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To protect water resources and the greater environment, all waste from buildings
and industrial processes must be treated to meet certain standards of quality. Domestic
sewage from dwellings and DWV systems in buildings are permitted to be discharged
into the public sewers system, which provides the necessary treatment prior to tits
discharge into nature.

Water Treatment and Disposal

Basic Purposes of sewage treatment

1. To destroy pathogenic micro organisms. Pathogens are disease-causing

2. To remove most suspended and dissolved biodegradable organic materials.

Raw or untreated sewage is mostly pure water since it comprises about 99.9% water
and only about 0.1% impurities. However, sewage contains biodegradable organic
material, which is very likely to contain pathogenic micro organisms.

The amount of pathogens in the waste water is expected to be proportional to the

concentration of fecal coliform bacterium cal E. coli (Escherichia coli). The E. coli
concentration in raw sanitary sewage is about 1 billion/ liter, but it is not a pathogen. In
fact, our bowels will not function properly without it, but as an indicator organism, the
presence of E. coli indicates that water is contaminated with fecal wastes and
pathogens maybe present. DENR standard is 10,000 MPN/ 100ml.

• For water to be safe for drinking the E. coli count shall not be more than 1 E. coli
per 100ml (about 0.4 cup) of water.
• For water to be considered safe for swimming the E. coli shall be more than 200
E. coli per 100ml of water.

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The measure of the strength of the sewage in
relation to the total amount of organic material it contains. Untreated domestic sanitary
sewage has an average BOD of about 200mg/ liter. DENR standard is 50 mg/ liter.

Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The measure of the strength of the sewage in relation
to the total amount of suspended solids. Untreated domestic sanitary sewage has an
average TSS of 240 mg/ liter.

Another group of impurities that is of major significance in waste water is the

compounds of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) from plant nutrients. Raw sanitary
sewage contains an average of 35mg/ liter of nitrogen and 10 mg/liter of phosphorous.


The sewage treatment process may be divided into four major steps:

1. Preliminary treatment. 35% of BOD and 60% of TSS are removed.

2. Primary Treatment, which is subdivided into:
• Sedimentation and retention: raw sewage is retained for the preliminary
separation of indigestible solids and the start of aerobic action.
• Aeration: introduction of air through natural convection or mechanical
blowers to accelerate the decomposition of organic matters.
• Skimming: Removal of scum that floats on top of the partially treated
• Sludge Removal: disposal of heavy sludge at the bottom of treated
In the primary treatment, 85% of BOD and 85% TSS are removed.
3. Secondary Treatment, namely, the removal of colloidal and dissolved organic
4. Tertiary Treatment, that is, the removal of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorous
and disinfection of effluent by the addition of chemicals, such as chlorine (10

Sewage Treatment Plants

The design of sewage treatment plants for large buildings, building complexes and
municipalities follows precisely the same processes described above. However, modern
treatment plants do require considerable mechanized equipment and controls in order
to be efficient and reliable. Sanitary Engineers or Plumbing Engineers who specialized
in the subject do the design of these treatment plants.

Following are the definitions of some commonly used terms related to the subject of
sewage treatment methods and disposal processes:

1. Digestion- That portion of the sewage treatment process in which biochemical

decomposition of organic matter takes place, resulting in the formation of simple
organic and mineral substances. Also known as aerobic (bacterial) digestion.
2. Influent- Untreated sewage flowing into a treatment system.
3. Effluent- Treated or partially treated sewage flowing out of a treatment system.
4. Sedimentation- Formation of layers of heavy particles in the influent
5. Aerobic (bacterial) digestion- Digestion of the waste through the natural bacteria
digestive action in a tank or chamber.
6. Active Sludge- The sewage sediment, rich in destructive bacteria, which can be
used to break down fresh sewage more quickly.
7. Filtration- a means of filtering out any solid matter from the effluent.
8. Disinfection- A process to disinfect the effluent with chemicals.
9. Percolation- the flow or trickling of a liquid downward through a filtering medium.
A summary of waste water treatment.
Drainage pipe. This is the pipe that conveys waste from the building to an approved
point of disposal.

Drainage Fittings. This are pipe accessories in the drainage system such as a
coupling, bend, wye, etc; used to join two or more pipes together or to change their


1. Waste pipe
2. Soil pipe
3. Storm pipe
4. Vent pipe

1. Waste pipe. The pipe which carries only liquid waste, free of human excrement
or fecal matter.
2. Soil pipe- the pipe which carries the waste from water closets, urinals or fixtures
of similar function to the building drain. This contains human excrements.
3. Storm pipe- the pipe which convey rainwater from the roof gutter and down
spout to the building storm drain.
4. Vent pipe- the pipe connected to the drainage system that conveys air to and
from the system and keep the water from being siphoned from the trap.

 Branch- is the drainage pipe that runs horizontally.

 Stack- is the vertical drainage pipe.

The selection of piping materials for the drainage system depends on the following:

1. Pressure 5. Initial cost

2. Velocity 6. Installation cost
3. Temperature 7. Operating problem
4. Corrosiveness of the medium conveyed within

Common drainage pipes and fittings materials used

a. Asbestos Cement Pipe (ACP)

b. Cast Iron Soil Pipe (CISP)
c. Concrete pipe
d. Vitrified Clay Pipe
e. Plastic Pipe
i. Polyethylene (PE)
ii. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
iii. Acrylonitrile- Butadiene- Styrene (ABS)
f. Iron Pipe Size (IPS)- Iron, Steel, Brass
g. Lead
i. Safe spans is 10.56 kg/m2 and 1.6mm thick
ii. For flushing or vent terminals- 14.63 kg/ m2 and 1.2 mm thick
iii. Lead bends and lead trap shall not be less than 3.2mm in wall thickness.


This type of pipe is made of asbestos fibers combined under pressure with Portland
cement and silica to form a dense and homogeneous material. It is dense cured for


1. Pressure A.C. Pipe- is used for sewer mains, industrial effluent and process
piping, working pressure ranges at 100, 150, and 200 psi.
2. Non-pressure A.C. Pipe- is used for sewer casings for electric cables and as
storm drains.

Diameter: 75mm (3’) to 900 mm (13’)
Length: 3.00m (10’) or 4.00m (13’)
For 75, 100, 150mm.
4.00m (13’) for 200mm. (8”0
Through 900 mm. (36”)
Grades: 1500, 2400, 3000, 4000 and 5000
Joints: rubber gasket joint and cement joint
Asbestos cement pipe (ACP) is remarkably suited for embedment in concrete
structure since both materials have the same properties.


1. Bends (elbows)- are used to complete change of direction in soil, waste and
drain lines in horizontal, vertical and diagonal directions.
2. Y (wye) branches- are used for change of direction (diagonal) and branch
connections of soil, waste and drain pipes.
3. T (tee) branches- are used to join 3 or 4 pipes at perpendicular directions.


Cast iron soil pipe (CISP) is made from an alloy of iron, carbon and silicon, with the
controlled amounts of manganese, sulfur and phosphorous. This is primarily used for
sanitary drain, waste and storm systems.


1. Class A- extra heavy (xh)- is often used for underground applications.

2. Class B- Service weight (SV)- is used for general building installations.


1. Single hub- is equipped with one hub and one spigot end and used in the
installation of plumbing in its full length.
2. Double hub- is constructed with a hub on each end so it may be cut into two
pieces when a short piece of pipe is needed.
3. Hubless (no hub)- there is no hub on either ends of the pipe, it is used in lieu of
the single hub calking of the pipe is difficult.


• Available diameter (Nom. I.D.)

2”, 3 ”, 4”, 5”, 6”, 8”, 10”, 12”, 15”
• Hydrostatic Test:
50 psi for service weight
100 psi for extra heavy

• Length: 5’ and 10’


1. Lead and Oakum (calk joint)

2. Neoprene Compression gasket
3. Stainless Steel Couplings (for Hubless pipe)

*Oakum- a hemp treated with pitch to make it moisture proof and resistant to the
elements contained in the waste.

*Calking- plugging an opening with oakum and lead that are pounded into place.
*HUB- that portion of the pipe which, for a short distance, is sufficiently enlarged to
receive the end of another pipe of the same diameter for the purpose of making a joint.
It is also known as Bell.

*SPIGOT- the end of the pipe that fits into a bell or spigot.

Concrete pipe is cast in metal molds and compacted by tamping or spinning the molds
(centrifugal casting).


