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Metabolism is the sum of total of catabolic and anabolic biochemical reactions

Catabolism is the process that breaks molecules down releasing their stored energy
Fermentation: the partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of
Aerobic respiration the pathway in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant
along with an organic fuel the most efficient and prevalent
Anabolism process that builds molecules into complex chemical compounds
Carbohydrates fats and then proteins can be broken down to release energy
Glucose is the primary molecules that is used in cellular respiration
Cellular respiration is an exergonic reaction. The release of energy from glucose is
used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP
The reactions of cellular respiration are oxidation reduction redox reactions (electron
In cellular respiration glucose is stripped of its electrons. Each electron that travels
with a proton thereby forming a hydrogen atom
Hydrogen atoms are not being transferred directly to oxygen but passed to electron
carrier like a coenzyme
In a cell NAD+ accepts two electrons and hydrogen atom to form NADH. Note that
NADH has been reduced and therefore has gained energy
Glycolysis harvest chemical energy by oxidizing glucose into two molecules of
pyruvate. ATP is being consumed and produced in this reaction. Two ATP molecules
are consumed and 4 are created so there is a net gain of two ATP
The Pyruvate is oxidized to two acetyl CoA molecules after being transported by a
transport protein into the matrix of mitochondria
The Kreb’s cycle begins after this, the job of breaking down glucose is completed
with Co2 being released as waste. Each turn of the cycle requires one acetyl CoA
and must be completed twice before a glucose is completely oxidized
Production: ( 2 Co2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP) *2 ------ FADH2 and NADH are
electron carrier
The energy is held in the excited electrons in the electron carriers which will be used
in the electron transport chain
Within the inner membrane of the mitochondria is the electron transport chain
where oxidative phosphorylation takes place and is composed of three
transmembrane proteins that work as hydrogen pumps and two carrier molecules
that transport electrons between hydrogen pumps.

This chain is powered by the molecules NADH and FADH2 and as electrons flow
through the chain they lose energy by the electrons is used to power the pumping
of protons across the inner membrane
The high concentration of protons outside the inner membrane as compared to
inside creates an electrochemical gradient that drives the synthesis of ATP
At the end of the electron chain the electrons combine with two hydrogen ions and
oxygen to form water
O2 is the final electron acceptor without O2 no hydrogen ions could be pumped
ATP synthase is the protein where hydrogen atoms flow back down their gradient
through his channel in the transmembrane
Oxidative phosphorylation are these processes