Chapter I Statement of the Problem, Significance of the study and Causes Statement of the Problem: This research/study

will answer the following questions that help us in understanding all factors inside on the study. 1. What is drug addiction? 2. Why people used drugs? 3. Why do people become addicted? 4. What will happen to the people who use drugs? 5. What are the disadvantages of drug addiction? 6. How do you prevent drug addiction? 7. How do you prevent drug abuse? Significance of the study This study is important for everyone because it will help us to understand and know all about drug addiction, why is it that some people uses drugs, why some people become addicted, what will happen to them, the causes and how to prevent this problem of our society and community. This study will help and teach us also how to avoid form drugs and how to have a good life and health if we will avoid and prevent drugs from using it.

Background of Drug Addiction Drug Addiction Is a pathological or abnormal condition which arises due to frequent drug used? The disorder of addiction involves the progression of acute drug use to the development of drug-seeking behavior, the vulnerability to relapse, and the decreased, slowed ability to respond to naturally rewarding stimuli. The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) has categorized three stages of addiction: preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication, and withdrawal/negative affect. These stages are characterized, respectively, everywhere by constant craving and preoccupation with obtaining with the substance; using more of the substance than necessary to experience the intoxicating effects; and experiencing tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and decreased motivation for normal life activities. By the American society of Addiction Medicine definition, drug addiction differs from drug dependence and drug tolerance. Drug Addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). It is characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable, drug craving, seeking, and use that persist even in the face of extremely negative consequences.

Causes of Drug Addiction Drugs known to cause addiction include illegal drugs as well as prescription or over-the-counter drugs, according to the definition of the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Addictive drugs also include a large number of substrates that are currently considered to have no medical value and are not available over the counter of by prescription. What makes one person abuse drugs to the point of losing their home, their family and their job, while another does not? There is no one simple reason. Drug abuse and addiction is due to many factors. A powerful force in addiction is the inability to self-soothe or get relief from untreated mental or physical pain. Without the self-resilience and support to handle stress, loneliness or depression, drugs can be a tempting way to deal with the situation. Unfortunately, due to the changes drugs make to the brain, it cans only take a few times or even one time to be on the road to addiction. Some other risk factors include:

Family history of addiction. While the interplay between genetics and environment is not entirely clear, if you have family history of addiction, you are at higher risk for abusing drugs.

History of mental illness. Drug abuse can worsen mental illness or even create new symptoms. Untreated physical pain. Without medical supervision, pain medications or illegal drugs like heroin can rapidly become addictive. Peer pressure. If people around you are doing drugs, it can be difficult to resist the pressure to try them, especially if you are a teenager.

Chapter II Classification of Drugs, their effects, And the Disadvantages Specific Drugs and their Effects Drug Name: Alcohol Drug type: Depressant Factor for parents: 25% of 8th graders have admitted to doing intoxicated at least once. Other Names: Beer, wine, liquor, malt liquor, booze How Consumed: Orally Effects: Addiction, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, hangovers slurred speech, disturbed sleep, impaired motor skills, violent behavior, fetal alcohol syndrome, respiratory depression and death (high doses). Drug Name: Amphetamines Drug type: Stimulants Factor for parents: Chronic use can induce psychosis with symptoms similar to schizophrenia. Other Names: Speed, uppers, ups, hearts, black beauties, pep pills, capilots, bumble bees, Benzedrine, Dexedrine, football, biphetamine How Consumed: Orally, injected, snorted, or smoked Effects: Addiction, irritability, anxiety, increased blood pressure, paranoia, psychosis, depression, aggression, convulsions, dilated pupils, dizziness, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, malnutrition. Increased risk of exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious disease if injected. Drug Name: Metaphetamines Drug type: Stimulants Factor for parents: Some users avoid sleep 3 to 15 days. Other Names: speed, meth, crank, crystal, ice, fire, croak, cypto, white cross, glass. “Ice” is the street name for the smoke able form. How consumed: orally, injected, snorted, or smoked Effects: addiction, irritability, aggression, hypothermia, stroke, paranoia, psychosis, convulsion, heart and blood vessel toxicity, hallucination, arrhythmia, formication (the sensation of insects creeping on or under your skin).

