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Title:

Type:

Subject:

Grade Range:

Description:

Duration:

Author(s):

Graduated Difficulty

Lesson Plan

Physical Science

8

45+ Minutes

Katlyn Allmon

Standard(s)/Element(s)

Content Area Standard

S8P3. Students will investigate relationship between force, mass, and the motion of

objects.

c. Demonstrate the effect of simple machines (lever, inclined plane, pulley, wedge, screw,

and wheel and axle) on work.

TAG Standard

Higher Order and Critical Thinking Skills

4. Make and evaluate decisions using criteria

Summary/Overview

The focus of this lesson is to give students the opportunity to assess their own understanding

in regards to the identification of various types of simple machines as well as their impact on

work.

Enduring Understanding(s)

At the end of this lesson the student will understand that

a. Simple machines and compound machines exist in various forms and make work

easier for us.

b. Identify simple and complex machines in everyday life.

Essential Question(s)

How do simple machines maximize the work being done in every day life?

Concept(s) to Maintain

Work is when a force acts through a distance.

The force must cause motion in the direction of the force for work to be done.

Evidence of Learning

What students should know:

a. The distance must be applied in the same direction as the force when work is being

calculated.

b. Work is calculated by multiplying force by distance.

c. A compound or complex machine will have more than one simple machine acting

together.

What students should be able to do:

a. Use the work calculation to solve the amount of output achieved when using a simple

machine.

b. Identify simple and complex machines within everyday items.

c. Explain how the distance and the direction of a force are necessary for calculating

work.

d. Make and evaluate decisions using criteria.

Suggested Vocabulary

Simple machines

Work

Distance

Direction

Compound/ complex machines

Force

Lever, screw, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge

Procedure(s)

Phase 1: Hook

1.

Imagine a house being constructed. What tools are used to accomplish the construction? Without

these tools how would the task be more difficult? Apply these thoughts to small repairs you make

to your bike, skateboard, and other household items. Discuss your ideas within small groups.

2.

Pose the Essential Question. How do simple machines maximize the work being done in

everyday life? Gather student responses.

Explain that today students will learn how to identify simple and complex machines and

appropriately calculate the work.

4. Use the Simple Machines Powerpoint to explain this information.

3.

5.

Explain You will now be given an opportunity to practice what you have learned. Because

everyone learns at a different pace, I will leave it up to you to decide which problem set is most

appropriate for you. To help you make the best choice lets consider a few questions.

Distribute the DECIDE handout and three problem sets. Provide time for students to

examine the three sets and decide which is the most appropriate challenge to complete.

7. Students will complete the problem set of their choice and check their work. Students

who quickly and accurately complete their selected set should try the next level. Students

who quickly and accurately complete Level C should create a more difficult Level D

problems and a corresponding answer sheet. They can trade problem sets with other

Level D students.

8. When all students have had an opportunity to complete and check at least one problem

set, lead the students in a discussion to identify the criteria they used to make their

choice, determine if the first choice was the best choice, and determine the

knowledge/skills needed to move to the next level.

9. Each student will establish a learning goal to improve their own achievement related to

understanding the various types of simple machines and using the W= d X F calculation.

6.

Summarizing Activity

Sum It Up!: Students will draw a simple or compound machine and include it in a

work calculation problem. Students will then explain the steps to solve the problem

and describe how accomplishing work would be more difficult without the help of

simple machines.

Resource(s)

Anchor Text(s):

Technology:

Handouts:

Handout 1:

Handout 2:

Handout 3:

Handout 4:

Handout 5:

Handout 6:

DECIDE

Level A Problem Set

Level B Problem Set

Level C Problem Set

Sum It Up!

Level A-C Keys

What skills or knowledge do I need to identify simple machines and

calculate work?

Examine the levels of difficulty and choose the level that is best for you.

What makes one level harder than the next?

What level do you think will work best for you? Why?

Check your work. Change your level or create a new level if you

completed Level 3.

What was easy about the level you chose?

What was difficult about the level you chose?

What criteria did you use to select the level at which you wanted to

work?

If you are given another opportunity to choose the difficulty of your

class work, will you change the criteria? Why?

Determine if you made a good choice and decide what you need to

know/understand to move to the next level.

Was your choice a good one for you? Why or why not?

What do you need to know/do to move to the next level?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

Establish a goal for improvement.

Handout 2

1.

of 2 meters with a force of 4

Newtons. What is the work

achieved?

W= ________ X ________

W= __________

5.

14 meters with a force of 6

Newtons. What is the work

achieved?

push a lawn mower 10

meters. What is the work

achieved?

W= ________ X ________

W= ________ X ________

W= __________

W= __________

7.

dog food up a 6 m flight of

stairs. How much work did

you do?

9.

W= ________ X ________

W= __________

Handout 3

1.

2. A student pushed a

TV cart a distance of

20 Meters using a

force of

12 Newtons. How

much work did he do

in moving that cart?

4. Tommy does 15

5.

Joules of work to

push the pencil over

1 meter. How much

force did he use?

3.

6. Angela uses a

force of 25 Newtons

to lift her grocery

bag while doing 50

Joules of work. How

far did she lift the

grocery bags?

8. A 900N mountain

9.

climber scales a

100m cliff. How much

work is done by the

mountain climber?

7.

Handout 4

1.

pushing with 115 N

over 15 m or lifting

20 N 10 m?

4.

2.

3.

It takes 25 N of force to

slide the box up the ramp,

how much work has been

exerted?

pulleys, called a block and

tackle, to pull a very heavy

(24000 Newton) HUMVEE

out of a sandpit. In doing

so, they must pull 100

meters of rope through the

pulley system. How much

work do they do in

completing the task?

6.

7.

Six marines use a series of

pulleys, called a block and

tackle, to pull a very heavy

(24000 Newton) HUMVEE

out of a sandpit. In doing

so, they must pull 100

meters of rope through the

pulley system. How much

work does each marine do

in completing the task?

8.

9.

It will take 3000 Joules of

energy to push a large

moving box up a ramp and

into the back of a truck. If

the length of the ramp is 15

meters, how much force

will be required to

accomplish this task?

Handout 5

Sum It Up!

Draw a simple or compound machine below. Incorporate a work problem using the

machine you chose.

need to be taken to solve your work

problem and solve it.

difficulties encountered without the use

of the machine above.

How do simple machines maximize the work being done in everyday life?

Revised April 2009

Handout 6

Answers A

1. Wedge

2. 8 J

3. Screw

4. 84 J

5. Pulley

6. 200 J

7. Inclined Plane

8. 120 J

9. Screw

Answers B

1. Lever, wedge

2. 240 J

3. Lever, wedge

4. 15 N

5. Wheel and axle, screw

6. 2 m

7. Pulley, wedge (hook)

8. 90,000 J

9. Wheel and axle, screw (swivel)

Answer C

1. Pushing with 115 N over 15 m (1725 J)

2. Pulley, lever, lever/ wedge, inclined plane, pulley

3. 500 J

4. Pulley, lever, lever, lever, pulley, lever, pulley, lever

5. 2400000 J

10

6.

7.

8.

9.

400000 J

Pulley, lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, lever

200 N

11

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