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Theory of Machine

1.01

Structure of Mechanism

1. CU TO C CU

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.02

Structure of Mechanism

Piston

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
1. Chi ti
tit my v khu
- Chi ti
tit my (ti
tit my): my hay c cu c th
th th
tho ri ra th
thnh nhi
nhiu b ph
phn
kh
khc nhau,
nhau, b ph
phn khng th
th th
tho ri ra
c na gi l chi ti
tit my

ta
Re

Linkage

ing

Ring
Bolt

ar
Be
in
Pla

g
Rin

Cylindre

Pin

ng
ini

ank
Cr
W

in
Pla

ng
ari
Be

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

er
ash

ng
ari
Be

t
Nu

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.03

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
- Khu:
Khu: trong c cu v my, to
ton b nh
nhng b ph
phn c chuy
chuyn ng tng i
i so vi cc b ph
phn kh
khc gi l khu

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.04

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
2. Th
Thnh ph
phn kh
khp ng v kh
khp ng
- Bc t do (btd
(btd)) ca khu
+ Mt kh
kh nng chuy
chuyn ng c lp i vi mt h quy chi
chiu mt btd
+ Gi
Gia hai khu trong mt ph
phng 3 btd:
btd: Tx,
Tx, Ty, Qz
+ Gi
Gia hai khu trong khng gian 6 btd:
btd: Tx,
Tx, Ty,
Ty, Tz,
Tz, Qx,
Qx, Qy,
Qy, Qz
z

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.05

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
- Ni ng:
ng: to th
thnh c cu, cc khu khng th
th ri nhau m ph
phi
c
lin kt vi nhau theo mt quy cch xc nh no sao cho sau khi ni nhau
cc khu vn cn c kh
kh nng chuy
chuyn ng tng i ni ng cc khu

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

1.06

Nguyen Tan Tien

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
- Th
Thnh ph
phn kh
khp ng,
ng, kh
khp ng
+ Khi ni ng,
ng, cc khu s c th
thnh ph
phn ti
tip xc nhau.
nhau. To
Ton b ch
ch ti
tip
xc gi
gia hai khu gi l mt th
thnh ph
phn kh
khp ng
+ Hai th
thnh ph
phn kh
khp ng trong mt ph
php ni ng hai khu hnh th
thnh
nn mt kh
khp ng
Thnh phn khp ng trn bn l phi

Thnh phn khp ng trn bn l tri

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.07

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
3. Phn lo
loi kh
khp ng
- Theo s btd b hn ch
ch: Kh
Khp ng lo
loi k hn ch
ch k btd hay c k rng bu
buc
z

x
x

Khp loi 2

Khp loi 1

Khp loi 3

Khp loi 4

Khp loi 5

Khp loi ?

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.08

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
- Theo c i
im ti
tip xc
+ Kh
Khp cao:
cao: th
thnh ph
phn kh
khp ng l i
im hay
ng
z
z

x
x

+ Kh
Khp th
thp: th
thnh ph
phn kh
khp ng l mt

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.09

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
4. L
Lc
- thu
thun ti
tin cho vi
vic nghin cu, cc kh
khp
c bi
biu di
din trn nh
nhng hnh
v bng nh

ng
l

quy

c
nh
l

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.10

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
- Cc khu cng
c th
th hi
hin qua cc l
lc n gi
gin gi l l
lc khu

B
A

- Trn l
lc khu ph
phi th
th hi
hin y cc kh
khp ng,
ng, cc kch th
thc c nh
h
hng n chuy
chuyn ng ca khu v chuy
chuyn ng ca c cu
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.11

Structure of Mechanism

1. nh ngh
ngha v kh
khi ni
nim c bn
- Chu
Chui ng:
ng: nhi
nhiu khu ni vi nhau to th
thnh mt chu
chui ng
- Phn lo

i
chu

ng
lo chu
o Chu
o Chu
Chui ng kn
Chui ng h
Chui ng khng gian
o Chu
Chui ng ph
phng o Chu
Oy

4
D

5
E

4
B

Ox
Oz

- C cu: c cu l mt chu
chui ng c mt khu c nh v chuy
chuyn ng theo
quy lu
lut xc nh.
nh. Khu c nh
c gi l gi
gi
- Phn lo
loi c cu: tng t nh i vi chu
chui ng
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

1.12

Nguyen Tan Tien

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
I. nh ngh
ngha
- Bc t do (btd
(btd)) ca c cu l s thng s c lp cn thi
thit xc nh ho
hon
to
ton v tr
tr ca c cu, n cng l s kh
kh nng chuy
chuyn ng tng i c lp
ca c cu
II. Tnh bc t do ca c cu khng gian (tr
trng hp tng qu
qut)

