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“Children during the middle childhood stage are gaining muscle which leads to increase

in running speed and fluid motions while moving. Ball handling at this stage switches
from awkward slaps to a stroke as eye-hand coordination ability strengthens”(Berk, 2012,
p. 179).
Language development is refined during the middle childhood years. “Changes in
processing strategies, refinement of semantic and syntactic knowledge, and the
development of metalinguistic ability all happen during the middle childhood.
Paraphrasing and complex sentence structures are examples of language development
that happens during this time” (Hoar, 1978).
“Cognitive changes happen that heighten children's ability to reflect on their own
successes and failures. They learn strategies for learning. They are able to retrieve

information and use it to solve problems. Not only do they learn to reflect on themselves,
they also understand that others may have a different view point from their own and have
their own idea” (Eccles, 1999).
“Between the ages of 6 and 8, as they become aware of the difference between feeling an
emotion and expressing it- children increasingly reserve the full performance of
emotional expressions for communicating with others. They have a mental level of
emotional self-communication. Children are also able to understand a wider range of
emotions and take multiple cues into account in assessing others’ feelings” (Berk, 2012,
p. 412, 417).
During middle childhood, children are able to self-regulate when it comes to their morals.
“They are able to monitor their conduct, and adjust it when circumstances do not align
with their inner standards. They also have many different strategies for delaying
gratification” (Berk, 2012, p. 515, 517).
“School-age children need their parent’s support. They turn to them for affection,
guidance, advice, enhancement of self-worth, and assistance with everyday problems. For
a child who does not have parents that use a parenting style that is involved will not help
their child grow the social skills needed for their independence” (Berk, 2012, p. 577).
“For a child who grows up in a culture who does not see the need for attachment when
the child was a baby may struggle with relationships with peers. They may lack the social
skills needed to have close friendships” (Berk, 2012, p. 439).
By the middle childhood stage, children have learned to read and are enhancing in their
development. A delay may occur for a child who is mixing up letters and having a hard
time reading left to right. They may be delayed in certain areas of reading due to

dyslexia. “A child may also have a language delay if they are having trouble using past
tense. By middle childhood, children should be able to create full statements. If a child is
unable to do this, they may need extra guidance and feedback from adults” (Berk, 2012,
p. 388).
A great way for families to help encourage physical development is by encouraging their
child to be a part of an organized sport. “This will foster self-esteem and their social
skills. Children learn self-confidence and how to be a part of a team and work with their
peers for a common goal” (Berk, 2012, p. 181). Another great way to encourage healthy
living is by having a night of outside hide and seek. The television can be turned off for
the night and the family can get back to nature with fun tag games.
Middle childhood still requires parent interaction and guidance. Please take a moment to
view the video, The Child from 7 to 12 (2001), to see how parent’s guidance is needed
and how it impacts development.
Berk, L. E. (2013).Child development. (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Eccles, J. (1999). The development of children ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44.
Films Media Group. (2001). The Child From 7 to 12. Retrieved from:
Hoar, N. (1978). Some aspects of language development in middle childhood. Retrieved from: