 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
.
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬

٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ?   ?  ? ‫א‬  ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

International Desalination Association: ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٢٠،٢٠٠٠IDA-

K ‫א‬٣٠‫א‬١٤٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٪٢١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬٪٥٠‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬KE ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬،E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
٪١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٤٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬٤٠‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ E ‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،E
 
 
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F ‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ١
،‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
،‫א‬ J ٤

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٪٩٠‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬٪٨٠‫א‬ 
٪٢‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٩٧،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E١F

 WE٢F

‫א‬،،‫א‬،‫א‬EF

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

،،‫א‬EF
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K



 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬٪٩٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬W١‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬J ١

‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W،‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٠٠٢٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬J ٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  

  ‫א‬    E٢F ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ٤٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ E٤F ‫א‬  ،‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬  

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬١W
 
٧٠٠٠

‫א‬

١٣٠٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬

٢٥٠٠٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٣٣٦٠٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٣٣٨٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬

٣٩٤٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤٢١٠٠ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
٤١٢٠٠

EF‫א‬‫א‬

٤٢٣٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٦٨{٠٨

 ٢٣٤٧٦

 NaCl ‫א‬

١٤{٤٤

٤٩٨١

MgCl٢ ‫א‬

١١{٣٦

٣٩١٧

٣{٢٠

١١٠٢

CaCl٢ ‫א‬

١{٩٢

٦٦٤

KCl‫א‬

٠{٥٦

١٩٢

NaHCO٣ ‫א‬

٠{٢٨

٩٦

KBr ‫א‬

Na٢SO٤‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

٠{٠٨

٢٦

HBO٣

‫א‬

٠٠٧

٢٤

SrCl٢ ‫א‬

٠{٠١

٣

NaF ‫א‬

١٠٠

٣٤٤٨١

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣
‫א‬ Cations 
‫א‬‫א‬
١٠٥٥٦
١٢٧٢
٤٠٠
٣٨٠
١٣
١٢٦٢١

‫א‬
١٨٩٨٠
٢٦٤٩
١٤٠
١{٤
٦٥

Na+

Mg++

‫א‬
‫א‬

Ca++

‫א‬

K+

‫א‬

Sr++
J

Anions
Cl-


‫א‬

W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬


SO٤--



HCO٣F-



Br-



 ٢١٨٣٥{٤


 W‫א‬‫א‬

٢٦

J



 ٣٤٤٨٢{٤

 J

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

E٪F‫א‬‫א‬


‫ א‬‫א‬

‫א‬


‫א‬



٣٠{٩١

٣٠{٦٠

٣٠{٦١

١٢٣٦٠

١٣١٦٢

١٠٥٥٦

٠{٩٣

١{١٠

١{١٠

٤٠٠

٤٧٣

٣٨٠

١{١٠

١{١٦

١{١٦

٤٧٥

٤٩٧

٤٠٠

٣{٦٠

٣{٦٩

٣{٦٩

١٥٥٥

١٥٨٤

١٢٧٢

٥٤{٣٧

٥٤{٩٢

٥٥{٠٤

٢٣٥٠٠

٢٣٥٩٠

١٨٩٨٠

٨{٥٠

٨{٠٥

٧{٦٨

٣٦٧٥

٣٤٥٨

٢٦٤٩

٠{٣٤

٠{٤٠

٠{٤١

١٤٦

١٧٣

١٤٠

١٠٠

١٠٠

١٠٠

٤٢٢٢١

٤٢٩٥٣

٣٤٤٨٢

Na+
K+
Ca++
Mg++
ClSO٤-HCO٣TDS

 WW٤J ٢
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EBrackish WaterF‫א‬
 K‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

EBrackish WaterF‫א‬‫א‬W٥
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

٥

٤

٣ ٢

١

‫א‬‫א‬

٧٤

٥٤٢

٤٩٤

٥٠٠

١١٧٠

‫א‬

٢٠٤

١٠٢

٦٥

١٢٠

١٤٨

‫א‬

١٢٧

٥٤

٤٠

٧٢

٤٨

‫א‬

J

J

J

J

‫א‬

J

J

٢

J

J

J

١

J

J

J

J

٤٠٥

٦٩٨

٦٠٢

٩

١
٣

٧٠٣

‫א‬

J

‫א‬

J

‫א‬

١٣٦٦

‫א‬

٥

٤

٣ ٢

١

‫א‬‫א‬

٥٠

١٠٩٠

٧٢

٢٥٢

٢٠٤٠

‫א‬

٩٨٤

٣٨

١٠٦٠

١١٧٠

١٣٧

‫א‬

١٥٩

١١٠

٢٦٠

J

٩٦

‫א‬

J

J

J

J

J

‫א‬

J

J

٠{٨

J

‫א‬‫א‬

J

J

J

٠{٢

J

‫א‬

١١٩٣

١٢٣٨

١٣٩٦

١٤٢٣

٢٢٧٣

‫א‬

 J

 J

 J

 J

 ٢٥

 ‫א‬

 ١٥٩٨

 ١٩٣٦

 ٣٦٦٤

 ‫א‬

 ٧{٢

 ٧{٨

٤

 ١٩٩٨  ٢١٢٧
 ٧{٤

 J

 ٧{١ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬١٥٠٠J ٥٠W

 ‫א‬‫א‬٢٥٠٠٠J ١٥٠٠‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬٥٠٠٠٠J ٢٥٠٠٠ 

 ‫א‬٥٠٠٠٠

EBrineF

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬١٠٠J ١٠‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J ١

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٠‫א‬،‫א‬٦٠٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬L

 ‫א‬L

 ١٥٠

 ٥٦٨

 ١١٠

 ٤٦٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩٠

 ٣٤٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٨٠

 ٣٠٣

 ‫א‬

 ٧٧

 ٢٩٠

 ‫א‬

 ٦٥

 ٢٤٥

 ٦٠

 ٢٢٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 

‫א‬‫א‬٪٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬٪٣٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٪
 ٣

 ‫א‬
 

 ‫א‬

 ٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٤

  ‫א‬

 ٦

  ‫א‬

 ٣٨

  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٤١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬٥٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬١٥٠٠
٣١٣٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬٣٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬٤٠٠٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬٦١٠٠

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 


 ELF

 ‫א‬

٠٫٠٥
٠٫٠١

 
 

٠٫٠٥

 

 

٠٫٠١

 





٠٫٠١ 
٠٫٠٠١

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 L

 L  EF‫א‬‫א‬

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 KE٨٧‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٧‫א‬
 EL‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

