bobbin and test seven bobbins.

41

C. Testing procedure for strength Testing procedure for lea motorized strength tester: • Take a representatives sample of seven ring bobbins and place each of the bobbins in the creel. Thread the yarn through the yarn guides and the tension rod; the ends of the yarns on the nails of the reel on one of the arms of the reel. • • Set the counter to 110m for the determination count in English system. Start the reeling manually by hand. when the reeling operation is about to be over, the reel starts rotating slowly and comes to the correct stop position, at the end break the yarn as near the nails as possible and tie the ends of the yarn in each of the leas. • • • • • Collapse the reel and remove the leas and take the required number of leas following the same procedure as above. Check the gauge length (50 c.m) and the pointer is indicating to zero position. Placed the lea one by one on the upper and lower jaw. Distributed the yarn on jaw uniformly. Switch on the main supply. After the yarn break immediately switch of the motor. Record the reading result fro the scale. Return the lower jaw to its original position and return the pointer to zero potion by returning the pawl to lower position (starting position) • Do the same principle for the remaining leas.

41

Table 4.1 Standard value of count Count 9s 10s 12s 14s 16s 20s 21s 24s 30s 40s Tolerance (+3%) 8.73-9.27 9.70-10.30 11.64-12.36 13.58-14.42 15.52-16.42 19.40-20.60 20.37-21.63 23.28-24.72 29.10-30.90 38.80-41.20

Table 4.2 Standard value of strength Count 9s 10s 12s 14s 16s 20s 21s 24s 30s 40s Standard strength (K.G) 90 88 85 75 55 55 49 36 28 Tolerance (+ 5% ) 85.50-94.50 83.50-92.40 80.75-89.25 71.25-78.75 52.25-57.75 52.25-57.75 46.55-51.45 34.2-37.8 26.60-29.45

Table 4.3 Standard value of twist in terms of twist per inch count 9s 10s 12s 14s Standard twist 12.64 13.9 15 Tolerance (+3% ) 12.26-13.02 13.48-14.32 14.55-15.45

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16s 20s 21s 24s 30s 40s

16 17.9 18.3 19.6 21.9 25.28

15.52-16.48 17.27-18.33 17.75-18.85 20.37-21.63 21.24-22.56 24.44-25.96

Table 4.4 Standard value of twist in terms of twist per meter Count 9s 10s 12s 14s 16s 20s 21s 24s 30s 40s Standard twist 496 547 591 630 701 721 827 862 992 Tolerance (+5%) 471.20-520.8 519.63-574.35 561.45-620.55 598.50-661.50 665.95-736.05 684.45-757.05 785.65-868.35 818.90-905.10 785.65-868.35

4.3.

TEST RESULTS

A. Test result for count QUALITY CONTROL SERVICE RING FRAME IN BDTSC Yarn count test Date_06/09/01_ Frame number __10_ Nominal count _20s Test length_110m__ Table 4.5 20s yarn count test Count by direct method (Quadrant reading) Ser .No Count Difference Square Count by fast count tester (Computer) Count Difference Square

41

Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Test 6 Test 7 Total Mean

19.5 18.5 20.3 18.8 19.8 20.8 19.5 137.2 19.6

-0.1 -1.1 0.7 -0.8 0.2 1.2 -0.1 -

0.01 1.21 0.49 0.64 0.04 1.44 0.01 3.84 0.55

19.588 18.432 20.752 18.495 19.962 21.227 19.465 137.921 19.7

-0.112 -1.268 1.052 -1.205 0.262 1.577 -0.235 -

0.013 1.608 1.107 1.452 0.069 2.487 0.055 6.791 0.97

Standard Deviation (S.D) =

sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1

=

3.84 7-1

=0.741 (for quadrant reading) Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (0.741*100)/19.6 = 3.78% (for quadrant reading)

Standard Deviation (S.D) =

sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1

=

6.791 7-1

=1.064 (for fast count analyzer)

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean

41

= (1.064*100)/19.7 = 5.40% (for fast count analyzer)