Drug Name: Ecstasy Drug type: Stimulants Factor for parents: ecstasy is popular at all-night underground parties (called raves) and is the most common designer drug. Other Names: XTC, Adam, MDMA How Consumed: Orally Effects: Psychiatric disturbance, including panic, anxiety, depression, and paranoia. Muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, sweating, increased heart rate, tremors, hallucinations, fainting, chills, sleep problems, and reduced appetite. Drug Name: Ritalin Drug type: Stimulant Factor for parents: Some children buy or steal from their classmates Other Names: speed, west coast How Consumed: Tablet is crushed, and the powder is snorted or injected. Effects: Loss of appetite, fevers, convulsions, and severe headaches. Increased risk of exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other infections. Paranoia, hallucinations, excessive repetition of movements and meaningless tasks, tremors, muscle twitching. Drug Name: Herbal Ecstasy/Ephedrine Drug type: Herbal Ecstasy, cloud 9, rave energy, ultimate, xphoria, and X Factor for parents: The active ingredients in Herbal ecstasy are caffeine and ephedrine Other Names: How Consumed: Effects: Drug Name: Drug type: Factor for parents: Other Names: How Consumed: Effects: Drug Name: Drug type: Factor for parents:

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Effects of Drugs Drugs make people bad A common meme, or idea taught to young children to stop them from trying different drugs. This is just another stereotype that is pushed on people. Drugs don’t make people commit crime, drugs don’t make people kill. Drugs can make people bad, but it is close-minded to think that all drugs turn people into somebody worse than they originally were. Some drugs are used to calm people down, and reduce their violent tendencies. Some drugs are highly addictive, and cause people to commit rime to pay for more drugs. Other drugs make people hallucinate. Some drugs make people more aware of thins around them. Other drugs make people vegetable; some cause people to become dependant on them. But use wisely, drugs a foster creativity, and a new state of mind. Drugs themselves don’t make people bad. The people weren’t forced to use drugs, in the end it is their own personality flaws, the drugs only worsened their problems. Effects of drug addiction on health If left unchecked, the drug is going to win. Drug abuse is a disease of the brain, and the drugs change brain chemistry, which results in a change in behavior.

Aside from the obvious behavioral consequences of addiction, the negative effects on a person’s health are potentially devastating. While addicts use rugs to “feel better,” the unintended consequences include but are not limited to overdose, HIV/AIDS, stoke, cardiovascular disease and most of related maladies. Effects of drug addiction on the family One of the saddest aspects of the insidious nature of drug addiction is that by the time an addict realizes he/she has a problem, that problem has already taken a heavy toll on the family. Parents in treatment centers tell counselors and therapists that they want to “get their kids back,” as drug addiction has taken over to the point where the courts have been forced to remove the children from the home. Husband and wives, brothers and sisters, and sadly children are all impacted. Families can be sources of strength and support, or they can passively enable the addiction to advance. Families can share in the victory over drug addiction, or they can be the victims of it. Effects of drug addition on the economy Beyond the personal health issues, beyond the devastating effects on families, beyond community crime statistics, drug addiction has a major impact on the American Economy. The National Institute on Drug Abuse reported that some $67 billion per year is the impact that drug addiction has on this country. This total includes the cost of law enforcement, incarceration, treatments, traffic injuries, lost time in the work place, etc. Drug addiction causes impaired reasoning, and therefore the crime rate is dramatically impacted by drug use. Addicts have a much higher likelihood of committing rimes than others.

