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selective permeability that is, it allows some substances to cross it more easily

than others
amphipathic molecule, meaning it has both a hydrophilic region and a
hydrophobic region, is a phospholipid. Exists as a stable boundary between two
aqueous compartments
fluid mosaic model, the membrane is a fluid structure with a “mosaic” of various
proteins embedded in or attached to a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids
Cholesterol reduces membrane fluidity but also hinders solidification
Integral Proteins penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer
Peripheral proteins are loosely bound to the surface of the membrane
Membrane Proteins can Transport, engage in Enzymatic Activity, Attachment to
the cytoskeleton and Extracellular matrix, Cell-cell recognition, Intercellular joining,
signal transduction
Transport Proteins allow the passage of hydrophilic substances across the
Aquaporin facilitate the passage of water as channel proteins
Passive transport no energy required by a cell to happen
Tonicity is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
Isotonic solution is when the solute concentration is the same as inside the cell so
there’s no net water movement
Hypertonic is when the solute concentration is greater than inside the cell so the
cell loses water
Hypotonic is when the solute concentration is less than inside the cell so the cell
gains water
Osmoregulation is the control of solute concentrations and water balance
Facilitated Diffusion is when transport proteins speed the passive movement of
molecules across the plasma membrane
Ion Channels that open or close in response to a stimulus
Membrane Potential is the voltage across the membrane. Voltage is created in
differences between positive and negative ions across a membrane
Electrochemical Gradient: drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane
Electrogenic pump is a transport protein that generates voltage across a
Proton pump is the main electrogenic pump of plants fungi and bacteria

Cotransport occurs when active transport of a solute indirectly drives transport of
other solutes
Exocytosis is when the cell secretes biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles
with the plasma membrane
Eukaryotic Cells Communicate by direct contact
Endocytosis is when cells take in molecules and particulate new vesicles from the
plasma membrane.
Local Regulators travel short distances as messenger molecules and are secreted
by signaling cells in order to perform tasks like division coordination. In animal cells
it is called paracrine signaling.
Paracrine signaling is when a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by
discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid
Cells receiving signals undergo three processes called…
Reception is the targets cell’s detection of a signaling molecule
Transduction is a step or series of steps that convert the signal to a form that
can bring about a specific cellular response
Response is when a cellular action is triggered
GPCR is a cell surface transmembrane receptor that works with the help of a G
protein that binds the energy rich molecule GTP
Ligands specifically binds to another molecule, and generally causes a receptor
protein to change shape which actives a receptor and allows it to interact with other
cellular molecules
Ligand-gated ion channel act as a gate for ions when the receptor changes the
shape and allow the passage of ions
Protein Kinases is an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a
Second messengers are small nonprotein water soluble molecules or ions that
spread throughout a cell by diffusion
Cyclic AMP is one of the most widely used second messengers and is usually the
activation of protein kinase A