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13 RANDOM WALKS AND MORE ABOUT DATA VISUALIZATION ................. 179
13.1 The Drunkards Walk ...................................................................... 179
13.2 Biased Random Walks .................................................................... 186
13.3 Treacherous Fields .......................................................................... 191
14 MONTE CARLO SIMULATION .................................................................. 193
14.1 Pascals Problem ............................................................................. 194
14.2 Pass or Dont Pass? ......................................................................... 195
14.3 Using Table Lookup to Improve Performance ................................... 199
14.4 Finding ........................................................................................ 200
14.5 Some Closing Remarks About Simulation Models ............................ 204
15 UNDERSTANDING EXPERIMENTAL DATA .............................................. 207
15.1 The Behavior of Springs .................................................................. 207
15.1.1 Using Linear Regression to Find a Fit ....................................... 210
15.2 The Behavior of Projectiles .............................................................. 214
15.2.1 Coefficient of Determination ..................................................... 216
15.2.2 Using a Computational Model ................................................... 217
15.3 Fitting Exponentially Distributed Data ............................................ 218
15.4 When Theory Is Missing .................................................................. 221
16 LIES, DAMNED LIES, AND STATISTICS .................................................. 222
16.1 Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO) ...................................................... 222
16.2 Pictures Can Be Deceiving .............................................................. 223
16.3 Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc ............................................................... 225
16.4 Statistical Measures Dont Tell the Whole Story ............................... 226
16.5 Sampling Bias................................................................................. 228
16.6 Context Matters .............................................................................. 229
16.7 Beware of Extrapolation .................................................................. 229
16.8 The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy ...................................................... 230
16.9 Percentages Can Confuse ................................................................ 232
16.10 Just Beware .................................................................................. 233
17 KNAPSACK AND GRAPH OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS .............................. 234
17.1 Knapsack Problems ........................................................................ 234
17.1.1 Greedy Algorithms .................................................................... 235
17.1.2 An Optimal Solution to the 0/1 Knapsack Problem ................... 238