Effects of drug addiction on the law The news media report daily struggles with theft, drive-by shootings, drug busts, illegal trafficking and manufacturing of drugs, and arrests for crime ranging from child neglect to murder. Look closer and chances are treating that you will uncover a drug addiction component to any of these stories. Effects of drug addiction on our society The National Library of Medicine estimates that some 20% of all people in the United States have used prescriptions medication for non-medical purpose. We’re not talking about cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine use, but doctorprescribed mediation. You can easily see that if you group the two together, illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse, we have a hue problem.

Disadvantages of Drug Addiction • Spend all money • Unhealthy • Risk freedom • Risking life • Hanging with grimy people • Waste gas • Waste time • Waste money • Put your self in chaotic situations • Disappointment from family loss of employment or missed days • Feel like crap • Look and feel dirty • Don’t sleep for drug • Don’t eat for days • Neglect hygiene • Don’t pay bills • Look and act stupid • Always paranoid • Hallucinations after a few days • Chronic coughing afterwards • So drained after • Takes forever to come down and calm • Having to start over • Shame • Depressed real load • Feeling worthless • Never satisfied…need more and more • The high is never “THEE” one

DRUG ADDICTION AND PREVENTION AUBREY M. AVILA

MR. LITO BALATAN

PSYCHOLOGY 1 FEBRUARY 24, 2010 DEDICATION

To my loving parents Larry C. Avila And Rubelyn M. Avila. To my friends And Relatives.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research wishes to express her sincerer thanks and high appreciation to the following persons for their guidance and assistance. Mr. Lito Balatan, my professor, for his supervision, valuable suggestions, comments and his support he gave me in doing this research possible. My friends and relatives in one way or another have given me the support and encouragement in doing this research. To my parents, Mr. & Mrs. Larry C. Avila who are very supportive to my aspirations both financial and moral support they gave to me, their invaluable contributions has given me the strength and encouragement to make this research. Above all, to our God, for giving me strength, knowledge and wisdom for the completion of this study.

INTRODUCTION Drug addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Its characteristics include: an overpowering desire or need to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means; a tendency to increase the dose; a psychic and generally a physical dependence on the effects of the drug; and detrimental effects on the individual and on society. Drug addiction has become a big problem of our society because people who are using and taking it is abusing it well. It’s because of many reasons, such as; they want to forget their problem, to have fun, and many more. They don’t know what are the side effects of the drugs in their health and in our society.

RECOMMENDATION Drug addiction is a pathological or abnormal condition, and it is a complex brain disease. And because of this, people who take drugs make them bad, commit crime to pay for more drugs, and some people make them hallucination. It has bad effects to a person who take it, especially to his/her health. Because if drugs, it may spend all your money, become unhealthy, risk your freedom and life, hanging with grimy people, waste gas, waste time, waste money, put your self in chaotic situations, disappointment from your family, feel like crap, look and feel dirty, neglect hygiene and having to start over. These are the disadvantages of taking drugs. So, if you don’t want to waste everything you have in your life, DON’T EVER USE DRUGS!

CONCLUSION All of us have problem and trials in life. We face and encounter so many hindrances and obstacles in our life too. But these are just a test of God to us, He want to test us if our faith to Him remains even though we encounter many problems and trials in life. But what people do if they encounter such problems? Isn’t it that they drunk, commit suicide and even take drug? Some people take drugs to forget their problem, to have fun, to experiment, to become more confident, to stop feeling bored, to be able to mix with other people and many more. Bit this is nit the solution for us to take drugs because there are so many solutions to this and not drugs. Drug is not good to our health, it also affects our own family, economy, society, and on the law. So, don’t ever use and take drugs if we just want to forget our problems, to celebrate, to relieve pain and to become more confident because it has greater effect to our health. Drug adduction is a complex brain disease. Enjoy your life but not to destroy it!

