TEST—ENERGETICS
Date: 04-10-2009 Maximum Marks: 50 Time: 1 hour 15 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS:

(a) The questions are given in the following page (b) Be honest (c) Be patient (d) Be confident ALL THE BEST!

1. How are the following represented? a. Enthalpy b. Entropy c. Change in temperature d. Gibbs free energy e. Enthalpy of neutralization f. Hydration energy 2. State Hess’ law. How is it useful in energetics?

(3 marks)

(2 marks)

3. What are exothermic and endothermic reactions? Construct energy diagrams to illustrate these reactions and give one example each. What happens to ΔH values in both types of reactions? (5 marks)

4. What is enthalpy of combustion? How is it represented?

(2 marks)

5. What happens to the entropy under the following conditions? a. Water is boiled b. Sodium metal is exposed to air c. Sugar is dissolved in water d. The piston of a syringe with medicine is pushed inwards e. Sublimation of camphor

(5 marks)

6. The heat of combustion of ammonia and hydrogen are −9.06 kcal and −68.9 kcal respectively. Calculate the heat of formation of ammonia. (5 marks) 7. Heat of combustion of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is −325 kcal and that of acetic acid (CH3COOH) is −209.5 kcal. Calculate the heat evolved in the following reaction. (5 marks)
8. The molar heats of combustion of C2H2(g), graphite and H2(g) are −310.62 kcal, −94.05 kcal

and −68.32 kcal respectively. Calculate the standard heat of formation of C2H2(g). (5 marks)

9. The standard heats of formation at 298 K for CCl4(g), H2O(g), CO2(g) and HCl(g) are −25.5 kcal mol-1, −57.8 kcal mol-1, −94.1 kcal mol-1 and −22.1 kcal mol-1 respectively. Calculate the ΔH 0 at 298 K for the reaction,

CCl4 (g) + 2 H 2O (g) → CO2 (g) + 4 HCl(g)

(7 marks)

10. a. What is lattice energy? b. What happens to lattice energy when entropy increases? Give reason. c. What is enthalpy of solution? How is it related to the lattice energy and the hydration energy? d. Can lattice energy be less than zero? Give reasons to support your answer. (2+3+3+3)