13–20th January 2010

Hall Effect & Measurement of Hall Coefficient
Harsh Purwar (07MS-76) Piyush Pushkar (07MS-33) Amit Nag (07MS-19) Sibhasish Banerjee (07MS-55) VI th Semester, Integrated M.S. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Experiment No. 1 Condensed Matter Physics (PH – 314) Abstract: In this experiment Hall’s Effect was studied/observed and various parameters like Hall’s coefficient, carrier density, mobility etc were measured/calculated. The experiment was done for two types of semi-conductor crystals of Germanium (Ge) {3833 & 3911}, one having electrons as the majority charge carrier and other holes. The dependence of Hall voltage on the magnetic field and the current passing through the probe is also studied.

Introduction
Hall Effect is a phenomenon that occurs in a conductor carrying a current when it is placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to the current. The charge carriers in the conductor become deflected by the magnetic field and give rise to an electric field (Hall Field) that is perpendicular to both the current and magnetic field. If the current density, 𝐽𝑥 , is along 𝑥 and the magnetic field, 𝐵, is along 𝑧, then Hall field, 𝐸𝑦 , is either along +𝑦 or – 𝑦 depending on the polarity of the charge carriers in the material (conductor). It was E. H. Hall who first observed the above mentioned event in 1879 (1). Hall Effect is the basis of many practical applications and devices such as magnetic field measurements, and position and motion detectors. Also, Hall Effect measurement is a useful technique for characterizing the electrical transport properties of metals and semiconductors. Hall Effect sensors are readily used in various sensors such as rotating speed sensors, fluid flow sensors, current sensors, and pressure sensors. Other applications may be found in some electric airsoft guns and on the triggers of electropneumatic paintball guns, as well as current smart phones, and some global positioning systems.

Theory
As mentioned earlier, the reason for existence of Hall Field in 𝑦 direction is because of charge accumulation caused by Lorentz forces on movement of charge carriers. In equilibrium this transverse Hall Field, 𝐸𝑦 , will balance the Lorentz force and current will flow only in the 𝑥 – direction. From the Drude theory of conduction it is obvious that applied electric field, 𝐸𝑥 , and the current density, 𝐽𝑥 , should be related as, 𝐸𝑥 = 𝜌(𝐻𝑧 ). 𝐽𝑥 where 𝜌 𝐻𝑧 is the magneto-resistance which is field independent. And also, for the transverse field, 𝐸𝑦 , which balances the Lorentz force, one might expect it to be proportional to both the applied magnetic field, 𝐻𝑧 , and current density, 𝐽𝑥 , as, 1|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010 𝐸𝑦 = 𝑅𝐻 . 𝐻𝑧 . 𝐽𝑥 here, 𝑅𝐻 is called as the Hall coefficient which is negative for negative charge carriers and vice versa. In the presence of electric field, 𝐸𝑥 and 𝐸𝑦 and magnetic field, 𝐻𝑧 , the equation of motion of a negative charge carrier can be written as, 𝑑𝑝 𝑝 𝑝 = −𝑒 𝐸 + × 𝐻 − 𝑑𝑡 𝑚𝑐 𝜏 In steady state the current is independent of time, and therefore 𝑝𝑥 and 𝑝𝑦 will satisfy, 𝑝 −𝑒𝐸𝑥 − 𝜔𝑐 . 𝑝𝑦 − 𝜏𝑥 = 0 −𝑒𝐸𝑦 − 𝜔𝑐 . 𝑝𝑥 − 𝜔𝑐 = 𝑒𝐻 𝑚𝑐
Figure 1: Schematic diagram showing various fields acting on a p-type semiconductor crystal attached to the probe. 𝑝
𝑦 𝜏

=0

where

Now applying 𝑝𝑦 = 0 and 𝐽 = −(𝑛𝑒/𝑚). 𝑝 we get, 𝐸𝑦 1 𝑅𝐻 = =− 𝐽𝑥 . 𝐵𝑧 𝑛𝑒𝑐 It asserts that the Hall coefficient depends on no parameters of the metal except the density of charge carriers (2).

