Course Literature
• Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, (3rd Edition) by B. P. Lathi, Oxford Printing Press

Reference Books: 
• • Basics of Electronic Communications, NIIT Prentice – Hall India Electronic Communication Systems, (4th Edition) by George Kennedy and Bernard Davis

• EEE 223 Signals and Systems • MTH 263 Probability Theory and Random Variables

Marks Distribution
Theory Assessment: Sessional I Sessional II Quizzes (7) Assignments (3) Terminal Exam Total Lab Work Assessment: Labs Labs Final Total 80 Marks 20 Marks 100 Marks 10 Marks 15 Marks 21 Marks 04 Marks 50 Marks 100 Marks

Attendance Policy
• At CIIT it is required by the students to have at least 80% of attendance in the class.

Introduction to Communication Systems


Communication System
• Communication is the process of exchanging information between source and destination(sink) • Routing of information requires a communication link Channel to transmit information between source and destination. • In past ages communication is carried over by runners, torches, pigeons etc. Such mediums are now obsolete in modern communication systems. • Communication engineering deals with transmitting information through electrical signals, i.e. information or message such as spoken words, photographs, live scenes and sounds are first converted to electrical signals before being transmitted on communication link to receiver or destination. • Electrical communication is reliable, fast and economical at the same time. Modern communication has applications such as e-banking, e-shopping, teleconferencing etc a possible reality.

Block Schematic of Basic Communication System

Baseband signal

Recovered Baseband signal

Figure: Above depiction shows subsystems of a basic communication system in which sending receiving and processing of information is in electrical form.

Constituents of communication systems
(i) Source (input message)
Source originates a message in non-electrical form such as human voice, live scene, sound, data etc. Input message can be: • Analog – A signal whose amplitude can take on any value in continous range i.e. analog signal amplitude can have infinite number of values • Digital – amplitude limited to finite set of values e.g. binary signals have only two values a digital signal with M symbols is called M-ary signal (M = 2 is a binary signal).

Analog Signals  An analog signal is a smoothly and continuously varying voltage or current. Examples are: Sine wave Voice Video (TV)

Figure : Analog signals (a) Sine wave “tone.” (b) Voice.

• Digital Signals
 Digital signals change in steps or in discrete increments.  Most digital signals use binary or two-state codes. Examples are:  Telegraph (Morse code)  Serial binary code (used in computers)

Figure: Digital signals (a) Telegraph (Morse code). (b) Serial binary code.

(ii) Input Transducer:
A device that converts energy from one form to another. Convert an input signal into an electrical waveform. Example: microphone converts human voice into electrical signal referred to as the baseband signal or message signal.
Input message Baseband/message signal

input transducer microphone

Eg. voice

Electrical signal

Principle: sound moves the cone and the attached coil of wire moves in the field of a magnet. The generator effect produces a voltage which "images" the sound pressure variation - characterized as a pressure microphone.

(iii) Transmitter (Tx): Modifies or converts the baseband signal into format appropriate for efficient channel of transmission. Example: If the channel is fiber optic cable, the transmitter converts the baseband signal into light frequency and the transmitted signal is light. Transmitter also use to reformat/reshape the signal so that the channel will not distort is as much - Signal Conditioning using a pre emphasizer which is a low
pass filter which limits the signal bandwidth

Modulation takes place in the transmitter. It involves static variation of amplitude, phase or frequency of the carrier in accordance to a message signal - Modulation is based on the principle of translating low frequency baseband signal
to a higher frequency spectrum using modulators eg AM,FM modulators if baseband signal is analog otherwise digital modulation schemes are employed.

Transmitters may also include other subsystems for example sampler, quantizer and coder for transmission of digitized signals.
Baseband/message signal transmitted signal Tx Optical signal

Baseband signal


Modulated Stage

Modulated signal


Voltage Amplifier Stages

Power Amplifier Stages

To channel

Amplifier Stages


Carrier Oscillator

Fig: Block Schematic Representation of an Analog Transmitter The power of the modulated signal is amplified enough to reach the receiver stage of communication system before transmitted on channel.

(iv) Channel: A medium through which the transmitter output is sent. Divided into 2 basic groups: •Guided Electromagnetic Wave Channel – eg. wire, coaxial cable, optical fiber •Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Channel – eg. Wireless broadcast channel, mobile radio channel, satellite etc. Introduces distortion, noise and interference – in the channel, transmitted signal is attenuated and distorted. Signal attenuation increase along with the length of channel. This results in corrupted transmitted signal received by receiver, Rx
Transmitted signal channel Distortion & Noise
Communication channel can be modeled as a filter that changes the characteristic spectrum of baseband signal. This change is termed as channel distortion which is a result of different amplitude attenuation and phase shift of each frequency

Received signal

• The signal is not only distorted by channel but also contaminated by additive noise, which is random and unpredictable. • Causes: a) External – man made nearby noises, automobile ignition radiation, florescent light, natural noise from lightning, intergalactic radiation etc. b)Internal - thermal motion of electrons in conductors,diffusion or recombination of charged carriers in semiconductor electronics etc • Additive noise have the effect of reducing intelligibility of recovered baseband signal and to reduce signal-to-noise ratio. Proper care techniques (EMC&I practices such as shielding) may minimize noise level to a certain extent but it can never eliminate its effect on channel completely.