1. Non-reinforced concrete pipe- is used for drainage, sewer lines and for gravity-
flow water supply lines if the joints are carefully made. Diameters available range
from 100mm. (4”) to 900mm (36”).
2. Reinforced concrete pipe (RCP)- is made by the addition of steel wire or steel
bars and is primarily used for sewage and storm drainage. Diameters available
range from 300mm (12”) to 3600mm (144”)


Vitrified clay pipe is extruded from a suitable grade of shale or clay and fired in kilns
producing an extremely hard and dense corrosion resistant material. It is generally used
for underground public sewers, house sewers, drainage (sanitary and storm) systems
and for industrial wastes such as acids.

Vitrified clay pipe is suitable for most gravity-flow systems and is not intended for
pressure service. It is brittle and cracks when laid on unstable ground or base.

*Diameter- 100mm (4”) to 1050 mm (42”)
*Grades- standard
- extra strength
- perforated
*Joints - cement joint
- pre-fabricated compression seals


Plastic pipe is available in compositions designed for various applications including

drain, waste and vent. (DWV)


1. Thermosel Plastic- has the property of being permanently rigid. Epoxy and fiber
glass are example of this.
2. Thermo Plastic- is a material having the property of softening when heated and
hardening when cooled.


1. Polyethylene (PE)- the high density P.E. spiral pipe (HDPE) is used as drainage
and sewer pipe for housing complex, playground, golf course, industrial farm and
stock farm.
It is sufficiently flexible to follow ground contours of snake
around obstacles.

*Diameter- 100mm (4’) to 900mm (36”)
*Color- black
*Joint- Screw-type couplings
*Brand- Atlanta


2. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)- is a thermoplastic type which is composed of

molecules of polymers. Each molecule is a long chain made of carbon, hydrogen
and other atoms which are melted down and molded.

1. uPVC Sanitary pipes (unplasticized)- (DWV) is designed for above and

underground sanitary piping system. It is ideal for drain, waste and vent
2. uPVC Sewer Pipe- can be used for main sewer system and other underground
waste piping system which requires big diameter pipes.


1. Hacksaw
2. Closet auger
3. Plunger
4. Rule
5. Blow torch
6. Lead pot
7. Pouring ladle Rule/ Push-pull tape. This is
8. Joint runner used to measure pipes to be Blow Torch- this is used as a
9. Ball peen hammer cut and for measuring the run of source of heat when melting
10. Cold chisel the pipes. lead and heating the soldering
11. Caulking irons copper for calk joint.
12. Soldering copper
13. Tin snip
14. Plumb bob
15. Plumb level
16. File

Lead Pot. This is used as a Pouring Ladle- this is used for

vessel for holding lead to be scooping up melted lead to be
melted. This is also known poured into cast iron soil pipes
as Melting Pot. to make a calk joint.
Hacksaw. This is used for
cutting pipes.

Joint runner. This is used to

close the gap between the hub Ball Peen hammer- this is
and the spigot of a cast iron used for caulking.
soil pipe while molten lead is
poured into the joint of a
Closet Auger. This is used for horizontal pipe run. This is also
removing clogs in drain pipes, known as Pouring rope.
usually at water closet, urinal
and lavatory stoppage.
Gold chisel- this is used for
cutting cast iron pipes and for
boring holes.
Calking Iron- this is used for
Tin snip. This is used for
caulking oakum and lead for
cutting G.I. sheets for straps to
bed and spigot joints.
anchor pipes.
Plunger. This is used to clear the
trap at floor drains, or minor
obstructions through a pumping
action. This is also known as
Plumber’s friend or Plumber’s
Soldering Copper. This is
used for soldering lead on Plumb Level. This is used to
flashing of vent pipes on G.I. establish and guide grades on
Roofing. horizontal drain pipe runs.
File. This is used to remove
the burrs of cut pipes.

Plumb Bob. This is used for

establishing vertical runs for


Providing water in buildings is one of the most critical utility requirements. A building
without water supply is unfit for human habitation.

Generally speaking, potable water is supplied from a local utility through a public water

For buildings without public water system, an alternative source of water must be
considered, such as springs, wells and rain water.

In most conditions, springs are shallow wells with water supply just a few meters from
the ground surface. If this is the source of domestic water supply, careful attention must
be given to yield and purify. The flow may stop during dry season or surface water may
get contaminated.

Spring water can be developed so as to secure maximum protection from contamination

by excavating sufficiently to locate the true spring openings and to insure a secure
foundation for the encasing structure. This structure is known as a spring box which
serves as a collector for spring water. Water collected from the spring box flows to a
larger storage tank and then to the distribution pipes.

The determination of the yield of the spring water source employs a very simple
procedure. They are as follows:

1. Channel the flow of the spring into a collection basin. Make sure that the basin
collects all available flow.
2. Place an overflow pipe through the dam so that the collected water flows freely
through the pipe. There should be no leakage around the pipe.
3. Put a bucket of known volume (for example, a 10-liter bucket) under the overflow
pipe to catch the flow.
4. With a watch, measure the amount of time it takes to fill the bucket. At this
instance, the rate of flow can be determined.
5. Check the rate of flow per day if it is sufficient to supply the daily water demand
of the occupants.


It takes a spring 60 seconds to fill a 10-liter bucket. Determine if its daily yield is
sufficient to the water demand of the community of 200 people. The average daily water
consumption per person is 60 liters.


 Determine the rate of flow ( in liters/ second)

Rate of Flow= 10 liters = 0.16 liters/ second

60 seconds

 Determine the daily yield ( liters/day)

Daily yield= 0.16 liter x 60 seconds x 60 minutes x 24 hours

Second 1 minute 1 hour 1 day
= 13, 824 liters per day
 Determine total daily water demand

Total demand= 200 persons x 60 liters/ person / day

= 12,000 liters per day

Therefore, the spring with the daily flow of 13,824 liters can sufficiently meet the
demand of the community of 200 people.


Wells are holes or shafts sunk into the earth to obtain water from an aquifer. An aquifer
is a water-bearing formation of gravel, permeable rock or sand that is capable of
providing water, in usable quantities, to springs or wells.

The design and proper construction of a well require scientific knowledge of

hydrogeology, common sense and practical experience.

The types of wells generally refer to the method of its construction, which are:

1. Dub
2. Bored
3. Driven
4. Drilled
a. Percussion or standard
b. Rotary
c. Reverse-circulation rotary
d. Jetting

1. Dug wells- These are wells 60 centimeters or more in diameter dug through
the soft upper soil. The sides may be of masonry or concrete to prevent from caving-in.
It is necessary that the well should be impervious to a depth of at least 3 meters.

2. Bored wells – these are constructed using either hand or power driven earth
auger. A well casing is lowered to the bottom of the hole. After the boring is complete,
cement grout is poured to fill the gap between the bored hole and the well casing. This
is to prevent contamination.

3. Driven wells- a driven well is done by forcing into the earth a 60 to 90

centimeter long piece of perforated steel tube attached to a pointed screen called a
“drive point”. This type of well varies from 32 mm diameter at a depth of 3 to 12 meters.

4. Drilled Wells- A drilling rig is used to drill the well hole and then a casing or
tubular pipe is forced down the hole to prevent it from caving-in. when a water-bearing
stratum of sufficient capacity is found, a well screen is set in place to permit the water to
flow into the casing and to hold back the fine material. The depth of this well is limited
only by the distance one must dig to obtain an adequate supply of fresh water, even
down to 450 meters.


In terms of resource conservation, rainwater is an attractive alternative. Rain water is

soft and is near to the purest state in the hydrological cycle. However, air pollution
causes rainwater to be acidic which corrode non-ferrous pipes and cause rusting and
clogging of steel pipes.

In spite of these conditions, rainwater collection system remains a viable water source
alternative. This system typically employ a cistern or covered reservoir tanks to store
water collected from roofs or other relatively clean, impervious surfaces. The collected
rain can be used for flushing water closets and urinals, as well as for landscape
purposes wherein potable water is not necessary.

The city council of Cebu promulgated City Ordinance No. 1711 otherwise known as the
“water conservation and Flood Prevention ordinance”. This ordinance requires all
projects to provide a permanent rainwater tank or container proportionate to the roof
area. These are stated as follows:

A. For commercial, Industrial and Institutional buildings

One cubic meter of tank/ container for every fifteen (15) square meters of roof
area and deck, up to a maximum of seven (7) cubic meters.

B. For Residential Buildings (Php 500,000.00 and above project cost)

One cubic meter of tank/ container for every fifteen (15) square meters of roof
area and deck, up to a maximum of three (3) cubic meters.