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 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


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 

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‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ،
 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬?W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،١٦٥٠‫א‬‫א‬ ،K?
 K١٨٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬J  ،٦٢٥٠٠٠
 K١٩٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EWOLF AND MARRF‫א‬١٩٣٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٩٥٠

١٩٥٠‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ١٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬

KE٢F‫א‬‫א‬٨٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬








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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
(flashing)‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(product water) (distillate) ‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(demister) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 M.S.F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬(multi stage flash-MSF)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E١F
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬،EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K(multi stages) ‫א‬‫א‬

(MSF)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬
‫א‬K E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬E٢F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬brine heater ‫א‬
top ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE١٢٠J ٩٠F‫א‬،(TBT )brine temperature

‫א‬،TBT ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K،‫א‬‫א‬

،EE ١٢٠J ٩٠F‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬
‫א‬FTBT‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE١٢٠J ٩٠F‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬،Esuperheated water ‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬flashing E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٤F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE٥F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
superheated ‫א‬،E٥F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،water

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ،E٦F،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬،E٧F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ، ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨F،‫א‬‫א‬

 K٢٥–١٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٩F

 ‫א‬once through ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
EKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(brine recycle) ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٣F‫א‬، (brine recycle) ‫א‬‫א‬(recirculation method) ‫א‬ ‫א‬
(heat recovery ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬Kheat rejection ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،section)
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E١F،E cooling water ‫א‬F‫א‬
KE٢F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 ‫א‬،E٣F،E‫א‬‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(make-up water) ‫א‬
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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬K(deaerator) ‫א‬‫א‬،(pre-treatment) 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F،E٤F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Eblow down‫א‬reject/rejected brine

‫א‬‫א‬،E٦F، ‫א‬‫א‬،E٥F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬heat recovery section ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬KE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،TBT‫א‬E٨F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤FE١٠F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E١١F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 KK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(recirculation method) ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K(brine heater) ‫א‬‫א‬،(heat recovery section)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬٦٠٠٠٠‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬

 K–‫א‬L٣٥٠٠٠

٥{٥FL٣ ٢٥٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬

٤٦‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬
 KE‫א‬

- ٢٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 L٣٥٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬E١F
 E–‫א‬–F
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣

 ٥٠٠٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ١١٠

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٢٥
 ٢٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣

 ١٥٧٠

 EF‫א‬

 ١٨٤٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

L

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩J ٨

 ‫א‬

 ٤٣٩٠٠

 ‫א‬

 ٦٣٠٠٠

 

 ٢٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ١٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬L

 ٢٥{٧
 ١٠١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ٣٩{٢

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬L

 ٥٤٥

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣

 ‫א‬
 
 

 ‫א‬L

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣٨{١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣٣٧






- ٢١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣٢٥٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬E٢F
 E‫א‬–‫א‬F
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣

 L

 ٩٨٦

 ٣{٤٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ٩٠{٦

 EF‫א‬

 

 ١١٢{٨

EF‫א‬

 

 ٣٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦٥٠٠٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٢٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٤٦{٥٠٠

 ‫א‬

 ٧٠{٢٤٥

 

 ٢٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ١٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

KKKKKKKKKK‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬
 J WKE‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Fflashing range ‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،(TBT)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J WE

 ‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬L‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬

 E٤٠_١١٠FCKL٤{١٨C‫א‬L٣١٨٤٧Z‫א‬‫א‬
 L٢٢٨٣

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Performance Ratio ( P.R)‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 J W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  K LEFL‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Gain ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Output (over) Ratio (G.O.R).
 ELF‫א‬‫א‬Z( G.O.R.)‫א‬
 ELF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٩J ٧‫א‬‫א‬،EFEF‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬٩–٧‫א‬‫א‬K
K‫א‬‫א‬،(Flashing Range)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬E١J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٩{٢Z٢٤L٥٦٨٠Z‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬
 ٢٥{٧‫א‬‫א‬

 C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬Z
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬

 Z‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬D‫א‬Z
 ٩{٥Zx١٠١{٧–١١٠zDx٣٩{٢J ١١٠z

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬J 

(Availability Factor ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

( In Service Time ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،A.F.)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(A.F)  ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KKKK،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، E‫א‬٪١٥F‫א‬٪٨٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬J 

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬، ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKKK
 KEKKK‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬F‫א‬،EKKK‫א‬،

- ٢٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 E‫א‬‫א‬F(Mature Technology)
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٥٥‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬١٠٠٠٠٠F
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F٢٠‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F
( Rehabilitation )‫א‬KE‫א‬١٩٧٩‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬٤٠–٣٠‫א‬

F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KK‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

، ١٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠–٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F،E١F‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
 KK٤،E‫א‬F‫א‬٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬EF

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩F،E٨F
‫א‬٥٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬٪٦٤‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬٪٧٠
- ٢٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬E١٠F‫א‬
٪٣٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٪١٤‫א‬،٪٢٤‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،E‫א‬F،‫א‬‫א‬J ١
‫א‬،( De- superheater )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،EF‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
  ‫א‬Make

up‫א‬‫א‬

 KBlow Down EDistillate F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
(T)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢F‫א‬
 K(m) ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(TBT)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣F‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬F٤٠٧٠(TBT) ‫א‬،‫א‬L٣
 E٧٠E٨٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

( Process Calculations ) ‫א‬‫א‬EF

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٥٥FL٢٣٧٠CE‫א‬LF٢٠Z
 E٤٠J ٧٠FCKL٤{١٨
 ‫א‬L٣٧٨Z١٨{٩CE‫א‬LF٢٠Z

KRecirculation Ratio ‫א‬‫א‬E١٨{٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 KE‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬FZ

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬L٣٧٨‫א‬‫א‬
- ٢٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬Z
 ١٠CKL٤{١٨C‫א‬L٣٧٨Z

 ١٠CKL٤{١٨C‫א‬L٤٣٧٥Z
 ‫א‬١٨٢{٩ZL١٨٢{٩Z

F‫א‬١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬F
 WE‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬L١٨٢{٩Z
 L٢٢٥٨

 ‫א‬L٧ZL٠{٠٨١Z

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢{٨٥Z٢٠Z‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬

 ٧‫א‬L‫א‬

 WELF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 L١{٢٧ZLE٣٦٠٠C٢٤FLE١٠٠٠C٢٠FZ‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
 L١٢٢{٩‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Brine Concentration Ratio‫א‬E

 x‫א‬zDx‫א‬zZ‫א‬

 E‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬Z
 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣٤٠Z٢٠H٢٠Z‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬Z‫א‬