(v) Receiver (Rx) Receiver decodes the received signal back to message signal – i.e it attempts to translate the received signal back into the original message signal sent by the source. Reprocess the signal received from the channel by undoing the signal modification made by transmitter and the channel – RF filtering, amplitude limiting for example in FM etc Extract the desired signal from the received signal and convert it to a form that suitable for the output transducer – demodulator. Demodulation takes place in the receiver. (vi) Output transducer Convert electrical signals to its original waveform eg loudspeaker.

Received signal


Output signal

Output transducer speaker

Output message voice

Modes of communication
Broadcasting Involves the use of a single powerful transmitter transmit to many receivers. Demodulation takes place in the receiver. Information-bearing signals flow in one direction Eg. TV and radio (Simplex) ii. Point to point Communication Where a communication process takes place over a link between a single transmitter and a receiver. Information-bearing signals flow in bidirectional, which requires the use of a transmitter and receiver at each end of the link Eg. Telephone (Full Duplex) and walkie talkie (Half Duplex)

Noise Immunity of Digital Signals
• Digital messages are transmitted using finite set of electrical waveforms. • For example a binary Morse Code with only Mark and Space can be represented only two pulses say mark is A/2 and space is –A/2

• As can be seen clearly the data can be recovered correctly as long noise and distortion is within limits. • Regenerative repeater stations placed along the path of communication channel allow clean detection of transmitted pulses. • Thus preventing accumulation of noise along the signal path by periodically cleaning the pulses at repeater stations.

Noise in Analog Signals
• In contrast of digital signals waveforms in of analog messages are important and a slight interference in the message will cause error in received signal. • Noise adds up along the channel and may rise against the signal power thus decreasing the SNR of signal transmission. • Amplification is of little help since it will tend to increase the noise level also along the signal power, further deteriorating the quality of received signal. • Thus distance become a limiting factor of analog communication systems.

A/D and D/A
• Analog to Digital conversion; Digital to Analog conversion
– Gateway from the communication device to the channel – Can be achieved by Sampling and Quantization

A/D and D/A (cont)
• Quantization

• The basic idea here is to superimpose the message signal in analog form on a carrier which is a sinusoid of the form ACos(wt + φ) • There are three quantities that can be varied in proportion to the modulating signal: the amplitude, the phase, and frequency. • The first scheme is called Amplitude Modulation and the second two are called Angle Modulation schemes

Why Modulate
• Antenna size is a major concern • The radiating antenna should be one tenth or more of the wavelength • For a speech signal (100 to 3000 Hz) corresponding wavelength will be 100 to 3000 km • For 1MHz signal you need antenna size of only 30 meter λ=v/f • Where v = 3x108 m/s

Why Modulate
• Simultaneous Transmission of several Signals • Frequency Division Multiplex (FDM) • Time Division Multiplex (TDM)

SNR, Bandwidth and Rate of Communication
1. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR): SNR is defined as the ratio of signal power to noise power. Noise distorts the signal and accumulated along the path. The dB value is calculated by taking the log of the ratio of the measured or calculated power (PS) wrt a reference power (PN) level. Commonly referred to as the power ratio form for dB signal power (W ) Ps  Vs2 / Rin  Ps = SNRdB = 10 log = 10 log 2  V / R dB  noise power (W ) Pn Pn out   n It is normally measured in Decibel (dB), defined as 10 times the algorithm (to base 10) of the power ratio. Eg.: SNR of 10, 100 and 1000 correspond to 10, 20, and 30dBs, respectively. dBm is a dB level using a 1mW reference. Signal power, S related to the quality of transmission.

Example – A receiver produces a noise power of 200mW with no signal. The output level increases to 5 W when a signal is applied. Calculate SNR as in dBs.

2 Bandwidth

Bandwidth is that portion of the spectrum occupied by a signal. Specifically, bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequency limits of the signal or the equipment operation range. Figure below, shows the bandwidth of the voice frequency range from 300 to 3000Hz. The upper frequency is f2 and the lower frequency is f1. The bandwidth, then is 2700Hz BW = f2 – f1
Bandwidth is the frequency range over which equipment operates or that portion of the spectrum occupied by the signal. This is the voice frequency bandwidth.

Bandwidth (B) of a channel is the range of frequencies that it can transmit with reasonable fidelity. Bandwidth of an information signal is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information. Bandwidth of a communication channel is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to pass through it (ie: its pass band). Data rate proportional to bandwidth

• Noise is a limiting factor in communication systems • Randomness is because of Noise, which is the essence of Communication System

Rate of Communication
Rate of information transmission proportional with its bandwidth
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) Where C = information capacity (bps)



Shannon limit for information capacity, C

B = bandwidth (Hz) SNR = signal to noise ratio (no unit) This is the upper limit for channel capacity for given bandwidth B and signal-to-noise ration SNR for which channel can pass Information with probability of error approximately equal to zero

Example 1 - For a standard telephone circuit with a SNR of 30dB and a bandwidth of 2.7 kHz, determine the Shannon limit for information capacity. Example 2 – The telephone channel has a bandwidth of about 3kHz. Calculate the capacity of a telephone channel that has an SNR of 1023.