Chapter III Reasons why do people become addicted, Used, take and abuse drugs Why do people become addicted to drugs? Drug addiction is a big problem in our culture and around the world. Drugs are everywhere and they are very, very available. Whether it is crack cocaine, heroin, marijuana, LSO, alcohol or whatever, drugs are easy to obtain. Dugs harm society as a whole and they also harm individual in so many ways. For two decades, researchers have been struggling to identify the biological and environmental risk factors that can lead to addiction to alcohol and other drugs. These factors form a complex mélange in which the influences combine to bring about addiction and to make its treatment challenging. But scientists know more abut addiction now than they did even 10 years ago, and have learned much about how the risk factors work together. The widely recognized risk factors include:

Genes: Genetics play a significant role having parents with alcoholism, for instance, makes you four times more likely than other children to become alcoholics.

Mental illness: Many addicted people also suffer from mental health disorders, especially anxiety, depression or mood illnesses.

Early use of drugs: The earlier a person begins to use drugs the more likely they are to progress to more serious abuse.

Childhood trauma: Scientists know that abuse or neglect of children, persistent conflict in the family, sexual abuse and other traumatic childhood experiences can shape a child’s brain chemistry and subsequent vulnerability to addiction.

Social environment: People who live, work or go to school in an environment in which the use of drugs is common – such as workplace in which people see heavy drinking as an important way to bond with coworkers are more likely to abuse drugs.

People become addicted because drugs cause changes in brain chemistry. To begin with, that just makes us feel good. Eventually, the drug no longer works as well, and we need more to feel good. We feel bad if we don’t have them. Eventually, they become necessary for anything like “normal” functioning. When we need drugs just to feel normal, we are addicted, and withdrawal usually makes us feel so bad that we convince ourselves that we’ll quit later or that we don’t have a problem. Things go downhill from there. Why do people use drugs? Drugs are fascinating because they can change our awareness. The basic reason people take drugs is to vary their conscious experience. Of course there are many other ways to alter consciousness, such as listening to music, making music, dancing, fasting, chanting, exercising, surfing, meditating, falling in love, hiking in the wilderness, visiting a city, having sex, daydreaming, watching fireworks, going to a movie or play jumping into cold water after taking a hot sauna, participating in religious rituals. The list is probably endless and includes nearly all activities that people put most of their time, energy, and hard-earned money into.

This suggests that changing consciousness is something people like to do. Human being, it seems, are born with a need for periodic variations in consciousness. There are lots of different reasons why people use drugs. Some reasons for using drugs. Some of these reasons are: • to have fun • to experiment • to become more confident • to stop feeling bored • to be able to mix with other people • to relax and stop feeling stressed • to celebrate • to fit in with friends or people at work • to forget problems • to relieve pain People may use drugs for one or more of these reasons and differently. Why do people abuse drugs? Addicts crave drugs – they feel “must” have whatever drug they are addicted to, and they need more and more of it in order to feel satisfied. People who use illegal drugs – and that does include legal drugs used illegally,

Such as prescription medicines and over the counter medicines – are people who do not want to face life. Instead of learning how to deal with their stress and anxiety, they choose to try to hide by taking mind-altering substances. Basically, anytime you take a drug with the idea of changing your mood, you are abusing it. This goes for alcohol and tobacco as well as the “harder” drugs. WHY PEOPLE TAKE DRUGS? DRUGS ARE USED TO ALTER THE WAY THE BRAIN WORKS. Some people say they are curious or bored and want to see how drugs will make them feel. But everyone reacts differently to drugs, and there is just no way to predict what your reaction will be. Some drugs can kill you with just one use – they can cause immediate health consequences like heart attacks, suffocation, and breathing problems – while others, like marijuana, can cause you to become paranoid or behave in ways that aren’t you. The real question is: • By “trying” drugs, do you realize that you’re selling yourself up for even bigger problems? • What’s happening to your passions, your future? • What type of person are you becoming? People, who use drugs, do so because they like what the drugs do to their brains. All drugs of abuse, from alcohol to nicotine to heroin, cause a series of temporary changes in the brain that produce the “high.”

