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JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW TEMPLATE

North American University


Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership and M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324
Name: Firdevs ISCI

Date: 7/8/2015

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:


Dogan, B., & Almus, K. (2014). School Administrators Use of iPads: Impact of Training
and Attitudes Toward School Use.Computers in the Schools, 31(3), 233250.
doi:10.1080/07380569.2014.932660
INTRODUCTION
Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is the
theoretical background or overarching theme):
1. What is the impact of the training process on school administrators use of iPads for
administrative tasks and personal organization in their professional duties?
2. What is the impact of the training process on school administrators beliefs regarding
how teachers should use iPads in the classroom?
3. Are there any differences in school administrators survey responses based on gender,
age, years of experience in school administration and education, highest degree attained,
school classification, or school size?
Purpose of the research:
The purposes of this study was to determine;

the impact of the training process on school administrators use of iPads for
administrative tasks and personal organization in their professional duties
the impact of the training process school administrators beliefs regarding how
teachers should use iPads in the classroom
whether there are any differences in school administrators survey responses
based on gender, age, years of experience in school administration and education,
highest degree attained, school classification, school size or not.

METHODOLOGY

What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the issue?
Provide information regarding the following:
Participants:
Elementary and secondary school administrators (i.e., principals and assistant principals)
working in one of the largest public charter school systems.
Procedures:
A pre-survey, a training session on the effective use of iPads for administrative
tasks and personal organization, specially designed resources expanding the topics
covered in the training session, on-going support, and a post-survey
The study has two survey instruments as a mechanism to collect data, which were
administered online through the survey submission system hosted at the
universitys server.
The pre-survey was administered at the beginning of the spring 2013 semester and
the post survey was given at the end of the four-month study period
Both instruments were reviewed for face validity by two education faculty
members and then were piloted using a group of school administrators in a local
school district. Surveys were finalized after the feedback on the pilot versions.
Demographic information collected on the pre-survey included age, years of
experience as a school administrator, years of experience in education, highest
degree earned, school classification, and school size.
The post-survey instrument included questions intended to measure self-reported
improvements in certain tasks after completing the training, as well as items
regarding the evaluation of training session and resources provided to school
administrators during the study. In addition, some of the questions of the presurvey were repeated in the post-survey to assess the change in responses during
the study.
Data Collection Methods/Data Source:
Multiple choice and Likert-type scale items.
Data Analysis:
Paired sample t-test data analysis was conducted to understand the differences in the
responses between the pre- and post-surveys. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
test was conducted to see whether there were any differences in school administrators
responses by gender, age, years of experience in school administration and education,
highest degree attained, school classification, and school size. Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used to conduct the data analysis.
RESULTS
Findings or Results (or main points of the article):

In responding to the research questions. The data analysis of this study is categorized into
five main groups:
1. Analysis of demographic and contextual data
2. Impacts of the training process on school administrators use of iPad and iPad
applications
3. Impacts of the training process on school administrators beliefs regarding how
teachers should use iPads in the classroom
4. Differences in participants responses by their demographic and contextual data
(gender, age, years of experience in school administration and education, highest
degree attained, school classification, and school size)
5. Evaluation of training process.
DISCUSSIONS
Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):
The result of the study states that

School administrators in K5 reported their level of iPad skills and knowledge


higher than administrators of K8 and K12 schools.
Administrators in K-12 schools reported significantly lower level of iPad skills
and knowledge than administrators of K-5 and K-8 schools.
The training process had a positive effect on the development of iPad skills and
knowledge of the school administrators.
This study also reported that they would like to see their teachers using iPads for
classroom teaching.
A majority of school administrators found the training process useful (92% with
combined categories of very useful and useful), and they also desired ongoing
training and resources on using iPads for administrative tasks and teaching.
Participants in this study were relatively young administrators (average age of
34.16) with fewer number of years of experience in education (averaged 8.45 total
years of experience in education, and only 2.04 years of experience as a school
administrator) compared with other public schools in the state where the study
was conducted (U.S. Department of Education, 2003). Furthermore, the relatively
young age of participants may be a factor in the positive reception of the training
activities in this study, as it has been previously shown that younger school
administrators use more technology compared with older school administrators
(Afshari et al., 2010; Schiller, 2003).
REFLECTIONS

Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your


school/work):

Based on results of this study, I suggest that there should be more professional
development to administrators on using iPads in education. Especially trainings would be
more significant at this point. These professional developments are supposed to be
mandatory for older administrators and school administrators in K5. In addition, iPads
are useful for educational purposes. School districts should provide IPads for
administrators and government also support school districts financially.

References:

Dogan, B., & Almus, K. (2014). School Administrators Use of iPads: Impact of
Training and Attitudes Toward School Use.Computers in the Schools, 31(3), 233
250. doi:10.1080/07380569.2014.932660

U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Schools and staffing survey (SASS)


[public school principal data file]. Washington, DC: National Center for
Education Statistics. Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/tables/sass0304_001_p1s.asp

Afshari, M., Bakar, K. A., Luan, W. S., & Afshari, M. (2010, May). Principals and
technology use. In A. Kallel, A. H. Hassairi, C. Ai. Bulucea, & N. Mastorakis
(Eds.), Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Educational Technologies,
2010 (pp. 1318). Sousse, Tunisia: WSEAS. Retrieved from
http://www.wseas.us/elibrary/conferences/2010/Tunisia/EDUTE/EDUTE-01.pdf