Sample Details
 For n-type Germanium (Ge) crystal o Thickness 𝑧 : 5 × 10−2 𝑐𝑚 o Resistivity 𝜌 : 10 Ω𝑐𝑚 o Conductivity 𝜎 : 10 𝐶𝑉 −1 𝑠 −1 𝑚−1 For p-type Germanium (Ge) crystal o Thickness 𝑧 : 5 × 10−2 𝑐𝑚 o Resistivity 𝜌 : 10 Ω𝑐𝑚 o Conductivity 𝜎 : 10 𝐶𝑉 −1 𝑠 −1 𝑚−1

2|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010

Experimental Procedure
Calibration of the Magnetic field with current The magnetic field produced by the electromagnets was calibrated with the current flowing through it using an Indium Arsenide Hall probe for measuring magnetic field and an ammeter for measuring current. The following protocol was implemented in order. 1. The constant current power supply (DPS - ***) connected to the electromagnet (EMU - ***) and digital gauss-meter (DGM – 102) connected to the indium arsenide Hall probe were switched on after making appropriate connections. 2. The indium arsenide hall probe was covered with the metallic sheath and was placed away from the electromagnet and other apparatuses. 3. The digital gauss-meter was set at 1x and the reading was adjusted to zero using the zero adjustment knob of the gauss-meter. 4. The probe was then uncovered and placed at the center of the two electromagnets with the help of a wooden stand. Figure 2: The two electromagnets; Hall probe is placed in 5. The current through the electromagnet was between two of them. slowly increased via constant current power supply and corresponding magnetic field readings displayed by the digital gauss-meter were noted and are listed in Table 1. NOTE: The current supplied by the power supplies should never be increased or decreased rapidly. It may lead to electric shocks and burn the apparatuses. Dependence of Hall Voltage on Magnetic Field The Hall voltage across the semiconductor (probe) was measured varying the magnetic field around it and keeping the current through the probe constant. The following protocol was implemented.  Appropriate connections in Hall Effect set-up (DHE – 21) consisting of a constant current power supply and a digital milli-voltmeter were made and the apparatus was switched on. The widthwise contacts of the Hall probe were connected to the terminal marked ‘voltage’ and lengthwise contacts to the terminal marked ‘current’ as shown in the figure.  The current flowing through the probe was set to a fixed value say 3 mA.  The Hall probe was then placed away from the magnetic field and the Hall voltage was set close to zero by aligning the contact pins properly.  The magnetic field was then switched on and the Hall voltage was noted varying the current flowing through the electromagnet slowly, say in steps of 0.2 amperes. Above was repeated for 2 different probes and for 3 values of probe current 𝐼 for each of the two probes as listed below in Table 2-7. Dependence of Hall Voltage on Current through the Hall Probe In this part of the experiment we vary the current through the Hall probe or 𝐽𝑥 and see its impact on the Hall voltage keeping the probe in a constant magnetic field. The following protocol was implemented.  The current through the electromagnet was fixed to some value say 1.0 ampere. This fixes the magnetic field around the coil.  Placing the Hall probe in between the two electromagnets as mentioned earlier, the current through it was varied and the corresponding Hall voltage was noted. Above was repeated for 2 different probes and for 3 values of magnetic field 𝐻 for each of the two probes as listed below in Table 8-13. 3|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010

Observation / Graphs
Table 1: For calibrating Magnetic field (H) through the coil.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Current (I) {Ampere} 0.00 0.11 0.23 0.34 0.46 0.53 0.61 0.70 0.84 0.97 1.04 1.11 1.21 1.30 1.42 1.52 1.62 1.70 1.82 2.00 2.22 2.35 2.42 2.52 2.62 2.73 2.83 2.91 3.02 3.16 3.23 3.33 3.46 3.59 3.66 Magnetic Field (H) {Gauss} 73 292 506 712 933 1077 1245 1425 1688 1966 2100 2240 2460 2630 2890 3090 3300 3470 3710 4070 4470 4770 4900 5080 5280 5470 5640 5770 5950 6150 6240 6360 6510 6650 6720

Above data was plotted and fitted linearly. Last four data points corresponding to the high currents were excluded during fitting.