41

Date_06/09/01_ Frame number __25_ Nominal count _14s Test length_110m__ Table 4.6 14s Yarn count test Count by direct method (Quadrant reading) Ser .No Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Test 6 Test 7 Total Mean Count 13.7 14.2 14.5 14.8 15.2 13.9 15.3 101.6 14.5 Difference -0.8 -0.3 0 0.3 0.7 -0.6 0.8 Square 0.64 0.09 0 0.09 0.49 0.36 0.64 2.31 0.33 Count by fast count tester (Computer) Count 13.933 14.148 14.626 14.868 15.302 13.794 15.731 102.4 14.63 Difference -0.697 -0.482 -0.0004 0.238 0.672 -0.836 1.101 Square 0.486 0.232 0 0.057 0.452 0.699 1.212 3.138 0.448

Standard Deviation (S.D) =

sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1

=

2.31 7-1

=0.620 (for quadrant) Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (0.620*100)/14.5 = 4.28 % (for quadrant)

41

Standard Deviation (S.D) =

sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1

=

3.138 7-1

=0.720 (for fast count analyzer)

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (0.72*100)/14.63 = 4.92 % (for fast count analyzer)

41

Date_06/09/01_ Frame number __50_ Nominal count _10s Test length_110m__ Table 4.7 10s Yarn count test Count by direct method (Quadrant reading) Ser .No Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Test 6 Test 7 Total Mean Count 10.4 9.5 10.5 9.4 9.3 8.5 9.7 67.3 9.6 Difference 0.8 -0.1 0.9 -0.2 -0.3 -1.1 0.1 Square 0.64 0.01 0.81 0.04 0.09 1.21 0.01 2.81 0.40 Count by fast count tester (Computer) Count 9.454 10.151 10.366 9.269 9.337 8.404 9.754 66.735 9.53 Difference -0.076 0.621 0.836 -0.261 -0.193 -1.126 0.224 Square 0.006 0.386 0.699 0.068 0.037 1.268 0.05 2.514 0.359

Standard Deviation (S.D) =

sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1

=

2.81 7-1

=0.684 (for quadrant)

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (0.684*100)/9.6

41

= 7.13 % (for quadrant)

Standard Deviation (S.D) =

sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1

=

2. 514 7-1

=0.647 (for fast count analyzer)

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (0.647*100)/9.53 = 6.79 % (for fast count analyzer)

 NOTE_ from the above measurements of count, the results from fast count analyzer

are used, because it is interfaced with computer which generates more accurate values.

B. Test result for Yarn lea strength

41

Date 07/09/01 Frame number 10 Nominal count (Ne) 20 Actual count (Ne) 19.7 Standard strength (KG) 55 Actual strength (KG) 41.3 Count C.V. (%) 1.5 Table 4.8 Ser.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Mean 40 40 48 43 33 45 40 289 41.3 20s Yarn lea strength test Strength (KG) -1.3 -1.3 6.7 1.7 -8.3 3.7 -1.3 Difference 1.69 1.69 44.89 2.89 68.89 13.69 1.69 135.43 19.35 Square

T.P.I. =17.9 Standard Deviation (S.D) = sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1 = 135.43 7-1 = 4.75 Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean

41

= (4.75*100)/41.3 =11.5 %

Date 07/09/01 Frame number 25 Nominal count (Ne) 14 Actual count (Ne) 14.63 Standard strength (KG) 85 Actual strength (KG) 56 Count C.V. (%) -4.5 Table 4.9 14s Yarn lea strength test Ser.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Mean 63 55 60 53 48 65 48 392 56 Strength (KG) 7 -1 4 -3 -8 9 -8 Difference 49 1 16 9 64 81 64 284 40.57 Square

T.P.I. =15 Standard Deviation (S.D) = sum of (individual test –mean) 2

41

Total test -1 = 284 7-1 = 6.88 Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (6.88*100)/56 = 12.29 %

Date 07/09/01 Frame number 50 Nominal count (Ne) 10 Actual count (Ne) 9.53 Standard strength (KG) 90 Actual strength (KG) 73 Count C.V. (%) 4.7 Table 4.10 Ser .No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Mean 10s Yarn lea strength test Strength (K.G) 73 70 73 71 81 70 73 511 73 T.P.I. =12.64 Standard Deviation (S.D) = sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Difference 0 -3 0 -3 8 -3 0 Square 0 9 0 9 64 9 0 86 12.29