 ١{٨٩ZE٢٠–٣٧٨FC٤٠Z
 ٣٧٨C٢٠

- ٢٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١{٨٩Z‫א‬
‫א‬٢٠‫א‬٤٠Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬٦٠‫א‬
 ١{٤٢Zx٣٧٨C٤٠zDxE٢٠–٣٣٨F٦٠zZ‫א‬

 W‫א‬E

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٢٨٥ZE٣٥FL٢٤١٩C‫א‬L٢٠C٠{٣٣Z
 ١٠CEKFL٤{١٨

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬KE–FEK٢L‫א‬F٢٠٠٠،E–FK٢L‫א‬٨٠٠Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٢٢{٨٦ZxEF١٠CEK٢L‫א‬F٨٠٠zDx‫א‬L‫א‬١٠٠٠C‫א‬١٨٢{٩z
‫א‬E١{٢٨٧٥F‫א‬‫א‬١Z
 W

 x‫א‬C‫א‬C‫א‬zDx‫א‬‫א‬zZ‫א‬
 ٥٦٥Zx٣{١٤C٠{٠١٢٨٧٥C١zD٢٢٢{٨٦Z

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬F٪٢٥‫א‬

 K٧٠٠‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

EK٢L‫א‬٢٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦٥‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨٠٩٠
 K 

 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 x‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬٩١{٤Z٥CEKFL٤{١٨CE‫א‬LF٣٧٨Z
 ٧{٥Z٢DE١٠H٥FZ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٦{١ZEK٢FL٢D‫א‬٩١{٤Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥٠Zx٣{١٤C٠{٠١٢٨٧٥C١zD٢٦{١Z‫א‬

 ١٨٨‫א‬٪٢٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

- ٣٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧F‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬(Brine recirculation)‫א‬‫א‬
 Evaporator ‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬٢٥‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٥F‫א‬‫א‬

 Brine Heater‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(Heater )،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬( Condenser )‫א‬

 K‫א‬( cooler ) 

 W Ejector ‫א‬‫א‬E

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬( Vacuum )

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Condenser ‫א‬‫א‬

  Circulating Pumps ‫א‬‫א‬E

( Brine ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬Blow Down Pump ‫א‬Recirlculation Pump )

Condensate Pump ‫א‬‫א‬Product Water Pump
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Stand- by

pump‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
- ٣١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

  Seawater cooling system ‫א‬E
Heat Rejection Section‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Make –up ‫א‬E٧F،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬water

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KTempering ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  Make – up seawater system ‫א‬E

Product ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Blow Down ‫א‬‫א‬Water

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KPH‫א‬

 Heating Steam System‫א‬E

( TBT) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
De – ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬superheater


Condensate ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 Venting system‫א‬E
 ،‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KEjector‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Deaerater ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Utilities & other systems‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
Fire Fighting ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Electric Metors ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،System
 KKKK‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 Brine Recirculation System‫א‬‫א‬E

K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Brine Recirculation Pump‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬Saturation Temperature ‫א‬‫א‬TBT

‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،Blow Down‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Product Water System ‫א‬‫א‬E
 F ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬KKK‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬،FK ‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Blow Down System ‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،Weir
،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEF‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
Feed Water Pre- treatment ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Product Water Post Treatment System‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬System

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬













- ٣٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 Multi ( multiple ) Effect ( ME or MED ) ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
Boiling ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬،E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٧٠
 KE١٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EEffect –F

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F

 ‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E١٨F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E١F‫א‬Ecooling water F‫א‬
E٣F‫א‬‫א‬KE٢F‫א‬
E٥F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE٧F‫א‬E٦F‫א‬‫א‬ ،

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E٨F‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٣٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

،E١٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬KE١١F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Vacuum ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٢F‫א‬System

Vertical type‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩F‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬

E٣FE٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،Feed Water Pump‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥FE‫א‬،

KE٠{٣‫א‬F٧٠‫א‬‫א‬Boiling temperature‫א‬
FE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FE٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K١٦J ٣‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬L٣٥٠٠٠٢٠٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬




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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F١٥K–١٠E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE ١٢٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C٠{٨

EF١{٨،E‫א‬F‫א‬١٢‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬٣٥٠٠٠‫א‬ K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬٢٥٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K٢٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K Reliability ‫א‬‫א‬Availability

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬
KE‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 ‫א‬
٧٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KE٣٠‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٣٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٩F،E٨F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬٪٣{٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬٪٤،‫א‬٤٠٠٠

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ME ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬F VC
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧٠٨٠F ( Qin ) ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬٦٥‫א‬F٦٥٥‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٠{٢٥

‫א‬،
  

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

E F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬ ‫א‬٦٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬E٢١F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٦٥‫א‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬١٨٣( Qin ) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ( B / D ) ‫א‬‫א‬EL٠{٢٣٢F‫א‬L٢٠
 KL٠{٤٦٤‫א‬KEL٠{٢٣٢F‫א‬L٢٠‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 L٤{٢٧٧Zx١٠CKL٤{١٨zDL١٨٣Z

- ٣٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬(Sea water) ‫א‬
 WE٢١F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬HQin Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬HE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ( B/D ) ‫א‬‫א‬H (PW)‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 x ٣٠CEKLF٤{١٨CELFzHL١٨٣

LF٤{١٨CELF٠{٢٣٢HEF٤٠CEKLF٤{١٨CE٠{٤٦٤–FZ
 EF٤٥CEKLF٤{١٨CELF٠{٢٣٢HEF٤٥CEK

 KE‫א‬L٣٨٥{٢FL٤{١٣EF‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE٢١F‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬HQin Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦٥C٤{١٨CEM١–٠{٤٦٤FH٢٦١٨CxM١zZE٤٠C٤{١٨C٠{٤٦٤FHL١٨٣
 KE‫א‬L٤{٩٦FL٠{٠٥٧Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE٢١F‫א‬‫א‬E

 E٦٥F‫א‬HE٦٥F‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
HE٦٥F‫א‬‫א‬HE٦٠F‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 KE٦٠F‫א‬

 Z٦٥C٤{١٨CEM١ –٠{٤٦٤FH٢٦١٨CM١

 K٦٠C٤{١٨CEM٢ –M١–٠{٤٦٤FH٢٧٦CM١H٢٦١٠CM٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٠{٠٥٧‫א‬E M١ F

