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It is generally believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay when he was still a government official under the British Raj. Around 1870, the British rulers of India had declared that singing of God Save the Queen would be mandatory. He wrote it in a spontaneous session using words from two languages he was expert in, Sanskrit and Bengali. However, the song was initially highly criticized for the difficulty in pronunciation of some of the words. The song first appeared in Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay's book Anandamatha (pronounced Anondomôţh in Bengali), published in 1882 amid fears of a ban by British Raj. However, the song itself was actually written in 1876. Jadunath Bhattacharya set the tune for this song just after it was written.
The flag raised by Bhikaiji Cama in 1907 "Vande Mataram" was the national cry for freedom from British oppression during the freedom movement. Large rallies, fermenting initially in Bengal, in the major metropolis of Calcutta, would work themselves up into a patriotic fervour by shouting the slogan "Vande Mataram," or "Hail to the Mother(land)!". The British, fearful of the potential danger of an incited Indian populace, at one point banned the utterance of the motto in public forums, and imprisoned many freedom fighters for disobeying the proscription. Rabindranath Tagore sang Vande Mataram in 1896 at the Calcutta Congress Session held at Beadon Square. Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years later in 1901 at another session of the Congress at Calcutta. Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares Congress Session in 1905. Lala Lajpat Rai started a journal called Vande Mataram from Lahore. Hiralal Sen made India's first political film in 1905 which ended with the chant. Matangini Hazra's last words as she was shot to death by the Crown police were Vande Mataram In 1907, Bhikaiji Cama (1861-1936) created the first version of India's national flag (the Tiranga) in Stuttgart, Germany in 1907. It had Vande Mataram written on it in the middle band  A number of lyrical and musical experiments have been done and many versions of the song have been created and released throughout the 20th century. Many of these versions have employed traditional
South Asian classical ragas. Versions of the song have been visualized on celluloid in a number of films including Leader (film), Amar asha and Anandamath. It is widely believed that the tune set for All India Radio station version was composed by Ravi Shankar.
Jana Gana Mana was chosen as the National Anthem of independent India. Vande Mataram was rejected on the grounds that Muslims felt offended by its depiction of the nation as "Mother Durga"—a Hindu goddess— thus equating the nation with the Hindu conception of shakti, divine feminine dynamic force; and by its origin as part of Anandamatha, a novel they felt had an anti-Muslim message (see External links below). In 1937 the Indian National Congress discussed at length the status of the song. It was pointed out then that though the first two stanzas began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the motherland, in later stanzas there are references where the motherland is likened to the Hindu goddess Durga. Therefore, the Congress decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song.
 Rabindranath Tagore on Vande Mataram
"Vande Mataram! These are the magic words which will open the door of his iron safe, break through the walls of his strong room, and confound the hearts of those who are disloyal to its call to say Vande Mataram." (Rabindranath Tagore in Glorious Thoughts of Tagore, p.165) The controversy becomes more complex in the light of Rabindranath Tagore's rejection of the song as one that would unite all communities in India. In his letter to Subhash Chandra Bose (1937) Rabindranath wrote, "The core of Vande Mataram is a hymn to goddess Durga: this is so plain that there can be no debate about it. Of course Bankimchandra does show Durga to be inseparably united with Bengal in the end, but no Mussulman [Muslim] can be expected patriotically to worship the ten-handed deity as 'Swadesh' [the nation]. This year many of the special [Durga] Puja numbers of our magazines have quoted verses from Vande Mataram - proof that the editors take the song to be a hymn to Durga. The novel Anandamath is a work of literature, and so the song is appropriate in it. But Parliament is a place of union for all religious groups, and there the song cannot be appropriate.
