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Syarat
Syarat Dan Terma Penggunaan E-Book Ini
Produk : "E-Book" Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan Satu
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X
i
Lesen: Kegunaan sendiri Jangan sebarkan Kegunaan anda sahaja
Hak Cipta Terpelihara Mohd Nasarruddin Bin Ahmad
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
Sebelum menduduki
peperiksaan anda akan
hanya lakukan ulangkaji
pantas yang merumuskan
kesemua bahagian ingatan.
Ulangkaji semula dari
masa ke semasa
mengikut keperluan anda.
Masa yang diambil akan
menjadi semakin singkat
kerana ingatan anda
semakin mantap.
Ulangkaji peta minda
anda seberapa kerap
yang mungkin.
Abaikan bahagian
yang anda telah ingat.
Baca bahagian yang
anda terlupa.
Baca semula peta minda
anda keesokan harinya
untuk mengisi semula
ingatan yang telah hilang
Selepas 1 jam proses
pembelajaran, anda
seharusnya mengulangkaji
semula selama 10-30 minit.
CARA
PENGGUNAAN
A
Sebagai contoh,
sila lihat peta
minda yang
pertama di muka
1 iaitu
"Introduction To
Science"
Nota yang terdapat dalam peta minda ini hendaklah
dibaca menurut turutannya. Ia mengandungi cabang
utama yang berlabel dengan huruf bersaiz besar
seperti:
dan seterusnya.
C B A
Ia bermula dengan
cabang utama
iaitu "SCIENCE: PART
OF EVERYDAY LIFE"
A
Ini diikuti oleh katakunci
yang bercambah dari
cabang ini iaitu yang
berlabel
iaitu "Science"
1
Ulangi langkah yang sama
bagi dahan dan
dengan membaca ranting
dan ranting kecil mengikut
turutan huruf a, b, c....dan
nombor 1, 2, 3.... sebelum
anda pergi ke cabang
utama berlabel
iaitu "AREAS OF STUDY AND
CAREERS" untuk
meneruskan bacaan.
2 3
B
Cabang "Science" pula akan
bercambah menjadi ranting yang
mengandungi fakta yang berturutan
yang berlabel , , dan .
Habiskan membacanya sebelum anda
pergi ke dahan yang berlabel
iaitu "Natural Phenomena".
c a b
2
4
3
2
5
1 6
B
E-book Peta MInda untuk SAINS UPSR adalah dalam
format PDF. Untuk membukanya komputer anda harus
mempunyai program Adobe Acrobat Reader. Jika tidak
muaturunkan dari:
http://get.adobe.com/reader/
Gunakan pencetak warna untuk supaya gambar yang
dipaparkan adalah berwarna dan menarik untuk dibaca
sebelum dijilidkan. Ini adalah kerana warna berupaya
meningkatkan ingatan. Apabila dicetak, mukasuratnya
adalah dalam saiz A4. Walaupun boleh dibaca oleh mata
kasar, jika anda mahukan saiz huruf yang lebih besar, anda
boleh membuat salinan fotokopi ke kertas A3 dengan
pembesaran 141% untuk paparan yang lebih besar dan
jelas. Selepas itu bolehlah dijilidkan menjadi buku.
SALINAN
KERAS,
PENJILIDAN DAN
PEMBESARAN
2
1
MENGULANGKAJI
PETA MINDA
ANDA
C
Kajian telah menunjukkan
bahawa ingatan akan
berkurang mengikut masa yang
tertentu.Sebagai persediaan
bagi peperiksaan, anda
haruslah mengulangkaji peta
minda anda dari masa ke
semasa. Ini membolehkan anda
untuk memperbaiki bahagian
yang kurang diingati, atau
mengingatkan semula bahagian
yang terlupa .
CARA
1
2
c
d
a
b
e
SaizA4
KEJAYAAN
AKAN MENANTI
ANDA !
3
3

P
e
njilida
n
SaizA3

F
o
to
kop
i
1
4
1%

Penjilidan
ii
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1


iii
CHAPTER 1 :
INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE
A. SCIENCE PART OF EVERY DAY LIFE........................... 1
B. AREAS OF STUDY........................................................... 1
C. CAREERS..........................................................................1
D. THE SCIENCE LABORATORY (1)................................... 1
E. THE SCIENCE LABORATORY (2)................................... 2
F. USING THE BUNSEN BURNER....................................... 2
G. HAZARDSYMBOLS........................................................ 2
H. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION......................................... 3
I. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES................................................. 3
J. PREFIXES......................................................................... 4
K. MEASURING LENGTHS.................................................. 4
L. MEASURING AREAS........................................................ 4
M. MEASURING LIQUIDVOLUMES.................................... 5
N. MEASURING SOLIDVOLUMES..................................... 5
O. MEASURING TEMPERATURE........................................ 5
P. CHOOSING SUITABLE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS.. 6
Q. WEIGHT ANDMASS........................................................ 6
R. DIFFERENCES BETWEENWEIGHT ANDMASS........ 6
Q. IMPORTANCE OF STANDARDUNITS........................... 6
CHAPTER 2 :
CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE
A. CELL................................................................................. 7
B. MICROSCOPE.................................................................. 7
C. CELL STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS......................... 7
D. USING A MICROSCOPE.................................................. 7
E. ANIMALAND PLANT CELLCOMPARISON.................. 7
F. UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS.......................................... 8
G. MULTICELLULARORGANISMS..................................... 8
H. MICROORGANISMS........................................................ 8
I. HUMANCELLORGANISATION........................................ 8
J. HUMANBEINGS: COMPLEX ORGANISMS.................... 8
CHAPTER 3: MATTER
A. CHARACTERISTICS........................................................ 9
B. MADE UP SMALLPARTICLES........................................ 9
C. 3 STATES OF MATTER.................................................. 9
D. PARTICLE ARRANGEMENT........................................... 9
E. PARTICLE MOVEMENT.................................................. 9
F. DENSITY............................................................................ 10
G. FLOAT ORSINK?............................................................ 10
H. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES................................................ 10
I. APPLICATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF MATTER.......... 10
CHAPTER 4:
VARIETY OF RESOURCES ON EARTH
A. AIR..................................................................................... 11
B. WATER.............................................................................. 11
C. SOIL.................................................................................. 11
D. MINERALS........................................................................ 11
E. FOSSIL FUELS............................................................... 11
F. LIVING THINGS..................................................................11
G. ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS, MIXTURES....................... 12
H. ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS, MIXTURES
COMPARISON............................................................... 12
I. METALS ANDNON-METALS.......................................... 12
J. EARTH'S RESOURCES CONSERVATION
ANDPRESERVATION................................................... 12
CHAPTER 5:
THE AIR AROUND US
A. COMPOSITION................................................................ 13
B. AIR: A MIXTURE............................................................... 13
C. PROPERTIES OF OXYGENAND CARBONDIOXIDE.. 13
D. OXYGEN FORRESPIRATION....................................... 13
E. CARBONDIOXIDE FROM RESPIRATION...................... 13
F. OXYGEN FORCOMBUSTION........................................ 14
G. AIRPOLLUTION.............................................................. 14
H. AIRPOLLUTIONCONTROL.......................................... 14
CHAPTER 6:
SOURCES OF ENERGY
A. ENERGY: Ability to dowork............................................. 15
B. ENERGY FORMS............................................................. 15
C. ENERGY SOURCES........................................................ 15
D. POTENTIALENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY............ 15
E. NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES...................... 16
F. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES................................ 16
G. USING ENERGY EFFICIENTLY...................................... 16
H. CONSERVATIONOF ENERGY SOURCES................... 16
I. RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPEMENT..................... 16
CHAPTER 7: HEAT
A. A FORM OF ENERGY...................................................... 17
B. HEAT PRODUCTION........................................................ 17
C. HEAT AND TEMPERATURE............................................ 17
D. HEAT/TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES.......................... 17
E. HEAT FLOWEFFECTS.................................................. 17
F. HEAT FLOW..................................................................... 18
G. HEAT FLOW TYPES....................................................... 18
H. HEAT FLOW IN NATURALPHENOMENA...................... 18
I. HEAT CONDUCTORS ANDINSULATORS.................... 18
J. USES OF HEAT CONDUCTORS..................................... 19
K. USES OF HEAT INSULATORS....................................... 19
L. EFFECTS OF HEAT ONSTATES OF MATTER............ 19
M. CHANGES OF STATE SUMMARY................................. 19
N. APPLICATIONS OF EXPANSION AND
CONTRACTION.............................................................. 20
O. SOLVING PROBLEMS USING
EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION................................ 20
P. HEAT ABSORPTION AND HEAT RELEASE.................. 20
Q. HEAT FLOWBENEFITS................................................ 20
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
Chemical
properties
Living organism
Life processes
Matter
Energy
Natural forces
Biochemical
processes of
living things
Industrial use of
living orgnisms
To make
useful
products
Plants and
their
structures
Rocks, minerals,
earth's structure
Sun, planets, stars
Microorganisms
Processes and
functions of living
systems
Composition
Physics
Biology
Chemistry
Agriculture
Transfer money, pay
bills, shopping, work
from home
Observation
A
Experimentation
2
1
Systematic
study of
nature
To
understand
hownature
affects lives
and
envionment
Gained
knowledge
from..
Science
Occurences
in nature
Growth of plants
Aurora
Eclipse of
moon and sun
Rainbow
formation
Examples
Natural
Phenomena
SCIENCE:
PART OF
EVERYDAY LIFE
3
Importance
of Science
Make lives more
comfortable
Improve standard
of living
Scientific
Discoveries
Conserve
environment
Preserve
environment
Scientific
Knowledge
Application of
scientific
knowledge
Makes lives more
comfortable
Examples
Technology
Medicine
Faster, safer,
vehicles
Modern highways,
safer & faster
travelling
Light rail/commuter
trains transport more
passengers, reduce
traffic jams /pollution
Telephone
Transportation
Facsimile
Radio
Television
Computers Satellites -
long distance
communication
Tools
Plants with
higher yeilds/
resist diseases
Animals grow faster
Tractors, combine
harvester
Fertilisers
Insecticides
Increase Food
Production
ICT
(Informat ion
Communication
Technology)
Communication
X-ray
machines
Lasers
Electrocardiographs
dialysis
Surgeries
Organ transplant
Healthier &
Longer Life
Tools
Biochemistry
Biotechnolgy Botany
Geology
Astronomy
Microbiology
Physiology
AREAS OF
STUDY
Chemistry trained
Plant science
specialist
Trained in
medical science
Prepares
and
dispenses
medicines
Designs, builts,
maintains engines,
buildings, roads
Designs buildings
Specialist in
microorganisms
Patients care
specialist
Animal doctor
Develope
computer
software
Botanist
Chemist
Computer
Programmer
Doctor
Pharmacist Engineer
Architect
Microbiologist
Nurse
Veterinarian
CAREERS
THE SCIENCE
LABORATORY
(1)
Line up
outside the
lab before
entering
Never enters
the lab without
permission
Food and drinks
are not allowed in
the lab
Apparatus and
chemicals cannot
be taken out of lab
Consult the
teacher for
help and advice
General
Rules
Never carry out
experiment without
permission Read instructions
carefully before
doing experiment.
Consult teacher if
necessary.
Handle
apparatus
carefully
Check
labels on
chemicals
Handle
chemicals
with spatula
Use small amounts of
chemicals
to prevent
wastage
Never pour
unused
chemical
into reagent
bottle to
prevent contamination
Never point the
mouth of test tube
towards anyone
when heating it
Throw solid
waste into bins
not into sinks
Do not taste any
chemicals or inhale
any gas unless
instructed
Report any
breakages or
faulty equipment
Report any mishaps
Wash and return
apparatus after use
Wash hands
thoroughly after
handling chemicals
Keep
benches
clean
Do not waste water,
electricity and gas
Safety
Precautions
B
C
D
4
3
2
5
1
6
7
8
9
10
4
3
2
5
1
6
7
8
9
10
2
1
c
a b
a
b
c
a
b
c d
a
b
e
c
d
a b
e
g
f
k
j
h
i
n
o
m
l
p
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
a
c
d
b
1
2
3
1
2
a
c
d
b
e f
1
2
a
b
a
c
d
b
1
a
c
d
b
e
a
b
a
b
a
b
c
a
a
b
1
2
1
2
4
1
3
I NTRODUCTI ON
TO SCI ENCE
(1 - 6)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1
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Avoid direct
contact
Wash with
running water
when
contacted
Store in
locked
place
Keep away
from heat/fire
Catches fire/
burneasily
Sodium/
potassium
metals
Concentrated
acids/alkali
Hydrogen/air
mixture
Keep in
paraffin
Avoid
contacting
water
Keep away
from heat/fire
Common
Apparatus
(1)
SCIENCE
LABORATORY
(2)
Common
Apparatus
(2)
Evaporating dish
To evaporate liquid
from solution
Bell jar
Displacement
can
Filter funnel
To separate experiment
setup from outside
environment
To
collect
gases
Gas jar Test tube
Boiling tube
To contain
small
amounts of
substances
To heat
small
amounts of
substances
Conikal
fl ask
To contain/
collect
chemicals
Round
bottom
fl ask
To contain
chemicals
when
preparing
gases
Measuring
cylinder
To measure volumes of
liquid ( 1 cm
3
accuracy)
Burette
To measure
volumes of
liquid ( 1 cm
3
accuracy)
Pipette
To measure
specific
volumes of
liquid
accurately
Retort stand
To hold
apparatus
r et or t
c l a mp
Tripod stand
To support
apparatus
during heating
wir e gauze
Test-tube
rack
To hold test
tubes
vertically
Bunsen
burner
Test-tube
holder
To hold test tube
when heating
To provide
heating
flame
Stop
watch
To measure
time
Thermometer To measure
temperature
Metre rule
Beam balance
To measure mass
USING THE
BUNSEN BURNER
gas jet
air hole
barrel
collar
Turn collar to close air hole