 KE‫א‬L٥{٢٢FL٠{٠٦EM٢F

- ٣٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

- ٤٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 (Vapor compression)‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٩٢٠‫א‬،١٩١٠‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬٣ ٥٠٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F

E‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢F‫א‬
EPreheater ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E١F
‫א‬(B/D)E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F(PW) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

FE٢F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F،

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬
E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤F،E٢٣F‫א‬KE‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (Mechanical Vapor Compression MVC)‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬F

E٢٤FE٢٢F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

- ٤١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (Thermal Vapor Compression TVC)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬‫א‬EjectorEF‫א‬
(Suction Pipe)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬E٢٥F‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬،Nozzel
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧F،E٢٦F‫א‬

 L٣٢٥٠٠‫א‬E٢٨F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬L٣٥٠٠٠١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬

K  ‫א‬٢٥٥‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،٧٠‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F٢٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E٢٨F‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F٪٢٥٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬(Live or Driving Steam)E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

K
 ‫א‬‫א‬،(Entraind System) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧٠

FKK
 ٩J ٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٢٥٠E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬E٩F،E٨F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٪٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬٪٤‫א‬،‫א‬L٣٥٠٠٠‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠F‫א‬K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٩F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE١٣F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٠F‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢٩F‫א‬
 W‫א‬
KEcF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(b)‫א‬‫א‬

(b)  ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬–‫א‬F(b)(a)‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬(d) (c) ‫א‬‫א‬

 WE٠{٠٧٤F٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(d) E٣٠F
 ٢Dx(c)‫א‬H(b) ‫א‬zZ(d)‫א‬
 L٢٥٧٨Z٢Dx٢٥٧٤H٢٥٨٣zZ
- ٤٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K١{١‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬E‫א‬
 E٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٦٥‫א‬

E٢٩F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F
 ‫א‬
a

E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬

 ٢٥٨٣

 ٤

 ٤٢٩

 ٢٥٨٣

 ٥

 ١٢٥{٥

d

 ٢٥٧٤

 ٦

 ١٤٠

٢

 ٢٥٧٨

٣

 ٣٤٧٣

b
c

 Z‫א‬

‫א‬–E٢F ‫א‬zDx(d) ‫א‬–E٢F ‫א‬z
 x(d)
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F‫א‬F
 x٢٥٧٨{٥–E٢FzDx٢٥٧٨{٥_٣١٦٠zZ٠{٦٥

 L٣٤٣٧ZE٢F‫א‬‫א‬

(d)–E٢FZ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 L٨٩Z٢٥٧٨{٥J ٣٤٣٧Z

EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Z
 L٠{٠٣٨٦Z‫א‬LE٦D٢٠FZ‫א‬L٢٠C
- ٤٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬٦٩ZL٨٩٤{٥CLE٠{٠٣٨٦C٢FZ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٣٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٠٢‫א‬١{١‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

 ZC‫א‬‫א‬HE٢FC‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٣F‫א‬CE‫א‬H‫א‬F

 ٢٦٨٠CEM d/sH٠{٠٧٧٢FZE٤٢٩CM d/sHE٣٤٧٣C٠{٠٧٧٢F
 ZEM d/sF‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٢{٣٥ZL٠{٠٢٧١٩Zx٤٢٩J ٢٦٨٠zDxE٢٦٨٠J ٣٤٧٣F٠{٠٧٧٢z
 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬
‫א‬C٢Z‫א‬‫א‬L ٢٠Z‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

E٥F٣٥٤٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L ٤٠Z‫א‬
 K٣٢{٥٣٠٢{٥‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬٤{٨٣Z٥CL٤{١٨CEL٠{٢٣F‫א‬L٢٠Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢١{٥٥Zx٦{٢٥CEK٢L‫א‬F٠{٥zDxE‫א‬F٤{٨٣zZ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١Z‫א‬

 ٧٥Zx٠{١٢٨C٣{١٤C١zD٢١{٥٥‫א‬

 E٣١J ٤FE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٧٢ZE٥C٦F–١٠٢Z١E٣٥J ٤٠FC٤٠ZE١–١٠٢FCE٣D٢٠F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E–٥٠FCx٣DE٢C٢٠FzHE١J ٢٧FCE٣D٢٠FZE٣٢{٥J ٣٥F٤٠
 E٢–٥٠F٤٠HE٢–٧٢F٢٠Z٢{٥C١٢٠
- ٤٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٢٤٠J ٢٠٠٠H٢٢٠J ١٤٤٠Z

٦٠

 ٣١٤٠Z٣٠٠J ٢٠٠٠H١٤٤٠Z٦٠

 ٥٢{٣Z٢

 ‫א‬١٤{٥ZE٣٢{٥–٤٠FC٤{١٨C‫א‬L٤٠Z ‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢١{٢ZE٢٣{٧٥C٠{٥FD١٤{٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ MR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

LMR‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬
ZMRELF٢٣٧٠CE‫א‬LF٦٠L٢٠Z١٥CKL٤{١٨C‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣٧٨

 ١٨{٨Z٢٠D٢٣٨Z‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬١٨٢{٩Z١٠C٤{١٨C‫א‬L٣٧٨

 ٢٢{٤٧Zx٢DE٤٢H٣٢FzC٢DL١٨٢{٩Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢‫א‬

 ٣٠{٥Zx٣{١٤C٠{٠١٢٨٧٥C٢zD٢{٤٧Z‫א‬

 ٤٠‫א‬‫א‬٪٢٥‫א‬

- ٤٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬٩١{٤٥Z‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢١{٤٧Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬

 ١Z‫א‬

 E٪٢٥F‫א‬٤٠Z‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F،E٤F‫א‬

 J WE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 (MSF)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 (ME)‫א‬‫א‬E

 (VC) ‫א‬‫א‬E
(RO)‫א‬‫א‬E

- ٤٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

٣‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬L١ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬٢٥J ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٢ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣

MSF

 
F ‫א‬L٣‫א‬‫א‬L٤
 E‫א‬L٣٦٠٠٠٠
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٥
 ‫א‬L٦
٣‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬L١ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬٢٥J ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
- ٤٨ -

ME

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 MVC‫א‬L١

VC‫א‬

 ‫א‬٢٥J ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٢
 ‫א‬L٣
 ‫א‬L٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٥
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L١ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬٥٠٠–٣٠٠‫א‬‫א‬L٢
E‫א‬L٣١٠٠٠٠٠١٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬L٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬
٪٣٠J ٢٥‫א‬L٤
 K‫א‬

- ٤٩ -

R.O.