41

Total test -1 = 86 7-1 = 3.79

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (3.79*100)/73 = 5.19 %

C. Test result for Single yarn Twist
Single Yarn Twist Test

41

Date 06/09/01 M/C NO. 10 Nominal count (Ne): 20s Actual count (Ne): 19.7 Standard twist T.P.I = 17.9 T.P.M = 701

T.P.I = MEAN VALUE = 828.14 NO.
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Total Mean

1
803 892 879 845 3419 854.75

2
881 859 818 860 3418 854.5

3
835 842 873 895 3445 861.25

4
849 855 913 737 3354 838.5

5
779 772 860 752 3163 790.75

6
800 761 824 832 3217 804.25

7
789 744 804 835 3172 793

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Table 4.11. 20s single yarn twist test Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Total Mean T.P.M 803 892 879 845 881 859 818 860 835 842 873 895 849 855 913 737 779 772 860 752 800 761 824 832 789 744 804 835 23188 828.14 Difference -25.14 63.86 50.86 10.86 52.86 30.86 -10.14 31.86 6.86 13.86 44.86 66.86 20.86 26.86 84.86 -91.14 -49.14 -56.14 31.86 --76.14 -28.14 -67.14 -4.14 3.86 -39.14 -84.14 -24.14 6.86 Square 632.02 4078.10 2586.74 284.26 2794.18 952.34 102.82 1015.06 47.06 192.10 2012.42 4470.26 435.14 721.46 7201.22 8306.50 2417.74 3151.70 1015.10 5797.30 791.86 4507.78 17.14 14.90 1531.94 7079.54 582.74 47.06 62804.3 2243

Maximum value=913 Minimum value =737 Mean value =828.14

44

Standard Deviation (S.D) =

sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1

=

62804.3 28-1

= 48.23

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (48.23*100)/828.14 =5.82%

Actual twist T.P.I=21.03 T.P.M= 828.14 Count C.V (%) =1.5

44

Date 07/09/01 M/C NO. 25 Standard twist Nominal count (Ne) 14s T.P.I =15 Actual count (Ne) 14.63 T.P.M =591 T.P.I =MEAN VALUE =704.04

NO.
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Total Mean

1
695 672 755 716 2838 709.5

2
621 683 681 734 2719 679.75

3
677 767 729 765 2938 734.5

4
667 718 710 690 2894 723.5

5
682 768 738 706 2785 696.25

6
716 677 683 799 2875 718.75

7
683 641 669 671 2664 666

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Table 4.12 Single Yarn Twist Test Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Total Mean T.P.M 695 672 755 716 621 683 681 734 677 767 729 765 667 718 710 690 682 768 738 706 716 677 683 799 683 641 669 671 19713 704.04 Difference -9.04 -32 50.96 11.96 -83.04 -21.01 -23.04 29.96 -27.04 62.96 24.96 60.96 -37.04 13.90 5.96 -14.06 -22.04 63.96 33.96 1.96 11.96 -27.04 -21.04 94.96 -21.04 -63.04 -35.04 -33.04 60

Square 81.72 1026.56 2596.92 143.04 6895.64 442.86 530.84 877.60 731.16 3963.96 623.00 3716.12 1371.12 194.88 35.52 197.12 485.76 4090.88 1153.28 3.84 143.04 731.16 442.68 9017.40 442.68 3974.04 1227.8 1091.64 46233.1 1651.18

Maximum value=799 Minimum value =621 Mean value =704.04 Standard Deviation (S.D) = sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1 = 46233.1 28-1 = 41.38

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (41.38*100)/704.04 =5.88 % Actual twist T.P.I = 17.88 T.P.M = 704.04 Count C.V (%) = -4.5

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Date 08/09/01 M/C NO. 50 Nominal count (Ne) 10s Actual count (Ne) 9.53 Standard twist T.P.I =12.64 T.P.M =496