W = W0 R

Wo bc t do tng cng ca cc khu ng nu ri


R s rng buc ca tt c khp ng trong c cu
W bc t do ca c cu

1. S bc t do trong c cu
1 khu ri trong khng gian c 6 btd btd tng cng ca n khu ng l

W0 = 6n
2. S rng bu
buc ch
cha trong c cu
Kh
Khp lo
loi k hn ch
ch k bc t do. Nu gi pk l s kh
khp lo
loi k ch
cha trong c
cu tng cc rng bu
buc do pk kh
khp lo
loi k gy nn l k.pk. Do
5

R = pk k
k =1

Trong thc t, s rng buc thng nh hn gi


gi tr trn
v trong c cu tn ti cc rng buc tr
trng

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.13

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
V d: Xt c cu 4 khu bn l
Oy

Oy

A2

A1

Ox

Ox
Oz

Oz

+ Rng bu
buc tr
trc ti
tip: rng bu
buc gi
gia hai khu do kh
khp ni tr
trc ti
tip gi
gia 2 khu

c gi l rng bu
buc tr
trc ti
tip
+ Rng bu
buc gi
gin ti
tip: nu th
tho kh
khp A, gi
gia khu 1 v 4 c rng bu
buc gi
gin ti
tip
+ Rng bu
buc tr
trng:
ng: ni khu 1 v 4 bng kh
khp A, gi
gia ch
chng c rng bu
buc tr
trc
ti
tip sau
3 rng bu
buc tr
trng.
ng. Rng bu
buc tr
trng ch
ch xy ra kh
khp ng kn ca c cu
5

Gi R0 l s rng buc trng tng s rng buc trong c cu: R = kpk R0


k =1

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.14

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
5

3. Cng th
thc tnh bc t do ca c cu khng gian:
gian: W = 6n kpk R0
k =1

V d: Tnh bc t do ca c cu 4 khu bn l
Oy

S khu ng
S kh
khp lo
loi 5

3
C

S rng bu
buc tr
trng
D

n =3
p5 = 4
R0 = 3

Bc t do ca c cu

W = 6 3 (5 4 3) =1 btd

Ox
Oz

V d: Tnh bc t do ca c cu bn tay my
1

5
E

D
B

S khu ng n = 5
S kh
khp lo
loi 5 p5 = 5
Bc t do ca c cu

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

W = 6 5 (5 5) = 5 btd
Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.15

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
III. Tnh bc t do ca c cu ph
phng
1. S bc t do trong c cu
1 khu ri c 3 btd s btd tng cng ca n khu ng:
ng: W0 = 3n
2. S rng bu
buc ch
cha trong c cu
- kh
khp lo
loi 4 ch
cha 1 rng bu
buc
C cu ph
phng c 2 lai kh
khp
- kh
khp lo
loi 5 ch
cha 2 rng bu
buc
tng s rng bu
buc trong c cu: R =1 p4 + 2 p5 R0
V d: Tnh bc t do ca c cu chm nh hnh v

Oy

2
O
Ox
C

Oz
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.16

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
- C cu to
ton kh
khp lai 5 vi n = 2,
2, p5 = 3
- Ch
Chn h quy chi
chiu gn vi gi
gi
Oy

Oy

2
O

Ox

Ox

C
B

Oz

Oz

- Cha ng kh
khp A, khu 1 c kh
kh nng:
nng:
- ng kh
khp A, khu 1 c kh
kh nng:
nng:
Bc t do ca c cu

W = 3 2 (2 3 1) =1 btd
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.17

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
V d: Tnh bc t do ca c cu hnh bnh hnh
1

3
5

4 D

- C cu to
ton kh
khp lo
loi 5 vi: n=4, k=5, pk=6
- Bc t do ca c cu l

W = 3 4 (2 6) = 0 btd
- Trn th
thc t, c cu ny lm vi
vic
c i
iu ny c g mu thu
thun khng ?

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.18

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
1

1
A

4 D

3
5

3
4 D

- Ch
Ch khu 5 khng c tc dng g trong chuy
chuyn ng ca c cu ABCD
- Nu b khu 5 ra,
ra, c cu tr
tr th
thnh c cu 4 khu bn l vi btd bng 1
- Khi thm khu 5 v 2 kh
khp E, F vo

+ thm khu 5 ( EF )
thm 3 bc t do
thm 1 rng bu
buc
+ thm 2 kh
khp lo
loi 5 ( E, F ) thm 4 rng bu
buc
- Gi r l s rng bu
buc th
tha c trong c cu, btd ca c cu ph
phng

W = 3n (2 p5 + p4 r )
- Trong c cu hnh bnh hnh trn,
trn, r = 1, v
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

W = 3 4 ( 2 6 1) =1 btd
Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.19

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
V d: Tnh bc t do ca c cu cam cn y y con ln
D

3
2

1
B

1
A

n
k
p4
p5
W

=3
= 4, 5
=1
=3
= 3 x 3 (2 x 3 + 1)
1) = 2 btd

Kt qu
qu ny c ng khng ?