There are two methods that can be used in determining the size of the storage tank for
rain water:

1. The use of Cebu city Ordinance 1711 which states that for every fifteen (15)
square meter of roof area, one (1) cubic meter of rain water can be collected.
This is the short method of sizing the cistern.
2. The use of the rain fall data of the locality. This is the long method of determining
the size of the cistern.


As part of the design problem, it was required that 5 water closets, 2 urinals and
2 slop sinks of a school building in Cebu city be provided with an alternative source of
water supply, specifically from rainfall catchment. Your are to determine the size of the
rainwater cistern based on the following givens or assumptions:

1. Water closets shall be flush tank types

2. Rainfall data of Cebu is available from PAGASA
3. Roof area is 1,000 square meter.
4. Capacity of cistern to satisfy 30 minute duration of water demand
5. Rainfall catchment efficiency is 80%.


1. Solving for rainwater demand load

Water closet: 5 x 5 WSFU = 25

Urinal : 2 x 5 WSFU = 10
Slop Sink : 2 x 10 WSFU= 20
Total demand= 55 WSFU

 From tables of valves, the equivalent for 55 WSFU is 29 GPM

 The estimate daily demand is:

Daily demand = 29 gallons x 30 mins. = 870 gallons

 The estimated annual demand is:

Annual Demand= 870 gallons/ day x 365 days = 317,550 gallons

Or 1,201,926.75 liters
 The estimated average monthly demand is:

1,201,926.75 liters / 12 = 100,160.56

100.16 cubic meters

2. Determining the rain fall data from PAGASA ( average precipitation rate in
January 109.00m July 196.70
February 71.10 August 152.70
March 54.60 September 186.70
April 58.60 October 201.40
May 120.90 November 162.30
June 177.00 December 137.70

Average annual rainfall: 1628.70 mm

3. Solving for the amount of available rain water per month:

Available rain water = monthly rain fall x roof area x 80%


January 109.00 x 1000 x 0.80 87, 200 liters

February 71.10 x 1000 x 0.80 56, 880
March 54.60 x 800 43,680
April 58.60 x800 46,880
May 120.90 x 800 96,720
June 177.00 x 800 141,600
July 197.70 x 800 157,360
August 152.70 x 800 122,160
September 186.70 x 800 149,360
October 201.40 x 800 161,120
November 162.30 x 800 129,840
December 137.70 x 800 110,160
TOTAL 1,302,960 liters

Average Monthly supply: 1,302, 960 / 12 = 108,580 liters

4. Add the available rain water cumulatively

January 87,200 liters July 630,320

February 144,080 August 752,480
March 187,760 September 901,840
April 234,640 October 1,062,960
May 331,360 November 1,192,800
June 472,960 December 1,302,960

The domestic cold water supply of the plumbing system consists of the piping and
fittings which supply cold water from the building water supply to the fixtures, such as
lavatories, bath, tubs, water closets and kitchen sinks. This is also known as water
distribution system.

Elements of water Distribution system

1. Water service or house service

2. Water meter
3. Horizontal supply main or distribution main
4. Riser
5. Fixture branches
6. Valves and control
7. Storage tanks

General types of water distribution system

1. Upfeed Distribution system

a. Direct
b. Pneumatic air-pressure system

2. Down feed distribution system

Materials for Mains, Risers and Branches

1. Galvanized Iron (G.I.) Pipes and fittings, schedule 40- is moderately corrosion
resistant and suitable for mildly acid water. It is connected to its fitting with
threaded connections. It is available in diameters form 12 mm (1/2”) to 300 mm
(12”) at a length of 6 meters (20 feet).
2. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Pipes and fittings, schedule 40- is economy and ease of
instruction make it popular, especially on low budget projects.
3. Polybutilyne (PB) pipe
4. Polyethylene (PE) pipe
5. Copper Pipes and Tubing
a. Type K- used primarily for underground water service. It is color-coded in
b. Type L- is most popular for use in water supply system. It is color-coded in
c. Type M- it has the thinnest wall and is used where water pressure is not
too great. It is color-coded in red.

A variety of fittings must be used to install the piping in the project. Fittings are
accessories usually standardized, used for joining two or more pipes together.

Fittings include:
1. Nipple- a short of piece of pipe, threaded on the outside (male threads) at both
ends, used to join couplings or other fittings
a. Short nipple- below 75mm in length. Also known as shoulder nipple.
b. Long nipple- over 75mm in length.
c. Close nipple- where threading meet.
2. Couple- a short internally threaded (female thread) at both ends and used to
connect two pipes in straight line.
3. Elbow- a pipe fitting having a bend and makes an angle (90o or 45o) between
adjacent pipes for a change in direction. It is also known as ell or straight elbow.
a. Reducing elbow- Joins two pipes of different diameters at right angle of each
other. When specifying reducer fittings, the bigger diameter is stated first,
(followed by the smaller diameter. (example: reducing elbow, 25mm x 20mm)
b. Street elbow- an elbow fitting having a 45o or 90o bend with an inside thread
on one end and outside thread on the other. It is also known as service ell or
street ell.
4. Tee- a T-shaped pipe fitting that joins 3 or 4 pipes at perpendicular directions.
a. Straight tee c. reducing tee
b. Straight cross tee d. reducing cross tee









CORPORATION COCK- a valve screwed into the street water main to supply the house
service connection.
GOOSE NECK- the part of a pipe curve like the neck of a goose, usually flexible.
CURB STOP- A control valve for the water supply of a building, usually placed in case of
emergency or should the water supply of the building be discontinued.


WATER METER- a mechanical device used to measure the volume of water passing
through a pipe.
METER STOP- A valve placed at the street side of the water meter and serves as a
controlling device for the building installation.


a. Direct system
b. Pneumatic air-pressure system
5. Reducer- a pipe coupling with inside threads, having one end with a smaller
diameter than the other and used for connecting pipes of different size. Both
openings have the same center line.

6. Bushing- a pipe fitting which is threaded on both the inside and the outside and
used to reduce the size of the pipe opening to receive a pipe or fitting of a
different size.

7. Plug- is used to close an opening in a fitting.

8. Cap- is used to close the end of a pipe.

9. Union- a three piece pipe fitting used to connect the ends of two pipes, neither of
which can be turned. It is also used on pipes that are to be taken down
occasionally. Its parts are:
a. Thread piece
b. Center piece
c. Shoulder piece

10. Flange- a ring shaped plate screwed on the end of a pipe and provided with
holes for bolts, to allow joining the pipe to a similarly equipped adjoining pipe.
The resulting joint is a flanged joint.

11. Extension Piece-


Valves are used to control the flow of water throughout the supply system. The proper
location of valves simplifies repairs to the system, fixtures, or equipment being served.
There are usually valves at:
a. Risers
b. Branches
c. And pipes to individual fixture or equipment

• Types of valves
1. Gate valve
2. Globe valve
3. Check Valve
4. Angle valve
5. Ball valve/ stop cock
6. Faucet/ Bibb


1. Threaded joints- used in Galvanized Iron (G.I.) pipes and fittings. The thread
extensions of the G.I. pipe are as follows:
25MM (1”)
6mm (1/4”) 9mm (3/8”) 18
9mm (3/8”) 9mm (3/8”) 18
12mm (1/2”) 12mm (1/2”) 14
19mm (3/4”) 14mm (9/16”) 14
25mm (1”) 17mm (11/16”) 11 ½
32 mm (1 ¼”) 17mm (11/16”) 11½
37mm (1 ½”) 17mm (11/16”) 11½
50mm (2”) 19mm (3/4”) 11½
2. Solder joints- for rigid and flexible copper tubing.
3. Flared joints- for flexible copper tubing.
4. Solvent weld or cement joint for plastic pipe.

COUPLING- a short internally

threaded (female thread) at
NIPPLE- a short piece of pipe, threaded on the outside (male both ends and used to connect
threads) at both ends, used to join couplings or other fittings. two pipes in a straight line.


ELBOW- a pipe fitting having a pipes of different diameters at STREET ELBOW- a pipe fitting
bend and makes an angle right angle of each other. having 45o and 90o bend with an
between adjacent pipes for a When specifying reducer fittings inside thread on one end and an
change in direction. the bigger is stated first, outside thread on the other.
followed by the smaller
Also know as ELL diameter. It is also known as SERVICE
(example: reducing elbow 25mm ELL or STREET ELL
x 20 mm)

REDUCER- a pipe coupling, with

inside threads, having one end
with smaller diameter than the
other and used for connecting
TEE- a t-shaped pipe fitting that joins 3 or 4 pipes at perpendicular
pipes of different size.
Both openings have the same
center line.
BUSHING- a pipe
fitting which is PLUG- is used to close CAP- is used to close EXTENSION PIECE
threaded on both the an opening in a fitting. the end of a pipe
inside and the outside
and used to reduce
the size of the pipe
opening to receive a
pipe or fitting of a
different size

UNION- a three piece pipe fitting used to connect the ends of FLANGE- a ring sharped plate screwed
two pipes, neither of which can be turned. on the end of a pipe and provided with
It is also used on pipes that are to be taken down holes for bolts; to allow joining the pipe
Occasionally. to a similarly equipped adjoining pipe.