T.P.I =MEAN VALUE =566.4 NO.
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Total Mean

1
517 533 563 527 2140 535

2
537 594 600 587 2318 579.5

3
552 537 597 592 2278 569.5

4
553 575 565 560 2253 563.25

5
522 536 613 549 2220 555

6
596 570 594 589 2349 587.25

7
602 550 578 571 2301 575.25

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Table 4.13. 10s single yarn twist test Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Total Mean T.P.M 517 533 563 527 537 594 600 587 552 537 597 592 553 575 565 560 522 536 613 549 596 570 594 589 602 550 578 571 15859 566.4 Difference -49.4 -33.4 -3.4 -39.4 -29.4 27.6 33.6 20.6 -14.4 -29.4 30.6 25.6 -13.4 8.6 -1.4 -6.4 -44.4 -30.4 46.6 -17.4 29.6 3.6 27.6 22.6 35.6 -16.4 11.6 4.6 Square 2440.36 1115.56 11.56 1552.36 864.36 761.76 1128.96 424.36 207.36 864.36 936.36 655.36 179.56 73.96 1.96 40.96 1971.36 924.16 2171.56 302.76 876.16 12.96 761.76 510.76 1267.36 268.96 134.56 21.16 19953.92 712.64

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Maximum value=613 Minimum value =517 Mean value =566.4 Standard Deviation (S.D) = sum of (individual test –mean) 2 Total test -1 = 19953.92 28-1 = 27.19

Coefficient of Variation (C.V) = (standard deviation *100)/mean = (27.19*100)/566.4 = 4.8% Actual twist T.P.I=14.39 T.P.M= 566.4 Count C.V (%) =4.7

60

4.4.

Analyses of the collected data

From the laboratory yarn testing, different values of yarn strength, yarn count and yarn twist are obtained for different counts which are produced in BDTSCs ring frame. Analyzing the collected data can be classified based on the count of yarn produced. These are: A. Analyzing 20s count yarn
B. Analyzing 14s count yarn

C. Analyzing 10s count yarn 4.4.1. Analyzing 20s count a) About its count During the laboratory testing of the count of yarn, the average value or mean value of 19.6s in the case of direct reading of quadrant balance and 19.7s in the case of fast count computer interfaced analyzer are obtained. Fast count analyzer is used because its accuracy is better than that of direct reading. The acceptable production of 20s count is with tolerance limit of + 3%, which means that the production of 20s is between 19.4 and 20.6 (19.4s – 20.4s). The standard deviation of 20s count is calculated to be1.064 (refer to subsection 4.3 of A) and the coefficient of variation is 5.4% which means that the produced 20s yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high means that more deviation or variation occurs. b) About its strength The calculated average or mean strength value of the yarn is 41.3K.G. The results are obtained by measuring the strength by lea strength tester. The standard value of strength is 55K.G and the tolerance limit is + 5%, the range is 52.25K.G – 57.75K.G. Therefore, compared to the standard, the factory produces lower strength yarn. The standard deviation of the yarn is calculated to be 41.3(refer to subsection 4.3 of B) and the coefficient variation is 11.5%, which means that the produced 20s yarn is deviated from

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the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur. c) About its twist The twist of the yarn in the average or mean value 828.14T.P.M or 21.03 t.p.i. The results are obtained by measuring the twist by motorized twist tester. The standard value of twist is 496 T.P.M or 17.9 t.p.i and the tolerance limit is + 5%, the range is 471.20 T.P.M – 520.8 T.P.M or 17.27t.p.i – 18.33t.p.i respectively. The factory produces the yarn which has higher amount of twist. The standard deviation of the yarn is calculated to be 48.23 (refer to sub section 4.3 of C) and the coefficient variation is 5.82%, which means that the produced 20s yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur. The factory produces non acceptable count of yarn, because the produced yarn is out of the tolerance limit. 4.4.2. Analyzing 14s count yarn a) About the count During the laboratory testing of the count of yarn the average value or mean value 14.5s in the case of direct reading of quadrant balance and 14.63s in the case of fast count computer interface analyzer. Fast count analyzer is used because its accuracy is better than that of direct reading. The acceptable production of 14s count is with tolerance limit + 3%, which means that the production of 14s is between 13.58s and 14.42 (13.58s - 14.42s). The standard deviation of 14s count is calculated to be (refer sub section 4.3 of A) 0.720 and the coefficient of variation is 4.97 which means that the produced 14s yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur. The factory produces non acceptable count of yarn, because the produced yarn is out of the tolerance limit.