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13–20th January 2010

Plot 1: Calibration of magnetic field (H) with current (I).

Table 2: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 1 (3833) by varying magnetic field, for constant current of 2.99 mA passing through it.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Current through the Electromagnet (A) 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.62 0.83 1.03 1.21 1.40 1.62 1.83 2.02 2.18 2.41 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.21 3.42 3.59 3.80 Magnetic Field {H} (Gauss) 74 467 860 1292 1704 2097 2451 2824 3256 3668 4042 4356 4808 5181 5574 5966 6379 6791 7125 7538 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) -1.7 -5.6 -9.2 -13.7 -17.4 -21.2 -24.4 -27.5 -30.7 -33.7 -36.3 -38.4 -40.9 -43.3 -45.5 -47.0 -48.8 -50.5 -51.4 -52.7 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) -0.0383 -0.0200 -0.0179 -0.0177 -0.0171 -0.0169 -0.0166 -0.0163 -0.0158 -0.0154 -0.0150 -0.0147 -0.0142 -0.0140 -0.0137 -0.0132 -0.0128 -0.0124 -0.0121 -0.0117

5|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010 Table 3: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 1 (3833) by varying magnetic field, for constant current of 5.00 mA passing through it.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Current through the Electromagnet (A) 0.00 0.19 0.39 0.59 0.81 0.99 1.20 1.39 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.61 2.78 3.02 3.21 3.41 3.61 3.82 Magnetic Field {H} (Gauss) 74 447 840 1233 1665 2019 2431 2804 3217 3610 4002 4395 4788 5200 5534 6006 6379 6772 7164 7577 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) -2.5 -8.6 -14.7 -21.1 -28.3 -33.7 -40.2 -45.1 -50.7 -55.4 -60.3 -64.2 -68.1 -72.2 -75.0 -78.8 -81.5 -83.9 -86.3 -88.1 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) -0.0336 -0.0192 -0.0175 -0.0171 -0.0170 -0.0167 -0.0165 -0.0161 -0.0158 -0.0153 -0.0151 -0.0146 -0.0142 -0.0139 -0.0136 -0.0131 -0.0128 -0.0124 -0.0120 -0.0116

Table 4: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 1 (3833) by varying magnetic field, for constant current of 7.99 mA passing through it.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Current through the Electromagnet (A) 0.00 0.20 0.39 0.59 0.81 0.99 1.20 1.39 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.61 2.78 3.02 Magnetic Field {H} (Gauss) 74 467 840 1233 1665 2019 2431 2804 3217 3610 4002 4395 4788 5200 5534 6006 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) -0.5 -10.0 -20.7 -31.1 -42.0 -52.0 -62.5 -70.5 -78.9 -87.6 -94.4 -101.1 -107.8 -113.7 -120.1 -125.6 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) -0.0042 -0.0134 -0.0154 -0.0158 -0.0158 -0.0161 -0.0161 -0.0157 -0.0153 -0.0152 -0.0148 -0.0144 -0.0141 -0.0137 -0.0136 -0.0131

6|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010
17 18 19 20 3.21 3.41 3.61 3.82 6379 6772 7164 7577 -129.3 -133.4 -136.9 -140.0 -0.0127 -0.0123 -0.0120 -0.0116

Plot 2: Variation of Hall Voltage with Magnetic field for different values of probe current for probe- 1.