The resulting joint is a flanged joint.


In the interest of economy and speed in delivery, it is recommended that

standard sizes of water supply tanks be used wherever possible.

• Types of Water supply storage tanks

1. Pressure tanks- used for hydro pneumatic water supply systems. These
are most advantageous used where the peak water demand rate is
relatively low, such as in small buildings.
2. Gravity tanks- are elevated tanks recommended for large buildings and
high peak water demand rates.
• Requirements for Water Supply Tank Design and Construction
1. Tanks should be designed and constructed so as to be:
a. Water tight
b. Vermin-proof
c. Corrosion resistant
d. Capable of withstanding the pressure under which they are to be
e. Provided with safe and easy means of access for inspection
2. The capacity of any single tank in or on a building shall not exceed
113,000 liters (30,000 gallons) or 113 cubic meters.
3. Tanks shall not be located over openings in floor and roof construction.
4. Potable water supply tanks for domestic supply and for standpipe or
automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed to furnish
water in sufficient quantity and pressure for such systems.
5. The gravity tanks shall be provided with the following pipes:
a. Intel Pipe- located not less than 100mm (4”) above the top of the
overflow pipe.
b. Overflow Pipe- shall be at least one pipe size larger than the inlet pipe
and not less than the sizes given in Table 1. Overflow pipe shall
discharge above and within 150mm (6”) of a roof or catch basin.
c. Emptying Pipe- shall be located and arranged so as to prevent
damage from water discharged. Sizes shall be in accordance to the
sizes given in Table 2.
d. Outlet Pipe- connected to the down feed pipe and sized according to
the water demand.
e. Air vent pipe- shall be provided with durable screens of not less than
100 mesh.

Table 1. Sizes of Overflow Pipes


Liters Gallons mm inches

0 - 2,842 0 - 750 25 1
2,843 – 5,684 751 – 1,500 37 1½
5,685 – 11,369 1,501 – 3,000 50 2
11,370 – 18,948 3,001 – 5000 62 2½
18,949 – 28,421 5,001 – 7,500 75 3
Over 28,421 More than 7,500 100 4


Liters Gallons mm Inches
0 – 18,948 0 – 5,000 62 2 1/2
18,949 – 36,895 5,000 – 10,000 72 3
Over 36,896 More than 10,000 100 4


Tanks storage capacity required for domestic water supply should be based upon the
peak demand load on the water supply system and should be adequate to satisfy that
demand for at least 30 minutes.

METHOD 1. Using Load Values (WSFUs) Assigned to Fixtures

The water supply fixture unit (WSFU) is a factor so chosen that the load
producing effects of different kinds of fixtures and their conditions of service can be
expressed as multiples of that factor. As an aid in this regard, tabulated values to given
loads in water supply fixture units are shown in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 3. Demand Load of Fixtures in Water Supply Fixture Units


Private Public
Bathtub 2 4
Bidet 2 4
Drinking Fountain 1 2
Kitchen Sink 2 4
Lavatory 1 2
Laundry Tray 2 4
Shower (Each head) 2 4
Service sink 2 4
Urinal - 5
Water Closet (Flush Tank) 3 5
Water Closet (Flush valve) 6 10

Note: In estimating demand for water closet, use the value for flush value type.

Table 4. Estimating Demand


Loads, WSFU Demand, GPM Load, WSFU Demand, GPM

6 5
8 6.5
10 8 10 27
12 9.2 12 28.6
14 10.4 14 30.2

16 11.6 16 31.8
18 12.8 18 33.4
20 14 20 35
25 17 25 38
30 20 30 41

35 22.5 35 43.8
40 24.8 40 46.5
45 27 45 49
50 29 50 51.5
60 32 60 55
70 35 70 58.8
80 38 80 62
90 41 90 64.8
100 43.5 100 67.5
120 48 120 72.5

140 52.5 140 77.5

160 57 160 52.8
180 61 180 87
200 65 200 91.5
225 70 225 97

250 75 250 101

275 80 275 105.5
300 85 300 110
400 105 400 126
500 125 500 142

750 170 750 178

1000 208 1000 208
1250 240 1250 240
1500 267 1500 267
1750 294 1750 294

2000 321 2000 321

2250 348 2250 348
2500 375 2500 375
2750 402 2750 402
3000 432 3000 432

4000 525 4000 525

5000 593 5000 593
6000 643 6000 643
7000 685 7000 685
8000 718 8000 715

9000 745 9000 745

10000 769 10000 769

SAMPLE PROBLEM: Determine Capacity of Tank by WSFU Values

Determine the capacity of the storage tank of a school building with the following
45 water closets 4 showers
40 lavatories 18 slop sinks
14 urinals 16 drinking fountains
9 kitchen sinks


1. Determine the demand load (refer to Table 3)

Water closet 43 x 10 430 WSFU

Lavatory 40 x 2 80
Urinal 14 x 5 70
Kitchen sink 9 x 4 36
Shower 4 x 4 16
Slop sink 16 x 5 80
Drinking Fountain 6 x 2 12
Demand Load 728 WSFU

2. Estimate the demand in gallons per minute (refer to Table 4) from Table 4. The
estimated demand for 724 WSFU is 175 GPM.
3. Estimate capacity of the storage tank.
Assume 1 hour as the duration that will adequately satisfy demand.

Capacity = 175 gallons x 1 hour (60 mins)


= 10,500 gallons

4. Determine the volume of tank

*Use 1 cubic meter= 264 gallons

V= 10,500 G

V= 39.77 cubic meter

Say: 40 cubic meter
CWT M3 m/m (A) KGS
D H f S O d RP F1 F2 F3 F4 N

500 0.5 992 1265 20 20 20 20 - - 652 864 19 8 40

1000 1.0 1322 1695 25 25 25 25 185 - 652 864 19 8 36
1500 1.5 1597 2145 40 40 40 40 185 - 917 1126 19 8 91
2000 2.0 1641 2060 40 40 40 40 210 - 955 1245 25 8 137
3000 3.0 1877 2170 40 40 40 40 225 - 1043 1345 25 8 164
5000 5.0 2180 2660 50 50 50 50 310 1102 1303 1595 25 16 227
6000 6.0 2300 2780 50 50 50 50 310 1102 1303 1595 25 16 235
10000 10.0 2800 3150 65 65 65 65 325 1510 1715 2010 38 16 420
20000 20.0 3300 3770 65 65 65 65 325 1877 2077 2415 44 16 750
METHOD 2. Using occupant load of the building.

This method provides for the design population with the assigned average daily
water consumption for various buildings and other facilities.

Table 5. Estimated Water Supply Demands


(GPD per occupant) per occupant)
Assembly, Theaters ,Lecture Halls 5 seats + employees 0.17
Churches, Mosques, Synagogues 5 0.12
Factories: No Showers 15 0.12
Factories: with showers 25 0.50
Hospitals 15 0.50
Hotels, Motels 75 0.43
Offices, Stores, Airports, Bus 10 (add 5 for food 0.09
Terminals service)
Residences, Homes, Apartments 100 0.33
Restaurants: Dinner only 2 0.15
Restaurants: 2 meals/ day 35 0.13
Restaurants: 3 meals/ day 50 0.13
Schools: with food service 25 0.12
Schools: with gym and showers 30 0.40

Formula: Solving for estimated average water demand in a building

BAWD = N x OAWD [1 + 0.00077 (Td-65)] + S


BAWD = Average water demand of building in gallons/day

N = Number of occupants in building
OAWD = average water demand per occupant in gallons/day
Td = summer design temperature in oF (use the value= 89.6 oF)
S = Average or peak demand of any special loads

Formula: Solving for Peak water demand in a building

BPWD = N x OPWD [1 + 0.00115 (Td-65)] + S


BPWD = Peak water demand of building in gallons/ minute

OPWD = Peak water demand per occupant in gallons/ minute

SAMPLE PROBLEM: Determining Capacity of Tank by Occupant Load

Determine the capacity of the storage tank of a school building with an estimated
student population of 1,500 people. Assume 25% of the population as daily users of the


1. Solve for estimated average water demand in the school

BAWD = N x OAWD [1 + 0.00077 (Td-65)] + S

= 1500 (0.25) x 25 [1 + 0.00077 (89.6 – 65)] + 0
= 375 x 25.47
BAWD = 9,551.25 gallons per day
(Use this value for the tank capacity)

2. Solve for the peak water demand in the school

BPWD = N x OPWD [1 + 0.00115 (Td-65)] + S

= 1,500 (0.25) x 0.12 [1 + 0.00115 (89.6 – 65)]
= 375 x 0.12
BPWD = 45 gallons per minute

3. Solve for Volume of Tank.

*1 cu. Meter= 264 gallons

V= 9,551.25
V= 36.18 cu.m.