- Trong th
thc t, c cu bn ch
ch c 1 btd v chuy
chuyn ng ln ca con ln 2 quanh
kh
khp B khng nh h
hng n chuy
chuyn ng c ch ca c cu nn khng
c
k vo bc t do ca c cu
- Btd thm vo m khng lm nh h
hng n chuy
chuyn ng ca c cu gi l btd
th
tha, k hi
hiu l s
- Tr
Tr li c cu cam trn W = 3 3 ( 2 3 +1 0) 1 =1 btd
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

1.20

Nguyen Tan Tien

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
Tm li, cng th
thc tnh btd
- i vi c cu khng gian

W = 6n kpk R0
k =1

- i vi c cu ph
phng tr
tr c cu chm
W = 3n (2 p5 + p4 r ) s
vi

n : s khu ng
k : lo
pk : s kh
loi kh
khp ng
khp lo
loi k
R0 : s rng bu
buc tr
trng r : s rng bu
buc th
tha s : s btd th
tha

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.21

Structure of Mechanism

2. Bc t do ca c cu
IV. ngh
ngha bc t do Khu dn v khu b dn

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.22

Structure of Mechanism

3. Nh
Nhm tnh nh
I. Nguyn l to th
thnh c cu
Mt c cu c W btd l c cu
c to th
thnh bi W khu dn v nh
nhng nh
nhm
c btd bng zero
W =

+ 014
+2
+3
W
0
L4
123
khau dan nhom co btd=0

II. Nh
Nhm tnh nh
Nh
Nhm tnh nh l nh
nhng nh
nhm cn bng hay chuy
chuyn ng,
ng, c bc t do bng
zero v ph
phi ti gi
gin (tc l khng th
th chia th
thnh nh
nhng nh
nhm nh
nh hn
c
na)
i vi nh
nhm tnh nh to
ton kh
khp th
thp

W = 3n 2 p5 = 0

p5

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.23

Structure of Mechanism

3. Nh
Nhm tnh nh
III. Nguyn tc tch nh
nhm tnh nh
Khi tch nh

m
t

nh

nh ph
nh
phi theo nguyn tc sau
+ Ch
Chn tr
trc khu dn v gi
gi
+ Sau khi tch nh
nhm, ph
phn cn li ph
phi l 1 c cu ho
hon ch
chnh ho
hoc khu dn
+ Tch nh
nhng nh
nhm xa khu dn tr
trc ri dn n nh
nhng nh
nhm gn hn
+ Khi tch nh
nhm, th
th tch nh
nhng nh
nhm n gi
gin tr
trc, nh
nhm ph
phc tp sau
V d: Tch nh
nhm tnh nh c cu ng c diezen,
diezen, c cu bm oxy
D 4

5
2

C
1

E
G

2
1

6
B
1

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

Nguyen Tan Tien

1.24

Structure of Mechanism

3. Nh
Nhm tnh nh
III. Nguyn tc tch nh
nhm tnh nh
5

D 4

D 4

G
2
1

2
1

6
I

G
2

2
1

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

1
Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.25

Structure of Mechanism

3. Nh
Nhm tnh nh
III. Nguyn tc tch nh
nhm tnh nh
2
1

3
4

A
F

A
F

F
5

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Theory of Machine

1.26

Nguyen Tan Tien

Structure of Mechanism

4. Thay th
th kh
khp cao bng kh
khp th
thp
- Trong c cu ph
phng,
ng, th
thng c kh
khp cao lo
loi 4, tch th
thnh nh
nhng nh
nhm
tnh nh nh nh
nhng c cu ph
phng to
ton kh
khp th
thp ph
phi thay th
th cc kh
khp
cao th
thnh nh
nhng kh
khp th
thp nhng vn m bo
c chuy
chuyn ng ca c cu

W = 3 2 (1 + 2 2) = 1 btd

W = 3 3 (2 4) = 1 btd

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien

Theory of Machine

1.27

Structure of Mechanism

4. Thay th
th kh
khp cao bng kh
khp th
thp
- Thay th
th kh
khp cao bng kh
khp th
thp ph
phi m bo hai i
iu ki
kin
+ bc t do ca c cu khng i
+ quy lu
lut chuy
chuyn ng khng i
- Nguyn tc: dng 1 khu hai kh
khp bn l v t cc bn l ti tm cong ca cc
th
thnh ph
phn kh
khp cao ti i
im ti
tip xc
- V d: Thay th
th kh
khp cao bng kh
khp th
thp c cu cam cn lc y bng
B
1

1
O1

O2

O1

O2

- S thay th
th kh
khp cao bng kh
khp th
thp khng ph
phi ch
ch xem xt nh
nhm tnh nh
m vi
vic phn tch ng hc c cu thay th
th cho bi
bit c v nh tnh cng nh
nh l
lng ca c cu thay th
th ti v tr
tr ang xem xt
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department

Nguyen Tan Tien