Table 5: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 2 (3911) by varying magnetic field, for constant current of 3.00 mA passing through it.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Current through the Electromagnet (A) 0.00 0.25 0.46 0.65 0.90 1.10 1.25 1.43 1.66 1.82 2.01 2.28 2.48 2.64 2.81 3.07 Magnetic Field {H} (Gauss) 74 565 978 1351 1842 2235 2529 2883 3335 3649 4022 4552 4945 5259 5593 6104 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) 2.6 7.6 12 16.2 21.7 25.8 29.0 32.5 37.1 40.1 43.5 48.2 51.3 53.5 56.4 58.2 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) 0.0583 0.0224 0.0205 0.0200 0.0196 0.0192 0.0191 0.0188 0.0185 0.0183 0.0180 0.0176 0.0173 0.0170 0.0168 0.0159

7|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010

Table 6: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 2 (3911) by varying magnetic field, for constant current of 5.00 mA passing through it.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Current through the Electromagnet (A) 0.00 0.23 0.41 0.62 0.81 0.95 1.15 1.37 1.61 1.83 2.11 2.32 2.51 2.71 2.91 3.08 Magnetic Field {H} (Gauss) 74 526 880 1292 1665 1940 2333 2765 3236 3668 4218 4631 5004 5397 5790 6123 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) 4.4 12.1 17.9 25.4 32.3 37.3 44.1 51.7 59.8 66.7 74.9 80.7 85.6 90.0 93.6 96.3 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) 0.0592 0.0230 0.0204 0.0197 0.0194 0.0192 0.0189 0.0187 0.0185 0.0182 0.0178 0.0174 0.0171 0.0167 0.0162 0.0157

Table 7: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 2 (3911) by varying magnetic field, for constant current of 7.98 mA passing through it.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Current through the Electromagnet (A) 0.00 0.21 0.37 0.61 0.81 1.04 1.20 1.40 1.62 1.82 2.02 2.21 2.43 2.59 2.85 3.05 Magnetic Field {H} (Gauss) 74 487 801 1272 1665 2117 2431 2824 3256 3649 4042 4415 4847 5161 5672 6065 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) 7.6 17.8 26.7 39.9 52.5 64.0 73.4 83.2 94.8 104.9 114.6 123.0 131.9 137.8 145.6 150.7 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) 0.0641 0.0229 0.0209 0.0196 0.0198 0.0189 0.0189 0.0185 0.0163 0.0180 0.0178 0.0175 0.0171 0.0167 0.0161 0.0156

8|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010

Plot 3: Variation of Hall Voltage with Magnetic field for different values of probe current for probe - 2.

Table 8: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 1 (3833) by varying current passing through it, for constant magnetic field of 2038 Gauss corresponding to 1.00 ampere of current through the electromagnet.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Current through the Hall Probe {I} (mA) 0.12 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.64 2.1 2.62 3.1 3.62 4.14 4.74 5.55 6.22 7.04 7.56 8.23 8.65 9.1 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) -1.1 -5.3 -8.0 -11.0 -14.6 -18.7 -23.3 -27.6 -32.2 -36.7 -41.9 -48.8 -54.5 -61.4 -65.7 -71.2 -74.6 -78.2 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) -0.0225 -0.0217 -0.0218 -0.0225 -0.0218 -0.0218 -0.0218 -0.0218 -0.0218 -0.0217 -0.0217 -0.0216 -0.0215 -0.0214 -0.0213 -0.0212 -0.0212 -0.0211

9|Hall Effect

13–20th January 2010
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 9.6 10.22 10.7 11.15 11.85 12.24 12.74 13.19 13.81 14.37 15.01 -82.3 -87.3 -91.1 -94.6 -99.8 -102.8 -106.4 -109.7 -114.2 -118.0 -121.7 -0.0210 -0.0210 -0.0209 -0.0208 -0.0207 -0.0206 -0.0205 -0.0204 -0.0203 -0.0201 -0.0199

Table 9: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 1 (3833) by varying current passing through it, for constant magnetic field of 4002 Gauss corresponding to 2.00 amperes of current through the electromagnet.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Current through the Hall probe {I} (mA) 0.12 1.08 2.02 3.04 4.04 5.08 6.01 7.08 8.08 9.14 10.08 11.06 12.14 13.1 14.1 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) -1.8 -15.7 -29.4 -44.2 -58.9 -73.7 -87.0 -102.0 -116.0 -130.4 -143.3 -156.0 -170.0 -182.0 -194.4 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) -0.0187 -0.0182 -0.0182 -0.0182 -0.0182 -0.0058 -0.0181 -0.0180 -0.0179 -0.0178 -0.0178 -0.0176 -0.0175 -0.0174 -0.0172