Turn on gas
Bring match to
mouth of barrel
Steps
When air hole
closed,
luminous
yellow flame
When air hole
opened ,
non-luminous
blue flame
Flame
Examples
Handling
Methods
Handling
Methods
Explodes
when mixed
with other
subsrances
Explosive
Petrol Kerosene
Ethanol
White/yellow
phosphorus
Methylated
spir its
Examples
Flammable
par af f i n
Causes harm/
deathif swallowed
/ inhaled / skin
absorbed
Mercury Cyanides
Lead
Benzene
Chloroform
Bromine
Examples
Causes damage
to skin / eye
Handling
Methods
Concentrated
acids
Hydrogen
peroxide
Bromine
Concentrated
alkali
Examples
Corrosi ve
Do not taste
Handling
Methods
Toxic /
poisonous
HAZARD
SYMBOLS
Irritates skin /
eye / respiratory
system
Avoid
inhalation
Use fume
cupboard
Handling
Methods
Ammonia
Bromine
Chlorine
Chloroform
Examples
Irritant /
Harmful
Emits radiation
harmful to body
cells / tissues
Keep in lead
containers
Uranium
Plutonium
Radium
Thorium
Examples
Handling
Methods
Radioactive
Radi oacti ve
substance
air hole
closed
Temperature
300
o
C
air hole
opened
Temperature
700
o
C
E
F
G
2
1
3
2
1
4
3
2
5
1
6
c
d
a
b
To find the
volume of
liquid
displaced
To separate solid
from liquid using
filter paper
To heat solids directly
over flames
Crucible
h e
f
g
i
j
j
c
d
e
a
b
h
f
g
i
k l
c
a
b
a
b
a
b
a b
a b
c
b
a
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
2 3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
4
5 2
3
1
4
5
6
2 1
2
1
2
1
3
4
2
1
2
1
3
4
2
1
3
4
2
To measure length
(accuracy 0.1 cm)
X
I NTRODUCTI ON
TO SCI ENCE
(2 - 6)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
Eg: Normal
temperature of
body is 37
o
C
Eg: Time taken
for an athlete to
run 100 m is
10.00 s
Eg: Length of insect
Eg: Length of book
Eg: Distance between house
and school = 5km
ki l ometres
( km)
Eg: Length of room
met r e
( m)
In SI units (International
System of Units)
A quantity that can
be measured
Identify patterns in
data and relationship
between manipulated
variable and
responding variable
Make an inference:
a statement made
by reasoning
based
observations and
measurements
Example: Time
taken for the
pendulum to make
one swing
increases as the
length of the
pendulum
increases
H
3
Involve the principle
of logic i n solvi ng
scientific problems
A systematic method
used by scientists in
their investigations
1
2
SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATION
The
question to
be solved
Open ended
question
What to
investigate
a
c
STEPS
Identifying
the Problem
Analysing
data
Shows relationship between
manipulated variable and
responding variable
Hypothesis: A
statement that can be
tested by experiment
Control the
variabl es Determine
materials and
apparatus
Determine
procedure
Determine
collection data
and data
anal ysis
met hod
Responding
Variable : Variable
that is being
observed
Variables : Factors
that aff ect the
result of
experiment Manipulated
Variable :
Variable that is
changed to see
the ef fect
Fixed Variables :
Variable that are not
changed throughout
experiment
Controlling
variables
Planning the
experi ment
Record data by:
(a) observation
(b) measurements
Measurements
t ypes:
(a) time
(b) temperature
changes
(c) colour
Tabulate data in
appropriate tables
Collecting
data
Organise data
in tables,
graphs,
chart s,
diagrams
Accepting
hypot hesis
i f
supported
by results
Rej ect
hypothesis
if not
supported
by results
Form new
hypothesis
and carry
furt her
experiments
(a) Aim of experiment, on the
relationship between variables
(b) List the 3 variables
(c) List all apparatus and materials
needed
(d) Draw a labelled scientific
drawing of the arrangement of
apparatus
(e) Writethe procedures carrying
out the experiment
(f) Tabulate the data obtained
(g) Analyse thedata (by graphs,
calculation or comparison)
(h) Conclusion
Contains the complete
experimental procedures
and results
Writing a
report
Report
format
Example: The longer the length
of a pendulum the longer the
period of osccilation
Forming a
hypothesis
TEMPERATURE
ELECTRIC
CURRENT
LENGTH
SI Units
¬ +
6 m
Longer
distance
Interpreting
data
Example:
The longer the
pendulum, the
longer the
period of
oscillation.
Hypothesis is
accepted
Making
conclusion
centi metres
(cm)
milliimetres
( mm)
Shorter
distance
¬
+
20 cm
¬ +
16 mm
TIME
seconds
(s)
SI Units
mi nutes
hours
days
months
years
PHYSICAL
QUANTITIES
ki logram
(kg)
Eg: Mass of a baby
is 3 kg.
SI Units
grams (g)
milligrams (mg)
Smaller
mass
MASS
kelvin (K)
Celcius (
o
C) :
for daily use
SI Units
Ampere (A)
SI Units
Summary
I
3
4
3
2
1
5
6
7
8
b
a
c
b
c
d
a
b
c
d
a
b
c
a
b
c
d
a b
a a
b
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
Examples
a
b
a
a
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
4
2
1
2
3
1
4
5
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
1
I NTRODUCTI ON
TO SCI ENCE
(3 - 6)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1
Physcical SI unit Symbol
quantity
Length metre m
Mass kiogram kg
Time seconds s
Temperature kelvin K
Current ampere A
pie chart
line
graph
bar chart
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
¬
*
+ ¬
Is the size of
surface of object
Use formulae
Wrap the measuring tape around the
object and read the scale that meets the
zero mark on the tape.
Reading = 63 cm
Error caused by the wrong
position of eye is called
parallax error
Example 2:
Change the following units of
measurements into kg
(a) 250 g
= (250 / 1000) = 0.25 kg
(b) 6 000 Mg
6 000 Mg = 6 000 000 000 g
= (6 000 000 000 / 1000) kg
= 6 000 000 kg
(c) 5 mg
5 mg = 5 x 0.001 g
= 0.005 g
= (0.005 / 1000) kg
= 0.000 005 kg
(d) 40 000 g
40 000 g = 40 000 x 0.000 001 g
= 0.04 g
= (0.04/1000) kg
= 0.000 04 kg


Example 1:
Write the following using prefixes
(a) 77 000g
77 x 1000g = 77kg
(b) 0.000 004 A
4 x 0.000 001 A = 4 A
(c) 7 800 m
7.8 x 1000 m = 78 km
(d) 0.006 g
6 x 0.001 m = 6 mg

L
Prefixes Symbol Numerical value
Tera T 1 000 000 000 000 or 10
12
Giga G 1 000 000 000 or 10
9
Mega M 1 000 000 or 10
6
kilo k 1 000 or 10
3
hecto h 1 00 or 10
2
deca da 10 or 10
1
deci d 0.1 or 10
-1
centi c 0.01 or 10
-2
milli m 0.001 or 10
-3
micro m 0.000 001 or 10
-6
nano n 0.000 000 001 or 10
-9
pico p 0.000 000 000 001 or 10
-12
femto f 0.000 000 000 000 001 or 10
-15
To express
physical quantities
which are very big
or very small
Examples
Place one end of
object at zero
mark of ruler/tape
Place eye vertically on
mark (correct position)
to take reading
Straight
Objects
2
Do not place eye at position A or B
(incorrect position) because the
readings are not accurate.
X
A
3
a
Reading = 2. 4 cm
4
b
4
PREFIXES
Curved
Objects /
Li nes
MEASURING
LENGTHS
X
B
C

Place string on ruler
to measure length
Make mark on string
Use string to trace
the curve surface
Using string &
meter rule
Diameter of
Objects
(cylinders/
spheres)
Using
Opisometer
Using
measuring
tape
An instrument
with a revolving
wheel for
measuring a
curved line
In sophisticated models, the wheel is
connected via gearing to a rotary dial from
which the line length can be directly read.
Internal
calipers
External
calipers
Externel
diameter
g a s
j ar
Internal
diameter
Using Calipers
and ruler
Measure the
diameter
using the ruler
Open the legs of the
calipers until their tips
touches the inner wall of
the gas jar
cyl i ndr i cal
t ube
Grip the
cylindrical
tube at the
place where
the
calipers'
legs open
the largest
Measure the
diameter
using the ruler
More Accurate
Tools
Can measure
internal and
external diameters
Measurements
to the nearest
0.1 mm
Vernier
calipers
i nt er nal
c al i per s
Measure
diameters up to
0.01 mm
Micrometer
screwgauge
MEASURING
AREAS
Area
Other Units:
square millimetres (mm
2
)
square centimetres (cm
2
)
square kilometres (km
2
)
SI Units:
square metres (m
2
)
Conversions:
1m
2
= 100 cm x 100 cm
= 10 000 cm
2
1cm
2
= 10 mm

x 10 mm
= 100 mm
2
Rectangle
Area = width x length
Triangle
Area = ½ x base x height
Ci rcle
Area = x radius
2

Regular
Shapes
Use graph
paper for
estimation
Irregular
Shapes
Mark ( ) on every complete
square ( 1 cm
2
) covered by
shape
Mark ( ) on every
incomplete square which
cover half the area of
square or more
Find total
number of
ticks ( ) for
total area



Methods
J
K
3
2 1
3
2
1
3
2
1
c
d
a
b
c
d
a
b
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
2
3
1
st r i ng
2
1
1
2
a
1
b
a
b
2 1
a
b c
a b
2
3
1
4
wi dt h
l engt h
1
I NTRODUCTI ON
TO SCI ENCE
(4 - 6)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1
Use ruler or
measuring tape
Ruler
ext er nal
c al i per s
Number of ticks = 51
Ar ea = 51 uni t
2
30
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Place under tounge
for 2 minutes
Fill a eureka can
with water until
excess water
overflows
Place an empty
measuri ng
cylinder below its
spout
Lower a solid tied
to a string into
the eureka can
Volume of solid
= Final volume - initial volume
= 40 - 30
= 10 cm
3
Fill a measuring
cylinder with
water. Record
initial volume
Measure fixed
volume (25 cm
3
)
Suck in water/solution
into pipette using a
pipette filler.
Meniscus
curve
downwards
M
MEASURING
LIQUID VOLUMES
Is a measure of
space occupied
by object
Other Units:
cubic millimetres (mm
3
)
cubic centimetres (cm
3
)
millitres (ml)
litres (l)
SI Units:
cubic metres (m
3
)
Conversions:
1 cm
3
= 1 ml
1 l = 1 000 ml (cm
3
)
1 m
3
= 1 000 000 ml (cm
3
)
Vol ume
Usually measured in
litres (l) and
millilitres(ml )
Usually measured in
cm
3
and m
3
.
Volumes of
Liquids
Volumes of
Solid
A measuring
cyli nder
Measurement
to nearest ml
or cm
3
Bottom part
of
meniscus.
Reading
= 42 cm
3
incorrect X
incorrect X
correct
 ¬
Place
eye at
same
level at
bottom of
meniscus
Mercury
Using
Measuri ng
Cylinder
1
2
a
Meniscus
curve upwards
Water/
Solutions
incorrect X
incorrect X
correct

Top part of
meniscus.
Reading = 49 cm
3
¬
50
40
Using
Burrete
3
A burette
Smallest division
= 1 cm
3
}
Add water/solution
into burrete using a
filter funnel
Clamp
vertically
Record initial
reading
Record final
reading
(3.90 cm
3
)
Volume in conical flask
= final reading - initial reading
= 3.90 - 3.30
= 0.60 cm
3
Techniques
(3.30 cm
3
)
Open tap to
release some
water / solution
4
Measurement to
nearest 0.1 ml or cm
3
Smallest division
= 0.1 cm
3
}
A pipette
Using
Pi pette
The volume is exactly
25.0 cm
3
when the
meniscus reaches the
25 cm
3
mark.
Techniques
25 cm
3
mark
0.60 cm
3
Lower a solid tied
to a string into the
measuri ng
cyli nder. Record
final volume
Water
Displacement
Method
For solids too large for
measuring cylinder
Using Eureka
Can
The volume of
water is equal to
the volume of solid.
MEASURING
SOLID
VOLUMES
Liquid-in-glass
Ther momet er
MEASURING
TEMPERATURE
Bulb containing
mercury
capillary tube
Measures
body
temperature
Between
35
o
C and 42
o
C
Clinical
Thermometer
Bulb
containing
alcohol with
red dye
To measure temperature
of water, place the bulb
of the thermometer in
the water
Alcohol
Thermometer
N
O
1
2
1
c
d
a
b
e
f
c
d
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
d
a
b
a
b
2
4
1
3
1a
2
1
2
4
1
3
2
1
5
I NTRODUCTI ON
TO SCI ENCE
(5 - 6)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1
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To enable
scientist share
information with
greater accuracy
New system(1960):
metre-kilogram-second (mks)
Old system:
foot-pound-second (fps)
Need to know
exact amount of
money to buy food
supplies at the
market
Need to know
exact amounts of
ingredients to
produce food
products
Accuracy in
measurement s
Compression
balance
Spri ng
balance
Force of gravity
Beam
balance
The quantity of
matter of object is
constant
The quantity of
matter contained in
a substance.
Force exerted on
object due to
earth's gravity
SI units:
Newton (N)
Improve accuracy by
taking average readings
The difference
between the
measured value
and the actual
val ue
P
CHOOSING SUITABLE
MEASURING
INSTRUMENT
How close
measured value is
to actual value
ACCURACY
1
More accurate and
precise readings
has smaller errors
Zero error occurs
when reading of
instrument does
not show zero
ERRORS
The difference in
value between several
measurement s
High precision:
A set of reading that differs
slightly from average
Eg:
Three ammeter readings:
1.2A 1.3A 1.4A
Average = 1.2 + 1.3 + 1.4
4
= 1.3A
Example:
Three ammeter readings:
1.2A 1.3A 1.4A
Average = 1.2 + 1.3 + 1.4
4
= 1.3A
Example:
Three ammeter readings:
1.2A 0.9A 1.4A
Low precision:
A set of reading
that differs a lot
from average
PRECISION
WEIGHT
AND
MASS
WEIGHT
Measuring
Weights
Lever
balance SI units:
Kilogram (kg)
MASS
Mass of object
does not
change
Solid has the
most matter, has
largest mass.
All have same volume and same type of particle.
Gas has the least
matter, has
smallest mass.
Liquid
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
WEIGHT AND MASS
Electronic
balance
Weight
Force of gravity that
acts on object
Changes according to
gravity
Newtons (N)
Spring balance
Compression balance
Mass
Quantity of matter in
an object
Constant at any
place
Kilograms (kg)
Beam balance
Lever balance
Electronic balance
Definition
Value
SI Units
Measuring
Instruments
IMPORTANCE OF
STANDARD UNITS
Old to new system
conversion:
Lengths:
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 foot = 12 inches = 0.3048 m
1 yard = 3 feet = 0.9144 m
1 mile = 1 760 yards = 1.609 km
1 cm = 10 mm = 0.3937 inch
1 metre = 100 cm = 3.28 ft
1 km = 1 000 cm = 0.621 mile
Weights:
1 ounce = 28.35 g
1 pouns = 16 ounces = 453.59
1 tonne = 2 000 pounds = 907.18 kg
Consistency in
Measur ements
A single system
makes
measurements in
daily activities,
manufacturing and
trade very easy
Useful in International
communi cati ons
Measuring
Mass
Weaker gravity,
smaller weight
116N
Moon
Earth
Stronger gravity,
larger weight
700N
Weight changes
when force of
gravity changes
Near zero gravity,
near zero weight
Q
R
S
2
2
1
3
2 1
b
c
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
c
a b
d
a
2
3
1
2 3
1
2 3
1
2
3
4
1
6
I NTRODUCTI ON
TO SCI ENCE
(6 - 6)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 1
a
No zero error Zero error occurs
in both readings
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Concentrates
light onto
specimen
Condenser
Provide light
for observation
Controls
amount of light
To hold slide
specimens
Magnification range:
From x 10 to x 40
Change magnification
by changing objective
lens
Lens that
magnifies
specimen
To stabilise
microscope
To move lens
closer
Caution: Lens
must not touch
the slide
To move lens
closer in small
degrees
Place for slide
with specimens
Place to hold
when
carrying
Lens to look
through
Magnifies
the image
Arm
Eyepiece
Contains clips
to hold slide
Stage
Coarse
focus knob
Fine
focus knob
Base
Part that contains
all lenses
Body tube
Clips
Diaphragm
Light
source
PARTS OF
MICROSCOPE
Animal cells
No fixed shape
No fixed pattern



Plant cells
Fixed shaped
Regular pattern



Cell shape
Arrangement
Cell wall
Vacuole
Chloroplast
Stores food /
waste material
Dense jelly-like
structure
Basic units for
plants and animals
Controls substance
movement in and out of cell
Thin layer
surrounds cell
Place microscope on flat surface
To observe
objects not visible
to naked eye
Saw cork
cells like
small rooms
(cell) Building
blocks of life
Di scovered by
Robert Hooke
Basic unit of
living organism
CELL
CELL AS A UNI T
OF LI FE
(1 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 2
Carry chemical
reactions to keep
ali ve
Reproduce by
cell division
Perf orm
Living
Processes
Magni fies
objects
MICROSCOPE
ANIMAL AND
PLANT CELL
COMPARISON
CELL
STRUCTURES
AND FUNCTIONS
Cell
membr ane
ANIMAL CELL
PLANT CELL
Carries genetic
information
Control centre of cell
Colourless
watery jelly that
fills cell
Place where
chemical reaction
occurs
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Disc like
structures
Contains
chlorophyll
Absorb light to
make food
(photosynthesis)
Chloroplast
Large space (sac)
Contain
cell sap
Keep cell firm,
take in water
Di fferences
Carry out life
processes
Both have
a. cell membrane
b. cytopl asm
c. nucleus
Similarities
Vacuole
A
D
B
E
1 2
Cel l
dividing
Turn to use low power
objective lens first
Raise the stage to
highest position.
Look through eyepiece,
adjust diapraghm for
maximum light
Place slide with
specimen and clip
Turn coarse focus knob
clockwise until objective lens
almost touchest the slide
Look through eyepiece, turn coarse
focus knob anticlockwise where the
stage is lowered down until a clear
image of specimen is seen
Turn fine focus
knob to obtain a
sharp image
8
6
USING A
MICROSCOPE
C
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
7
3
1
2
3 1
2
1 2
3
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
c
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
Thick cellulose
layer
Support cell
Give cell fixed
shape
Hold together
with other cells
Cell wall
4
2
3
1
cell
membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Plant cell
Animal cell
7
Objective
lens
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
8
To detect
stimuli from
surrounding
To carry impulses
to parts of body
Nerve
cells
liver
eye
brain
heart
ear
skin
stomach
To cover outer
layer of body
To absorb & excrete
substances
Ephitelial
cells
Respiratory
system
Reproductive
system
To transfer
genetic
information Protect from
infection
Speak
Reason
Imagine
Learn
Create
For smooth and
efficient functions or
organism
cells
tissues
organs
systems
Division of
labour among:
Performspecific
function
(Division of labour)
Skeletal
system
Blood
circulatory
system
Muscular
system
Nervous
system
Digestive
system
Examples
Examples
Muscle tissue Bone tissue
Nerve tissue
Examples
Contains
different
systems that
work
together
Contains different
organs that work
together to perfom a
function
Contains different tissues
that work together to perfom
a function
Basic unit
Contains same type
of cells that work
together perform
specific function
Cell Tissue
Organ
System
Organism
To grow and
develop after
fertilisation
To fertililize
egg (ovum)
Sperm
cells
Egg cell
( Ovum)
Make up
bones to
support body
To kill bacteria
inside body
To carry oxygen
to parts of body Red lood
cells
White blood
cells
Bone
cells
For body
movement
Muscle
cells
Examples
Have different
functions
To performlife
processes
efficiently
Cell
Specialisation
Human:
Complex
multicellular
organism
Hydra
Spirogyra
Examples
Bacteria
Virus
Examples
Most:
unicellular
Some:
multicellular
Not seen by naked eye,
only by microscope
Very tiny
organi sms
Trees (plants)
Mammals, birds,
reptiles (animals) Complex
multicelluar
The larger the
size, the more
complex More cells,
larger size
Paramecium
Living organisms
made of one cell
UNICELLULAR
ORGANISMS
CELL AS A UNI T
OF LI FE
(2 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 2
Ameoba
Yeast
Euglena
Pleurococcus
Chlamydomonas
Animal
kingdom
Plant
kingdom
MULTICELLULAR
ORGANISMS
Hydra (animal)
Spirogyra
(plant)
Mucor
(f ungus)
Simple
multicelluar
Living organisms
made of more
than one cell
MICROORGANISMS
Cell
Organisation
HUMAN CELL
ORGANIZATION
HUMAN BEINGS:
COMPLEX
ORGANISMS
Complex
organisation of
cel ls
Complex
brain
F
G
H
I
J
1
2
3
1
1
4
2
3
1
a b
c
d
a b
c
d
a
b
1
2
c
d
a
b
e
c
a
b
2
4
1
3
2
4
1
5
c
e
a
b
6
7
8
3
1
2
1
a
c
b
2
1 a
c
d
b
e
f
g
2
1
a
c
d
b
e f
g
skull
rib cage
back bone
heart
vein
ar tery
muscle
br ai n
spinal cord
ner ve
oesophagus
st omach
l ar ge
intestine
s mal l
intestine
n os e
trachea
l un gs
t est i s
pen i s
ut er us
ovar y
vagi na
2
3
4
1
1
2
2
3
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
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Close together
NOT in fixed pattern
More spaces between particles
 Fixed volume but
NOT fixed shape
 Difficult to compress
Lot of spaces between particles
 NO Fixed volume and shape
 Easily compressed
NOT in fixed pattern
Further apart
Spread out
to fill
container
Move randomly
in all direction
At high
speeds
Collision
between
particles more
frequent
Collide with
one another
GAS
Vibrate, spin and
move around
one another
move f reel y
LIQUID
Cannot
move f reel y
Vibrate and spin
at fixed position
PARTICLE
MOVEMENT
GAS
LIQUID
Flows easily in
all directions
No fixed shape, follow
shape of container
Can be
compressed
No fixed volume
Properties
Flows
easily
Fixed volume
No fixed shape,
follow shape of
container
Cannot be
compressed
Cannot be
compressed
Fixed shape
Fixed volume
Does not
flow
Properties
SOLID
GAS
3 STATES OF
MATTER
Potassium manganate(VII)
particles separate and diffuse
into spaces of water particles
Diffussion of potassium
manganate(VII) particles
Molecul es
HAS MASS
OCCUPIES
SPACE Atoms
MADE UP
OF SMALL
PARTICLES
A
B
E
1
2
Liquid
Balloon with
more gas has
more mass
Solid Liquid Gas
Gas particles
are small
enough to
diffuse out of
the balloon
Balloon filled
with gas
becomes smaller