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥F
‫א‬
‫א‬



‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ١٠٠٠

 ٥٠٠٠

 E٢F

 E١{٣F

 

 

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
E٤{٥F٢٤٠٠٠

 ٧٠
 E١٤F

 ١٥J ١٠

 ١٠J ٧

E‫א‬L٣F
 ‫א‬L
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ELF

 

 

 ١٢

 ٨

٣F‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣L

EF٤  ٩J ٧

 ١{٨

 ٤

EF٨
J ٨٠٠F

 ٣LE
J ١٥٠٠F

 E٢٤٠٠

 ٣٠٠٠

 ٩J ٣

 ١٢J ٦

١{٢٥J ٠{٧٥

F‫א‬‫א‬

١–٠{٥

E٢٠٠–٥٠٠F
 ٨J ٢

 ١J ٠{٥

J ١٠٠٠F

L٣F‫א‬

 E٣٠٠٠

‫א‬L FE‫א‬

 ١٢J ٤

 E

١{٥J ٠{٥

 ‫א‬٣
 ٣L

 ٢٥{٧

 ٢

 ٣{٦

 ٦٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٪F‫א‬L٣٤٠٠٠

- ٥٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٣٥{٩

 ٣{٩

 ٤

 ٤٨{١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٪F‫א‬L٣١٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٢F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٢٧F،E٢٦F‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٨F‫א‬E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬L٣٢٥٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E  ‫א‬٪١٠٠‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٣٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٦٠٠J ١٠٠

 ELF‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥{٥J ٠{٩

 E‫א‬LF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٩٥–١٦٥

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣٤٠–٥

 ELF‫א‬

 ٩٥–٣٠

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٠–٣{٣

 ELF‫א‬

 ٢٢٠٠–٣٦٥

 EF‫א‬‫א‬

 ٣{٧–١{٥

 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬Freezing‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٥J ٤‫א‬F 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

E١F‫א‬ ٣٦‫א‬

E٢FE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬Deaerator‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬Refrigeration unit‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E٣F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٩،٨F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٠F‫א‬‫א‬

- ٥٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬٤٠‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٧F‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Membrane Distillation‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬E٣٨F
 ،‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬‫א‬FE‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K
L‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
- ٥٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،E٤١FE٣٩F‫א‬،‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Co- ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬generation

E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ١٢٠‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬

Brine Heater‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E٤٣F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Common system EF‫א‬،E
 KAuxillary System‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬
- ٥٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
Technologies
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
Membrane

and

Other

Desalination

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(Reverse ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬

K(Electro -dialysis ED or EDR)‫א‬‫א‬ Osmosis :RO)

 K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
 K‫א‬






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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

(Reverse Osmosis R.O)‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W١{١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬K(Osmosis) ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬(Reverse Osmotic Process)
 ‫א‬‫א‬
KE  ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬،(Semi permeable)‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬-٢٫١
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ (Softening) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٩٥٢K
 ‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Spiral

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Wounded)

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Hollow Fine Fibers) ‫א‬

E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-٣٫١
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬EF

K(Osmosis Process) ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KJ E١F‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K(Osmotic Pressure)
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
(Reverse Osmosis)
 ‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬(Osmotic Pressure) 
 ‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 KEE١FF‫א‬

(Total Dissolved ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Solids: TDS)
F‫א‬‫א‬L ١{١J ١‫א‬‫א‬٪٦٠‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬

J E ‫א‬١٤٣٠‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ٠{٠٧‫א‬
 KE٢F

Z١G٠{٠١G٥٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٥٠٠٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٢٠٠٠،E ٣{٤‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬L٥٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬L٣٢٠‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
- ٥٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬KKKKK،‫א‬

(Saline Feed Water)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(Pressure

Vessel)

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،(Membranes)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K(Brine)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٧٠
 ‫א‬٢٠‫א‬

(Permeate ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(Rject)‫א‬‫א‬
 KJ E٣FJ or Water Product)

‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

،‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤FJ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬ -٤٫١

(Semi Permeable)‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

(Hollow Fine ‫א‬EF‫א‬،‫א‬

(Spiral ‫א‬،U–E٥F–Fibers)
- ٥٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KWounded Sheets)
‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٥١‫א‬‫א‬

E٧FE٦F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Micro Filteration)‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-٥٫١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
KE٨FJ ٠{٠١‫א‬‫א‬٠{١٠{٠٤
٪٩٩J ٩٠‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪١٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KEF
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K(Diffusion)‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W١‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ١١J ٣‫ א‬٦{٥J ٣{٥
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٦٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.١-٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Micro Filtration)
  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬(Nano Filtration) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Ultra Filtration) ‫א‬‫א‬
(Hyper ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬E٢F‫א‬KFiltration)
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F
 E‫א‬

 E٥F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬






- ٦١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬W٣‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 

 

Tubular

Poly Salfone
J 

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 

J ‫א‬



‫א‬

 ‫א‬
٢

 ‫א‬



L ‫א‬

EÅF

٣٠J ١٠

J ٥٠
٢٠٠٠



 

Micro



Filtrati
on

 L 
‫א‬



٧٥J ٢٠

‫א‬

  ‫א‬L ‫א‬

١٠٠٠

(MF)


١٠

 
Ultra



Filtrati




‫א‬‫א‬



 

 ‫א‬



Arom.

‫א‬

Polyamides Ca++/M
Flat Sheet 
g++
‫א‬
Composit
es

Polyvinyl
Alcohol

Derivatives
- ٦٢ -

on

١٥٠J ٥٠

J ٧

(UF)


١٠٠  
Nano

Filtrati
on

(NF)

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬



 

‫א‬

 CA
Asymmeti ‫א‬‫א‬
rie Fla


Flat
Composit

Aliph.Polya



١٥٠ ٣٠٠

‫א‬

LP
٣٥٠ ٦٠٠




 mides  ‫א‬
‫א‬
 

١٥J ١





Rever
se

 St. Br
٨٠٠ ١٢٠٠

Osmo

Br

sis

(RO)

e
Arom.
  Polyamides
 
‫א‬
Asym.HFF

Polysulfone

‫א‬
polyfuran

 W‫א‬.١-٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ،(Pre-traitment Pump)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

،(High Pressure Pump)‫א‬ J ٢

،(Membrane Assembly (Modules) J ٣

K(Final) Post Treatment Unit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬E٩F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
- ٦٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،E ‫א‬F

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬(Micro Filtration)‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬٨٠J ٤٥‫א‬E
 F٢٧J ١٧‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬

E١٠F ‫א‬F،(Pressure Vessel)
 ‫א‬‫א‬

(Semi Permeable ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Membranes)

 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KE٩F‫א‬(Second Stage)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(Hollow Fine Fibers)‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬(Alkalinity)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،E  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K (Auxiliary Components)‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٦٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

(Energy  ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Recovery)
 K‫א‬

- ٦٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬-.١-٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،E‫א‬F‫א‬ K١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
،(Recovery Ratio)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
K‫א‬KKK‫א‬ K٥

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.٩-١
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ،‫א‬ K١
،‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
،‫א‬‫א‬ K٣

K‫א‬ K٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Reject) ‫א‬‫א‬،(Brine Flow)‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KE
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
- ٦٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
،K‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٢٥ C‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬KE ‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬،(Compaction) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K(Hdrolysis)‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٩-١
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪٣٦‫א‬،EBrackish water‫א‬
 K‫א‬٥٠٠٠‫א‬٪٢٥‫א‬،‫א‬١٠٠

F(Availability Factor)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬٨J ٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E ‫א‬FL
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،E ‫א‬٪١٠‫א‬F‫א‬٥٠٠J ٤٠٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
 K‫א‬١٥٠J ١٠٠‫א‬

‫א‬E٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ٦٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬ J ١
 ‫א‬

٥٠٠J ٣٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬

‫א‬L٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣

J 

 W‫א‬

٣

LKKEF٨J EF٤W‫א‬‫א‬ J ١
E‫א‬L٣FL٢٤٠٠J ٨٠٠W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J ٢

،‫א‬F٣L١{٢٥J ٠{٧٥W‫א‬ J ٣
E‫א‬

E‫א‬L٣F١٠٠‫א‬٪٣٦W J ٤

E‫א‬L٣F٥٠٠٠‫א‬٪٢٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧F|E٦F‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٦

- ٦٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬J ١

 ‫א‬‫א‬

٣

‫ א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬٢٥J ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ٣

EMSF

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬L٣٥١٠‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
‫א‬J ٦

‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬J ١ ‫א‬‫א‬

٣

‫א‬

 ‫א‬٢٥J ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

 EMEF

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J ٣
 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٣
 EMVCF‫א‬J ١ EVCF‫א‬

 ‫א‬٢٥J ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

 ‫א‬J ٣
 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 
- ٦٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١ F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬٥٠٠J ٣٠٠‫א‬‫א‬J ٢

 ER.O

‫א‬L٣٥١٠١٠٠F
 ‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،J ٤

K‫א‬٪٣٥J ٢٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٧
‫א‬





‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

١٠٠٠٠

٥٠٠٠

٢٤٠٠٠

‫א‬



١٥J ١٠

EROF

EVCF

EMEF

‫א‬

EMSFF
٧٠٠٠٠  ‫א‬

‫א‬L٣

١٠J ٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬
LF

E





١٢

٨

‫א‬
 ‫א‬

٣L٣
 EF٤
EF٨

٢٤٠٠J ٨٠٠

٩J ٧

١{٨

٤

‫א‬
 ‫א‬

٣L
J ١٥٠٠
٣٠٠٠

J ٥٠٠

٢٠٠٠
- ٧٠ -

J ١٠٠٠
٣٠٠٠

 ‫א‬

L٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

١{٢٥J ٠{٧٥

١J ٠{٥

٠{٥

١{٥J ٠{٥

‫א‬

‫א‬

E٣LF

٢٥{٧

٢

٣{٦

٦٤

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٪F‫א‬L٣٤٠٠٠
E

٣٥{٩

٣{٩

٤

٤٨{١

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

E٪F‫א‬L٣١٠٠

(Electro-Dialysis (ED/EDR))‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬J ٢
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬،E

 ‫א‬،EF،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬(Cation)
 ENa+F‫א‬
‫א‬E٨F‫א‬K(Anion) ECl-F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Cations
‫א‬

Sodium

‫ א‬Calcium

Mg++

‫ א‬Potassiu

K+

m

Anions

Na+ ‫א‬
Ca++ ‫א‬

‫ א‬Magnesi

um

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٨

- ٧١ -

Chloride

ClBi- HCO٣-

 carbonate
‫א‬
Sulfate

SO٤--

‫א‬‫א‬

NO٣-

Nitrate

-

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٢-١
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ E
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ K ‫א‬E ‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،EJ J HHF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

J  L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬
 KL‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬.٢-٢
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E ‫א‬٢٠٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ KEDirect Current-DC-) 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K(Electric Charge) (Electrode)‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،EHHF‫א‬،EJ F‫א‬،EHF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،J E١١FJ EJ J F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(Neutralization)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬KJ E١٢FJ E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٧٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬KJ E١٣FJ ‫א‬‫א‬

،(Product Water) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Feed Water) ‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬،(Reject)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬،EF‫א‬

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 KE١٣FJ E‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬K٢-٣
 WE١٤FJ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

‫א‬ J ٢
‫א‬ J ٣

K J ٤

،‫א‬‫א‬،(Rectefier)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٥F‫א‬J ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E١٤F‫א‬

K(Membrane Stack)‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬

KE ٥٠٠٣٠٠F‫א‬
‫א‬،J  ‫א‬J  ‫א‬،E
 ‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬J   ‫א‬‫א‬،E
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬E١٧FE١٦F‫א‬KJ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫אא‬،E  F

‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٧٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ .٢-٤
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٤٥J ٢٧‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬ ٠{١‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬EF
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬ ٠{٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
(Clean in Place (CIP))‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫ א‬K

   ،‫א‬    ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  K

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٧٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 J
 ‫א‬J
 ‫א‬١٠‫א‬J
 ‫א‬٠{١J
 

‫א‬٠{٣J

(Electro-Doalysis Reverse (EDR))‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.٥-٢
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬   ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬E ٢٠ ١٥F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬ ٢J ١‫א‬K‫א‬
   ‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬.٦-٢
E‫א‬ ٢٠٠٠F E١٨F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  F ‫א‬    ،   K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
   K‫א‬ ‫א‬     E     ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  (sand Filters)‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Cartridge Filters)
٪١٥٪ ١٠‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.٧-٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  F  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫ א‬K١
 E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢

‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫ א‬K٣
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤

- ٧٧ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩
‫א‬

‫א‬
 ٪٩٠

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٪٩٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬١٢٠٠٠

 ‫א‬

١٠F‫א‬٪١٠

 ‫א‬

 E‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥٥  ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬٣

‫א‬‫א‬

١٠١

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠
‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 