Say: 37 cu.m.


1. Pipe vise 8. Strap wrench

2. Pipe cutter 9. Pipe tong/ chain wrench
3. Pipe reamer 10. Basin wrench
4. Pipe stock and die 11. Open end wrench
5. Pipe tap 12. Adjustable wrench
6. Pipe wrench 13. Flaring tool
7. Monkey wrench


All piping of the potable water supply system should be proved watertight by the
application of the water pressure test, using potable water, so as to disclose leaks and
defects. It is recommended that all potable water supply piping inside buildings should
be tested, prior to covering or concealment and before fixtures and faucets are installed.

1. Rough Piping Testing- Installation is subjected to a hydrostatic test at 862 kPa

(120 psig) minimum for a period of 3 hours and should be proved watertight
without any loss of pressure.
2. Finished Piping Testing- The entire completed system, including all fixtures and
faucets, should be subjecting it to a hydrostatic test of 517kPa (75 psig) for a
period of 3 hours and should be proved watertight without any loss of pressure.


Disinfection of newly installed potable water supply systems, including water

supply tanks is required to remove objectionable matters in order to correct an
unsanitary condition.

• Procedure
1. All water supply connections should be disconnected, plugged or
effectively shut off to prevent any foreign matter or contamination from
entering the water supply thereto.
2. For disinfection, on of the following methods may be applied:
a. The systems, or part thereof, shall be filled with a water solution
containing 50 parts per million (PPM) of available chlorine and
allowed to stand for 24 hours before flushing and returning to
b. The system, or part thereof, shall be filled with a water solution
containing 200 parts per million (PPM) of available chlorine and
allowed to stand for 3 hours before flushing and returning to


PIPE VISE- This is used to hold 10. BASIN WRENCH
pipe to be cut, threaded or 12. ADJUSTABLE WRENCH
assembled. 13. FLARING TOOL
PIPE CUTTER- this is used PIPE TAP- This is used for PIPE WRENCH-this is used to
for cutting G.I. or Copper making internal threads in screw pipes into or out of their
tubing. G.I. Pipes. fittings.

PIPE REAMER- This is used

to remove the burrs form the STRAP WRENCH- This is
inside of the pipe or to used when working with brass MONKEY WRENCH- this is
enlarge an opening. or plated pipes and fittings use to tighten or loosen
since it does not damage the fittings with parallel sides or
Burr- a rough or sharp edge surfaced being tightened. It is hexagonal ends such as nuts,
left on metal by a cutting tool, also used in places too small to valves and unions.
also known ar burl. admit a pipe wrench.

CHAIN WRENCH- This is used

PIPE STOCK AND DIES- This BASIN WRENCH- for turning pipes usually with
is used to make external 150mm diameter or larger.
threads on G.I. Pipes.


is used the same as that of a
monkey wrench.
FLARING TOOL- This is used to
widen the end of a soft metal
used to pull up flange bolts and
tubing usually copper, to make a
mechanical seal.
Classification of Pumps

1. Reciprocating Pumps
a. Lift pumps
b. Piston or plunger pumps
c. Deep-well piston pumps
2. Centrifugal Pumps
a. Submersible pump
3. Deep-weel jet pumps
4. Hydraulic Rams
5. Hydropneumatic pressure system

1. RECIPROCATING PUMP- a pump which operates with a to- and –fro motion.

a. Lift Pump- the simplest of the reciprocating pumps and consists of a piston
moving up and down in a cylinder or barrel. A lift pump cannot be used to
raise water above 7.50 to 8.50 meter at a normal atmospheric pressure
(101 kPa) due to:
- Loss of efficiency in the pump
- Friction in the intake pipe
- Impossible to obtain a perfect vacuum
b. Piston or Plunger Pump- is a positive displacement reciprocating pump in
which a plunger is driven backwards and forwards, or up and down by a
mechanical working head.

c. Deep-well piston pump- when water is more than 7.5m below the ground,
it is visually necessary to place the pump in or near the water in the well
and pump from there. Water is forced up th drop pipe and out into the
delivery pipe.


CHART 1. FAULT FINDING: Reciprocating Pump

Fault Cause Remedy or action

No discharge Not printed Prime.

Excessive suction lift Reduce static lift,
eliminate or reduce friction
on suction side with larger
Air leaks Check and eliminate air
leaks by sealing. Check
Vapour lock Suction lift excessive for
fluid temperature.
Blockage Check for blockage in
suction pipe, foot valve or
strainer. Check suction
Deterioration Check cylinder liner for
wear, bucket leathers and
Low discharge, low Faulty valves Check valves.
pressure, single-acting Cylinder liner Check liner.
Bucket leathers Check leathers. Check
and rectify.
Air leaks Check that total
Excessive back pressure discharge head is not
Excessive noise No oil or contamination Drain and refill
Worn bearings, pinion, Check for worn parts.
main gear, gear, shaft
eccentric or strap
Excessive speed Reduce to maximum
specified level.
Excessive suction lift Reduce suction lift and/or
increase pipe size to
reduce friction head.
Entrained gas or air Modify suction pipe
Worn valves or faulty valve position
operation; Check valves and springs.
Excessive vibration Undersize piping Fit large pipes to reduce
flow velocity.
Cavitation Check against causes of
cavitation. Increase net
positive suction head.
Deterioration Check for and replace
worn parts.
Counter balancing Fit extension beams and
increase weight according
to the difference in lift load
to discharge load, also
effected by changing
compensating head to
larger size to match deep-
well cylinder where
practicable. Another
remedy is to resude speed
to gearing. Check motor
loading with ammeter.

Centrifugal Pump- a pump with vanes or impellers that rotate inside a close-fitting case
draw-in liquid at the center and, by virtue of centrifugal force, throw-liquid out through an
opening in the periphery of the case. Unlike the reciprocating pump, a centrifugal pump
will not operate unless the casing is full of water.

1. Submersible Pump- is basically a centrifugal pump complete with electric

motorrs which are positioned under water in a suitable bored hole that
delivers the water to the surface.

• Important considerations for accurate submersible pump selection.

1. Well diameter- indicates the size of pump to be installed.
2. Well depth- indicates the static water level. The vertical distance from the
surface (datum line) to the water level when no water is being pumped.
3. Pumping Water level- the vertical distance from the datum to the water
level when specified capacity is being pumped.
4. Drawdown- vertical distance between pumping and static water levels.
5. Head above datum- indicates the total discharge head (static plus friction)
between datum line and point of measurement.
6. Pump capacity- volume rate flow expressed in cubic meters per hour or
liters per second to be produced by the pump.
7. Pump setting- the nominal vertical distance (in meters) from datum to the
discharge pipe connection at the pump.
8. Water composition- make up of the water to be pumped.
9. Type of drive- specification of the average power source (single phase or
3 phases).
10. Allowable motor overload- percentage of rated motor main plate power (in
kilowatts or horsepower) that will be permitted to be used.