Potassium
manganate(VII)
crystal
Properties
LIQUID
Cover
removed
Smoke
Smoke
fills both
jars
¬
PARTICLE
ARRANGEMENT
Close together
Packed in fixed
pattern
Very little space between particles
 Fixed volume & shape
 Cannot be compressed
H
MATTER
(1 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 3
collide

collide
*
*
*
C
D
SOLID
1
2
3
4
Solid
Gas
1
2
3
SOLID
1
2
3
SOLID
SOLID
SOLID
1
2
3
c
a
b
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
d
c
a
b
d
c
a
b
d
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
a
b
c
c
d
a
b
vibrate spin
9
CHARACTERISTICS
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cork
wood
lead
alcohol
water
mercury
Tr i pl e
bal ance
Volume =
Mass
Densit y
Mass = Density x Volume
Floating Large
Metal Ships
Floating/
Sinking
Submarine
Float
Fishing buoys
Hot air balloon
Transporting
timber logs
Rafting
Using
Density
Concept
Save
space
Easy transportation
3 cm 5 cm
2 cm
Example 4:
A 10 g wooden block has
a volume of 13 cm
3
. I f
the density of cooking oil
is 0.6 g/cm
3
, determi ne
whether it floats or sinks
in cooking oil.
Solution:
Density of wooden block,
= =
= 0.77 g/cm
3
Densi t y of wooden
bl ock great er t han
cooking oil
Wooden block sinks in
cooking oil
Mass
Volume
10g
13 cm
3
Cooking
gas
Hydrogen Oxygen
Nitrogen
Examples
Benefits
Big volumes
of gas stored
in small
containers
(cylinders)
Under high
pressure
Compressi ng
gases into
liquids
Compari ng
Densi ti es
Example 2:
The mass of a
cuboid shown is
25 g. What is its
densi ty?
Example 3:
The density of sea
water is 1.03 g/cm
3
.
Calculate the volume
of see water with a
mass of 82.4 g.
Solution:
Volume =
=
= 81.7 cm
3
Mass
Density
84.2 g
1.03 g/cm
3
A denser
false teeth in
water
Example 1:
The density of an
object is 2.7 g/cm
3
.
Find the mass of 5
cm
3
of the object.
Solution:
Mass = Density x Volume
= 2.7 x 5
= 13.5 g
NUMERICAL
EXAMPLES
A coin
si nks
because it
is denser
than water
A denser
substance sinks
in a less dense
liquid
A less dense
substance floats
in a denser liquid
Example:
A wooden block of mass 100g has
has a length, width and height of
10 cm, 5 cm and 6 cm
respectively. Find its density
Calculate density. Density =
Mass
Volume
kg/m
3
(ki logr am per
metre cube)
g/cm
3
( gram per
centimetre cube)
UNITS
Find volume:
v = l x w x h
Measure:
a. length, l
b. width, w
c. height, h
Measure mass of object
using triple beam balance
APPLICATIONS
OF PROPERTIES
OF MATTER
DENSITY
F
FLOAT
OR
SINK?
H
MATTER
(2 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 3
Density Of
Regular shaped
objects
Solution:
Mass=100 g
Volume = 10 x 5 x 6 = 300 cm
3.
Density = = = 0.33 g/cm
3
Mass
Volume
100g
300 cm
3.
Measure mass of object
(eg: rock) using triple
beam balance
Measure volume of object
using water displacement
met hod
Volume of object =
Final volume - initial volume
Calculate density.
Density =
Mass
Volume
Density Of
Irregular
shaped objects
H
Oil is less than
water. Oil droplets
floats on water
Ice is less dense
than water. Ice
floats on water.
Cork f loats
on water
Solution:
Mass = 25 g
Volume = 3 x 5 x 2 = 30 cm
3
Densi ty=
=
= 0.83 g/cm
3
Mass
Volume
25g
30 cm
3
Most dense
Least dense
Ai r
ballast
tank
Water fills balast
tank
Increase density
Submarine sinks
Water pumped out of
ballast tank
 Decrease density
Submarine floats
Hollow shape
 Contains lots of air
 Decrease density
Mass
Vol ume
= Density
I
G
Hot air inside
balloon is less
dense.
raise balloon
Wood is less dense
than water.
Floats on water
Air inside float
and bouy makes
them less than
than water.
Floats on water
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
c
a
b
a
b
d
e
c
a
b
d
a
b
c
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
f
g
a
b
c
d
10
Electricity
generati on
using steam
Large volume
Decrease density
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Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon
dioxide Wat er
vapour
Inert
gases
Char coal
(Mangrove)
Petrol eum, coal ,
natural gas (pl ant &
ani mal r emai ns)
Fi rewood
Vegetabl e &
ani mal oi l s
Ski n
Wood
Rat tan
Bamboo
Cot ton
Latex
Leaves Wool
Si l k
Ski n
Qui ni ne
Gi nseng
Honey
Mi lk
Eggs
Meat
Vegetables
+ Oi ls
Frui ts
Dri nks
(coffee,tea)
Food
Medicines
Clothes
Building
materials
Fuels
Sources
Of...
LIVING
THINGS
Oxygen Carbon
dioxide Obtain energy
from food
Plastic
Petrol, diesel
(vehicles)
Cooking
gas
Burning of coal
produces heat to
generate
electrical energy
in power stations
Natural
gas
Petroleum
Coal
FOSSIL
FUELS
gl ass
(from sand)
gem stones
(from quartz & feldspar)
Uses
Quartz
Feldspar
Sand
Examples
Non-metals
Platinum
Ornaments,
jewellery
Utensils
Gold
Silver
Cooking
utensils
Wir es
Construction
Containers
Iron
Copper
Uses
Examples
From
ores of...
Found in
natural
st at e
Metals
MINERALS
Coal
Petroleum
Natural
gas
Formation
of Fuels
Respiration of
soil organisms
Absorption
by plant
roots
microorganisms
ants
earthworms
Water
transport
Generation of
electricity
Roads
Glass
Ceramic
Bricks
Cl ay
Gravel s
Sand
Phosphates
Animals
Support plants'
growth
Plants
Agriculture
Construction
Livest ock
Mining
Manufacturing
Habitat for
aquatic
animals
carbon
dioxide
oxygen
Gas exchage
during breathing
in moist lungs
Gives out
oxygen
Produce
food
Photosynthesis
in Plants
Body cells carry out
living processes
Respiration
Drive
vehicles
Generate
electricity
Produce heat
Combustion
of fuels
Oxygen
Carbonated
drinks
Dry ice
Fi re
extinguishers
Composition
A
B
VARI ETY OF
RESOURCES ON
EARTH
(1- 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 4
Carbon
dioxide
Uses
AIR
Human use:
drinking,
bath,
cooking,
washing,
watering
plants
Uses
70% of
earth's
surf ace
Cell cytoplasm
(90% water)
Transport
digested
food &
oxygen
Excretion
of waste
products
Controls body
temperature
Animals
Basic need
for all living
things
Cell cytoplasm (90%)
Transport
mineral salts
Support aquatic
plants
Germination
of seeds
Plants
Important
To..
WATER
cyt opl asm
Human
Use
For healthy
plants' growth
Nitrates
Sulphates
Organic substance from
decayed plants & animals
Make soil fertile
Respiration of
plant roots
Humus
Wat er
Air
Habitat
Examples
Minerals
Contains
SOIL
C
D
E
F
1
2
1 2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
1
2
3
1
a
b
c
a
b
aa b
c
d e
a
b
f
g
c
d
e
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
2
1
2 4
1
3
2
4 1
3
5
6
2
4
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
11
1
Wax
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mat er ial s
X
Do not throw
rubbish into
drains
Aluminium
beverage cans
Car pool to
reduce cars
on roads
Avoid open burning
Conserving
Atmosphere
Conserving
Other
Resources
Conserve
water, use less
Do not Pour
hazardous
products into
drains eg: paint,
insecticide
Conserving
Water
Resources
BY
Iron
Copper
one type
of at om
Gold
Examples
Bromine
( l i qui d)
Chlor ine(gas)
Sulphur
Examples
Fi l trate
(Sal t sol uti on)
Resi due
(Sand)
Protect natural
habitat from being
destroyed
Protect natural resources
being depleted
Maintain population of
endangered species
Maintain a balanced
ecosystem to
minimise destruction
of natural habitat
TO
Wise management and systematic
use of natural resources to
prevent waste or loss
Keeping natural
resources in their
ori ginal and
balanced state
CONSERVATION
PRESERVATION
EARTH'S
RESOURCES
CONSERVATION
AND
PRESERVATIONS
<
Only one type of
particle (atom)
Cannot be broken
down into simpler
substance
Water Blood
cel ls
minerals
Blood
Fertilisers
Nitrogen
Bleach
Explosives
Fertilisers
Germ
killers
Medicines
Sulphur
Chlorine
Phosphorus
Diamond
Charcoal
Pencil lead
Carbon
Poor heat
conductor
Uses
EXCEPT carbon
Poor electrical
conductor
Sulphur
Graphite
( Carbon)
Brittle Carbon
Phosphorus
Dull
appearance
Bromine
( l i qui d)
Sulphur
( s ol i d)
Chlorine
( gas)
Solids, liquids or
gases at room
temperature
Properties
Electrical
wires
Cooking
utensils
Vehicles
Machines Tools
Good heat
conductors
Hard
Aluminium
foil
Malleable
Good electrical
conductor &
ductile
Uses
High density
High melting
point
Shi ny
Solid at room
temperature
(except mercury)
Hard
Malleable
Duct ile
Good heat
conductor
Good electrical
conductor
Properties
NON-
METALS
METALS
METALS
AND
NON-METALS
Iron fi li ngs
attracted to
magnet
Use magnet
to separate
Mix them
Iron filings
+ sulphur
mixt ure
Evaporation
Filtration
Dissolving
the salt
Salt + sand
mixt ure
Sal t or sugar
Sol ution
Evaporation
Salt or Sugar
solution
Examples
Filtration Evaporation
Separation by
Physical Methods
Sand
Humus
Clay
Water Mineral
salts
Soil
Salt
Other
minerals
Water
Sea
water
Water vapour
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen
Dust
Air
Examples
Made up of two or
more substances
(elements or compounds)
physically combined
MIXTURES
Carbon Hydrogen
Oxygen
Sugar
Chlorine
Sodium
Salt
Iron
Oxygen
Rust
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Wat er
Examples
Broken down into simpler
substance by chemical methods
Made up of two or
more elements
chemically combined
Atoms
closely
packed
together
Non-Metals
Metals
2 Types
COMPOUNDS
ELEMENTS
G
ELEMENTS,
COMPOUNDS,
MIXTURES
VARI ETY OF
RESOURCES ON
EARTH
(2 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 4
Heat
Evaporating
Sol ution
Solvent
Fi l ter
paper
Fi l trate
Resi due
Fi l ter
funnel
Sal t
Soluti on
Ir on f ilings
and sulphur
mi xt ur e
ELEMENT,
COMPOUND,
MIXTURE
COMPARISON
Element
Only one type of
particle
Cannot be broken down
into simpler substances
Compound
More than one type of
particle
Can be broken down into
simpler substances by
chemical methods
Only one type of
particle
Cannot be broken down
into simpler substances
More than one
type of particle
Can be broken down into
simpler substances by
chemical methods
copper atoms oxygen
molecules
sodium
atom
chlorine
atom
sodium chloride
oxygen
atom
hydrogen
atom
water

H
I
J
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
c
d
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
a
b
2
1
2
3 4
1
2
3 4
1
2
3
1
2
3 4
1
7
6
5
8
9
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
5
el ectron flows
easi ly
el ectron flows
slowl y
2
3
1
2
1
Paper
Pl as t i c
Gl a s s
Cl ot h
a
b
a
a
c
b
1
2
3
4
1
5
a
el ement
X
el ement
Y
Mixture of
X and Y
Different elements
combine chemically
Cannot be broken down
into components by
physical methods. Only
by chemical means.
Elements/compounds
mix physically
Can be separated into
components by
physical methods
El ectrolysi s:
A
c h emi c al
met hod to
break down
wat er
Sal t, sand
and wat er
mi xt ur e
Ir on f ilings
a n d
s ul phur
mi xt ur e
Oxygen
a n d
ni t r ogen
mi xt ur e
Compound
of X and Y
a
c
b
a
b
a
a b
a
c
b
a
b
a
b
a b
a
b
c
a
a
b
a
b
a
a
b
a
b
a
b a b
c
a
c
d
b
e
a
c
b
a
c
d
b
e
a
c
b
12
2
2
1
2
1
X
1
Element Compound Compound Mixture
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Nitrogen
oxygen
carbon
dioxide
+
water
vapour
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen
Water vapour
Temperature
Inhaled air
Air that we
breathe in
21 %
0.03%
78 %
Less
Same as
surroundings
Exhaled air
Air that we
breatheout
16% - less
4% - more
78% - unchanged
More
Higher than
surroundings

Splinter
ignites
glowing
splinter
CARBON
DIOXIDE FROM
RESPIRATION
Þ
Water
Experiment
Oxygen enters by diffusion
across cell membrane
Oxygen enters through
stomatal pores of leaves
Oxygen enters
during breathing
through lungs
Glucose + Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
+
Water
+
Energy
CaC
Living cells oxidise food using
oxygen to produce carbon
dioxide, water and energy
Microorganisms Animals
Plants
All living
things
Respiration
white precipitate
(cloudy)
Turns limewater
cloudy/milky/chalky
Ignites a glowing
splinter
OXYGEN FOR
RESPIRATION
Nitrogen
78%
Oxygen
21%
Carbon dioxide 0.03%
+ others 0.97%
More oxygen
in jungle
More carbon
dioxide in cities
Examples
Environment
Human activities
Composition
Varies due
to..
Carbon dioxide
Wat er
Dust + microorganisms
Xenon
Argon
Neon
Helium
Krypton
Inert gases
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Compounds
Elements
AIR:
A MIXTURE
Oxygen
Carbon
dioxide
Inert
gases
Dust
Microorganisms
D
E
A
B
x cm
Y
Y
Percentage of oxygen = x100%
~ 20%
y
x
Test for
Oxygen
Þ
Test for
Carbon
dioxide
Oxygen Glucose
Carbon
dioxide
Water
Energy
Wire gauze
Red
indicator
droplet
Cotton soaked with
sodiumhydoxide
solution
Cockcroach
Germinating
green beans
Cockroach and
seeds use oxygen
during respiration
Carbon dioxide produced
absorbed by sodium
hydroxide solution
Oxygen content in tube A
and B decreases causing
a decrease in air
pressure
Tube A
Tube B
Tube C
Higher atmopheric
pressure pushes red
indicator inwards
c
d
a
b
Oxygen
Glucose
Energy
Carbon
dioxide
Water
stomata