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b) About the strength The strength of the yarn in the average or mean value is 56.0K.G. The results are obtained by measuring the strength by lea strength tester. The standard value of strength is 85K.G and the tolerance limit is + 5%, the range is 80.75K.G - 89.25K.G. The factory produces lower strength yarn. The standard deviation of the yarn is calculated to be (refer to sub section 4.3 of B) 6.88 and the coefficient variation is 12.29%, which means that the produced 14s yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur. c) About the twist The twist of the yarn in the average or mean value 704.04T.P.M or 17.88 t.p.i. The results are obtained by measuring the twist by motorized twist tester. The standard value of twist is 591 T.P.M or 15 t.p.i and the tolerance limit is + 5%, the range is 561.45 T.P.M - 620.55 T.P.M or 14.55t.p.i - 15.45 t.p.i respectively. The factory produces the yarn which has higher amount of twist. The standard deviation of the yarn is calculated to be (refer to sub section 4.3 of C) 41.38 and the coefficient variation is 5.88%, which means that the produced 14s yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur. 4.4.3. Analyzing 10s count yarn a) About the count During the laboratory testing of the count of yarn the average value or mean value 9.6s in the case of direct reading of quadrant balance and 9.53s in the case of fast count computer interface analyzer. Fast count analyzer is used because its accuracy is better than that of direct reading. .

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The acceptable production of 10s count is with tolerance limit + 3%, which means that the production of 10s is between 9.70s and 10.3s (9.7s - 10.3s). The standard deviation of 10s count is calculated to be (refer to sub section 4.3 of A) 0.647 and the coefficient of variation is 6.79% which means that the produced 10 yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur. The factory produces non acceptable count of yarn, because the produced yarn is out of the tolerance limit. b) About the strength The strength of the yarn in the average or mean value is 73K.G. The results are obtained by measuring the strength by lea strength tester. The standard value of strength is 90K.G and the tolerance limit is + 5%, the range is 85.50K.G - 94.50K.G. The factory produces lower strength yarn; as compared to the previous produced yarn this is good. The standard deviation of the yarn is calculated to be (refer to sub section 4.3 of B) 3.79 and the coefficient variation is 5.19%, which means that the produced 10s yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur. c) About the twist The twist of the yarn in the average or mean value 566.4T.P.M or 14.39 t.p.i. The results are obtained by measuring the twist by motorized twist tester. The standard value of twist is 496 T.P.M or 12.64 t.p.i and the tolerance limit is + 5%, the range is 471.20 T.P.M – 520.8 T.P.M or 12.26 t.p.i – 13.62 t.p.i respectively. The factory produces the yarn which has higher amount of twist. The standard deviation of the yarn is calculated to be (refer to sub section 4.3 of C) 27.19 and the coefficient variation is 4.8%, which means that the produced 10s yarn is deviated from the standard value by the given number. The percent of standard deviation is more or high, means that more deviation or variation occur.

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4.5. Possible causes and remedies for the production of inferior quality yarn in the ring frame of BDTSC. From the above collected and analyzed data, the yarn produced in ring frame of Bahir Dar Textile Share Company is out of standard range or produced uninvited yarn. 4.5.1. Count The main reasons for count variation that deviate from standard values are: • •

Higher amount of nepinness. The fineness of the fiber is not good. The length of the fibers is short. Using the fibers with less amount of nepiness, finer and longer fibers. Proper handling of the material.

The possible remedies are: •

4.5.2. Strength The main reasons for strength variation that deviate from standard values are: • • • • • •

The staple length of the fiber is short. The fineness of the fiber is not good. The strength of the fiber is weak. Unevenness or non uniformity through the entire length. Out dated of ring frame machine. Using the fiber with long staple length, better fineness and higher strength. Mixing should be done as possible as based on the staple length. Replace the worm out part, like tape derives.