CHART 2. FAULT FINDING: Centrifugal Pumps

Fault Cause Remedy of Action

No Discharge Lack of prime Prime pump and suction line,

allowing trapped air to escape
through bleed vent.
Excessive suction lift Check suction head. Reduce lift
and/or increase pipe size to negate
friction head. Check foot valve and
suction pipe for obstruction.
Excessive Discharge head Cheack total head. Ensure all
valves open. Check piping for
blockages. Ensure non-return valves
are installed correct way round.
Speed too low Check that pump revolutions are
consistent with recommendations.
Pump clogged Check that impeller is not clogged.
Wrong direction of rotation Check pump is rotating in right
Air leaks Check suction pipe and connection
for leaks. Check seal or gland.
Vapour lock Check fluid temperature to ensure
that fluid in the suction line is not
flashing to vapour when the pressure
is reduced.
Low delivery Air leaks/ vapour locks Check and rectify.
Worn or clogged impeller Replace and correct.
Incorrect pipe size Check recommendation.
Increase size reduce friction head.
Blockage or constriction Check total head etc.
Poor suction Ask for recommendation.
Wrong pump Check recommendations.
High fluid viscosity
Low Pressure Worn impeller Check and replace.
Wrong rotation Check and correct.
Flow velocity Check recommendation.
Unbalanced impeller Increase size to reduce friction
Faulty bearings/ bent shaft Check total head etc.
Misalignment Ask for recommendation
Badly installed Check recommendation
Vibration and Cavitation Check operation conditions, fluid
noise temperature and NPSH.
Incorrect rotation Check and rectify.
Flow velocity Increase pipe size. Reduce flow.
Unbalanced impeller Check for wear or clogging
Faulty bearings/ bent shaft Replace if necessary.
Misalignment Check alignment with prime-mover.
Badly installed Check mounting for rigidity.
Excessive wear Corrosion Check that pump material and fluid
are compatible.
Cavitation Check operating conditions.
Abrassive fluid Ask for recommendations.
Heating bearing Running too fast Check maximum operating speed.
Belts too tight Slacken tension.
Misalignment Check alignment
Lack of lubricant Repack with grease or replace.
Distortion Bearings too tight.
DEEP WELL JET PUMP. A pump consisting of a revolving impeller in the pump
housing which forces water down a pressure line to an ejector assembly below water

HYDRAULIC RAM OR RAM PUMP. A pump in which the power generated from flowing
in an enclosed pipe is used to raise part of the water to a height above that from which
the flow began.

ILLUSTRATION: A typical hydraulic ram pump

ILLUSTRATION: A typical Hydraulic Ram Installation

• Definite Conditions Required for Hydraulic Ram to work Effectively

1. The fall (h) must be more than 0.66m, but should not exceed 6m.
2. The drive pipe should be straight and laid to an even grade, and its length should
be 6 to 8 times the available fall. The drive pipe must be long enough to ensure
that when the recoil of water takes place more resistance is offeered by te
moving water in the drive pipe than by the delivery valve and the water
immediately above it.
3. The amount of water available should be at least 10 times the required supply
and there must be a get away for the waste water.
4. The height (H) to which the water is to be delivered should not, in general, be
more than 6 to 8 times the available fall.
5. As a rule, the diameter of the drive pipe should be at least twice the diameter of
the delivery pipe.

• Calculation
In calculating for the quantity of water delivered by a hydraulic ram, use the

q= Q x h x e


q= Quantity (in liters) delivered from the ram in a given time

Q= Quantity (in liters) flowing to the ram in the same time
h= Head (in meters) of water on inlet side of ram
H= Height (in meters) to which water is raised
e= Effeciency of ram

To supply a ram, 200 liters of water per hour are available. The head of the ram is
1.00m and the height to which is raised is 5.00mm if the ram is assumed to have an
efficiency of 60%, what quantity of water will be delivered per hour?


q= Q x h x e

= 200 x 1 x 0.6

q= 24 liters per hour

HYDROPNEUMATIC PRESSURE SYSTEM. A pumping system that provide water,
within pre-set flow and pressure ratings, automically on demand.

• Three basic Elements of the Pressure System

1. A pump (of any type or manufacturer)
2. A pressure sensing electric switch- opens and closes the electrical
contacts causing the pump to stop and start.
3. Pressure vessel which contains an elastic medium, usually air.



0 to 8.00m 8.00 to 18.00m 18.00 to 27.00 to 46.00 and over
27.00m 46.00m
1,136 to Submersible Submersible Submersible Submersible Submersible
2,271 LPH pump pump pump pump pump
(300-600 Jet pump Jet pump Jet pump Jet pump Jet pump
GPH) Piston Deep well Deep well Deep well Deep well
Pump Reciprocating Reciprocating Reciprocating Reciprocating
Pump Pump Pump Pump
2,271 to Submersible Submersible Submersible Submersible Submersible
4,542 LPH Pump pump pump pump pump
(600-1200 Jet Pump Jet pump Jet pump Jet pump
GPH) Plunger
Over 4,542 Submersible Submersible Submersible Submersible Submersible
LPH (1200 Pump pump pump pump pump
GPH) Jet Pump Jet pump Jet pump


In the pumping of water, the following are to be considered:

1. Mass of water to be lifted

2. The height through which it must be lifted or forced.
3. The distance it must travel in moving from one place to another.
4. The ways in which in water may be affected by friction.

Pressure- is defined as force per unit area, the area being measured at right angles to
directon of the force. The unit of pressure N/m2 is called Pascal (Pa). Kilo Pascal (kPa)
and Mega Pascal (MPa) are commonly used.

Head- is the height or vertical distance from the point of measurement to the free level
of water in the system.
a. Positive Head- occurs when the free water level is higher than the point of
b. Negative Head- occurs where the free water level is lower than the point
of measurement. It is also known as suction, partial vacuum or negative
*Water with head of 1.00m and a base of 1m2 will exert a pressure of 9810 N/m2, or
9810 Pa, that is 9.81 kPa.

• Classification of Heads
There are different kinds of head according to their effect on pumping operations.

1. Static Discharge Head or Gravity Head- results from the vertical height of a
column of water. It is the weight of water exerted as a result of the force of
gravity. In pumping operatons, it is the vertical distance (in meters) from the
center line of the pump to the point of free discharge.
2. Pressure head- the vertical height to to which a given pressure will force water to
a certain level
3. Suction Lift- the term used when the source of supply is below the center line of
the pump.
4. Static Suction Lift- the vertical distance (in meters) from the liquid level to the
center line of the pump.
5. Total Suction Lift- the static suction lift plus friction head in the entire suction pipe
and fittings.
6. Suction head- the term used when the source of supply is above the center lne of
the pump. Also known as flooded suction.
7. Static Suction Head- the vertical distance (in meters) from the center line of the
pump to the level of the liquid being pumped.
8. Total Suction Head- the static suction head minus the friction head in the entire
suction pipe and fittings.
9. Total discharge Head- the static delivery head plus the friction head plus the
friction head in all of the delivery pipe and fittings.
10. Velocity Head- the head required to accelerate the water in the delivery pipe. It
should be included in the total pump head but it so nominal that it is usually
11. Total Pump Head- the total suction lift plus the total delivery plus the velocity



The supply of hot water of domestic use is based on the need for personal hygiene and
washing in order to remain healthy and safe.
1. Personal hygiene- through science, people became aware that dirt harbors
disease, to keep away from this condition people attend to constantly maintain
their bodies clean. To achieve this, a regular supply of hot water is required to
break down and dissolve oil and dirt. Soap lathers much better in hot water than
cold. Hot water is friendlier to our skin temperature since we are warm blooded
animals. Hot water also helps to open skin pores, letting the soap get down into
the tissue to lift out the oil and dirt.
2. Washing- certain substances, such as fatty foods on a plate, require a
temperature of 60 degrees centigrade to lift them.
There are several methods of heating water , but the availability of fuel and the cost
involved in operating and maintaining the system are main concerns in choosing the
suitable type. The types of fuel currently available are:
1. Electricity 5. steam
2. Solid fuel- coal 6. Oil
3. Gas 7. Heat pumps
4. Solar
In order to achieve the greatest convenience and the best running cost, knowledge of
the heat-up time for water heaters is important. Capacities of water heaters vary
according to requirements, storage size and heat input. This is the reason why most
heaters have to be turned- on before use as they need time to heat up. To be able to
calculate the heat- up time we need to understand a few facts about heating water.
1. Specific heat- is the specific amount of heat for a specific temperature rise. It
takes 4.187 kJ (kilo Joules) of energy to raise 1 kilogram of water through 1
degree centigrade.
2. For the purpose of calculations, 1 liter of water has a mass of 1 kilogram.
3. Temperature Rise (TR)- is the difference between the cold water temperature
and the final required temperature. This is expressed in the formula: TR= (t2-t1)
4. Often the water heater is electrical equipment that is related in kilowatts (kW), it
is necessary to convert kJ to kW. The conversion is kW= 3600 kJ.
Knowing the quantity of water to be heated, the temperature rise and the specific heat
of water, we can calculate the amount of heat required, and because electrical
appliances have the input based on an hourly rate, these figures can be reversed to find
the time it would take to heat up.
Calculate the amount of electrical energy and the time required to heat 13 liters of water
from 10oC to 60oC at 100% efficiency.
1. Solving for Temperature Rise: TR=60oC - 10oC= 50oC
2. Solving for Energy Required
Energy Required = liters x temperature x specific heat
= 13 liters x 50oC x 4.187 kJ/ liter oC
= 13 liters x 50oC x 4.187 kJ
Liter degree centigrade
= 2,721.55 kJ
3. Convert kJ to kW
kW= 2721.55 kJ
3600 kJ/ kW
4. Solving for Time Required
T= 2721.55 kJ
3600 kJ/ kWh x 0.76 kW
Convert hours to minutes: T= 0.99 hours x 60 minutes / hour = 59.4 minutes
The above time of 59.4 minutes is quite impractical for a waiting time before hot water is
available. To shorten the waiting time, the input should be increased.
*If we double the input from 0.76 kW to 1.52kW, calculate the time it will take to reach
the required temperature.
Solution. Use the same figures but this time double the input.
T= 13 liters x 50 oC x 4.187 k
3600kJ/ kWh x 1.52kW