When Bengali Mussalmans show signs of stubborn fanaticism, we regard these as intolerable. When we too copy them and make unreasonable demands, it will be selfdefeating." In a postscript to this same letter Rabindranath says, "Bengali Hindus have become agitated over this matter, but it does not concern only Hindus. Since there are strong feelings on both sides, a balanced judgement is essential. In pursuit of our political aims we want peace, unity and good will - we do not want the endless tug of war that comes from supporting the demands of one faction over the other."  In the last decade Vande Mataram has been used as a rallying cry by Hindu nationalists in India, who have challenged the status of the current national anthem by Rabindranath.
 Dr. Rajendra Prasad on Vande Mataram
Dr. Rajendra Prasad, who was presiding the Constituent Assembly on January 24, 1950, made the following statement which was also adopted as the final decision on the issue: The composition consisting of words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations as the Government may authorise as occasion arises, and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honored equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it. (Applause) I hope this will satisfy members. (Constituent Assembly of India, Vol. XII, 24-1-1950)
 Controversy in 2006
On August 22, 2006, there was a row in the Lok Sabha of the Indian Parliament over whether singing of Vande Mataram in schools should be made mandatory. The ruling coalition (UPA) and Opposition members debated over the Government's stance that singing the National Song Vande Mataram on September 7, 2006 to mark the 125th year celebration of its creation should be voluntary. This led to the House to be adjourned twice. Human Resources Development Minister Arjun Singh noted that it was not binding on citizens to sing the song. Arjun Singh had earlier asked all state governments to ensure that the first two stanzas of the song were sung in all schools on that day. BJP Deputy Leader V K Malhotra wanted the Government to clarify whether singing the national song on September 7 in schools was mandatory or not. On August 28, targeting the BJP, Congress
spokesman Abhishek Singhvi said that in 1998 when Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee of the BJP was the Prime Minister, the BJP supported a similar circular issued by the Uttar Pradesh government to make the recitation compulsory. But Mr Vajpayee had then clarified that it was not necessary to make it compulsory. On September 7, 2006, the nation celebrated the National Song. Television channels showed school children singing the song at the notified time. Some Muslim groups had discouraged parents from sending their wards to school on the grounds, after the BJP had repeatedly insisted that the National Song must be sung. However, many Muslims did participate in the celebrations.
 Support for Vande Mataram
 Muslim institutions and Vande Mataram
Though a number of Muslim organizations and individuals have opposed Vande Mataram being used as a "national song" of India, citing many religious reasons, some Muslim personalities have admired and even praised Vande Mataram as the "National Song of India" . Arif Mohammed Khan, a former member of parliament for the Bharatiya Janata Party wrote an Urdu translation of Vande Mataram which starts as Tasleemat, maan tasleemat. In 2006, amidst the controversy of whether singing of the song in schools should be mandatory or optional, some Indian Muslims did show support for singing the song. All India Sunni Ulema Board on Sept 6, 2006 issued a fatwa that the Muslims can sing the first two verses of the song. The Board president Moulana Mufti Syed Shah Badruddin Qadri Aljeelani said that "If you bow at the feet of your mother with respect, it is not shirk but only respect." Shia scholar and All India Muslim Personal Law Board vicepresident Maulana Kalbe Sadiq stated on Sept 5, 2006 that scholars need to examine the term "vande". He asked, "Does it mean salutation or worship?"
 Sikh Institutions and Vande Mataram
Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee or SGPC, the paramount representative body in the Sikh Panth, stated through its media department that all its 100 schools and colleges had been ordered to say `No' to the song. In a subsequent interview their chief Jathedar Avtar Singh Makkar stated that "The Sikh children would sing Vande Mataram and Deh Shiva Var Mohe, the song scripted by tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh in the morning prayers". He also said "What is wrong with the Vande Mataram? It is a national song and speaks of patriotism. We are part of the Indian nation and Sikhs have
greatly contributed for its independence." However Dal Khalsa, Delhi Sikh Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee and other International Sikh organisations supporting Khalistan have criticized the SGPC chief.
 Christian institutions and Vande Mataram
Fr Cyprian Kullu, in Bihar said in an interview with AsiaNews: "The song is a part of our history and national festivity and religion should not be dragged into such mundane things. The Vande Mataram is simply a national song without any connotation that could violate the tenets of any religion." However some Christian institutions such as Our Lady of Fatima Convent School in Patiala did not sing the song on its 100th anniversary as mandated by the state.