THEY THINK DRUGS WILL HELP WITH STRESS. Other people say that they think they can make themselves feel “good” by taking drugs. They think that if they are unhappy, drugs will make them feel better. And some people say they think that taking drugs might help them to cope with stress in their lives. But drugs don’t fix the problems that they are causing the stress in the first place and they don’t stop the feelings themselves. PEOPLE THINK DRUGS WILL HELP THEM FIT IN. Many people have the misperception that “everyone is doing it.” Not true. In 2007, the vast majority of tenth graders had not used marijuana in the past month, and more than half of all seniors (53.2%) had never tried any illicit drug even once their lives. It can be hard to relate to these facts if some of our friends are using drugs, but what you need to realize, though, is that drugs could eventually become more important to your friends than your friendship. This is especially true when users become addicted because they grow so dependent on and interested in getting high that they no longer have time for friends. THEY THINK DRUGS WILL MAKE THEM SEEM REBELIOUS OR COOL. Sometimes movies, television, and advertisements use images of drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes to make characters seem rebellious or cool to increase the ratings of a show or to sell products. Most people understand these are just images designed to sell products, and that these are not real people or stories, in reality, students who use drugs are more likely to perform poorly in school and people who use drugs are more likely to get fired from work.

THERE ARE RUMRS THAT MARIJUANA HAS MEDCAL BENEFITS. Some websites encourage drug use and mislead visitors into thinking that marijuana cures or effectively treats diseases. This is simply not true. Marijuana is NOT medicine and it does not cure anything. In 1999, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a landmark study that concluded that, for many reasons, “there is little future in smoked marijuana as a medically approved medication,” the overwhelming opinion from major medical institutions, that smoked marijuana has no “documented medical value,” and these associations do not advocate its legalization. THEY HEARD THAT MARIJUANA HAS BEEN LEGALIZED IN SOME STATES. It is not legal. Using marijuana is prohibited by the federal government – it is illegal. While a handful of states have voted to allow a limited number of medical patients to use marijuana, it is not politicians or voters who decide what medicines are safe or effective – doctors and scientists do that. People don’t VOTE to decide what drugs are best to treat a heart attack or which antibiotics are safe for treating an infection. No one wants people to suffer. Bur marijuana is not a cure for disease or illness-period.

THEY HEARD THAT MARIJUANA AND MUSHROOMS GROW NATURALLY SO THEY MUST BE SAFE. Marijuana can also contain chemical additives that are used in the drying process, or it can be combined with other illicit substances. There are even stories of dealers adding formaldehyde (embalming fluids). And, marijuana is often grown and genetically modified to have a very high THC levels. Since 1985, the average marijuana potency has more than doubled. In addition to experiencing many of the same respiratory problems that tobacco users experience, such as more frequent acute chest illness, a heightened risk of lung infections, and a greater tendency to have obstructed airways, recent research has shown that young people who use marijuana weekly have double the risk of depression later in life. THEY FIGURE THAT DRUGS SOLD AT STORIES WITHOUT A PRESCRIPTION MUST BE OK. All drugs, regardless of whether they are illicit, prescription, or over-thecounter, change the body’s function or chemistry from its natural state and can be harmful. For example, even the common drug acetaminophen can cause side effects and liver damage when taken in high dosages.

THEY FIGURE THAT IF IT’S PRESCRIBED BY A DOCTOR, IT MUST BE OK. Prescription drugs can be dangerous and even lethal when taken without medical direction or mixed with other drugs. Misusing or abusing prescription drugs can result to addiction, strokes, seizures, comas, and other severe medical conditions. Only a doctor can know what type of prescription drugs are beneficial for a patient and what dosage is safe. The very reason prescription drugs require a prescription from a doctor is because they can be dangerous and need to be regulated to ensure patients take them as directed.