TESTS
Colour and smell
Solubility in
alkaline
pyrogallol solution
Solubility In Water
Solubility In
Sodium hydroxide
Effect on
Glowing Splinter
Effect on Lighted
Splinter
Effect on moist
blue & red litmus
Effect on Lime
Water
Effect on
Bicarbonate
Indicator
OXYGEN
Colourless and
odourless
Very Solube
Slightly soluble
Not Soluble
Splinter ignited
Splinter burns more brightly.
Nochange. Neutral gas.
Nochange.
Nochange.
CARBON DIOXIDE
Colourless and
odourless
Not soluble
More soluble
Very Soluble
Splinter goes out.
Splinter goes out.
Moist blue litmus changes
tored. Red litmus
unchanged.
Acidic gas
Lime water turns cloudy
Indicator colour changes
from red
to yellow

Supports
combustion

Does not
support
combustion

Supports
burning
Does not
support
burning

oxygen
limewater
unchanged
carbon
dioxide
white
precipitate
glowing
splinter
glowing
splinter
burning
splinter
burning
splinter
PROPERTIES
OF OXYGEN
AND CARBON
DIOXIDE
THE AI R
AROUND US
(1- 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 5
C
In Tube C red incicator position
remains unchanged because oxygen
content remains unchanged
Inhaled air
candle A
Candle A burns
longer.
Inhaled air has
more oxygen
Exhaled
candle B
Candle B burns
in shorter time.
Exhaled air has
less oxygen
Air
Filter pump
Limewater
flask C flask D
Limewater in flask D turns
cloudy much faster than
limewater in flask C because the
exhaled air from the mouse has
more carbon dioxide.
Limewater in flask C turns cloudy
much slower than limewater in
flask D because the air has less
carbon dioxide.
Oxygen Glucose
Energy
Carbon
dioxide
Water
cell
membrane
Air
Filter pump
tube X Cobalt
chloride paper
tube Y
Cobalt chloride paper in
tube X turns pink much
slower than in
tube Y because the air
has less water vapour
Cobalt chloride paper in
tube Y turns pink much
faster than in
tube X because the air
has more water vapour
Respiration of mouse
produces carbon dioxide
Respiration of mouse
produces water vapour
y cm
{
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
e
c
b
2
1
2
1
1
2
5
3
4
1
2
1
13
Sterile nut rient agar
Cover
After 3 days
Whi te t hread-
li ke growth and
bl ack spots due
to growth of
mi cr oor gani s ms
No change
÷
÷
a
Experiments
COMPOSITION
Bicarbonate
indicator
oxygen
CO
2
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Use less CFC
Fix filters to trap
pollutants in
chimneys
Use
catalytic
converters
to reduce
pollutants
Use unleaded petrol
Stop
smoking
habi t
Stop open
burni ng
Use public transport /
car pool
Recycle paper,
glass & metals
Action against
motor vehicles
owners
Action against
factory owners Motor
Vehi cl es
Set up far away
from housing
areas
Factories
Green house
effect
Increases earth's
temperature
Effects
Fossil fuel
burning
Rubbish
burning
Sources
Damages
ozone layer
Atmosphere cannot
filter harmful
ultraviolet light
Effects
Aerosol
sprays
Electronic
factories
Sources
Retards
children's
mental
Damages
kidney,
heart,
brain
Effects
Leaded
petrol
Sources
Acid rain
Effect
Motor vehicles
Sources
damages
lung cells
Acid rain
Damages
metals
Damages
marble/
limestone
Kills aquatic life
Kills plants
Effects
Coal
Sources
Death
Brain
damage
Tiredness
Headache
Effects
Cigarettes
Motor
vehicles
Sources
Lung cancer
Cough & athma
Construction sites
Cement plants
Effects
Sources
Burning rubbish
Cigarettes Motor vehicles
Fossil fuel burning
Forest
fires
Breathing
difficulties
Eye irritation
Haze
Sources
Effects
Smoke
and soot
Due to pollutants -
chemicals in
atmosphere harmful
to life
Candle
Carbon + Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
+
Heat
+
Light
CaC
Reactions
Kerosene
Natural gas
Petrol
Diesel
Examples
Contains hydrogen
and carbon
Charcoal
Coal
Wood
Examples
Hydrocarbon
Carbon
Supported
by oxygen
Types
Heat
Light
Produces
Oxygen
Fuel
Heat (to ignite)
Requires
Substance
that burns
Chemical reaction
between a substance
and oxygen
Fuel
Burning
OXYGEN
FOR
COMBUSTION
F
Hydrocarbon + Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
+
Water*
+
Heat
+
Light
CaC
Carbon di oxide
produced when
carbon reacts with
oxygen.
Wat er
produced
when
hydrogen
r eact s
with
oxygen.
Filter pump
Funnel
Burning candle
( Hydrocarbon)
Limewater turns cloudy
 Carbon dioxide
produced
Cobalt chloride
paper changes to pink
 Water produced
 Hydrocarbon contains hydrogen
Filter pump
Funnel
Burning
charcoal
( Carbon)
Limewater turns cloudy
 Carbon dioxide
produced
Cobalt chloride
paper unchaged
 No water produced
 Contains NO hydrogen
candle A candle B
Candle B burns
longer because
its larger
container
contains more
oxygen.
Candle A burns
in shorter time.
Smaller
container has
less oxygen
Dust
Carbon
monoxide Sulphur
Dioxide
Oxides of
Nitrogen
Carbon
Dioxide
Chlorofluorocarbon
(CFC)
Lead
Ai r
Pollutants
AIR
POLLUTION
Public
Law
Enforcement
AIR POLLUTION
CONTROL
THE AI R
AROUND US
(2 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 5
Acid clouds
Acid snow Acid rain
X
G
H
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
3
4
d
c
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
a
b
2
d
e
a
b
c
f
g
h
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
2
1
a
b
a
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
c
d
1
2
3
1
2
a
b
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
14
Experi ments
Depleted ozone
layer at south pole
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Coal
Petroleum
All energy
sources traced
back to Sun
Maximum
potential
energy
(minimum
kinetic
energy)
Maximum
potential
energy
(minimum
kinetic
energy)
Maximum
kinetic
energy
(minimum
potential
energy)
Examples
Interchangeble
POTENTIAL
ENERGY
AND KINETIC
ENERGY
Produce nuclear energy
in form of heat energy
to generate electricity in
a nuclear plant Uranium and
Plutonium
Steam produced
used to rotate
turbines to
generate
electricity, heat
homes & factories
In forms of geysers
and hot springs
Heat energy
from inner layer
of earth
Stored as potential
energyin dams
Move water turbines in
dams to generate electricity
(hydroelectricity)
Produces
waves
Move sailing boats
Move windmills to pump
water or grind corn
Move wind
turbines to
produce
electricity
Uses
From garbage heat ¬
Animal waste gas ¬
From plants
wood, charcoal,
alcohol, biodiesel
¬
Natural gas
Types
Formed from
dead plants
and animal
Biomass
fuels
Fossil
fuels
Classes
of Fuel
gives heat and
light energy
when burnt
Energyis
stored in food
Uses light energy from
sun, carbon dioxide and
water to make food
heat energy
light energy
gives
water
fuels
plants
animals
wind
provide
stored energy
in
Sun
Plants
Fuels Wind
Water
Radioactive
substances
Geothermal
Nuclear bomb
Nucleus
Stored in
nucleus of
atom
Nuclear
Energy
Solar car
Releasedby
the sun
Solar
Energy
Flying plane
Running
man
Possesed by
moving
objects
Kinetic
Energy Compressed spring
Stretched
bow
Cyclist on top of hill
Stored in
objects due to
its condition/
position
Potential
Energy
Batteries
Fuels
Food
Stored in
Blowing a
trumpet
Guitar
string
Releasedby
vibrations
a
b
Chemical
Energy
Sound
Energy
Candle Bulb
Released
by lighted
objects
Light
Energy
Pylons Cables
Carriedin
electric
current
a b
Electrical
Energy
Electric
heater
Sun
Burning
gas
Released
by hot
objects
a
b
c
Heat
Energy
ENERGY
FORMS
ENERGY
SOURCES
B
A
ENERGY :
Ability to do
work
a b
c
a
b
Solar
cells
a
Food
turbine and
generator
Cold water
pump
down
Steamand
hot water
generating
station
C
Urani um Plutonium
Potential
energy
Potential
energy
Kinetic
energy
SOURCES OF
ENERGY
(1 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 6
D
1
6
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
1
6
2
3
4
5
7
1
2
a b
a
b
c
Solar heater
a
b
b
a
b
c
a
b
a
b a
b
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
2
3
4
1
5
2
1
2
b
1 a
2
1
3

b
a
c
3
Primary source
of energy
1
15
¬
¬ 1
2
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Wood is still less
expensive than
fossil fuels
Cane sugar juice
can be fermented
to alcohol for fuel
Palm oil can be
processed into
biodiesel fuel
Garbage burning in
incinerator produces heat to
generate electricity
Plants and animal residues are
decomposed in a digester to produce
methane gas and alcohol as fuels.
Bi omass
fuel s
Solar cookers
focuses light that
produce heat for
cooking.
Convert light energy
to electrical energy
using solar cells
Solar
energy
Reuse, Reduce
and Recycle
materials
Close cooking pots
when cooking, shut
refrigerators
properly
Develope more efficient
machines and engines
RENEWABLE
ENERGY
DEVELOPEMENT
Use wisely so that
can last longer
If used up leads to
energy crisis
(shortage of energy sources)
Took millions of
years to form
Using
non-renewabl e
energy
a b
c
Energy within the earth
Fuel in form of wood, gas, alcohol
and biodiesel.
Fuels
processed
from plants,
animal
wastes and
garbage.
Biomass fuels
Use floats that
move up and down
to generate
electricity
Has lots of
kinetic
energy
Clean
energy
source
Propel wind
turbines to
produce
electricity
Used potential energy of water
to generate electricity in hydro
electric power stations
Wat er
Solar energy
Light energy converted into
electrical energy using
solar cells
To heat water in
homes
The Sun
Power ships,
submarine,
satellites
Produce nuclear
energy in nuclear
reactors to generate
electricity
Burnt to produce heat
and generate electricity
Burnt to produce heat
for cooking, heating
and electricity
Fuels for
vehicles
Fuel to generate
electricity in
power station
Geothermal
Wave
Wi nd
Radioacti ve
substances
Coal
Natural gas
Petroleum
Types
Can be replaced naturally
or by human
Cannot be used up
Can be
replenished
Cannot
be
replaced
Types
Will not
last
f orever
Will be
used up
Cannot be
replenished
NON-
RENEWABLE
ENERGY
SOURCES
RENEWABLE
ENERGY
SOURCES
solar cells
solar cells
water
heater
a wind turbine
Prevent wastage
Ensure enough
energy for future
Save cost on
paying for energy
Reduce pollution
USING ENERGY
EFFICIENTLY
Use
renewable
energy
sources
Switching off lights/
appliances when not
using
Use
fl uorescent
lamps (use less
energy)
Use public transport, car
pool - save petrol
CONSERVATION
OF ENERGY
SOURCES
SOURCES OF
ENERGY
(2 - 2)
FORM 1 CHAPTER 6
Bioalcohol plant
Biodiesel plant
Biogas plant
Incinerator
solar cell
E
F
G
H
I
1
2
1
2
1 2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
c
d
a
b
c
a
b
c
d
f
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
e
c
d
e
a
b
a
b
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
16
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
Acid and
base Liquid
Contraction
Gas
Contraction
Solid
Contraction
Called CONTRACTION
Volume decreases
Becomes smaller
MATTER
CONTRACTS
WHEN HEATED
Bubbles of gas
escapes, when gas
in flask expands
Water
HEAT/
TEMPERATURE
DIFFERENCES
Gas
Expansion
Liquid
Expansion
Metal B
expands faster
than metal A
B
A
Two strips of different
metals (A and B)
joined together
Expanding a
Bimetallic
strip
Solid
Expansion
Called EXPANSION
Volume increases
Becomes bigger
MATTER
EXPANDS WHEN
HEATED
HEAT
FLOW EFFECTS
Wooden block
1 kg; 40
o
C
Concrete block
1 kg; 40
o
C
Concrete block absorb more heat to
to reach 40
o
C.
Concrete block has more heat
Unit :
Degree celcius (oC)
or
kelvin (K)
Tells how hot or
cold the object is
Hot object
has high
temperature
Cold object
has low
temperature
Degree of hotness
TEMPERATURE
Material
Temperature
Mass
Depends on
Hotness of
an object
Unit : Joules
HEAT
HEAT
AND
TEMPERATURE
Drilling
Fuels
Rubbing
Bulb
Electric
heater
Reactive
metal and
acid
Friction
Electricity
Chemical
Reaction
Sun:
Primary
Source Energy
Drying Cooking
Ironing
Keeping warm
Melting
A cold object
has less heat
A hot object has
more heat
Burning
Uses
HEAT
PRODUCTION
A FORM
OF
ENERGY
FORM 1 CHAPTER 7
HEAT
(1 - 4)
Cold Hot
aci d
base
aci d
metal
Beaker A Beaker B
Beaker B has
moremass
Beaker B
has more heat
50
o
C
Same
temperature
a
b
Beaker A Beaker B
Beaker A has
higher temperature
Beaker A has more heat
80
o
C
Same mass
a
b
50
o
C
Before experiment,
the iron ball just fits
the iron ring
Iron ball expands,
becomes bigger
Iron ball cannot
pass through
the ring
a
b
Water level rises
when heated due
to expansion
HEAT
Hotness of
object
Unit: Joule
Travels from hot
to cold area
TEMPERATURE
Degree of hotness
of object
Unit: Celcius (
o
C) or
Kelvin(K)
Increases when
movement of
particles increases
Iron ball can
pass through
the ring
Iced water
Ice
A
B
Metal B contracts faster
than metal A
B
A
Water level
drops due to
contraction
C
B
A
D
E
1
2
3
4
1 2
3
4
1
2
1
2
c
d
e
a
b
a a
b
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
c d
e
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
f
c
d
e
a
b
f
2
1
17
Ice
Coloured
trapped
liquid
moves
down
Both strips bend
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
T o
v ac uum
p ump
To swit ch
After 10 minutes,
thermometer shows a
rise in temperaure.
Heat flows in
vacuum by
radiation.
Vacuum
(No conduction
or convention)
RADIATION
Cork
Polystyrene
Asbestos
Wood
Glass
Plastic
Rubber
Examples
Copper
Aluminium
Iron
Examples
Substance that
allows heat to move
through slowly
Alco called poor conductor
Becomes cold veryfast
HEAT
INSULATOR
Substance that allows heat to
move through easily
Becomes hot veryfast
HEAT
CONDUCTOR
HEAT
CONDUCTORS
AND
INSULATORS
BUILDINGS'
COOLING/
HEATING
SYSTEM
LAND BREEZE
Forms convection current
B C
A
Experiment
Can
flow
through
vacuum
Heat flow
without medium
Experiments
Hot fluids moves upwards,
cold fluids move downwards.
By circulatory movement
of heated fluid.
Heat flow through fluids
(liquids and gases)
Experiment
Low conduction rate
High
conduction rate
Bad conductors : Insulators
Good
conductors
Metals
Non - Metals
Depends on
material
Heat flow
through solids
Heat travels from
hot to cold end
Conduction
rate
CONVECTION
CONDUCTION
RADIATION
HEAT FLOW
TYPES
Due to
temperature
difference
From a hot object
to cold object
WARMING OF
EARTH BY SUN
SEA BREEZE
HEAT
FLOW IN NATURAL
PHENOMENA
HEAT
FLOW
FORM 1 CHAPTER 7
HEAT
(2 - 4)
Potassium
permanganate
crystal
Purple stream of
water move upwards,
and downwards in
circular motion.
hot air
Smouldering
incense stick
cold air
Convection current
Pin A falls first,
then pin B followed
by pin C.
wax
Heat flows from
hot end to cold
end by conduction
A convection current is formed
in heated water and air.
hot cold
During Daytime
Cooler air flows
towards land
Co l d
ai r
s i nk s
Land heats
up fast er
War m
air rises
Sea war mer
than land
Land cools
down f ast er
War m
ai r
r i s es
During Nightti me
Co ol
ai r
s i nk s
Cooler air flows
towards sea
Ventilation
holes at
roof
Hot air rises
and escapes
from top
Cool air enters from
windows near the ground
Heater
placed near
floor
Warm air rises
Colder
air sinks
Convection
current
produced
Cold air
enters
heater
Air condtioner
placed near ceiling
Warm air
rises
Cold air sinks
Convection
current
produced
H
G
F
I
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
c
a
b
c
d
e
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
d
a
b
c
2
3
4
1
5
6
7
2
3
1
2
3
4
1
a
b
a
b
b
a
b
2
1
2 1
2
1
1
3
4
5
2
3
4
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
1
18
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Peta Mi nda Untuk Sai ns Ti ngkatan 1
solid
Sublimation
Sublimation
CHANGES OF
STATE SUMMARY
Solid carbon
dioxide (dry ice)
ammonium
chloride
napthalene
(mothballs)
Other
substances
heat absorbed
heat released
liquid

