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7 – THE TRANSPORT OF SUBSTANCES IN PLANTS

• To state the necessity for transport of substances in plants • To identify the vascular tissue in stem, root & leaf • To state the role of vascular tissue in the transport of substances • To describe the structure of vascular tissue • To relate the structure of xylem to transport

LEARNING OUTCOMES

plants
need Water & mineral Capillary action Root pressure Transpirational pull Results in Transpiration affecting Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. Air movement Temperature Light intensity Relative humidity Relate to involves xylem structure Vascular tissues Found stem in root leaf involves phloem translocation Relate to Food

plants
need Water & mineral Food

Transported by

xylem

phloem

plants
need Water & mineral Food

Transported by

xylem structure Vascular tissues

phloem

plants
need Water & mineral Food

Transported by

xylem structure Vascular tissues Found stem in root

phloem

leaf

plants
need Water & mineral Food

Transported by involves phloem translocation structure Vascular tissues Found stem in root leaf Relate to

xylem

plants
need Water & mineral Capillary action Root pressure Transpirational pull Relate to involves xylem structure Vascular tissues Found stem in root leaf Food

Transported by involves phloem translocation Relate to

plants
need Water & mineral Capillary action Root pressure Transpirational pull Results in Transpiration affecting Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. Air movement Temperature Light intensity Relative humidity Relate to involves xylem structure Vascular tissues Found stem in root leaf Food

Transported by involves phloem translocation Relate to

NECESSITY
• Essential to transport water & mineral salts absorbed by the roots have to be transported to all parts of the plants.

Water
• As a solvent
– for biochemical reactions, – as reactants in cell metabolism
• (eg.:light reaction)

Mineral ions
• For chlorophyll synthesis
– healthy plant growth – healthy plant development.

• Organic food materials
– synthesised by the leaves during photosynthesis have to be transported to the growing regions, storage organs & other parts of the plant.

• Small and simple multicellular plants
– no need vascular system
• have a large TSA/V ratio.

• Large flowering plant @ angiosperms ,– conifer n ferns have a small TSA/V ratio n the substances have to move a greater distance  need vascular system

• Unlike animals, plants are unable to pump necessary substances through great distances
– sometimes requiring the need to defy gravity.

• To overcome
– plants use a combination of :
• root pressure, • capillary action • transpiration

Note : -to provide enough force to transport water to shoot

Root pressure

Capillary action

Transpiration

Vascular Tissue in Stem, Root & Leaves
• XYLEM – transport water & mineral salts • PHLOEM – transport organic substances

• Vascular system is not involved in the transport of :
– oxygen – carbon dioxide.

Dicotyledon plants

Dicotyledon stem

Dicotyledon root

Dicotyledon leaf

Monocotyledon plants

Monocotyledon stem

Monocotyledon root

Monocotyledon leaf

STRUCTURE OF XYLEM IN RELATION TO TRANSPORT
• It has two important functions :
– It transport water & mineral ions from roots to the upper parts of the plant – It also provide mechanical support to the plant

• In flowering plants, the xylem consists of xylem vessels, tracheids, parenchyma & fibres.

• The vessels are elongated cells arranged end to end. To allow water to flow in a continuous column.

• The end walls of the vessels have broken down to provide an uninterrupted flow of water up the plant.

• The side walls of xylem vessels are perforated by pits, which allow water & mineral salts to pass sideways.

• The narrowness of the lumen of xylem vessels increases the capillarity forces.

• The lignified walls of the xylem vessels increase the adhesion of water molecules & helps the water to rise by capillarity.

• Mature vessels are dead cells with no protoplasm to obstruct the flow.

• Conifers & ferns do not have xylem vessels. They only have tracheids which are less efficient in water transport.

• Tracheids do not have open ends to form a continuous hollow tube to pass water from cell to cell through pits.

STRUCTURE OF PHLOEM IN RELATION TO TRANSPORT
• Transports organic food substances (sucrose & amino acids) from leaves to various plant parts

• Consists mainly of sieve tubes & companion cells

• A sieve tube is a cylindrical tube made up of elongated living sieve tube cells.

• The cross-walls separating the sieve tube cells are perforated by small pores. The cross-walls with the pores look like a sieve & are called sieve plates.

• There are cytoplasmic connections between the sieve tube cells through the sieve pores. (allow the flow of dissolved food materials from one sieve tube cell to the next).

• Mature sieve tubes  many cell organelles including nucleus degenerate.

• A thin layer of cytoplasm & some mitochondria are found lining the inside of the thin cellulose cell wall  less resistance to the rapid flow of nutrient solution through the sieve tube cells.

• Companion cells are only found in flowering plant, not in conifers or ferns. Its adjacent & closely associated with the sieve tube cells.

• Each companion cells has a nucleus, dense cytoplasm & many mitochondria.

• Help to transport manufactured food from leaf cells into the sieve tubes.

• Many mitochondria to generate ATP needed for active transport of sucrose from companion cells into the sieve tubes.