THEY THINK THAT PRESCRIPTION DRUGS AND STEROIDS WILL IMPROVE THEIR PERFORMANCE AND LOOKS There are a lot of pressures today – to look good, play sports, and get great grades. And you may be feeling those pressures right now. Some teens think they can take a drug to help “improve” their bodies, change how they feel, or get more energy. You may have heard of kids doing this. While drugs like steroids or weight-loss supplements can seem like a “quick fix,” the changes you get can disappear just as fast as soon as you stop taking them. Worse, they can cause problems you don’t want. Males who take steroids may temporarily gain muscle, but they can develop terrible acne, stunt their height, develop shrunken testicles, and even develop breasts. Females taking steroids can become more masculine with deepened voices, decrease breast size, and growth of excessive body hair. Steroids can cause balding in both men and women.

Chapter IV Prevention of Drug Addiction And Drug Abuse How to prevent drug addiction? The best solution to drug addiction is to prevent it in the first place. While established addicts can overcome their dependence and find a measure of peace, it often wreaks untold damage in the process. Friends and family members suffer as they watch their loved one disintegrate. The sooner one steps in to stop the addiction, the better. 1. Recognize the signs Signs of drug abuse often appear long before any concrete evidence does. Symptoms vary by drug, but often accompany a determination in appearance, a loss of interest in school or work, radical changes in social life, weight loss, odd sleeping habits ad an overall downturn in emotional health. If you spot them in someone close to you, talk to them about it rather than ignoring it. 2. Spot the dangers Respect the power of any drugs you put in your body, and that includes prescription drugs. Keep in regular contact with your doctor and talk to near about any medication you might be taking. Follow the instructions for your prescription to the letter and do not deviate from them in any way.

3. Communicate Communication is he no.1 means of preventing drug abuse, especially with young people. Talk to those around you who might use drugs and established an atmosphere of trust that fosters communication. 4. Communicating groups There are many groups that exist sotely for persons trying to break their addictions, but for those who simply want to avoid drugs altogether, church groups offer a means of support. Community is a vital part of drug prevention, because it is the emotional and spiritual link to a person’s health. If you are an addict, don’t attempt to quit drugs on your own, find help from someone. 5. Abstinence Abstinence means that you don’t use drugs at all, not even in small quantities. This is especially important for people who have detoxed and are trying to prevent themselves from ever falling back onto drug abuse. The only surefire way to completely disassociate from drugs is to completely avoid them. Don’t socialize with people who regularly do drugs.

6. Education One of the best ways to keep people from using drugs is to educate them about the sorts of problems these substances can cause. Multiple medical journals regularly report on the dangers of drug abuse. Awareness of the information can help sway a person’s decision when he is faced with using these substances for the first time. 7. Gaining Knowledge To protect you or your loved ones from abuse and addiction, it is important to acknowledge the realities of drugs. Not all drugs are the same, both in terms of legal standing and health effects. As you educate yourself, your child or any other loved one about the reality of drugs, do not resort to scare tactics. Such techniques may alienate instead of educate and actually drive your loved ones to use or abuse. How to prevent drug abuse? If you are wondering how to prevent drug abuse problems for your loved one, the answer is family involvement. One’s involvement in their family is the key to preventing drug abuse. Families play the most important role in determining how children handle the temptations to use drugs. Typically, substance abuse prevention programs for youth are part of schools efforts, public television campaigns, or local police initiatives.

But a new effort in how to prevent drug abuse is starting in many communities. It focuses on preventing substance abuse by helping families. Be a part of it from the very first step! We all need to work together including the following:

Parents who want to protect their children from experiences that may lead to drug abuse. Teachers, social workers, nurses, and others worried about children who are under stress and have trouble at home. Community members who want to build a neighborhood that helps families keep their children drug free. Public health and drug abuse prevention practitioners who can bring the latest knowledge of what works and what doesn’t-along with some money to help the community develop a plan of action. School and community programs on how to prevent drug abuse are essential,

but they are not sufficient. Frequently, schools do not begin addressing the problem of drug abuse until the high school years. Yet drug abuse often begins in the elementary and middle school years. Family bonding is the bedrock of the relationship between parents and children. They offer parallel skills training sessions for parents and children and at the end of each session bring the families together to practice their newly acquired skills as a family.