Solid state Gaseous state
WITHOUT
LIQUI D
STAGE

100
o
C
Boiling
water
Occurs at
surface of water
Occurs at any
temperature below
100
o
C (boiling point)

Liquid
state
Gaseous
state

Liquid
state
Gaseous
state
WITHOUT
BOILING
Gas loses heat
energy to
surroundings
Particles vibrate
more slower and
comes closer
Condensation
Temperature :
Boiling point
Particles move
more quicklty
and freely
Particles
vibrate faster
Liquid absorbs
heat energy

Liquid
state
Gaseous
state
Boiling
Particles
vibrate slower
Temperature :
Freezing point
Particles
move at fixed
position
Heat released
to surroundings
Liquid state  Solid state
Freezing
ice
0
o
C
Temperature :
Melting point
Particles
move freely
Particles
vibrate faster
Solid state  Liquid state
Heat absorbed
from surroundings
Melting
cotton
clothe
Ceilings made of soft
boards contai n ai r
bubbles to prevent
heat gain or loss by
conduction
Ice used in igloos
acts as an insulator
to pevent heat loss
by conduction.
Keep home
war m
woolen blanket
Plastic and glass used
in vacuum flask keep
liquids hot or cold
Trapped air
in sawdust
prevent heat
reaching the
ice
Trapped air in
fabric prevent
heat loss
Prevent tables
burnt by hot
objects
To handle
pots without
burning hands
Measure
temperature
change accurately
Expand and
contracts
easily
Made of mercury
Thermometer
Become cold
quickly
Conduct heat to
surroundings
Good
conductors
Become
hot
quickly
Made of
metals
Made of
metals
Good
conductors
Heat up
food
quickly
SUBLIMATION
BOILING
AND
CONDENSATION
EVAPORATION
MELTING
AND
FREEZING
EFFECTS OF HEAT
ON STATES OF
MATTER
Keep
liquids hot
or cold
Keep body
war m
Slow down
melting of
ice
Table mats/
Asbest os
Til es
Handles of
Cooking
utensil s
USES OF HEAT
INSULATORS
Engine coolers /
cooling coils
Heating coils
/ elements
Cooking
utensils
USES OF HEAT
CONDUCTORS
FORM 1 CHAPTER 7
HEAT
(3 - 4)
heating coils
heating
element in
iron
heating element at tip of
soldering iron
mercury
Car radiator Motorcycle fins
cooling coil of
refrigerator
plastic
wood
asbestos tile table mat
ice covered by
sawdust
water
0
o
C
gas
(water vapour)
water
solid gas
gas
iodi ne
crystals
heated
fine iodine
crystals
subli me
Ioine
f umes
formed
through
sublimation
liquid
liquid
L
K
J
M
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
1
2
3
4
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
a
b
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
d
a
b
e
c
d
a
b
e
c
d
a
b e
c
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
liquid
2
3
1
1
2
3
19
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 


Cork
Vacuum
Plastic
casing
Liquid
Cork
support
Silvered,
shiny
surface
Sea & land breezes
Hydro
Waves
Wind
Earth's
energy
Cook food
Warmth
Air conditioning
Comfortable
life
Supports life
Heat flow
from sun
Thermos flask
keeps water hot
for a long time
Place a dented
ping-pong ball in
hot water
Temperature drops,
¬mercuy contracts
¬level drops
Temperature rises,
¬mercury expands
¬level rises
Expands
rapidly with
little heat
Good
conductor glass
tube
Bulb
Mercury
Temperature
scales
Metal block
covered with
rough black paper
Metal block
covered with
white shiny
paper
After 15 minutes metal
block covered with
rough black paper has
a higher temperature
bulb
Dull and dark
surface absorbs
heat faster than
white shiny
surface
Car radiator
painted black so
that it releases
heat faster
White clothes absorb less
heat, keep us cool
Buildings kept cool by
having shiny glass to
reflect heat
APPLICATIONS OF
HEAT ABSORPTION
AND HEAT RELEASE
Dull and dark
surface releases
(radiates) heat
faster than white
shiny surface
HEAT ABSORPTION
AND
HEAT RELEASE
roller
metal bridge
The air inside it
expands and push
the dented part to
its original
position
Repairing a
Dented Ping-
Pong Ball
Looseni ng
Tight Bottle
Cap
Separating
Two Stuck
Glasses
Prevent
bridge from
cracking and
damaged
gaps allows
slabs to expand
in hot day.
slab
GAPS BETWEEN
SLABS IN
PAVEMENTS
Prevent
bridge from
distorted and
damange
ROLLERS AND
GAPS OF STEEL
BRIDGES
Prevent
track
buckling
GAPS IN
RAILWAY
TRACKS
Brass expands more than iron
¬bimetalic strip bends
towards contact
¬start the alarm
Thermometer
Fire alarm
BIMETALLIC
STRIP
HEAT FLOW
BENEFITS
THERMOMETER
SOLVING PROBLEMS
USING EXPANSION
AND
CONTRACTION
APPLICATIONS
OF EXPANSION
AND
CONTRACTION
FORM 1 CHAPTER 7
HEAT
(4 - 4)
heat
during
a fire
brass
iron
contact

Brass strip
expands when
hot, contracts
when cold
¬bimetalic strip
curls to show
temperature rise
or fall.
gap allows track to
expand in hot weather.
metal track
alarm bell
gap allows
bridge to
expand in hot
weather.
Hot
water
Immerse the
tight bottle cap in
hot water to
expand it
Expanded
bottle cap
lossens
Pointer moves when strip
curls showing temperature
readings
buckled track
Allows bridge to slide
during expansion
2 hot metal
blocks with same
temperature
covered
with rough
black paper
covered with white
shinypaper
After 15 minutes
metal block covered
with rough black
paper has a lower
temperature
Hot water
Dip the lower glass in
hot water so that it
expands
Pull out the top
glass after the
lower glass
expanded
A good insulator,
prevent heat
escaping
5
Prevent heat
escaping
4
Good insulator
1
Good
insulator
2
Temperature
kept constant
longer
3
P
O
N
Q
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
c
d
a
b
a
b
a
a
b
a
b
a b
a
b
a
a
a
b
c
d
a
b
1
1
2
1 2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
3
20

Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1

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Hak Cipta Terpelihara Mohd Nasarruddin Bin Ahmad
i

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. 8 C.............. MICROORGANISMS..... SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION........ 17 E...................................................... 12 J... 7 F.................... FLOAT OR SINK?.............. MEASURING SOLID VOLUMES........................ 15 H.......... 4 K.... AIR POLLUTION CONTROL... MIXTURES COMPARISON................ 12 C...... RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPEMENT........................................................................... MEASURING LENGTHS.................................. 14 G............................................................................. 6 Q. CELL STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS.... MINERALS.............. SOLVING PROBLEMS USING EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION........... MIXTURES....... ENERGY FORMS.............. 11 D........................................... 9 F............................................................ 11 F............ 13 D................................................................. 20 Q.......................11 B................................. 16 H......... 16 G......... USES OF HEAT CONDUCTORS........... 17 G........................................................... HEAT FLOW. SOIL.......................... 10 E................. HEAT FLOW BENEFITS.... 11 B... 11 C................................. HEAT PRODUCTION.................. 8 J.................................................................................. 10 C. ELEMENTS...................... 7 B................................... COMPOUNDS................................ 9 B................................................................................ 10 D....... ENERGY SOURCES....................................................... METALS AND NON-METALS............ CELL................... 8 CHAPTER 5: THE AIR AROUND US A......................... USING THE BUNSEN BURNER.... 18 CHAPTER 2 : CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE A........................ MICROSCOPE................. CHARACTERISTICS... 7 D................................................ 7 E........................................... CHANGES OF STATE SUMMARY............................................. MEASURING LIQUID VOLUMES.............. USING ENERGY EFFICIENTLY................................................ HEAT FLOW EFFECTS.................. PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE..... 6 I............................................... HEAT ABSORPTION AND HEAT RELEASE..petaminda................................. A FORM OF ENERGY.............. HEAT AND TEMPERATURE. 3 J..................................... APPLICATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF MATTER........................................................................ PREFIXES............... 13 L... 7 C.......................................... 1 E................. THE SCIENCE LABORATORY (2)..................................................................................... 19 iii ... 20 O......... HUMAN BEINGS: COMPLEX ORGANISMS.................................... MADE UP SMALL PARTICLES............... 9 E..... 8 G........ WEIGHT AND MASS...................... EFFECTS OF HEAT ON STATES OF MATTER............................................................ HAZARD SYMBOLS.............. 19 K................................................................... 16 I.............. 18 H................................................................. 15 G.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 www.................. OXYGEN FOR COMBUSTION.......... 4 L...... 15 F........ MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS....................................... NUMERICAL EXAMPLES................ 16 CHAPTER 4: VARIETY OF RESOURCES ON EARTH A.......... 6 R................................... POTENTIAL ENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY..... MEASURING AREAS........... SCIENCE PART OF EVERY DAY LIFE..... 1 C.. 13 E................................. 6 Q................. WATER...................... CAREERS.. HEAT CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS.... HEAT/TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES....... 20 P.................. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WEIGHT AND MASS......... AIR................. 10 B................ USING A MICROSCOPE................... 5 N........ 8 H......................... MEASURING TEMPERATURE.... 17 F......................... AIR POLLUTION.. EARTH'S RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION....................... 18 J................... PARTICLE MOVEMENT......... AREAS OF STUDY................... 16 CHAPTER 7: HEAT A................... IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD UNITS.........................................................................com CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE A..................... APPLICATIONS OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION........................... 9 D............................ PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.. 2 F. ELEMENTS................... 19 N........................................................................... THE SCIENCE LABORATORY (1)............................................. ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL COMPARISON...... 14 H................ 20 CHAPTER 3: MATTER A............................... 5 O.. 12 D. CHOOSING SUITABLE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS............................. 5 P........ 9 C... DENSITY........ 17 F......... 11 E....... CARBON DIOXIDE FROM RESPIRATION. 12 I....................... ENERGY: Ability to do work.............................. HUMAN CELL ORGANISATION............................... NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES............................... 13 I.............................. PARTICLE ARRANGEMENT.. 15 I............................................................................................................ OXYGEN FOR RESPIRATION....... 3 I................................. 17 H....... 18 G.......... LIVING THINGS........................................... HEAT FLOW IN NATURAL PHENOMENA.................. HEAT FLOW TYPES.. 1 B............ 2 H.. 3 STATES OF MATTER.. 19 M................ USES OF HEAT INSULATORS......................... 14 CHAPTER 6: SOURCES OF ENERGY A................ AIR: A MIXTURE......................... COMPOSITION............. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY SOURCES............. 2 G..............................................1 D..... COMPOUNDS........... 4 M.. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES.... 13 B................ UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS........... FOSSIL FUELS........................................

pay bills.. safer. reduce traffic jams /pollution Telephone Facsimile b c d e A b a Examples b d c a Radio Television 2 Never carry out experiment without permission Communication 2 1 f Tools THE SCIENCE LABORATORY (1) FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Organ transplant Medicine 2 D 1 General Rules b d c Food and drinks are not allowed in the lab a Consult the teacher for help and advice e Line up outside the lab before entering Never enters the lab without permission INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE (1 . earth's structure 5 Natural forces Geology a Biochemical Biotechnolgy a b Plants and their structures To make useful products Industrial use of living orgnisms processes of living things Designs buildings Prepares and dispenses medicines Designs.petaminda. Wash hands thoroughly after handling chemicals Keep benches clean To understand how nature affects lives and envionment SCIENCE: PART OF EVERYDAY LIFE 3 Importance of Science c Modern highways. combine harvester Computer Programmer Microorganisms Composition a Chemistry Microbiology Processes and functions of living systems Plant science specialist b Chemical properties Nurse 10 9 Chemist Chemistry trained Animal doctor Veterinarian 1 8 7 6 3 5 Engineer 10 Physiology 1 AREAS OF STUDY a Biology b a Physics c Biochemistry Living organism Life processes Matter CAREERS 2 4 Pharmacist 9 Astronomy Sun. towards anyone electricity and gas when heating it Never pour unused chemical into reagent bottle to prevent contamination Throw solid waste into bins not into sinks Do not taste any chemicals or inhale any gas unless instructed Occurences in nature Growth of plants 1 Make lives more comfortable 1 www.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Never point the mouth of test tube Do not waste water. work from home c Lasers Electrocardiographs Increase Food Production e d b c a Apparatus and chemicals cannot be taken out of lab C B Insecticides Plants with higher yeilds/ resist diseases Animals grow faster Fertilisers Develope computer software Patients care specialist Tractors. buildings. maintains engines. minerals. builts. shopping. planets.com Conserve environment 1 2 a Experimentation 2 Examples 2 b 4 3 Aurora Observation Gained knowledge from. 1 Natural Phenomena Rainbow formation Eclipse of moon and sun Scientific Discoveries a 2 Improve standard of living i h g j k l Report any breakages or faulty equipment Report any mishaps c 2 Scientific Knowledge b Preserve environment Science b m Wash and return 1 a Systematic study of nature Use small amounts of chemicals to prevent f wastage n apparatus after use Safety Precautions p c o e Handle chemicals d with spatula Check labels on chemicals Handle apparatus carefully Read instructions carefully before doing experiment.6) a Healthier & Longer Life 1 Surgeries b ICT (Information Communication Technology) Agriculture Satellites long distance communication Computers Tools d a b dialysis X-ray machines 1 Transfer money. safer & faster vehicles travelling 1 2 3 Application of scientific knowledge Makes lives more comfortable 1 Transportation Technology 2 3 a Light rail/commuter trains transport more passengers. Faster. Consult teacher if necessary. roads 1 . stars 2 3 4 Botanist Microbiologist Specialist in microorganisms 8 7 6 Botany b Energy Architect Doctor Trained in medical science Rocks.

Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 To separate experiment setup from outside environment To collect gases To contain small amounts of substances To heat small amounts of substances To measure specific volumes of liquid accurately To hold apparatus wire gauze www.6) 6 5 barrel F gas jet collar air hole G HAZARD SYMBOLS Hydrogen Concentrated peroxide Bromine alkali 2 3 4 USING THE BUNSEN BURNER 1 Concentrated acids 1 Examples 2 a Turn collar to close air hole 4 c 3 3 2 Flame Steps c b Wash with running water when contacted Avoid direct contact 2 1 Handling Methods b a Corrosive 1 Bring match to mouth of barrel Turn on gas a Causes damage to skin / eye Toxic / poisonous Bromine Chloroform 5 6 4 3 b Explosive Flammable Catches fire/ burn easily c b a b Examples Hydrogen/air mixture 3 2 1 a Explodes when mixed with other subsrances Handling Methods 1 Benzene Lead Examples 2 1 Handling Methods 2 1 Cyanides Mercury Causes harm/ death if swallowed / inhaled / skin absorbed White/yellow phosphorus 4 When air hole opened . luminous yellow flame Temperature 300 o C air hole closed 5 b Examples a Handling Methods Keep away from heat/fire Temperature 700 o C air hole opened paraffin Store in locked place Do not taste Methylated spirits 3 2 1 X Ethanol Kerosene Petrol Concentrated acids/alkali Sodium/ potassium metals Keep in paraffin Avoid Keep away from heat/fire contacting water 3 2 2 .com To support apparatus during heating To hold test tubes vertically retort c la m p Gas jar Bell jar Radium Plutonium 3 2 Radioactive substance Test tube Boiling tube g h i To contain/ collect chemicals Pipette To measure volumes of liquid ( 1 cm3 accuracy) Tripod stand Retort stand d c b a e f Thorium 4 To separate solid from liquid using filter paper Test-tube rack e d f Uranium 1 Filter funnel Displacement can Conikal flask Burette To contain chemicals when preparing gases Examples Keep in lead containers c b Evaporating dish Co mm on Apparatus (1) a Crucible j Handling Methods Round bottom flask c b Emits radiation harmful to body cells / tissues To find the volume of liquid displaced Measuring cylinder Co mm on Apparatus (2) i g h Test-tube holder To hold test tube when heating Bunsen burner To provide heating flame 1 To measure volumes of liquid ( 1 cm3 accuracy) 2 l k j Stop watch To measure time a Chlorine 2 1 3 4 Radioactive Chloroform To evaporate liquid from solution To heat solids directly over flames Bromine Ammonia Use fume cupboard Avoid inhalation 1 FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 SCIENCE LABORATORY (2) Beam balance Thermometer Metre rule To measure mass To measure length (accuracy 0.petaminda.1 cm) To measure temperature Examples E 2 c Handling Methods b a Irritates skin / eye / respiratory system Irritant / Harmful INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE (2 . non-luminous blue flame When air hole closed.