 Vande Mataram in Movies
The Vande Mataram theme has been used on a few Bollywood movie songs. In 1954, poet Pradeep used the expression in a song in Jagriti: aao bachchon tumhen dikhaayen jhaanki hindustaan ki is mitti se tilak karo ye dharati hai balidaan ki vande maataram ...  The most recent song inspired by Vande Mataram is in Lage Raho Munnabhai: Ainak pehne, lathi pakde chalte the woh shaan se Zaalim kaape thar thar, thar thar, sun kar unka naam re. Kadd tha unka chota sa aur sarpat unki chal re Duble se patle se the woh, chalte seena taan ke Bande mein tha dum, Vande Mataram 
 Text of Vande Mataram
 Version adopted by Congress, 1905
In Devanagari script वनदे मातरम् सुजला सुफला मलयजशीतलाम् शसयशयामला मातरम् | शुभ जयोतसना पुलिित यािमनीम् फुलल िसुिमत दमदलशोििनीम् , ु ु सुहािसनी सुमधुर िाििणीम् सुखदा वरदा मातरम् || Devanagari transliteration vande mātaram sujalāṃ suphalāṃ In Bengali script
বেে মাতরম সুজলাং সুফলাং মলযজশীতলাম শসয শযামলাং মাতরম | শভ োজযাতস পুলিিত যািমনীম ফুল িুসুিমত দমদলেশািিনীম, সুহািসনীং সুমধুর িািিণীম সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম ||
Bengali Romanization bônde matorom shujolang shufolang
malayajaśītalām sasya śyāmalāṃ mātaram śubhra jyotsnā pulakita yāminīm phulla kusumita drumadalaśobhinīm suhāsinīṃ sumadhura bhāṣiṇīm sukhadāṃ varadāṃ mātaram
môloeôjoshitolam shoshsho shêmolang matorom shubhro jotsna pulokito jaminim fullo kushumito drumodôloshobhinim shuhashining shumodhuro bhashinim shukhodang bôrodang matorom
 Full Version in Anandamath
In Bengali script In Devanagari script सुजला सुफला मलयजशीतलाम् शसयशयामला मातरम् . शुभ-जयोतसनाम् पुलिितयािमनीम् फुललिसुिमत दमदलशोििनीम् , ु ु सुहािसनी सुमधुर िाििणीम् . सुखदा वरदा मातरम् ॥ सपतिोिि िणठ िलिल िननाद िराले ििसपत िोिि िुजैधधत खरिरवाले े ि बोले मा तुमी अबले बहबल धािरणीम् नमािम तािरणीम् ु िरपुदलवािरणीम् मातरम् ॥ तुिम िवदा तुिम धमध, तुिम हिद तुिम ममध तव ि ं ह पाणाःशरीरे बाहते तुिम मा शिित, ु हृदये तुिम मा ििित, तोमारै पितमा गिि मिनदरे-मिनदरे ॥ तव ि ं ह दगादशपहरणधािरणी ु िमला िमलदल िवहािरणी वाणी िवदादाियनी, नमािम तवाम् नमािम िमला अमला अतुलाम् सुजला सुफला मातरम् ॥ शयामला सरला सुिसमता िूििताम् धरणी िरणी मातरम् ॥
সুজলাং সুফলাং মলয়জশীতলাম শসযশযামলাং মাতরম॥ শভেজযাতসা পুলিিতযািমনীম পুলিুসুিমত দমদলেশািিনীম সুহািসনীং সুমধুর িািিণীম সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম॥ োিািি োিািি িণ িলিলিননাদ িরােল োিািি োিািি িুৈজধৃৃতখরিরবােল োি বেল মা তুিম অবেল বহবলধািরণীং নমািম তািরণীম িরপুদলবািরণীং মাতরম॥ তুিম িবদযা তুিম ধমৃ, তুিম হিদ তুিম মমৃ তং িহ পাণ শরীের বাহেত তুিম মা শিি হদেয় তুিম মা িিি োতামাৈর পিতমা গিি় মিেের মিেের॥ তং িহ দগৃা দশপহরণধািরণী িমলা িমলদল িবহািরণী বাণী িবদযাদািয়নী তাম নমািম িমলাং অমলাং অতুলাম সুজলাং সুফলাং মাতরম॥ শযামলাং সরলাং সুিিতাং িূিিতাম ধরণীং িরণীং মাতরম॥
Mother, I salute thee! Rich with thy hurrying streams, bright with orchard gleams, Cool with thy winds of delight, Green fields waving Mother of might, Mother free. Glory of moonlight dreams, Over thy branches and lordly streams, Clad in thy blossoming trees, Mother, giver of ease Laughing low and sweet! Mother I kiss thy feet, Speaker sweet and low! Mother, to thee I bow. Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands When swords flash out in seventy million hands And seventy million voices roar Thy dreadful name from shore to shore? With many strengths who art mighty and stored, To thee I call Mother and Lord! Thou who saves, arise and save! To her I cry who ever her foe drove Back from plain and sea And shook herself free. Thou art wisdom, thou art law, Thou art heart, our soul, our breath Though art love divine, the awe In our hearts that conquers death. Thine the strength that nerves the arm, Thine the beauty, thine the charm. Every image made divine In our temples is but thine. Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen, With her hands that strike and her swords of sheen, Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned, And the Muse a hundred-toned, Pure and perfect without peer, Mother lend thine ear, Rich with thy hurrying streams, Bright with thy orchard gleems, Dark of hue O candid-fair In thy soul, with jewelled hair And thy glorious smile divine, Loveliest of all earthly lands, Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine! Mother sweet, I bow to thee, Mother great and free!
translated by Sri Aurobindo
1. The fact that Vande Mataram is still popular today can be attested to by the fact that in 2002 it was the voted the second most requested song by listeners on the BBC's World Service radio. However, in the final ranking details, the origin was miscredited to a 1950's film. 2. Throughout its history there have been numerous remakes, recreations, and interpretations of this song. Notable is music composer A. R. Rahman's Vande Mataram released to commemorate fifty years of India's Independence in 1997 produced by Bharat Bala Productions. 3. The controversy surrounding Vande Mataram is not unique. There has also been some controversy around Jana Gana Mana as the national anthem. 4. This is not the only song/verse with Vande Mataram as a start. There is a Sanskrit verse that has been quoted since time immemorial; and is very popular as a felicitation/sloka singing in south Indian carnatic music. The verses are as follows: Vande maataram Ambikaam Bhagavathi Vaaneeramaa Sevitham Kalyaani Kamaneeya Kalpalathikaa Kailaasa Naadha Priyaam Vedaantha Prathipaadyamaana Vibhavam Vidhvan Manoranjani Sri Chakraankitha Ratna Peettha Nilayaam Sreeraja Rajeswari Sreeraja Rajeswari Sreeraja Rajeswari
 See also
Indian National Anthem Saare Jahan Se Achcha
1. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/mataram.htm 2. ^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (1997). Local Politics and Indian Nationalism: Midnapur (19193. 4. 5. 6.
1944). New Delhi: Manohar, 167. ^ http://rajyasabha.nic.in/photo/pm/p2.html ^ (Letter #314, Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore, edited by K. Datta and A. Robinson, Cambridge University Press) ^ "BJP vs Congress: It’s Vande vs Kandahar", Asian Age, 2006-08-28. ^ a b c http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5324398.stm
8. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1964371.cms 9. ^ http://www.ibnlive.com/news/if-vande-means-salutation-muslims-to-sing-along/207623.html
10. ^ http://indiamonitor.com/news/readNews.jsp?ni=564 11. ^ http://www.sikhsangat.org/publish/article_1327.shtml 12. ^ http://www.asianews.it/view.php?l=en&art=7158 13. ^ http://www.punjabnewsline.com/content/view/1477/38/ 14. ^
http://www.hindilyrix.com/songs/get_song_Aao%20Bachhon%20Tumhen%20Dikhaaye. html 15. ^ http://www.lagerahomunnabhai.com/a5.htm 16. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/us/features/topten/profiles/index.shtml#vande
