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In early childhood, children learn to be more precise with their movement.

“They have
an increase in speed of 12 feet per second while running. They have more effective
actions in their upper and lower body skills. Children learn to skip and sideways step,
gallop, pump their legs on the swings by themselves, and ride bicycles and scooters”
(Berk, 2012, p. 179).
“During the elementary school years, children’s vocabulary increases and exceeds
comprehension of 40,000 words. As with toddlers and preschoolers, elementary children
can learn proper sentence structure from conversations with older speakers” (Berk,
2012, p. 380). “Children during their early school years may have better receptive
language development if they have a close relationship with their teacher. This is due to
the one-on-one conversations that occur” (Spilt, Koomen, & Harrison, 2015).
In the early childhood years, “children are able to learn organized spatial arrangements.
While drawing a picture they are able to overlap objects, create size differences, and use
diagonal placement” (Berk, 2012, p. 242). “Children become increasingly aware that

make-believe and other pretend activities are representational activities” (Berk, 2012, p.
248).
“During early childhood, children become much more aware about their self-evaluation.
They show much more pride when they succeed in difficult rather than easy tasks and
much more shame when they fail simple rather than hard tasks. Preschoolers also
verbalize a variety of emotional self-regulation strategies” (Berk, 2012, p. 408, 410).
These skills help their social and emotional skills grow.
“Delayed gratification is starting to develop in the early childhood years. They are
starting to be able to have self-control over temptations. Self-control also helps with
physical aggression. Physical aggression decreases in the early childhood years as
children have the language skills to communicate with their peers” (Berk, 2012, p. 515,
518).
“A young child that does not have a mother who is labels emotions, explain them, or
express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with their preschooler, may lack
emotional understanding. They may struggle to get along with others and lack
understanding of emotional cues” (Berk, 2012, p. 416).
The family’s culture may impact the child’s early self-concept. While some cultures
focus on establishing positive self-esteem and do not focus on the child’s wrong doing,
others find it important to discuss them through story-telling and focus on rules. This
impacts how the child sees themselves within their community and family” (Berk,
20012, p. 451).
“For a child who is deaf, a delay that may come to the surface during the early childhood
years is the use of theory of the mind. This may lead to a delay in the child’s social skills

ability. The child may have lacked social interactions to understand the needs and wants
of others and how to communicate those needs. Once the deaf child begins to develop
greater proficiency in language, signing, and communicating, and experiences increased
opportunities for social interaction with deaf peers and teachers, the social environment
may be expected to become more conducive to theory of mind development” (Russell,
Hosie, Gray, Scott, Hunter, Banks, & Macaulay, 1998). Another delay that becomes
present during early childhood is a speech delay. A young child who is not able to speak
clearly simple words or speak in simple sentences may have a delay and need a referral
to a speech therapist.
Children that read daily have a better understanding of vocabulary and sentence
structure. Families can help children with their language development by reading
together and by having the child read to them. Another fun way that parents can help
their child’s development in the early childhood years is by playing make-believe with
them. This will help them work on social skills like sharing, taking turns, and
collaborating thoughts as well as their cognitive development.
Here is an amazing video that helps parents and caretakers understand how to help our
young children develop. Please take a few moments to view, The Genius in Every Child:
Early Childhood (2002), http://digital.films.com.proxylibrary.ashford.edu/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=18596&xtid=60343
References
Berk, L. E. (2013).Child development. (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Films Media Group. (2002). The Genius in Every Child: Early Childhood. Retrieved from:
http://digital.films.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=18596&xtid=60343
Russell, R., Hosie, J., Gray, C., Scott, C., Hunter, N., Banks, J., & Macaulay, M. (1998). The
development of theory of mind in deaf children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry,
39(6), 903-910.
Spilt, J., Koomen, H., & Harrison, L. (2015). Language development in the early school years:
the importance of close relationships with teachers. Developmental Psychology, 51(2), 85-196.