6) STEPS Variables : Factors that affect the result of experiment Manipulated Variable : a Variable that is b changed to see the effect Controlling variables d c Responding Variable : Variable that is being observed TIME A quantity that can be measured a b a SI Units 2 1 LENGTH a c b In SI units (International System of Units) met re (m) Eg: Length of room Contains the complete experimental procedures and results Writing a report Fixed Variables : Variable that are not changed throughout experiment Record data by: (a) observation (b) measurements a 1 Report format Eg: Time taken for an athlete to run 100 m is 10.petaminda.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Celcius (oC) : for daily use kelvin (K) milligrams (mg) grams (g) 1 2 1 2 3 www. the longer the period of oscillation. calculation or comparison) (h) Conclusion Form new hypothesis d and carry further experiments Reject hypothesis if not supported by results M aking conclusion Interpreting data c b a a b Collecting data Analysing data a Identify patterns in data and relationship between manipulated variable and responding variable c b Measurements types: (a) time (b) temperature changes (c) colour Tabulate data in appropriate tables Accepting hypothesis if supported Example: The longer the by results pendulum. on the relationship between variables (b) List the 3 variables (c) List all apparatus and materials needed (d) Draw a labelled scientific drawing of the arrangement of apparatus (e) Write the procedures carrying out the experiment (f) Tabulate the data obtained (g) Analyse the data (by graphs. 2 Mass Time b TEMPERATURE ELECTRIC CURRENT Temperature kelvin Current ampere SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Identifying the Problem Forming a hy pothesis Planning the experiment SI Units 1 a MASS 3 6 5 7 8 FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Summary H kilogram (kg) days hours 2 3 4 mon ths 5 Examples 1 y ears PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 1 3 2 I minu tes b 4 INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE (3 . graphs.00 s seconds (s ) Shorter distance 4 3 2 1 SI Units 2 6m 1 2 Eg: Length of insect kilom etres (km) Eg: Distance between house and school = 5km  16 mm  centimetres (cm) milliimetres ( mm) Eg: Length of book   20 cm   Longer distance (a) Aim of experiment.com Ampere (A) 1 A systematic method used by scientists in their investigations Involve the principle of logic in s olving scientific problems Open ended question Hypothesis: A statement that can be tested by experiment What to investigate a b c b Shows relationship between manipulated variable and responding variable Example: The longer the length of a pendulum the longer the period of osccilation c Control the variables Determine materials and apparatus a b c d Determine procedure Determine collection data and data analysis method Eg: Normal temperature of body is 37oC SI Units a SI Units a Physcical quantity Length SI unit metre kiogram seconds Symbol 1 m kg s K A 2 The question to be solved a Smaller mass Eg: Mass of a baby is 3 kg. Hypothesis is accepted Make an inference: a statement made by reasoning based observations and measurements Example: Time taken for the pendulum to make one swing increases as the length of the pendulum increases Organise data in tables. charts. diagrams bar chart pie chart line graph 3 .

000 005 kg (d) 40 000 g 40 000 g = 40 000 x 0.01 or 10-2 0.6) K Example 1: Write the following using prefixes (a) 77 000g 77 x 1000g = 77kg (b) 0.001 m = 6 mg Internal diameter b 1 b Grip the cylindrical tube at the place where the calipers' legs open the largest Externel diameter a 2 Using Calipers and ruler a Diameter of Objects (cylinders/ sp here s) 3 MEASURING LENGTHS 1 Use ruler or measuring tape a cyl indri cal tube Internal calipers External calipers Ruler 2 Straight Objects In sophisticated models.petaminda.000 001 or 10-6 0.1 or 10-1 0.005 / 1000) kg = 0.01 mm a b L J FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 3 pico femto Number of ticks = 51 Area = 51 unit 2 external c al i p er s Examples b a Example 2: Change the following units of measurements into kg (a) 250 g = (250 / 1000) = 0.001 or 10-3 0.04 g = (0. An instrument with a revolving wheel for measuring a curved line 2 c Using Opisometer b Using measuring tape Curved Objects / Lines a Place one end of object at zero mark of ruler/tape X A 2  C Place eye vertically on mark (correct position) to take reading X B Error caused by the wrong position of eye is called parallax error 4 b 3 1 4 Reading = 2.006 g 6 x 0.8 x 1000 m = 78 km (d) 0.000 04 kg b a c Open the legs of the calipers until their tips touches the inner wall of the gas jar Measure the diameter using the ruler gas ja r b Vernier calipers 1 Micrometer screw gauge 2 Measure the diameter using the ruler a More Accurate Tools INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE (4 .Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 l e ng t h w id t h  Rectangle Area = width x length Triangle x base x height Use formulae a b c d SI Units: square metres (m 2 ) Is the size of surface of object b a c Other Units: square millimetres (mm 2 ) square centimetres (cm 2 ) square kilometres (km 2 ) d www.000 004 A 4 x 0.001 g = 0. Reading = 63 cm 1 Using string & meter rule 3 1 Use string to trace the curve surface st ri ng Place string on ruler to measure length Wrap the measuring tape around the object and read the scale that meets the zero mark on the tape.04/1000) kg = 0.1 mm Measure diameters up to 0.000 000 000 001 or 10-12 0.000 000 001 or 10-9 0.005 g = (0. the wheel is connected via gearing to a rotary dial from which the line length can be directly read. 2 Make mark on string 4 .000 001 g = 0.000 000 000 000 001 or 10-15 Area =     ½ Regular Shapes Area To express physical quantities which are very big Conversions: or very small 1m2 = 100 cm x 100 cm = 10 000 cm2 1cm2 = 10 mm x 10 mm = 100 mm2 Area =  Circle x radius2 2 1 Mark ( ) on every complete square ( 1 cm2) covered by shape Mark ( ) on every incomplete square which cover half the area of square or more 1 2 Use graph paper for estimation Methods 3 a b Irregular Shapes 3 MEASURING AREAS 1 2 deca deci centi milli 30 PREFIXES in tern al c al i p er s micro nano Find total number of ticks ( ) for total area Can measure internal and external diameters Measurements to the nearest 0.4 cm 1 Do not place eye at position A or B (incorrect position) because the readings are not accurate.000 001 A = 4 A (c) 7 800 m 7.com Prefixes Tera Giga Mega kilo hecto Symbol T G M k h da d c m m n p f Numerical value 1 000 000 000 000 or 1012 1 000 000 000 or 109 1 000 000 or 106 1 000 or 103 1 00 or 102 10 or 101 0.25 kg (b) 6 000 Mg 6 000 Mg = 6 000 000 000 g = (6 000 000 000 / 1000) kg = 6 000 000 kg (c) 5 mg 5 mg = 5 x 0.

Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Place under tounge for 2 minutes Between 35 oC and 42o C 2 4 3 Bulb containing alcohol with red dye To measure temperature of water. MEASURING TEMPERATURE M O FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 incorrect X Mercury incorrect X Bottom part of meniscus. place the bulb of the thermometer in the water 2 Other Units: cubic millimetres (mm 3) cubic centimetres (cm 3) millitres (ml) litres (l) c Conversions: 1 cm3 = 1 ml 1 l = 1 000 ml (cm3) 1 m3 = 1 000 000 ml (cm3) www.90 cm3 ) Open tap to release some water / solution 0.60 cm3 5 . Reading = 42 cm3 Lower a solid tied to a string into the eureka can d Place an empty measuring cylinder below its spout INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE (5 . Record initial volume (3. Volume in conical flask = final reading .30 = 0.6) N 4 3 Meniscus curve downwards 50 correct  40  Top part of meniscus.0 cm3 when the meniscus reaches the 25 cm3 mark.60 cm3 Record final reading Add water/solution into burrete using a filter funnel Record initial reading 1a Clamp vertically Fill a measuring cylinder with water. Record final volume Water Displacement M ethod b a Suck in water/solution into pipette using a pipette filler.30 cm3 ) 25 cm3 mark (3.3.petaminda. Clinical Thermometer Volume f Measures body temperature b a 1 Volumes of Solid Meniscus curve upwards Liquid-in-glass T h er mom et er capillary tube Is a measure of space occupied by object 1 1 Bulb containing mercury MEASURING LIQUID VOLUMES Using M easuring Cylinder c incorrect X Water/ Solutions Place eye at same level at bottom of meniscus 2 correct   d The volume of water is equal to the volume of solid.initial volume = 40 . Reading = 49 cm3 incorrect X c Using Eureka Can Using Pipette c b Techniques 2 Using Burrete b a A burette b Fill a eureka can with water until a excess water overflows For solids too large for measuring cylinder 2 MEASURING SOLID VOLUMES 1 The volume is exactly 25. a A pipette c Measurement to nearest 0.initial reading = 3.90 .1 cm3 1 Measure fixed volume (25 cm3) 4 Techniques 1 3 2 c Volume of solid = Final volume .com Usually measured in litres (l) and millilitres(m l ) A measuring cylinder Measurement to nearest ml or cm 3 a b } d 1 Volumes of Liquids Smallest division = 1 cm3 Alcohol Thermometer e SI Units: cubic metres (m 3) b a Usually measured in cm3 and m3.1 ml or cm 3 } Smallest division = 0.30 = 10 cm3 Lower a solid tied to a string into the measuring cylinder.

6 . near zero weight b a R 2 Earth Old system: foot-pound-second (fps) New system(1960): metre-kilogram-second (mks) Measuring Weights 1 Stronger gravity.9A How close measured value is to actual value CHOOSING SUITABLE MEASURING INSTRUMENT Low precision: A set of reading that differs a lot 1. Liquid Gas has the least matter.3048 m 1 yard = 3 feet = 0. smaller weight M oo n 1 2 1 Old to new system conversion: d Accuracy in m ea su re me nt s Consistency in M e asur emen ts b Need to know exact amount of money to buy food supplies at the market a Need to know exact amounts of ingredients to produce food products INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE (6 . SI Units Lever balance Spring balance Measuring Instruments Compression balance SI units: Kilogram (kg) The quantity of matter of object is constant Solid has the most matter.2A 0. has smallest mass.4A ERRORS Average = 1. larger weight DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WEIGHT AND MASS 3 2 MASS Compression balance Electronic balance 4 SI units: Newton (N) Spring balance Weight Definition Force of gravity that acts on object Changes according to gravity Newtons (N) Mass Quantity of matter in an object Constant at any place Kilograms (kg) Beam balance Lever balance Electronic balance c b a Value Beam balance 3 Measuring Mass 2 1 Mass of object does not change The quantity of matter contained in a substance.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 A single system makes measurements in daily activities.35 g 1 pouns = 16 ounces = 453.petaminda.621 mile Weights: 1 ounce = 28.28 ft 1 km = 1 000 cm = 0. All have same volume and same type of particle. manufacturing and trade very easy a Zero error occurs when reading of instrument does not show zero No zero error 3 Improve accuracy by taking average readings Zero error occurs in both readings Eg: Three ammeter readings: 1.3 + 1.4A The difference in value between several m ea su re me nt s www.3A 1.6) b Force of gravity Weight changes when force of gravity changes WEIGHT 3 2 Q c To enable scientist share information with greater accuracy WEIGHT AND MASS 1 c 700N Near zero gravity.com High precision: A set of reading that differs slightly from average Example: Three ammeter readings: a b More accurate and precise readings has smaller errors c 2 1.54 cm 1 foot = 12 inches = 0.2A 1. has largest mass.4 4 = 1.3937 inch 1 metre = 100 cm = 3.3A PRECISION c b ACCURACY Average = 1.2 + 1.2 + 1.3A 1.609 km 1 cm = 10 mm = 0.18 kg 3 The difference between the measured value and the actual value 1 a 2 Example: Three ammeter readings: 1.4 4 = 1.3A Useful in International communications 1 Lengths: 1 inch = 2.4A from average 116N IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD UNITS P S FORM 1 CHAPTER 1 Force exerted on object due to earth's gravity a Weaker gravity.2A 1.59 1 tonne = 2 000 pounds = 907.9144 m 1 mile = 1 760 yards = 1.3 + 1.

take in water Dense jelly-like structure 1 2 3 Chloroplast 1 Disc like structures Vacuole 3 Contain cell sap Carries genetic information Diaphragm Controls amount of light Nucleus C Concentrates light onto specimen Condenser Light source Place where chemical reaction Colourless occurs Stores food / watery jelly that waste material fills cell Provide light for observation 1 Hold together with other cells Give cell fixed shape 2 3 Place microscope on flat surface Cytoplasm USING A MICROSCOPE Cell m em b r an e PLANT CELL 1 Thin layer surrounds cell 1 2 3 4 6 5 Turn to use low power objective lens first Raise the stage to highest position. adjust diapraghm for maximum light Place slide with specimen and clip 4 Turn fine focus knob to obtain a sharp image 3 8 7 Cell wall 2 Support cell 1 Thick cellulose layer 2 Controls substance movement in and out of cell ANIMAL CELL Look through eyepiece.com Nucleus Similarities Basic unit of living organism Cytoplasm 1 1 2 Perf orm Living Pro cess es b M agnifies objects Animal cell Differences 2 ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL COMPARISON 1 2 To observe objects not visible to naked eye CELL MICROSCOPE 3 Animal cells Cell shape Arrangement Cell wall Vacuole Chloroplast No fixed shape No fixed pattern Plant cells Fixed shaped Regular pattern FORM 1 CHAPTER 2 PARTS OF MICROSCOPE Lens to look through Magnifies the image E A B Lens that magnifies specimen Change magnification by changing objective lens Objective lens Magnification range: From x 10 to x 40 Part that contains all lenses Body tube Eyepiece       CELL STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE (1 . Look through eyepiece.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 cell membrane Plant cell Basic units for plants and animals a Both have a. cytoplasm c. nucleus Carry out life processes Discovered by Robert Hooke Building blocks of life a b c b c Saw cork cells like small rooms (cell) a Carry chemical reactions to keep alive Reproduce by cell division Cell dividing www. cell membrane b.2) D Place to hold when carrying Arm Place for slide with specimens Stage Contains clips to hold slide Contains chlorophyll Absorb light to make food (photosynthesis) To move lens closer Control centre of cell To hold slide specimens Clips Coarse focus knob Fine focus knob To move lens closer in small degrees Base To stabilise microscope Caution: Lens must not touch the slide Large space (sac) 2 3 1 2 Keep cell firm.petaminda. turn coarse focus knob anticlockwise where the stage is lowered down until a clear image of specimen is seen Turn coarse focus knob clockwise until objective lens almost touchest the slide 7 .

the more complex More cells. larger size www.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 systems organs 3 4 Pleurococcus Learn Create Imagine 4 1 Ameoba Plant kingdom Animal kingdom The larger the size.2) I H MICROORGANISMS 3 4 Some: multicellular Hydra M ost: unicellular Virus 1 Examples 2 Bacteria skull rib cage back bone Skeletal system Organism 2 Contains different 1 organs that work together to perfom a function stomach skin e e System HUMAN CELL ORGANIZATION 3 1 2 Human: Complex multicellular organism a To perform life processes efficiently 1 Examples 2 Spirogyra d liver g f d c b a 1 Cell Organisation Cell Specialisation b c Examples 2 To cover outer layer of body Have different functions Muscle cells 1 ear heart eye Organ b a To absorb & excrete substances c Ephitelial cells 8 For body movement brain Contains different tissues that work together to perfom a function 2 Tissue Cell 1 To grow and develop after fertilisation To transfer genetic information To fertililize egg (ovum) Examples Egg cell (Ovum) 7 6 5 4 3 2 Red lood cells To carry oxygen to parts of body 1 Examples Nerve tissue c b a Basic unit Contains same type of cells that work together perform specific function Sperm cells White blood cells Bone cells Nerve cells To detect stimuli from To carry impulses surrounding to parts of body To kill bacteria inside body Protect from infection Bone tissue Muscle tissue Make up bones to support body 8 . birds. reptiles (animals) HUMAN BEINGS: COMPLEX ORGANISMS br ai n spinal cord nerve oesophagus stomach la rg e intestine n os e trachea lun gs t e st i s pen is UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS 1 Trees (plants) F J uterus MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS Very tiny organisms muscle Nervous system Muscular system heart artery c Digestive system sm al l intestine G FORM 1 CHAPTER 2 1 2 Not seen by naked eye.petaminda. only by microscope Respiratory system Reproductive system f g ovary e d vagina vein Blood circulatory system b Examples a Contains different systems that work together CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE (2 .com Hydra (animal) 1 2 3 For smooth and efficient functions or organism e d c b a Chlamydomonas Euglena 3 2 Spirogyra (plant) Mucor (fungus) 2 Paramecium tissues cells 2 1 Division of labour among: c b Reason Speak Complex brain 1 a b Yeast Living organisms made of one cell a b c Simple multicelluar Perform specific function (Division of labour) a Complex organisation of cells 1 1 2 Living organisms made of more than one cell d Complex multicelluar 2 1 Mammals.