The possible remedies are:

4.5.3. Twist The main reasons for twist variation that deviate from standard values are: • The fineness of the fiber is not good.

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• The speed of the front roller is low.

• The spindle speed is high. The possible remedies are: • • Using more fine fibers The speed of the front roller and spindles are optimized.

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CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION
BDTSC is facing a problem of producing a good quality yarn in terms of strength, twist and count due to out dated ring frame machines, raw material problems and lack of skilled and motivated workers. BDTSC produces a yarn which has lower quality in terms of strength and twist, but the count of the yarn is some what better than that of strength and twist. As the factory produces yarn with lower quality, the production in ring frame is low and the customers buying the product are decreasing from time to time.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
As it is shown in table 4.1-4.13, the test results of different count, strength and twist deviate from its standard value. The reasons for the production of those uninvited yarn is discussed before. The recommendation for BDTSC in order to produce standard quality of yarn is as follows: • Replacement of the worn out of the machine parts such as, aprons, roller rubber coat, driving tape, • The spindle speed and the front roller delivery speed should be based on the required twist.
• Proper or scheduled maintenances. • Using properly the over head cleaner.

• Using finer and long staple length of fiber • Changing twist gear should be considering all parameter, which are count, twist and strength. When they change twist gear for determine count and it is much with the required result, they do not bother for twist and strength. This is not good manner. • Number of operates working per machine should be increased. • Train the operates about producing of yarn with superior quality
• Employ skilled worker. • The testing laboratory room should be at standard condition. If the room is not in

standard condition, the assistance may give error data for spinning production department and the department adjusts the machine based on the given data which makes undesirable production of yarn. • Spinning production department take immediate action based on the data they get from spinning quality control.

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FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK
While conducting this project, the following problems are encountered:
 The required testing equipment is not working properly. For instance, yarn

appearance tester is not working, or there is no standard photograph; Universal single yarn strength tester has not standard value of strength for different count or the standard value is not available in the textile engineering department spinning laboratory.
 Power fluctuation.  Spare parts are not available for replacement of the worn out parts.

This project has benefits for Bahir Dar textile Share Company for spinning production and quality control department, and other related factory through the entire country in Ethiopia in order to identify the problem for producing superior quality of yarn. This project is done only at ring frame; quality is not maintained only in ring frame machine, but also in the precious section that is from blow room up to roving and next section that is from winding up to finishing section. So, based on the data available in this project, which serves as a reference and guidance, improving quality of fiber, yarn or fabric can be done separately in each department (spinning, weaving and finishing) or through the whole department at once.

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REFERENCES
1. Dr.V.K.Kothari, (1999). Testing and Quality Management, India: IAFL Pub.Ltd, 23, 9-11, 224-225. 2. Elliot B. Grover and D.S.Hamby, (1960). Handbook of Textile Testing and Quality Control, U.S.A: Interscience pub.Inc, 3-4, 347-349, 416. 3. J.E.Booth, (1968). Principle of textile testing, England: J.W.Arrowsmith Ltd, 556558.
4. M.R.TEXTILES (2007).http://www.mrtextiles.info//, accessed on March 20, 2009.

5. Teaching material prepared by Jeevananthan.
6. T.VIJAYAKUMAR(2003).(http://www.geocities.com/vijayakumar777/index.html)

acessed on March 20,2009. 7. T.V. Ratnam and K.P. Chellamani (1999). Quality Control in Spinning. Coimbatore: South India Textile Research Association, 1-3. 8. W. Klien, Practical guide to ring spinning, England: Latimer trained and co.Ltd, ply mouth, 1987, 4, 11-19.

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APENDEX
Quality Count Strength Appearance Twist Ring frame Nippiness Yarn irregularity Fineness Index Denier Tex Folded yarn Cabled yarn Abrasion resistance Skein Drafting Carded cotton Combed cotton Soft rubber cot Hard rubber cot Spacer Spindle Crown profile

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Spinning triangle

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