1. Much Ado About A Song By Sumit Sarkar The Times of India, Bangalore, August 31, 2006.
Jana Gana Mana
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Sheet music for Jana Gana Mana.
Jana Gana Mana (Bengali: জন গণ মন Jôno Gôno Mono; Sanskrit: जन गण मनJana Gana Mana— "Thou art the ruler of the minds of All People") is the national anthem of India. Originally written in Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of an ode composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. This was first sung on 27 December 1911, at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress, Jana Gana Mana was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem in January 24, 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally. The music for the current version is derived from a composition for the song by Ram Singh Thakur.
• • • • • • • •
1 Lyrics o 1.1 Translation into English 2 Controversies 3 English composition in Madanapalle 4 Media 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links
Although written in Bengali, the pronunciation of the anthem varies considerably across India due to the country's extensive linguistic diversity. The transcription below reflects the original Bengali pronunciation, in both the Bengali script and Romanization. Many of the silent letters found in the lyrics are pronounced by speakers of other Indian languages, reflecting a spelling pronunciation of the Bengali text, and often matching the pronunciation of the cognate words in the speaker's native language. Bengali script Bengali romanisation
Jôno gôno mono odhinaeoko jôeô he Bharoto bhaggo bidhata Pônjabo Shindhu Gujoraţo Môraţha
জন গণ মন অিধনায়ি জয় োহ িারত িাগয িবধাতা পঞাব িসনু গজরাি মরাঠা
NLK romanisation Jana gaṇa mana adhināyaka jaya hē Bhārata bhāgya bidhātā Pañjāba Sindhu
দািবি় উতিল বঙ িবনয িহমাচল যমুনা গঙা উচল জলিধ তরঙ তব শি নােম জােগ তব শি আিশস মােগ গােহ তব জয়গাথা জন গণ মঙল দায়ি জয় োহ িারত িাগয িবধাতা জয় োহ, জয় োহ, জয় োহ, জয় জয় জয়, জয় োহ॥
Drabiŗo Utkôlo Bônggo Bindho Himachôlo Jomuna Gôngga Uchchhôlo jôlodhi toronggo Tôbo shubho name jage Tôbo shubho ashish mage Gahe tôbo jôeogatha Jôno gôno monggolo daeoko jôeô he Bharoto bhaggo bidhata Jôeo he, jôeo he, jôeo he, jôeo jôeo jôeo, jôeo he
Gujarāṭa Marāṭhā Drābiḍa Utkala Baṅga Bindhya Himācala ẏamunā Gaṅgā Ucchala jaladhi taraṅga Taba śubha nāmē jāgē Taba śubha āśisa māgē Gāhē taba jaya gāthā Jana gaṇa maṅgala dāyaka jaya hē Bhārata bhāgya bidhātā Jaya hē jaya hē jaya hē Jaya jaya jaya jaya hē
 Translation into English
O! Dispenser of India's destiny, thou art the ruler of the minds of all people. Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, the Maratha country, in the Dravida country, Utkala (Orissa) and Bengal; It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, it mingles in the rhapsodies of the pure waters of Jamuna and the Ganges. They chant only thy name. They sing only the glory of thy victory. They seek only thy auspicious blessings. The salvation of all people waits in thy hands, O dispenser of India's destiny! Victory, Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.
