Ruminants and Biology rodents

Form 4 :Nutrition
Azneezal Ar-Rashid

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants Digestive system in rodents Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorbtion & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits The importance of healthy digestive system

Digestion system in ruminants
• Ruminants are group of herbivorous mammals
– Cows, goats, & camels

• Have UNUSUAL eating habit • Why unusual?
– Ruminants chew their food, swallow, and after some time regurgitate (throw up) the food from their stomach. The food is chewed for a second time and then swallowed again

• Have four-chambered stomach

Digestion system in ruminants
• Have four-chambered stomach
– Rumen, reticulum, omasum & abomasum

• Being herbivores, ruminants eat plant matter. Plant matter contains a lot of cellulose • Cellulose can be digested into glucose by cellulase enzyme. However, cellulase is not produce by ruminnts themselves • There are microorganisms such as bacteria & protozoa which produce cellulase in the ruminants digestive system (rumen)

The process
• After grinding up grass in the oral cavity, the grass is swallowed into the rumen. • In the rumen, cellulose in the grass is acted upon by microorganisms and broken down into glucose • Food then enters the reticulum where the digestion of cellulose continues • Food is then regurgitated into the oral cavity to be ground again.

The process
• When reswallowed, food enters the omasum. Here the product of digestion of cellulose is absorb • Next, food enters abomasum. • Abomasum is the true stomach in the sense that it produces gastric juice. • Digestion of other nutriens such as protiens accurs here

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants √ Digestive system in rodents Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorbtion & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits The importance of healthy digestive system

Digestive system in rodents
• Rodents refer to a group of mammals that comprise rabbits, rats, hamsters & squirrels • Rodents have pair of long incisors, in each of upper and lower jaw • Most rodents are herbivores • In rodents, digestion of cellulose occurs in the caecum • Caecum is the first part of large intestine. There are many bacteria and protozoa in the ceacum which can secrete cellulase to digest cellulose. • Rodents have a big and well-developed caecum.

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants √ Digestive system in rodents √ Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorbtion & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits The importance of healthy digestive system

Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents

Similiarities
- All of them have a digestive system which includes stomach, small intestine & large intestine - All of the consume plant matter - All of them are able to digest starch, protiens & fats - All of them have long small intestine

Differences of humans, ruminants & rodents
Humans
Omnivores Single stomach chamber

Ruminants
Herbivores Stomach of four chamber

Rodents
Mostly herbivores Single stomach chamber

Caecum about the Caecum about the Big and well same size as the othersame size as the otherdeveloped caecum part of colon part of colon Bacteria present throughout the large intestine Unable to digest cellulose Do not regurgitate food Bacteria and protozoa Bacteria and protozoa present in the present in the caecum stomach Able to digest cellulose Regurgitate food Able to digest cellulose Do not regurgitate food

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants √ Digestive system in rodents √ Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorbtion & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits Healthy eating habits

Problems related to food digestion
• Incomplete digestion of food • Bile stones preventing the flow of bile • Reduced production of specific digestive enzymes

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants

Digestive system in rodents Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorption & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits The importance of healthy digestive system

Absorption & assimilation of digested food
• The small intestine has the following adaptations to increase the surface area for absorption food:
– Very long ( 6m in length) – There are folds in the small intestine – Entire inner surface has finger-like projections called villi (singular villus) – On the epithelium of each villi, there are fine rojections called microvilli

Absorption & assimilation of digested food
• Each villus contains a network of blood capillaries • In the middle of the vilus there is a lacteal which appears milky. The lacteal is continuous with lymphatic vessels • The absorption occurs by diffusion initially, and then by active transport • Simple sugars, amino acids, mineral salts, water soluble vitamins (Vit B and C) and 95% of water are absorped into the blood capilaries

• Blood cappilaries from all villi join up to form hepatic portal vein • The hepatic portal vein carries blood containing digested food to the liver • Fatty acid & glycerol diffuse into the epithelial cells of villus. In the epithelial cells, fatty acids combine with glycerol to form fat droplets that give the lacteal a milky appearance • Fat-soluble vitamins (Vit A,D,E,K) are also absorbed into the lacteal.

• The fat droplets are transported out from the lacteal by lymphatic ducts. These lymphatic ducts finally open into the left subclavia vein in the region between the neck and the shoulder

Assimilation of digested food
• Assimilitaion = the process of incorporating digested food into our body cells & tissues, so that they become part of body tissues. An example is the building of cytoplasm by using amino acids from the digestion of protiens • If a person has eating an excessive amount of carbohydrates, the excess glucose is produced from digestion will be converted by liver cells into glycogen. Glycogen is the stored in the liver cells. It has now become a part of the liver cells.

• The liver also uses the aino acids that arrive there to synthesise enzymes and plasma proteins. Two example of plasma proteins are prothrombin and fibrinogen. Both of them are needed for the clotting of blood at wounds • Besides functioning in assimilation, liver also functions in detoxification, for example breaking down toxic substances and poisons in food

• Excess amino acid are toxic and cannot be stored in the body. Because of that, the liver converts excess amino acids into urea. • Urea is then transported by blood to the kidneys to be excreted through urine • Poisons and drugs such as alcohol are broken down by the liver and the products excreted through urine • Excess fats are built into fatty tissue and are stored under the skin abd around the organs.

Assimilation of water and minerals in the colon
• 95 % of water is absorbed in the small intestine • The colon (the main part of the large intestine) will absorb most of the remaining water • Most of minerals are actively absorbed in the small intestine except for sodium and chlorine. These minerals are absobed in the large intestine.

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants

Digestive system in rodents Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorption & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits The importance of healthy digestive system

Defaecation
• Undigested food that consist of mainly fibres and excretory products, such as bile pigments, dead cells and dead bacteria is not absorbed in the small intestine. It is channeled to the large intestine by peristalsis • In the colon, absorption of water occurs. As a result of water absorption, undigested food residues harden to become faeces. Faeces is stored in the rectum tompararily.

• When the rectum is full, its muscular wall will contract to excrete the faeces through anus. This process called defeaction • There are some friendly bacteria that live in our colon. These bacteria can act on undigested food residues to produce vitamins B12 and K. These vitamins are absorbed into the blood for use by body cells.

• Some bacteria such as Salmonella can disturb the normal function of the colon, causing the diarrhoea. • Consuming antibiotics can kill the bad bacteria in the colon. However the friendly bacteria are also killed. Vitamin B12 and K cannot be produced. Hence we need to consume natural sources of both vitamins.

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants

Digestive system in rodents Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorption & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits The importance of healthy digestive system

Eating habits
• Gastritis
– Inflammation of the lining of stomach

• Obesity
– Weight exceeds the right weight 20 % or more

• Anorexia nervosa
– Obsessed maintaing slim figure – Adolescent female (emotional disturbance)

• Bulimia
– Eating disorder – Binge-purge syndrome – Eats excessively then feel guilty--vomit

Today lesson
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Digestive system in ruminants

Digestive system in rodents Similiarities & differences of humans, ruminants & rodents Problems related food digestion Absorption & assimilation of digested food Defecation Eating habits The importance of healthy digestive system

Healthy eating habits
• • • • • Eating balanced diets Eating at fixed time everyday Eating moderately Eating only nutritious food Avoiding snacks which are tasty but lacking in nutrients • Avoiding drinking much water just before, during or after a meal. This is because water will dilute the digestive juices and slow down digestion