2) C Diffussion of potassium manganate(VII) particles b a Lot of spaces between particles  NO Fixed volume and shape  Easily compressed NOT in fixed pattern Further apart c b a GAS D 3 3 3 STATES OF MATTER 1 2 GAS Flows easily in all directions Potassium manganate(VII) particles separate and diffuse into spaces of water particles Potassium manganate(VII) crystal PARTICLE ARRANGEMENT c More spaces between particles  Fixed volume but NOT fixed shape  Difficult to compress NOT in fixed pattern LIQUID b a 2 SOLID SOLID SOLID d c b Properties Properties LIQUID a d No fixed shape.com Spread out to fill container c b d Solid  collide At high speeds Collision between particles more frequent Gas c Liquid Balloon with more gas has more mass   b Move randomly in all direction a collide HAS MASS a OCCUPIES SPACE Ato m s GAS 1 2 1 2 M olecules Balloon filled with gas becomes smaller b Gas particles are small enough to diffuse out of the balloon Collide with one another 3 c b LIQUID CHARACTERISTICS 2 Vibrate.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1  Solid Liquid Gas www. follow shape of container Does not flow Cannot be compressed  Cannot be compressed Packed in fixed pattern a Cannot be compressed Fixed volume Close together 9 . spin and move around one another a move freely PARTICLE MOVEMENT 1 SOLID SOLID A E H B FORM 1 CHAPTER 3 MADE UP OF SMALL PARTICLES 4 3 a Vibrate and spin at fixed position b a vibrate spin Cannot move freely MATTER (1 . follow shape of container Flows easily Properties Fixed shape 1 Can be compressed a a d c b b c Fixed volume Close together No fixed volume SOLID Very little space between particles  Fixed volume & shape c b Cover removed Smo ke  Smo ke fills both ja rs No fixed shape.petaminda.

Solution: Mass = Density x Volume = 2. h Measure mass of object using triple beam balance a g/cm 3 ( gram per centimetre cube) Find volume: v=lxwxh c Calculate density. Floats on water b d e b a Density Of Regular shaped objects Example: A wooden block of mass 100g has has a length. 2 3 A denser substance sinks in a less dense liquid 2 cm Easy transportation Examples Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Big volumes of gas stored in small containers (cylinders) Cooking gas = 10g Mass = Volume 13 cm 3 = 0. w c. width and height of 10 cm. Transporting timber logs Wood is less dense than water.5 g Example 2: Example 3: a Electricity generation using steam 2 FLOAT OR SINK? 2 3 1 A less dense substance floats in a denser liquid b c Cork floats on water Oil is less than water.03 g/cm3 = 81.7 cm 3 The mass of a cuboid shown is 25 g. If the density of cooking oil is 0.4 g.6 g/cm 3.petaminda. Find its density Solution: Mass=100 g Volume = 10 x 5 x 6 = 300 cm3. 1 1 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 4 Compressing gases into liquids d Save space a Under high pressure Benefits c b Example 4: A 10 g wooden block has a volume of 13 cm 3 .7 g/cm3 . Density = Mass 100g = = 0. determine whether it floats or sinks in cooking oil.33 g/cm3 Volume 300 cm3. Solution: Density of wooden block.77 g/cm3 The density of sea water is 1. 5 cm and 6 cm respectively.2) G H Example 1: The density of an object is 2. width.initial volume c b Using Density Concept Large volume Decrease density Hollow shape  Contains lots of air  Decrease density Density = a M as s Volume 1 DENSITY 4 Density Of Irregular shaped objects c b Rafting a F Mass = Density x Volume FORM 1 CHAPTER 3 d Calculate density. What is its density? 3 Comparing Densities A coin sinks because it is denser than water cm 5 cm Solution: Mass = 25 g Volume = 3 x 5 x 2 = 30 cm3 Density= Volume = 30 cm3 = 0.7 x 5 = 13. l b.83 g/cm3 25g Mass cork alcohol wood water lead mercury Least dense A denser false teeth in water Mass  Density of wooden block greater than cooking oil cooking oil 84.2 g  Wooden block sinks in Most dense 10 . raise balloon Water pumped out of ballast tank  Decrease density Submarine floats Water fills balast tank Increase density Submarine sinks Floating/ Sinking Submarine ballast tank T r ip l e balance Measure: a.com Air inside float and bouy makes them less than than water. Find the mass of 5 cm 3 of the object. Ice floats on water. Calculate the volume of see water with a mass of 82. length. Oil droplets floats on water Ice is less dense than water. Hot air balloon Volume = Floating Large Metal Ships Mass Density b UNITS kg/m 3 (kilogram per metre cube) Fishing buoys e d Float f g 2 3 a Measure mass of object (eg: rock) using triple beam balance Measure volume of object using water displacement method Volume of object = Final volume . Solution: Volume = Density = 1. Floats on water 3 Density = Mass Volume H APPLICATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF MATTER I MATTER (2 . height.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Hot air inside A i r balloon is less dense. Density = Mass Volume www.03 g/cm3 .

petaminda. bath... coal.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Produce heat Latex Cot ton Gi nseng Leaves Wo ol Si lk Skin Wo od Rat tan B amboo www.. b WATER 4 1 Germination of seeds 2 a b Animals Plants 4 Cell cytoplasm (90%) Transport mineral salts Natural gas Petroleum c b a Formation of Fuels 4 3 Human Use SOIL 2 1 Habitat microorganisms Respiration of plant roots Respiration of soil organisms 1 3 Uses 1 Air a Ceramic 2 1 2 Support aquatic plants c Water transport b a Human use: drinking. diesel (vehicles) Cooking gas Burning of coal produces heat to generate electrical energy in power stations Wax Quini ne c b d Building materials Water vapour d e Inert gases Oxygen a 2 1 Skin Combustion of fuels Drive vehicles Oxygen Carbon dioxide b a Honey E g gs Milk a Food Sources Of.2) B 70% of earth's surface Transport digested food & oxygen Cell cytoplasm (90% water) 1 Excretion of waste products 3 4 2 Gas exchage during breathing in moist lungs carbon dioxide oxygen Containers From ores of. Firewood e Fuels Charcoal (Mangrove) Petroleum..tea) 1 Vegetables + Oils b 3 2 Fruits Coal LIVING THINGS Vegetable & animal oi ls 1 2 4 Carbon dioxide 3 2 Produce food 1 Photosynthesis in Plants Fire extinguishers Gives out oxygen 1 gem stones (from quartz & feldspar) Uses glass (from sand) FOSSIL FUELS F E A FORM 1 CHAPTER 4 AIR Carbonated drinks Dry ice b Quartz Feldspar Sand cytoplasm a Examples Non-metals 2 MINERALS 1 Metals b Platinum D VARIETY OF RESOURCES ON EARTH (1. watering plants Coal Manufacturing C lay g f Contains e d c b Water e d c Mining Livestock a b Agriculture Bricks Absorption by plant roots Generation of electricity Sand Glass Humus 1 Gravels Minerals 1 2 2 Organic substance from decayed plants & animals Construction Roads Make soil fertile Examples Phosphates For healthy plants' growth Sulphates Nitrates 11 .com Generate electricity Clothes Medicines Oxygen Nitrogen a b Carbon dioxide c Plastic Petrol. washing. natural gas (plant & animal remains) Composition Uses Respiration Obtain energy from food Body cells carry out living processes Petroleum Natural gas Meat Drinks (coffee. jewellery Basic need for all living things Animals 5 6 Controls body temperature Habitat for aquatic animals a Iron Copper Construction Wires Cooking utensils C Support plants' growth earthworms ants 1 2 3 Important To. a Found in natural state Uses Examples Silver Gold Utensils Plants Ornaments.. cooking.

petaminda. insecticide Conserve water.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Graphite Phosphorus b (Carbon) a b Sulphur electron flows slowly EXCEPT carbon Carbon a Brittle Dull appearance 3 2 Poor heat conductor 4 5 a b Wise management and systematic Protect natural Protect natural resources use of natural resources to habitat from being being depleted prevent waste or loss destroyed Maintain population of b a a endangered species c Do not throw rubbish into drains 1 www. liquids or gases at room temperature a 1 Properties a b 5 BY 1 mat er ials Chlorine (ga s) Uses 4 2 3 Phosphorus a Medicines C lo t h Sulphur b PRESERVATION Explosives 1 electron flows easily Cooking utensils a Electrical wires a b NONMETALS Nitrogen a Chlorine b a Bleach Germ killers EARTH'S RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATIONS 4 Avoid open burning Car pool to reduce cars on roads Conserving Atmosphere one type of atom 2 Fertilisers Machines b Tools c Good heat conductors 3 2 Good electrical conductor & ductile 4 2 J FORM 1 CHAPTER 4 Only one type of particle (atom) 1 e l em e n t e l em e n t Y X Atoms closely packed together a Gold Copper Examples b Iron Sulphur Examples Vehicles a Aluminium beverage cans Hard b Malleable Aluminium foil a 1 Uses METALS AND NON-METALS 1 Metals 1 a 2  Bromine (liq uid) I b VARIETY OF RESOURCES ON EARTH (2 . Electrolysis: A ch emic al method to break down wat er Mixture Elements/compounds mix physically Iron filings and s ul p hu r mixt ure Oxygen Salt. use less X P ap e r Plas tic Gla ss Sulphur (s oli d) c Poor electrical conductor 1 Pencil lead a CONSERVATION Keeping natural resources in their original and balanced state TO d Carbon b c Charcoal Diamond a Fertilisers 3 2 Maintain a balanced ecosystem to minimise destruction of natural habitat a b c Conserving Water Resources Conserving Other Resources 1 Bromine b (liq uid) Solids.2) H Cannot be broken down into simpler substance a Non-Metals Compound of X and Y 2 Types b Chlorine (gas) ELEMENTS Made up of two or more elements chemically combined a Good electrical conductor Good heat conductor 8 9 METALS G Iron filings attracted to mag net 1 2 COMPOUNDS c b Broken down into simpler substance by chemical methods Water a Hydrogen b Oxygen a Examples 2 4 3 1 Ductile 7 6 Properties 1 5 2 4 3 Solid at room temperature (except mercury) Malleable High density Shiny Hard High melting point ELEMENT.com X 2 3 Do not Pour hazardous products into drains eg: paint. COMPOUND. MIXTURE COMPARISON 1 2 Use magnet to separate Iron filings and sulphur mixt ure 2 ELEMENTS. Only by chemical means. COMPOUNDS. MIXTURES 3 Rust b a a Iron Sugar Oxygen c b a Salt b Oxygen Sodium Mix them 1 Salt Solution Hydrogen Carbon Chlorine Iron filings + sulphur mixture c a Element Element Only one type of Only one type of particle particle Cannot be broken down Cannot be broken down into simpler substances into simpler substances Compound Compound More than one Moreof particle of type than one type particle Can be broken down into Can be broken down into simpler substances by simpler substances by chemical methods chemical methods water sodium chloride Compound Different elements combine chemically Cannot be broken down into components by physical methods. sand and and water ni trog en mixt ure mixt ure Filtrate (Salt solution) Evaporation Residue (Sand) MIXTURES Examples c a 3 2 2 Filtration Salt + sand mixture 1 b Made up of two or more substances (elements or compounds) physically combined Dust 1 Mixture of X and Y b Air e 2 Dissolving the salt Salt or Sugar solution 2 Separation by Physical Methods 1 Examples 4 3 a Water vapour b c Nitrogen d Oxygen Carbon dioxide Evaporation Salt or sugar Solution Filtration Filter funnel Residue Filter paper Filtrate Sea water Soil b c a a b Water Salt Other minerals Evaporation Solvent Solution Evaporating Blood minerals c b a copper atoms oxygen molecules sodium chlorine oxygen hydrogen atom atom atom atom Can be separated into components by physical methods Sand Hea t c Humus e d Blood Water Clay cells Mineral Water salts 12 .

Neutral gas.less 4% .2) C D Living cells oxidise food using oxygen to produce carbon dioxide.petaminda.com Oxygen Nitrogen tube Y Cobalt chloride paper Cobalt chloride paper in tube Y turns pink much faster than in tube X because the air has more water vapour Carbon dioxide Inert ga se s 2 1 3 4 5 6 Dust Microorganisms Oxygen 21% b flask C Limewater c Respiration of mouse produces water vapour COMPOSITION 7 flask D Water Carbon dioxide 0. Effect on moist blue & red litmus Oxygen enters by diffusion across cell membrane cell membrane Oxygen Glucose Glucose Oxygen Oxygen enters through stomatal pores of leaves Carbon dioxide Water Energy Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy Test for Carbon dioxide Turns limewater cloudy/milky/chalky  Effect on Lime Water Effect on Bicarbonate Indicator No change.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Limewater in flask C turns cloudy much slower than limewater in flask D because the air has less carbon dioxide.more 78% . Exhaled air has less oxygen candle B a Carbon dioxide Water Dust + microorganisms Sterile nutrient agar CARBON DIOXIDE FROM RESPIRATION A B Compounds b c Cover 3 Composition b Varies due to. oxygen limewater unchanged Moist blue litmus changes to red. c a Environment Human activities 1 Inhaled air Air that we breathe in Exhaled air Air that we breathe out 1 E FORM 1 CHAPTER 5 Examples 2 More oxygen in jungle More carbon dioxide in cities After 3 days No change Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Water vapour Temperature 21 % 0. Acidic gas Lime water turns cloudy carbon dioxide white precipitate oxygen stomata Carbon dioxide Water Carbon dioxide No change.03% 78 % Less Same as surroundings 16% . water and energy TESTS Colour and smell OXYGEN Colourless and odourless CARBON DIOXIDE Colourless and odourless In Tube C red incicator position remains unchanged because oxygen content remains unchanged Oxygen content in tube A and B decreases causing a decrease in air c pressure Cockroach and seeds use oxygen during respiration Cockcroach Wire gauze PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE Solubility in alkaline pyrogallol solution Solubility In Water Very Solube Not soluble Slightly soluble More soluble e Red indicator droplet Experiment Solubility In Sodium hydroxide Not Soluble Very Soluble 3 Tube C OXYGEN FOR RESPIRATION Splinter ignited a Splinter goes out.03% + others 0.unchanged More Higher than surroundings THE AIR AROUND US (1. Bicarbonate indicator CaC Energy Water Energy white precipitate (cloudy) Indicator colour changes from red CO2 to yellow  Nitrogen 78% x cm  y cm { y Argon Neon Helium Krypton Xenon White threadlike growth and black spots due to growth of m i cr o o rg a n is m s 13 . burning splinter Does not support burning  Germinating green beans Carbon dioxide produced absorbed by sodium hydroxide solution b Cotton soaked with sodium hydoxide solution All living things c b Plants 2 1 b a 1 oxygen carbon dioxide + water vapour 2 Oxygen Glucose glowing splinter Effect on Lighted Splinter burning splinter Supports burning Microorganisms 1 Animals Glucose + Oxygen No change. Red litmus unchanged. glowing Supports splinter combustion Does not support combustion 1 Tube B  Tube A d a Higher atmopheric pressure pushes red indicator inwards Test for Oxygen Ignites a glowing splinter  Effect on Glowing Splinter glowing splinter 2 Oxygen enters during breathing through lungs Respiration Splinter burns more brightly. Air Limewater in flask D turns cloudy much faster than Air limewater in flask C because the exhaled air from the mouse has Cobalt chloride paper in more carbon dioxide. Inhaled air has more oxygen candle A 2 Candle B burns in shorter time.. tube X turns pink much Filter pump slower than in tube Y because the air tube X has less water vapour Filter pump www.97% a Percentage of oxygen = x x100% ~ 20% Nitrogen Oxygen Inert gases 1 2 3 4 5 Respiration of mouse produces carbon dioxide Exhaled Experiments a Elements AIR: A MIXTURE b c 1 2 Inhaled air Candle A burns longer. Splinter ignites Splinter goes out.

Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Heat Heat (to ignite) Use public transport / car pool Recycle paper. Smaller container has less oxygen Filter pump candle A candle B 2 Carbon Dioxide Funnel Filter pump b a Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) h g 1 Air Pollutants e d c b Retards children's mental Damages kidney. brain Burning charcoal ( Carbon) Cobalt chloride paper unchaged  No water produced  Contains NO hydrogen Limewater turns cloudy  Carbon dioxide produced Funnel Limewater turns cloudy  Carbon dioxide produced Cobalt chloride paper changes to pink  Water produced  Hydrocarbon contains hydrogen Burning candle ( Hydrocarbon) Effects b a Lead f a Sources Leaded petrol Acid clouds b Effect Acid rain Oxides of Nitrogen a Acid snow Acid rain Sources Motor vehicles Kills aquatic life Kills plants Damages 2 marble/ limestone Effects Damages metals damages lung cells Sulphur Dioxide 1 Carbon monoxide Death Brain damage 1 2 Dust Cigarettes 2 1 Smoke and soot Cement plants Sources 2 Cigarettes 1 Motor vehicles Burning rubbish Fossil fuel burning Sources Effects Forest fires Sources Effects Effects Acid rain Sources Haze Construction sites Headache Motor Breathing Eye irritation Lung cancer vehicles Cough & athma difficulties Tiredness Coal 14 .2) Green house effect Increases earth's temperature W at e r produced when hydrogen re act s with o xyg e n .com Light X Stop open burning Stop smoking habit a Carbon Substance that burns a b 1 a Examples Wood Charcoal Produces Requires 1 Coal d c b a Supported by oxygen Types 2 Contains hydrogen and carbon a b c Kerosene Natural gas Burning Fuel Hydrocarbon b Examples Public Use unleaded petrol b Use catalytic a converters to reduce pollutants Law Enforcement 1 3 M otor Vehicles 2 Reactions b Candle Diesel Petrol 4 2 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL 1 Factories OXYGEN FOR COMBUSTION 3 a Carbon + Oxygen Hydrocarbon + Oxygen Use less CFC c b H FORM 1 CHAPTER 5 F 4 Fix filters to trap pollutants in chimneys a Set up far away from housing areas THE AIR AROUND US (2 . heart. Candle B burns longer because its larger container contains more oxygen.petaminda. Depleted ozone layer at south pole Atmosphere cannot filter harmful ultraviolet light Damages ozone layer Effects Electronic factories Aerosol sprays Sources Rubbish burning Fossil fuel burning Effects Sources G AIR POLLUTION b a Due to pollutants chemicals in atmosphere harmful to life c Candle A burns in shorter time. Experiments a b Carbon dioxide + 2 Water* + Heat + Light CaC Carbon dioxide + Heat + Light 1 CaC Carbon dioxide produced when carbon reacts with o xyg e n . glass & metals d Fuel Action against motor vehicles owners a Chemical reaction between a substance and oxygen b Action against factory owners Oxygen 3 2 1 2 www.

2) b Nuclear bomb Nuclear Energy a Stored in nucleus of atom Released by the sun b a Solar heater Solar cells Running man Flying plane b a Solar car In forms of geysers and hot springs b C Geothermal Heat energy from inner layer of earth a 7 6 Nucleus Primary source of energy 1 All energy sources traced back to Sun Move water turbines in dams to generate electricity (hydroelectricity) turbine and generator 5 b ENERGY SOURCES 2 4 3 a 1 Sun b gives 1 2 light energy heat energy Water a c Stored as potential energy in dams Plants b a Uses light energy from sun. heat homes & factories Uranium and Plutonium a b Radioactive substances c SOURCES OF ENERGY (1 . carbon dioxide and water to make food Move wind turbines to produce electricity Move windmills to pump water or grind corn Produces waves 3 2 1 b a Wind Fuels b Classes of Fuel 2 a gives heat and light energy when burnt Formed from dead plants and animal Energy is stored in food provide stored energy in 5 3 4 1 2 water wind Food fuels plants animals Uses 1 a Move sailing boats c Biomass fuels a Fossil fuels b Types 3 2 Animal waste gas  Natural gas Petroleum  From plants  b wood. biodiesel  15 From garbage  heat   1 Coal . charcoal.petaminda. alcohol.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Potential energy Kinetic energy www.com Cables Pylons Bulb Candle Guitar string Potential energy b a Sun Burning gas Electric heater b a b a Examples a b Released by hot objects c Carried in electric current Released by lighted objects a Released by vibrations Blowing a trumpet b 2 Maximum potential energy (minimum kinetic energy) Maximum potential energy (minimum kinetic energy) 1 Maximum kinetic energy (minimum potential energy) generating station Interchangeble POTENTIAL ENERGY AND KINETIC ENERGY ENERGY : Ability to do work Electrical Energy Heat Energy Light Energy Food Sound Energy Fuels a b c Batteries 2 1 3 4 5 6 Chemical Energy Stored in A D Uranium Plutonium ENERGY FORMS 9 8 Solar Energy Cyclist on top of hill a 7 Kinetic Energy B Produce nuclear energy in form of heat energy to generate electricity in a nuclear plant Potential Energy Stored in objects due to its condition/ position b FORM 1 CHAPTER 6 Stretched bow c Compressed spring Possesed by moving objects Cold water pump down Steam and hot water Steam produced used to rotate turbines to generate electricity.

gas.2) H b Can be replaced naturally or by human Light energy converted into electrical energy using solar cells F RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 1 Solar energy a The Sun b solar cells CONSERVATION OF ENERGY SOURCES 2 G 2 Reduce pollution a c To heat water in homes water heater Energy within the earth 1 5 Use public transport. Convert light energy to electrical energy using solar cells solar cell 2 b a Cane sugar juice can be fermented to alcohol for fuel 1 2 Types d c Coal 1 Solar energy 1 RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPEMENT Bioalcohol plant NONRENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Radioactive substances 2 1 Produce nuclear energy in nuclear reactors to generate electricity Reuse.save petrol Geothermal f e Types b solar cells 1 Prevent wastage 4 3 USING ENERGY EFFICIENTLY 2 Water 1 Biomass fuels d c Switching off lights/ appliances when not using Save cost on paying for energy 2 Ensure enough energy for future 1 Using non-renewable energy c b a Fuel in form of wood. b c Will not last forever a Will be used up b c Cannot electricity in be power station replaced Fuel to generate Fuels for vehicles 2 www. shut refrigerators properly I FORM 1 CHAPTER 6 Power ships.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Garbage burning in incinerator produces heat to generate electricity Biogas plant Plants and animal residues are decomposed in a digester to produce methane gas and alcohol as fuels. satellites E Cannot be used up a Can be replenished 7 6 5 4 3 SOURCES OF ENERGY (2 . animal wastes and garbage. alcohol and biodiesel. Reduce and Recycle materials Use renewable energy sources Use fluorescent lamps (use less energy) Develope more efficient machines and engines Close cooking pots when cooking. heating and electricity a b Natural gas Burnt to produce heat and generate electricity Solar cookers focuses light that produce heat for cooking. submarine.petaminda. car pool .com 1 Petroleum d e Palm oil can be processed into biodiesel fuel Biodiesel plant Incinerator Wood is still less expensive than fossil fuels a Biomass fuels Cannot be replenished 1 Burnt to produce heat for cooking. W av e 1 1 Used potential energy of water to generate electricity in hydro electric power stations Wind 3 2 1 Fuels processed from plants. Use floats that move up and down to generate electricity Propel wind turbines to Clean energy produce source electricity Has lots of kinetic energy Use wisely so that can last longer Took millions of If used up leads to years to form energy crisis (shortage of energy sources) a wind turbine 16 .

Concrete block has more heat MATTER EXPANDS WHEN HEATED c d Solid Expansion b Becomes bigger HEAT/ TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES HEAT Hotness of object Unit: Joule TEMPERATURE Degree of hotness of object Unit: Celcius (oC) or Kelvin(K) Increases when movement of particles increases Cold object has low temperature TEMPERATURE e b d c a Degree of hotness Unit : Degree celcius (oC) or kelvin (K) Called EXPANSION Both strips bend Expanding a Bimetallic strip b a Tells how hot or Hot object cold the object is has high temperature Cold A B Metal B expands faster than metal A A B Two strips of different metals (A and B) joined together Before experiment.com Cooking Drying Fuels Ironing Iron ball can pass through the ring Ice Water level drops due to contraction A B Metal B contracts faster than metal A A hot object has more heat A cold object has less heat a b a a b Drilling Bulb c d e Keeping warm Melting Use s Burning Friction a 2 3 1 Coloured trapped liquid moves down Liquid Contraction Ice 1 Sun: Primary Source Energy b 2 3 Electric heater a ci d Electricity Reactive metal and acid 2 A FORM OF ENERGY 4 HEAT PRODUCTION a 4 Chemical Reaction me ta l b 1 Solid Contraction Acid and base a ci d A B FORM 1 CHAPTER 7 Unit : Joules Same temperature a ba se Iced water d c b a e f Gas Contraction 50oC b Beaker B has b Called CONTRACTION Becomes smaller MATTER CONTRACTS WHEN HEATED Hotness of an object a HEAT c Beaker A Beaker B Volume decreases HEAT (1 .petaminda. 40oC Wooden block 1 kg. when gas in flask expands Depends on Same mass a C HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Material b HEAT FLOW EFFECTS 80oC Beaker A 50oC Beaker B Gas Expansion Water D Concrete block 1 kg. the iron ball just fits the iron ring Iron ball expands.4) E 1 Mass more mass Beaker B has more heat Temperature 2 Bubbles of gas escapes.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Rubbing www. 40oC Beaker A has higher temperature Beaker A has more heat Water level rises when heated due to expansion Liquid Expansion 1 f Volume increases a e 2 Concrete block absorb more heat to to reach 40oC. becomes bigger Iron ball cannot pass through the ring Travels from hot to cold area Ho t 17 .

and downwards in circular motion.Metals b Low conduction rate wax F CONDUCTION Warm air rises 2 Air condtioner placed near ceiling Experiment A b a B C I 2 3 Convection current produced Heater placed near floor Heat flows from hot end to cold end by conduction Colder air sinks Pin A falls first. 3 W ar m ai r rises 1 To vacuum p um p 2 Can flow through vacuum 2 Heat flow without medium cold air 2 Convection current Vacuum (No conduction or convention) Cooler air flows towards sea 5 A convection current is formed in heated water and air. FORM 1 CHAPTER 7 1 Cold air sinks b Hot air rises and escapes from top 1 Ventilation holes at roof BUILDINGS' COOLING/ HEATING SYSTEM a c 4 1 3 Cold air enters heater Convection current produced HEAT (2 . c b 4 2 CONVECTION H 3 Hot fluids moves upwards. HEAT FLOW IN NATURAL PHENOMENA 2 d 1 SEA BREEZE During Daytime e Forms convection current RADIATION Experiments c b Land heats up faster 1 1 Cool air enters from windows near the ground 3 2 W ar m 2 air rises Cooler air flows towards land 4 3 Co ld ai r sinks WARMING OF EARTH BY SUN LAND BREEZE RADIATION During Nighttime Co ol 4 ai r sinks a Smouldering incense stick hot air Experiment To switch Purple stream of water move upwards.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Alco called poor conductor Wood b Substance that allows heat to move through slowly Aluminium 3 Glass 2 3 4 1 a HEAT INSULATOR c 7 Examples 6 5 Plastic Due to temperature difference www. thermometer shows a rise in temperaure. After 10 minutes. then pin B followed by pin C.4) G HEAT FLOW TYPES a Heat flow through fluids (liquids and gases) By circulatory movement of heated fluid.petaminda. Potassium permanganate crystal Heat flows in vacuum by radiation.com From a hot object to cold object hot cold Good conductors a Cork Asbestos Rubber Polystyrene 1 2 High conduction rate b Iron 2 Examples Copper 1 Becomes cold very fast Becomes hot very fast Depends on material d c b a Substance that allows heat to move through easily HEAT CONDUCTOR 2 HEAT FLOW HEAT CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS Warm air rises 1 Metals Bad conductors : Insulators a 1 Heat flow through solids a Heat travels from hot to cold end b c 1 2 Conduction rate 4 3 Non . Land cools down faster 1 Sea warmer than land 18 . cold fluids move downwards.

4) K USES OF HEAT INSULATORS 5 4 heat released WITHOUT 6 b Slow down melting of ice a Trapped air in sawdust prevent heat reaching the ice ice covered by sawdust STAG E ga s (water vapour) water Liquid state liquid Particles vibrate more slower and comes closer Gas loses heat energy to surroundings gas Gaseous state  Solid state  LIQ UID Gaseous state a SUBLIMATION Occurs at any temperature below 100oC (boiling point) c Occurs at surface of water b a WITHOUT BO ILIN G L 4 Ceilings made of soft boards contain air bubbles to prevent heat gain or loss by conduction Keep home warm a Ice used in igloos acts as an insulator to pevent heat loss by conduction. Keep liquids hot or cold a Plastic and glass used in vacuum flask keep liquids hot or cold EVAPORATION 3  Gaseous state EFFECTS OF HEAT ON STATES OF MATTER 2 1 MELTING AND FREEZING water Solid state a b Melting  Liquid state Heat absorbed from surroundings solid 1 e d c c Condensation b a 100 o C BOILING AND CONDENSATION Liquid state b Gaseous state 0oC Particles vibrate faster Particles move freely liquid  Temperature : Freezing point e Particles move at fixed position d c 2 Temperature : Melting point ice 0oC  Liquid state Boiling water Temperature : Boiling point a e d Boiling c Particles vibrate faster Liquid absorbs heat energy Freezing b a Liquid state  Solid state gas Particles move more quicklty and freely liquid solid Particles vibrate slower Heat released to surroundings liquid 19 .com Heating coils / elements heating element at tip of soldering iron a Conduct heat to surroundings b cooling coil of refrigerator Cooking utensils 3 2 Engine coolers / cooling coils Become cold quickly Car radiator plastic Motorcycle fins 4 Thermometer Sublimation CHANGES OF STATE SUMMARY Expand and b contracts easily 1 USES OF HEAT CONDUCTORS wood To handle pots without burning hands a Prevent tables burnt by hot objects a table mat asbestos tile a Made of mercury fine iodine crystals 3 s ubli me Ioine 2 f ume s formed through sublimation mercury M 1 io di ne crystals heated heat absorbed J FORM 1 CHAPTER 7 Handles of Cooking utensils Table mats/ As best os Tiles a Trapped air in fabric prevent heat loss cotton clothe 1 2 3 Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) 1 ammonium chloride 2 3 Keep body warm woolen blanket napthalene (mothballs) Other substances c b HEAT (3 .Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Sublimation Good conductors Made of metals Measure temperature change accurately c b a Heat up food quickly c Made of metals a Good conductors b c heating coils Become hot quickly heating element in iron www.petaminda.

com glass tube 1 b Cook food 2 1 Comfortable life a Temperature rises. mercuy contracts level drops contact Fire alarm a Brass expands more than iron bimetalic strip bends towards contact Brass strip start the alarm expands when heat 1 hot. keep us cool b APPLICATIONS OF HEAT ABSORPTION AND HEAT RELEASE a HEAT (4 . Prevent track buckling Silvered. roller 2 After 15 minutes metal block covered with rough black paper has a lower Dull and dark temperature surface releases 2 2 HEAT ABSORPTION AND HEAT RELEASE gaps allows slabs to expand in hot day. prevent heat escaping Prevent heat escaping 5 Cork Good insulator 1 THERMOMETER BIMETALLIC STRIP b Thermometer Pointer moves when strip curls showing temperature readings metal track Thermos flask keeps water hot for a long time Buildings kept cool by having shiny glass to reflect heat c 4 Vacuum 1 2 GAPS IN RAILWAY TRACKS b a gap allows track to expand in hot weather.Peta Minda Untuk Sains Tingkatan 1 Air conditioning Warmth Hydro 3 Sea & land breezes c d Good conductor 1 Expands rapidly with little heat 2 www. contracts during when cold a fire bimetalic strip curls to show temperature rise or fall.4) buckled track metal bridge 1 Car radiator painted black so that it releases heat faster 3 P O b Prevent bridge from cracking and damaged a Prevent bridge from distorted and slab damange gap allows bridge to expand in hot weather. shiny surface Good 2 insulator Plastic casing 3 Q APPLICATIONS OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION 5 GAPS BETWEEN SLABS IN PAVEMENTS Liquid d Cork support Temperature kept constant longer 3 FORM 1 CHAPTER 7 4 ROLLERS AND GAPS OF STEEL BRIDGES b a N White clothes absorb less heat. mercury expands level rises alarm bell 1 2 Heat flow from sun Mercury Temperature scales 2 iron brass W aves Wind Earth's energy Supports life b a 1 HEAT FLOW BENEFITS 1 Bulb Temperature drops.petaminda. 2 Allows bridge to slide during expansion (radiates) heat faster than white shiny surface After 15 minutes metal block covered with rough black paper has a higher temperature bulb 3 1 SOLVING PROBLEMS USING EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION 3 2 1 Separating Two Stuck G lasses Pull out the top glass after the lower glass expanded a Hot water 1 covered with white shiny paper covered with rough black paper Dull and dark surface absorbs heat faster than white shiny surface 2 Repairing a Dented PingPong Ball The air inside it expands and push the dented part to its original position b   Loosening Tight Bottle Cap a Place a dented ping-pong ball in hot water Dip the lower glass in hot water so that it expands a 1 1 Hot water 2 Immerse the tight bottle cap in hot water to expand it   2 hot metal blocks with same temperature Metal block covered with white shiny paper 1 Metal block covered with rough black paper   Expanded bottle cap lossens   20 . 2 a A good insulator.