 ‫א‬‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 

‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

J 



‫א‬

- ٧٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

،‫א‬

‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬





‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬







‫א‬



‫א‬

‫א‬



١٠٠٠٠‫א‬



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬



١٠٠٠٠‫א‬
‫א‬



٤٠٠٠٠‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
٢٠٠٠‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

KE‫א‬ ١٢٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
  K‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬    ٤٠٠٠  ١٠  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ K‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬E٩F‫א‬K‫א‬١٠
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

- ٧٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬.٨-٢٢
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠F‫א‬
 EIon ExchangeF‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬ J ١

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،EResinF
‫א‬‫א‬EResin‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KECationsF‫א‬ ‫א‬
 KEE١FF،EAnoinsF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K










- ٨٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

٣

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬      ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬  ٪ ٧٠  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬   ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١٣٩٠F‫א‬‫א‬J ١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬L٣١٩٨‫א‬‫א‬١٣٨٩‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WE١٣٩٥L١٣٩٤١٣٩١L١٣٩٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬L٣١٨٩٢٥١٣٩٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬٥٠‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ٨١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬K
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
 ‫א‬L٣٢٨٤٠٠١٣٩٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٣٩٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬L٣٥٥٠‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E١٤٠٠L١٣٩٩١٣٩٦L١٣٩٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K‫א‬L٣٤٧٣‫א‬١٣٩٥‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬L٣٣٧٩١٦١٣٩٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨٥

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬

١٣٩٨K‫א‬L٣١٠٧٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤١٠‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣٤٧٣‫א‬١٣٩٩
 K‫א‬

- ٨٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬L٣ ٤٧٣‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬١٣٩٩ ‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤١٣

٤٣٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٣٩٩‫א‬
 ‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣٧٥٩٨٧‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٥٦‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣٧٧٤‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬١٣٩٩‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٤١٤‫א‬

 WE١٤٠٥L١٤٠٤١٤٠١L١٤٠٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٤

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



٩٤٦٢٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٤٠١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬٣٥٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣١٩٠٥٥٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬٥٩٠٧‫א‬

 W‫א‬J 

٨٥٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٤٠١‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣
 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٦‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٤٠٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣١٢٠٤ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣١١٨٤٤٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٢‫א‬K‫א‬٣٦٠‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣١٩١٧٨٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٢‫א‬K‫א‬٧١٠‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣١٠٣٢ ‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٣،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
- ٨٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬L٣٨١٨١٨٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬

‫א‬١٤٠٣‫א‬‫א‬١٢٢٥‫א‬

 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬L٣١٩٥٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٣‫א‬‫א‬

WE١٤١٠L١٤٠٩١٤٠٦L١٤٠٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٥
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣١٩٦٨٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬١٤٠٦‫א‬K‫א‬١١‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣٣٧٨٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٦‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬J 

K ‫א‬‫א‬L٣٣٨٧٠‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٧‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L٣٨٣٤٣٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬١٤٠٩‫א‬K‫א‬١٠٨‫א‬


- ٨٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫ א‬L٣٨٣٤٣٢‫א‬،E‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٩‫א‬،‫א‬١٠٨
 W‫א‬J 

‫א‬L٣٤٨٨٤٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٩‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

K ‫א‬L٣٣٧٨٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤٠٩‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

،‫א‬L٣٣٧٨٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤١٠‫א‬

 WE١٤١٥L١٤١٤١٤١١L١٤١٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
 W‫א‬J 

،‫א‬L٣٤٨٨٤٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬١٤١٤‫א‬

 WE١٤٢٠L١٤١٩١٤١٦L١٤١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬١٥٠‫א‬L٣١٢٠٠٩٦

‫א‬١٠٦٩٠٤‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٢٧٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬

 K١٤٢٠‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
- ٨٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


 WE١٤٢٥L١٤٢٤‫א‬١٤٢١L١٤٢٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 

F‫א‬L٣٧٨١٨٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬٥٢٠‫א‬‫א‬L٣٣٩٠٩٠٩‫א‬

١٩٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٤٢٠L١٤١٩‫א‬L
 ٢{٢١٣٩٠L١٣٨٩‫א‬L
 K٪١٦{٧

٪٢١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

٨٥٥F‫א‬L٣٣‫א‬٣٠‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬٥٠٠٠FE

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Feed water Pre- treatment

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F feed treatment ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   ‫א‬    K Pre-treatment ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   E 
scale deposites‫א‬ corrosion‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬    E  KKKKKKKKK ، ‫א‬ F ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 screening system‫א‬‫א‬L

 K( Biocides ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬L

Anti  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  Anti Scalants ‫א‬  F ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  L

 KEFoam

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Deaeration‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L
 ‫א‬   ‫א‬     E ‫א‬   F  ‫א‬

 KEvaporators‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 KScreening system‫א‬‫א‬L
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L
 KCoagulants‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١

 Ksedimentation‫א‬L
 E‫א‬_‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L
 K‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬L
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ، ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٪ ٦٠F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W١
‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 
 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

E‫א‬F‫א‬ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ -

 ‫א‬

‫א‬ -

 E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ -

‫א‬ -

‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬

L‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫ א‬-

‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬

L‫א‬ -

 ‫א‬

‫א‬ -

‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

L‫א‬L‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ K‫ א‬-

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬   K ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬E
- ٩٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬E
 KE‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ١ ‫א‬ ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬٢‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  –  J     ‫א‬    K ‫א‬
  ‫א‬     ٣ ‫א‬      ،‫א‬

  ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬ J ‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ ٤‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬      ‫א‬      ٦ ‫א‬

‫א‬، ،
    ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 Turbidiy‫א‬
K ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،    ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬(NTU)،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬،‫א‬
 SDI‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬Slit Density Index ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  E  ٠{٤٥ F   ٧  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
٥٠٠‫א‬‫א‬ ٢{١‫א‬K
‫א‬ T١‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬F ١٥‫א‬
 WSDI‫א‬ET٢ F‫א‬‫א‬٥٠٠‫א‬
SDI = ( ١- T١/T٢ ) ( ١٠٠L١٥ )

SDI SDI=٥ T١‫א‬‫א‬  T٢‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٦{٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

  ‫א‬  E ‫א‬ ‫א‬ F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ W ‫א‬
 W،‫א‬
 
- ٩٢ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 Sand ( media ) filters ‫א‬‫א‬
   K‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Fiber Glass‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 sand‫א‬ gravel‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 Cartridge filer‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬
‫א‬F ٣ ٥‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W

‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E،‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