= 2721.55 kJ = 0.497 hours

5472 kJ/ h

Convert hours to minutes

T= 0.497h x 60 min/ h
Time= 29.82 minutes


The above stated types of fuel can be used to heat the water in the following systems:
1. Localized water heating (single appliances)
a. High Pressure
b. Low Pressure
2. Centralized hot water system
a. High Pressure
b. Low Pressure
3. Storage water heaters
a. High Pressure
b. Low Pressure
4. Instantaneous water heaters
a. High Pressure
b. Low Pressure


All heaters of this type are designed to serve one fixture at a time. Although, it is
possible to install the heater between two adjacent fixtures so the swivel spout can be
turned to supply both. They are available from 7 to 34 liters storage and normally have a
2000 watt element fitted. This means that there is heat-up time of 12 minutes to 1 hour.


The under sink water heater works on the principle of displacement, hot water only
flowing when cold water enters the cylinder and pushes the hot out. To prevent undue
pressure from the cold water inlet, a restrictor is fitted to the inlet connection. Provision
must be made for expansion and this is done by leaving the hot water outlet open and
discharging it over the sink. The cold water faucet controls the flow of hot water and the
hot outlet pipe allows for expansion. Under sink water heaters are not suitable for use
with dish washers, unless installed as low-pressure water heaters.

Instantaneous heaters instantly heat cold water as it passes through the heater. These
heaters are compact since storage is not required. They are popularly used at showers
and lavatories and due to this condition; there is a shower model and lavatory model.

1. Shower model- has rated power consumption of 6000 watts (6kW)

- provides a continuous supply of hot water at a maximum rate of 3
liters per minute at a showering temperature of 40 degrees
2. Lavatory model- has a rated power consumption of 3000 watts (3kW)
-provides a continuous supply of warm water for hand washing at
the rate of approximately 1.4 liters per minute.
3. Multi-point model- serves several fixtures such as a range of lavatories, sink or
. shower.

1. When the cold water control valve is turned on, water flows and exerts pressure
on a pressure switch which in turn completes the electrical circuit so that the
element can now heat the water as it passes through. The pressure switch is the
safeguard that the heating element is only on when water is flowing.
2. A preset thermal cut-out switch is also incorporated as a safety measure against
overheating the water.
3. The heating element is thermostatically controlled using a rod thermostat or invar
steel which expands very little. This is fixed inside a tube of brass which expands
very little. This is fixed inside a tube of brass which expands approximately 18
times as much as the invar steel. When the brass tube, which is in contact with
the water, expands, it draws out the invar rod with it and breaks the electrical
4. A magnet ensures a clean snap action, as the magnet will hold the control switch
until the last minute, so preventing excessive arcing and rapid deterioration of the
contact points.

 In centralized systems, water is heated and stored centrally and distributed to the
hot water faucets via the hot water piping. In the average home, an electric
heating element is directly immersed into the water to be heated. But, for
commercial and larger projects an independent boiler or furnace is used to heat
the water remotely. The hot water is stored in a range boiler or storage tank that
is located as near the boiler as possible to keep heat losses at a minimum.
 To provide an adequate supply of hot water for the average family, a 180 liter
storage cylinder is recommended and is designed to provide the central bulk of
the hot water requirements. The aforementioned value should be increased if
there is an abnormally high usage of hot water or be supplemented with
secondary forms of heating water.

1. The hot water storage vessel holds sufficient water to meet a large draw-off at
peak times.
2. It may be possible to use cheaper, lower grade fuel oil, coal, natural gas or other
solid fuel.
3. The boiler can be housed in its own room, keeping noise and dust out of the
main building.
4. One boiler plant reduces maintenance.


1. Heating element/ boiler 3. Range boiler/ hot water storage tank
2. Thermostat 4. Hot water pipes
• Heating element- the size of the heating element has a direct bearing on the
heating up time, which is also related to the size of the storage cylinder. A
general guide for adequate supply is: 135 liters  1500 watts
180 liters  2000 watts

Both the 180 liter with a 2000 watt element and the 135 liter with a 1500 watt
element will reach a temperature of 60 degrees centigrade in 5 hours and 15 minutes,
based on cold water entering the cylinder at 10 degrees centigrade.

Caution: It is not uncommon for higher wattage elements to be installed, up to

3000 watts in a 135 liter cylinder, but when this is done in an old installation, the wiring
should be checked to avoid electrical overloading that may result to fire.

• Thermostat- is the key to a satisfactory and economical water heater,

automatically switching off the power when the preset temperature is reached
and switching on again when hot water is drawn off, or the temperature drops
through heat loss. Recommended thermostat settings for average family
requirement are 65 to 0 degrees centigrade. Where there are smaller demands,
60 degrees centigrade is more economical temperature. Some savings can be
made by lowering the temperature setting during summer.

• Range boiler/ hot water storage tank- the hot water tank serves the domestic
hot water system in a storage capacity. There are two types of tanks used for the
storage of hot water:

1. Range boiler- the small cylindrical hot water tank that varies in size from
300 mm to 600 mm in diameter and is not more than 1800 mm long. The
range boiler is made of galvanized steel sheet of standard and extra
heavy gauge. It can be used in either horizontal or vertical position.

2. Storage tank- the large cylindrical hot water tank with a range of diameter
at 600mm to 1350 mm and not more than 4500 mm long.

The proper size of the hot water storage tank depends on the following:
1. The design of the building
2. The number of occupants and
3. The heating capacity of the supply device

• Hot water pipes- should be as short as possible in order to avoid the use of
“dead legs”. A “dead leg” is a long pipe run whereby it takes a long time to push
out the cold water for the sake of a small amount of hot water. The smallest size
of piping that will provide a satisfactory flow should be used. Short, small sized
pipes are less expensive and they waste less heat and less water.


The storage tank and heating device of a hot water distribution system are so
assembled as to create a circulation of water within them. The movement of the water is
the result of molecular activity. The application of heat to a body of water caused it to
expand and become less dense, which give it a natural tendency to rise. The inequality
of weights between the hot and the cold water contained in the tank results a circulation
of the liquid. The operation and efficiency of the hot water distribution system is
dependent upon the following:

1. Type of heating system used

a. Direct system
b. Indirect system

2. Type of tank connection used

a. Vertical position
b. Horizontal position
c. Pipes, valves and fittings

3. Types of installation used

a. Upfeed and Gravity return

b. Overhead feed and gravity return
c. Pump circuit system


In this system the water that is being heated by the boiler is actually used out of the hot
water faucets.

Direct water heaters are classified into four categories:

1. Range boilers
a. Range boiler and furnace coil
b. Range boiler and heater
2. Gas water heaters
a. Side-arm gas heater
b. Gas water heater
3. Oil-Fired water heater
4. Electric water heater

Each type should have a temperature and pressure relief valve and sediment drain at
the lowest part of the tank. Relief valves are set to allow water to blow into a drain line
when the temperature exceeds 100 degrees centigrade or when the pressure exceeds
860 kPa.
• Range Boiler and furnace coil- the range boiler is usually mounted upright on a
stand. A drain is placed at the bottom to remove sediment; a temperature and
pressure relief valve is placed at the top for safety. The furnace coil is located in
the furnace box.
• Range boiler and Heater- the range boiler is usually installed horizontally on a
stand. The heater maybe fired by coal, gas or oil.