Rabindranath Tagore Controversy exists regarding the appropriateness of Jana Gana Mana as the national anthem of an independent India. The poem was composed in December 1911, precisely at the time of the Coronation Durbar of George V, and is a paean in praise of "the overlord of India's destiny". The composition was first sung during a convention of the then loyalist Indian National Congress in Calcutta on Dec. 27, 1911. It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the Indian press: "The Bengali poet Babu Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor." (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911) "The proceedings began with the singing by Babu Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor." (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911) "When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously." (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911) The belief gained ground that the poem had been written in honour of the visiting monarch. Others aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided, the confusion arising since a different song, written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary, was sung  on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. However, the two poems were written in different languages; Tagore already enjoyed much fame in India, and newspaper reports are both consistent and categorical on
the point of Tagore having himself sung his composition on the occasion. Other explanations for the motivations that informed the creation of the poem have been proposed. On a visit to India, the poet Yeats received a visit from an Indian admirer who was also, in Yeats' words, "an Indian devotee" of Tagore. In a letter to a lady friend, Yeats quoted this unnamed devotee as giving him a 'strictly off the records' version of events dealing with the writing of Jana Gana Mana. That version, as presented in 1968 by the Indian Express newspaper, was this: "He (Tagore) got up very early in the morning and wrote a very beautiful poem.... When he came down, he said to one of us, 'Here is a poem which I have written. It is addressed to God, but give it to Congress people. It will please them."
Thus, Tagore is said to have written the poem in honour of God. In a letter to Pulin Behari Sen, Tagore himself wrote:  "A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense." In 2005, there were calls to delete the word "Sindh" and substitute it with the word Kashmir. The argument was that Sindh was no longer a part of India, having become part of Pakistan as a result of the Partition of 1947. Opponents of this proposal hold that the word "Sindh" refers to the Indus and to Sindhi culture and people which are an integral part of India's cultural fabric. The Supreme Court of India refused to tamper with the national anthem and the wording remains unchanged.
 English composition in Madanapalle
Rabindranath Tagore translated Jana Gana Mana from Bengali to English and also set it to music in Madanapalle, a town in Andhra Pradesh. Though the Bengali song had been written in 1911 itself, it had remained largely confined to the pages of the Arya Samaj journal, "Tatva Bodha Prakasika", of which Tagore was the editor. During 1918-19, Tagore accepted an invitation from friend and controversial Irish poet James H. Cousins to spend a few days at the Besant Theosophical College, of which Cousins was the principal. On the evening of February 28, he joined a gathering of students and upon Cousins' request, sang the Jana Gana Mana in Bengali. In the days that followed, enchanted by the dreamy hills of Madanapalle, Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song and along with Cousins' wife, Margaret (an expert in Western music), set down the notation which is followed till this day. Today, in the library of Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, the framed original English translation is displayed.
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 See also
Vande Mataram Jana Gana Mana Video
1. ^ Jana Gana Mana Highly Sanskrit. Education Department of India. National Informatics
Centre (NIC). Retrieved on 2007-07-16. “The national Anthem of India, Jana-GanaMana, composed by Rabindranath Tagore, is 90% Sanskrit and 10% Sanskritic, and hence is understood all over India.” ^ Jana Gana Mana (India's National Anthem) - An Inferential Linguistic Analysis (HTML). Hamilton Institute. Retrieved on 2007-07-16. ^ a b National Anthem - Know India. Nation Portal of India. Government of India. ^ (1999) in Bhatt, P.C.: Constituent Assembly Debates. Lok Sabha Secretariat. ^ Volume XII. Tuesday, the 24th January 1950. Online Transcript, Constituent Assembly Debates ^ A tribute to the legendary composer of National Anthem The Tribune ^ Rabindranath Tagore ^ India: Are we still singing for the Empire? by Pradip Kumar Datta ^ Genesis of Jana Gana Mana
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10. ^ Tagore and Jana Gana Mana, Monish R. Chatterjee, University of Dayton. 11. ^ Vani Doraisamy. India beats: A Song for the Nation (HTML) (English). The Hindu.
Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
Dutta, K & A Robinson (1995), Rabindranath Tagore: The Myriad-Minded Man, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-14030-4.
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