Table 10: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 1 (3833) by varying current passing through it, for constant magnetic field of 5966 Gauss corresponding to 3.00 amperes of current through the electromagnet.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Current through the Hall probe {I} (mA) 0.12 1.04 2.04 3.14 3.94 5.08 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) -2.2 -18.8 -36.9 -56.6 -70.9 -91.2 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) -0.0154 -0.0151 -0.0152 -0.0151 -0.0151 -0.0150

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13–20th January 2010
7 8 9 10 11 12 6.07 7.11 8.18 9.15 10.12 10.94 -108.7 -126.8 -143.6 -160.0 -176.0 -189.7 -0.0150 -0.0149 -0.0147 -0.0147 -0.0146 -0.0145

Plot 4: Variation of Hall voltage with current passing through it, for different values of magnetic field for probe - 1.

Table 11: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 2 (3911) by varying current passing through it, for constant magnetic field of 2038 Gauss corresponding to 1.00 ampere of current through the electromagnet.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Current through the Hall probe {I} (mA) 0.12 1.56 2.17 3.15 3.89 4.74 5.13 5.92 6.59 7.34 8.2 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) 1.1 13.3 18.5 26.7 32.8 39.8 43 49.3 54.6 60.5 67.1 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) 0.0225 0.0209 0.0209 0.0208 0.0207 0.0206 0.0206 0.0204 0.0203 0.0202 0.0201

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13–20th January 2010
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 9.15 10.15 11.26 12.33 13.12 14.28 15.33 16.65 17.57 18.71 19.78 74.3 81.8 90 97.4 103 110.9 118.1 126.8 132.3 138.6 144.6 0.0199 0.0198 0.0196 0.0194 0.0193 0.0191 0.0189 0.0187 0.0185 0.0182 0.0179

Table 12: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 2 (3911) by varying current passing through it, for constant magnetic field of 4002 Gauss corresponding to 2.00 amperes of current through the electromagnet.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Current through the Hall probe {I} (mA) 0.12 0.82 1.46 2.11 2.6 3.11 3.94 4.52 5.38 5.86 6.15 6.74 7.21 7.8 8.5 9.02 9.49 10.03 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) 2 12.8 22.6 32.7 40.1 47.8 60.2 69 81.7 88.6 92.7 101.2 107.8 116.3 126 133 139.5 146.9 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) 0.0208 0.0195 0.0193 0.0194 0.0193 0.0074 0.0191 0.0191 0.0190 0.0189 0.0188 0.0188 0.0187 0.0186 0.0185 0.0184 0.0184 0.0183

Table 13: Measurement of Hall voltage developed across the probe – 2 (3911) by varying current passing through it, for constant magnetic field of 5907 Gauss corresponding to 2.97 amperes of current through the electromagnet.
Obs. No. 1 2 3 Current through the Hall probe {I} (mA) 0.12 1.04 1.35 Hall Voltage {VH} (mV) 2.5 20.8 26.9 Hall Coefficient {R} (m3/C) 0.0176 0.0169 0.0169

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13–20th January 2010
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2.2 2.77 3.15 3.94 4.28 4.75 5.31 5.66 6.43 7 7.78 8.48 9.07 9.28 9.88 43.7 54.8 62.2 77.4 83.9 93 103.5 110.1 124.2 134.8 148.9 161.4 171.9 175.5 186.1 0.0168 0.0167 0.0167 0.0166 0.0166 0.0166 0.0165 0.0165 0.0163 0.0163 0.0162 0.0161 0.0160 0.0160 0.0159

Plot 5: Variation of Hall voltage with current passing through it, for different values of magnetic field for probe - 2.

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13–20th January 2010

Calculations
As mentioned above in the theory section, that, 𝐸𝑦 𝜇𝐸𝑥 𝜇 1 𝑅 = = = = 𝐽𝑥 𝐻 𝐽𝑥 𝜎 𝑛𝑒 where 𝜇 is mobility of the charge carriers and 𝜎 is the conductivity. 𝑛 is the negative carrier density. Hence for fixed magnetic field and fixed input current, the Hall voltage is proportional to 1 𝑛. It follows that, 𝑅 𝜇 = 𝜎 Calculation of Hall Coefficient 𝑹 : The Hall coefficient 𝑅 or 𝑅𝐻 has already been calculated for the two types of Germanium (Ge) semiconductor crystals in the tables above. As mentioned Hall’s coefficient depends only on the number density or carrier density therefore we can collect all the data and find out a collective mean and standard deviation. For Ge semi-conductor probe – 1 (3833): Mean Hall coefficient: −0.0171 𝑚3 𝐶 Standard deviation: 0.0042 For Ge semi-conductor probe – 2 (3911): Mean Hall coefficient: 0.0197 𝑚3 /𝐶 Standard deviation: 0.0072 Calculation of carrier density 𝒏 : For Ge semi-conductor probe – 1 (3833): 𝑛 = ⟹ 𝑛1 =

1 −0.0171 × −1.6 × 10−19

1 𝑅𝑒 𝒏𝟏

= 𝟑. 𝟔𝟓 × 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟎 𝒎−𝟑 Similarly, for Ge semi-conductor probe – 2 (3911): 𝑛2 = 1 0.0197 × 1.6 × 10−19 𝒏𝟐

= 𝟑. 𝟏𝟕 × 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟎 𝒎−𝟑 Calculation of carrier mobility 𝝁 : For Ge semi-conductor probe – 1 (3833): 𝜇 = 𝑅𝜎 ⟹ 𝜇1 = 0.0171 × 10 𝝁𝟏 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟕𝟏 𝒎𝟐 𝑽−𝟏 𝒔−𝟏 For Ge semi-conductor probe – 2 (3911): 𝜇2 = 0.0197 × 10 𝝁𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟗𝟕 𝒎𝟐 𝑽−𝟏 𝒔−𝟏 14 | H a l l E f f e c t

13–20th January 2010

Inference
    The Hall voltage depends on the magnetic field and the current flowing through the probe. The Hall coefficient whereas, is independent of these two factors and depends only upon the density of the charge carriers. The two probes,  Probe – 1 (3833): n-type semiconductor  Probe – 2 (3911): p-type semiconductor The measured/calculated Hall coefficient for the two given probes,  Probe – 1 (3833) = −0.0171 ± 0.0042 𝑚3 /𝐶  Probe – 2 (3911) = 0.0197 ± 0.0072 𝑚3 /𝐶 Using the above result we also calculated the charge carrier density and carrier mobility for the two probes which are found to be,  Carrier density for Probe – 1 (3833) = 3.65 × 1020 𝑚−3  Carrier density for Probe – 2 (3911) = 3.17 × 1020 𝑚−3   Carrier mobility for Probe – 1 (3833) = 0.171 𝑚2 𝑉 −1 𝑠 −1 Carrier mobility for Probe – 2 (3911) = 0.197 𝑚2 𝑉 −1 𝑠 −1

Sources of Error
The following may account for the errors associated with this experiment.  Due to temperature fluctuation thermo – EMF and corresponding heating – current are generated. Hence these affect the reading of Hall voltage.  The calibration of the magnetic field with current is done at 10x scale for larger values of current. Thus errors creep in due to measurement in this scale.  When the hall probe is inserted manually the probe may be relatively tilted with the axis of magnetic field coils.  The contact pins on the semiconductor surface should be adjusted properly to completely remove the zero error in Hall voltage or should be noted and taken care of.

References
1. On a new action of the magnet on electric currents. Hall, E.H. 3, 1879, American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 2, pp. 287-292. 2. Ashcroft, Neil W. and Mermin, N. David. [ed.] Dorothy Garbose Crane. Solid State Physics. s.l. : Harcourt College Publishers, 1976. 3. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, Kolkata. Roorkee : Scientific Equipment & Services. User's Manual.

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