• Side-Arm Gas Heater- is used mostly during summer months in temperate

countries to support furnace oil heaters.
• Gas water heater- a galvanized iron, copper, or porcelain- lined steel tank
enclosed in an insulating jacket. A gas (LPG) burner provides the heat. The
thermostat controls the temperature of the water in the insulated tank. Its
operation is automatic and will keep water at any temperature from 45 to 75
degree centigrade, according to the setting of the thermostat. Gas water heaters
provide an efficient and inexpensive way to supply hot water at all times.

• Oil-Fired water heaters- are similar to the gas water heater, except that a
vaporizing or pressure oil burner supplies the heat.
• Electric Water Heater- normally has two immersion type heating elements. The
upper heater usually has higher wattage than the lower. Thermostats control
these elements to ensure that the operation is automatic. The heater does not
need a flue or smoke stack since there are no burning products. The electric
water heater may be located in a closet.


In this system the water that is heated by the boiler is never used out of the hot water
faucets, but circulates through a heat exchanger. This takes the form of a coil pipe
within the hot water storage tank. The heated water circulates through the system and
in turn heats the water held within the storage tank, then results to the boiler to be
reheated. The advantages of this system are:
1. Since the water in the boiler does not mix with the water in the storage tank, the
risk of rusty water being drawn off through the faucets is eliminated.
2. It keeps the carbonate deposits to a minimum level because once the temporary
hardness of the water has been released it will not recur as the same water is
reheated over and over again.
3. It can use steam as the heating medium instead of water.

There are 3 types of indirect heating system currently used in buildings, these are:
1. Primatic Cylinder
2. Calorifiers
3. Annular Cylinder

1. Primatic cylinder- is a single feed cylinder with a patented internal heat

exchanger. It is designed with two air locks, which prevent the mixing of the
heated water with the useable water.
2. Calorifiers- is a continuous coil of pipe within a vertical cylinder. In hospitals and
factories where steam is already being generated for other uses, it can be used
to heat the water by the indirect method through the calorifier. The steam enters
the coil through the top connection. The strainer removes any solid matter
suspended in the controlled. The thermostat prevents overheating or boiling of
the stored water. A steam trap, fitted near the outlet of the coil, prevents the
steam from leaving the coil until it condenses.
3. Annulars cylinder- is a horizontal calorifier that works in a similar way to that
described above. This best suited for areas with limited headroom.

NOTE: Where water is being used for heating , the “rule of thumb” to determine the
heating surface is approximately 1000 cubic centimeter of heating surface per 10 liters
of water in the storage tank. For 180 liters of stored water, this works out to
approximately 21 meters of a 15 mm diameter pipe or 16 meters of a 20mm diameter

Indirect water heating with an annular cylinder


It is advisable to seat the tank in a vertical position on small installations and in a
horizontal position on the larger installations. In both the vertical and horizontal position,
the tank must be set above the heater to allow the heated water to rise and permit a
more rapid circulation.

Other necessary connections to the tank are:

a. Cold water supply- delivered into the tank via a boiler tube that extends to
within 150mm of the tank bottom. The purpose for this is to avoid the possibility
of cooling the hot water which accumulates at the top of the tank. This cold water
line must have a small hole within 150mm from the top of the tank. This hole
serves as a vacuum breaker and prevents siphonage. The supply line into the
tank must be equipped with a control valve located as close to the hot water tank
as possible.
b. Flow connection- is connected to an opening on the tank somewhere above its
center point. This line is called the flow connection because the heated water
flows from the heater in the tank.
c. Return connection- is connected to a tapping on the bottom of the tank. This
line is called the return connection because it returns the colder water from the
bottom of the tank of the heater.
d. Drain valve- is located at the lowest point of the storage tank.
e. Hot water distribution pipe- is connected to a tapping on the top of the tank at
the point near the flow inlet.
f. Blow-off valve- is installed to the storage tank to control the temperature and
pressure and to prevent serious difficulties should the tank become overheated.

HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION: Types of installations

The installation for hot water distribution consists of the piping work that conveys the
heated water from the storage tank to the plumbing fixtures.

• Upfeed and Gravity Return system

- Commonly used in residential installations
- The purpose of this system is to permit circulation of hot water within the
piping arrangement
- The circulating return is economical since it eliminates water waste.
- The principle on which this system functions is provided in the unequal
weights of 2 columns of heated water of uniform height. The inequality of
weight is the result of a variation in temperature in the 2 columns.


a. The distribution main is connected to a tapping on the top of the storage tank
close to the flow from the heater.
This pipe is usually suspended from the basement ceiling.
b. Hot water rises are generally connected to the distribution main by means of 45
degree connection.
However, this practice may vary according to the length of the risers, in order to
avoid one riser circulating faster and more thoroughly than the others. For
example, should an installation consists of 3 risers of varying heights, the longest
can be connected to the main horizontally; the shorter riser by a vertical
connection; and the third riser maybe connected with a 45 degree fitting.
c. The flow riser is passed as near the fixtures as possible. Swing joints are
provided in the supports of risers to allow for expansion and prevent breakage of
the pipes. The flow riser is equipped with a control valve and a drip at its base.
d. The circulating return is connected to a tee that is installed in the riser below the
highest fixture to overcome air lock. The return is usually one size smaller that
the flow riser. It is connected to a return main often suspended from the
basement ceiling. The return riser is also equipped with a drip and a control valve
at its base.
e. The circulating main is usually suspended from the basement ceiling and
installed with a slope to a Y fitting installed in the return connection between the
storage tank and the heating unit. A valve must be placed at this connection.
f. All valves used in the system should be of the gate valve type in order to be
assured of a full way water flow and to overcome trapped water lines- a fault
which occurs in the use of disc or globe valves.
g. The largest diameter of the pipe is at the bottom of the riser, the size diminishing
as it passes through the upper floor s of the building.
- The most efficient method of delivering hot water to fixtures.
- It is generally used in multi-storey buildings.
- It is dependent on the natural laws governing expansion and gravity
- Its advantage is that it allows continuous circulation even if there is a
mechanical defect in the system.
- The operating principle of the overhead system is based on the fact that in a
closed system of piping, water rises when heated. After it has reached the
high point of the system, natural forces of gravity return it to the storage unit.


a. The storage tank should be located at the lowest point of the distribution piping.
b. Overhead feed riser is connected to a tapping at the top of the storage tank close
to the flow connection of the heater. This riser must be extended as direct and
free from offsets as possible to the work space or the ceiling above the top floor
of the building. This riser must not have connections from fixtures.
c. Distribution main is connected to the top of the riser, and is suspended from the
ceiling or the building framework by means of metal hangers. The main must be
pitched away from the riser so that the water will flow to the last drop. The main
shoulder be located so as to make the horizontal runs of the riser as short ans as
equal in length as possible.
d. The horizontal riser branch is connected into the main by means of inverted 45
degree fitting and is pitched to the drop or vertical riser proper. The horizontal
riser branch must be equipped with a valve installed as close as may be
e. The largest pipe diameter is at the top of the riser, the size diminishing as it
passes through the lower floors.
f. The circulating return main is a line suspended from the basement or lowest
floor. It is pitched and connected to a Y located at the return piping between the
heater and the storage tank.
g. The return risers are connected to the circulating return main.
h. The system is equipped with a relief vent that eliminates the accumulation of air
(air bound) at the top most point of the distributing piping. Air bound is a condition
in the pipe works that retards or prevents the circulation of hot water. There are
two methods to provide a relief vent in the system; 1 connects an uncirculated
riser to the highest point of the overhead distribution main. It is possible to relieve
the air lock from time to time by opening the fixture/ faucet that the riser serves.
2, by installing an air relief valve, which opens when the air accumulates and
automatically closes when the air is released. The relief valve is equipped with a
drain pipe that allows water to drip to an open fixture.
-The circulation of hot water to the plumbing fixture by means of mechanical
device, usually a centrifugal pump. The rotary motion of the impeller of the centrifugal
pump creates an even movement of hot water flow in the pipes which makes this pump
practical to use.
- this is used in buildings where it is impossible to produce a circulation of hot


a. The pump is installed on the circulating return main as close to the heater as
b. The circulating return is connected to the inlet side of the pump and the outlet
side of the pump is connected into the return of the heater.
c. It is advisable to equip the pump with a by-pass, which is done by inserting tees
of the same diameter as the circulating return ahead of the valves. The tees are
connected and the line is equipped with a gate valve. Should the pump get out of
order, the control valves may be closed and the hot water will circulate around
the pump into the return pipe of the heater. This practice serves as a temporary
means of water circulation. When the by-pass is not in use, the valve with which
it is equipped must be closed. The valves on either side of the pump must be
open at all times when the pump is in operation.