- ٩٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬W٢



 ‫א‬W٢

- ٩٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


K‫א‬W٤

- ٩٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬W٥

 W٦
- ٩٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬



 ‫א‬‫א‬W٧











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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Product Water post Treatment

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

 W

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E

pH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٨ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
Scaled Deposits and Corrosion

 ‫א‬
 E ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  F Fouling ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  

 ،‫א‬  ،‫א‬ ‫א‬   F ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
F‫א‬K‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬    K‫א‬‫א‬    ،‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FE
‫א‬    – ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   F    E ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬
 E ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   F ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 ‫א‬    K     ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬FE
   ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬K  

‫א‬٨‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬LKE‫א‬
- ٩٩ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 K ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٨
 EScale‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
،CaCO٣‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬CaSO٤‫א‬Mg(OH)٢‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٨‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬،‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٠٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

١٠٠‫א‬––‫א‬‫א‬
     F ٨٢  ‫א‬  ٧٧ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

 WE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K٦٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬ ٨٠‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬       ١٠٠  ‫א‬    

K‫א‬

 ?E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
      ‫א‬‫א‬      ‫א‬   

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬     K  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K

‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   K‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ، ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ، ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    
  E ‫א‬ F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
E‫א‬٪ ٩٦F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
- ١٠١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬
 K٧‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

E ‫א‬  ‫א‬ F ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬   ،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ،‫א‬‫א‬  

 F ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  E  F ‫א‬

 E‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ –‫א‬J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   – ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ،

  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  – ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE

 K‫א‬

    ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬E‫א‬FE

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F

E‫א‬  ‫א‬ F ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬  K٩ 
 K‫א‬


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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 ،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
  ،‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬

،E‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬E

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E‫א‬F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  E ١٠ J ٩٠  ، ٣٠ – ٧٠ F ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢‫א‬K

- ١٠٣ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬W٩

- ١٠٤ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٢
‫א‬
 ‫א‬



 ٣١٦



 ‫א‬

 

 E٠{٥٣٠٧٠F٣٠L٧٠L

 ‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 E٠{٨١٠٩٠F١٠L٩٠L

 ٪١٠‫א‬L

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬






 ‫א‬    E     F  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     ‫א‬  
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

- ١٠٥ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬   K٨J ٧    ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

  ‫א‬  ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬    E  F
 KKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

   ‫א‬    ،E ‫א‬  F ‫א‬ ‫א‬   K‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ،       ،‫א‬ 
   ‫א‬      K      ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬
 ،‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ٣ ‫א‬

E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢٠٠٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬٢٠٠٠‫א‬

- ١٠٦ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

K‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

   ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  K‫א‬ ‫א‬  
K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W٣‫א‬
F mg/LW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ‬١٠ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬

٩- ٦

pH ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﳍﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﲏ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻧﺔ‬

Colour‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬

٦٠

B.O.D‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺺ‬

١٠٠

C.O.D‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻛﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺎ‬

٢٠٠٠

T.D.S ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺋﺒﺔ‬

٦٠

‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬

NTU ٥٠

Turbidity ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺎﺭﺓ‬

١

‫ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻳﺘﺎﺕ‬

 E

١٥ Oils & Creases ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻮﻡ‬
٠,٥

‫ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺑﺘﺮﻭﱄ‬

٥

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﺎﺕ‬

٤٠

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﺍﺕ‬

١

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻮﻧﻮﻻﺕ‬

١

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻮﺭﻳﺪﺍﺕ‬

٣

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻣﻨﻴﻮﻡ‬

٣

(‫ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎ )ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﲔ‬

٠,٠٠٥

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‬

٠,٥

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ‬

- ١٠٧ -

‫א‪ ‬‬

‫‪ ٢٤١‬‬

‫א‪‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺩﻣﻴﻮﻡ‬

‫‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻧﻴﺦ‬

‫‪٠,٠٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻡ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ‬

‫‪١,٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻜﻞ‬

‫‪٠,١‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫‪١,٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻨﺠﻨﻴﺰ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻧﻚ‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ‬

‫‪٠,١‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭﻳﻮﻡ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﻛﻮﺑﺎﻟﺖ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ‬

‫‪٠,٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬

‫‪٠,١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﱄ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ‪٥٠٠٠‬‬
‫‪ ١٠٠‬ﺳﻢ‪٣‬‬

‫‪- ١٠٨ -‬‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬

 



٥

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٩٠ °C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣٠ °CEMSFF
‫א‬‫א‬٤{٢٢ kJ/(kg °C )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬٢٣٣٠ kJ/kg‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬١٠٠٠ kg  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬١٥٠٠ ppmK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٥٠٠٠ ppm ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬٣٠ %‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬ J ١
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J ٢

 ‫؟‬‫א‬ppm‫א‬‫א‬ J ٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬EMEEF
K١٨٠٠ kg/hr‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬١٢٠٪‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٢٥ °C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ -

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬Cp = ١{٢ kcal/(kg °C)
- ١٠٩ -

 W‫א‬

Hv = ٥٤٠ kcal/kg

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٦٠٠٠ kg/min‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٥٦٠ kg/min ‫א‬٩٥ °C‫א‬

 W١{٥ kcal/(kg °C)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠٠٠ kcal/kg‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١٥٠٠ m٣/day‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢٥٠٠ ppm٣٠ %،
 K‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫؟‬‫א‬

-

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٢٥٠٠ ppm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٥٠٠RO‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K٦٠ % ‫א‬‫א‬٢٥٠٠٠ ppm‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١١٠ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤٤٠٠ m٣/dayRO‫א‬

K٢٥٠٠ ppm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٩٠٠ ppm
 K‫א‬٥٠ %‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬ ‫؟‬‫א‬

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‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

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- ١١١ -

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ،J ‫א‬J ،J ١
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٩٨٧،،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬،،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٢
 ١٤١٩،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬J ٣
 ‫א‬
 KK،٢٠٠١،،،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
٤- Geankoplis, C, Transport Processes and Unit Opetartions
٣th edt, Printice Hall International Inc,USA, ١٩٨٣

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 ‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

‫א‬

 ‫א‬

٣

 ٤

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٠

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١١

‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١٥

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٧

‫א‬‫א‬

 ٤١

‫א‬‫א‬

 ٥٧

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ٨٠

‫א‬‫א‬

‫ א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٨٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩١

 ٩٢

 ٩٢

‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩٢

‫א‬‫א‬

 ٩٨

‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٢٤١

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬

 ٩٩

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٠٠

 ١٠١

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ١٠٢

 ١٠٣

 ‫א‬

 ١٠٩

 ١١٢

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬















 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
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