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A Wetpaint Site Signed in: Jadhavgaurav( Sign

A Wetpaint Site Signed in: Jadhavgaurav( Sign

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Vitamins

VITAMIN B1 THIAMINE Overview Vital to normal functioning of the nervous system… Benefits Keeps normal workings of nervous system… Natural Sources Baked Potato, Beef kidney/liver… How to Use The best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you have liver or kidney disease…

Deficiency Fatigue, depression, decreased mental functioning… Overdose Hypersensitive reactions resembling anaphylactic shock… Side Effects Wheezing - Obtain emergency treatment immediately… Interactions Antibiotics - Decreases thiamine levels…

Overview: Vitamin B-1, otherwise known as thiamine, is necessary for most every cellular reaction in the body as a participant in an enzyme system known as thiamin pyrophosphate. It is vital to normal functioning of the nervous system and metabolism. It can be found in meat, whole grains, fish, and nuts. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Maintains health of mucous membranes Keeps normal workings of nervous system, heart, and muscles Helps treat herpes zoster and beriberi Supports normal growth and development Restores deficiencies caused by alcoholism, cirrhosis, overactive thyroid, infection, breastfeeding, absorption diseases, pregnancy, prolonged diarrhea, and burns Reduction of depression, fatigue, and motion sickness Potential improvement in appetite and mental alertness The Following May Benefit from this Vitamin: Alcohol or other substance abusers by accelerating metabolism Those with poor nutritional dietary intake Age greater than 55 years old Women who are breastfeeding or pregnant Recent surgery patients Those with liver disease, overactive thyroid, or prolonged diarrhea Where This Vitamin is Found: Baked Potato Beef kidney/liver Brewer's yeast Flour; rye and whole grain Garbanzo beans (chickpeas), dried Ham

Kidney beans, dried Navy beans, dried Orange juice Oranges Oysters Peanuts Peas Raisins Rice, brown and raw Wheat germ Whole-grain products How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 1.2 mg Women: 1.1 mg Pregnancy: 1.4 mg Lactation: 1.5 mg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Liver or kidney disease. Over 55: Not overly necessary. Pregnancy: Keep doses within DRI. Breastfeeding: Keep doses within DRI. Storage: Out of direct light and away from children in a cool, dry place. Heat/moisture may change effectiveness. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include fatigue, depression, decreased mental functioning, muscle cramps, nausea, heart enlargement, and eventually beriberi. Alcoholics are at increased risk of a deficiency.

Overdose: Signs of Overdose: Hypersensitive reactions resembling anaphylactic shock Drowsiness Side Effects: Reaction or effect: What to do: Skin rash/itch Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Swelling of face Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Wheezing Obtain emergency treatment immediately. Interactions: Interacts with: Combined effect: Antibiotics: Decreases thiamine levels Muscle relaxers during surgery: Excessive muscle relaxation. Oral contraceptives: Decreases thiamine levels Werknickes encephalopathy treatment: Before taking glucose, take thiamine.

VITAMIN B2 RIBOFLAVIN Overview Essential to energy generation, nerve development... Benefits Keeps healthy mucous membranes linings... Natural Sources Beef liver, dairy products... How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you are pregnant... Deficiency Fatigue, red, swollen, cracked mouth and tongue... Overdose Itching, numbness, a burning sensation... Side Effects

Yellow urine (in large doses), No needed action... Interactions Antidepressants (tricyclic) - faReduces B-2 efficacy...

Overview: Vitamin B-2, otherwise known as riboflavin, is readily absorbed from foods, such as meat, dairy products, and fortified grains. This vitamin is essential to energy generation, nerve development, blood cell development, and the regulation of certain hormones. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Releasing food energy Normal growth and development Keeps healthy mucous membranes linings together with vitamin A Keeps healthy brain and nervous system, skin, hair, and blood cells Essential for iron, pyridoxine, and niacin functions Could increase growth of body during development stages Potential treatment for cheilitis The following may benefit from this supplement: People with needed nutritional supplements Pregnant or breastfeeding women Substance abusers People with excess stress or who have undergone recent surgery Hyperthyroidism sufferers Participants in vigorous physical activity Where This Vitamin is Found: Bananas Beef liver Dairy products Eggs Enriched breads Fortified cereals Ham Mixed vegetables Pork Tuna Wheat germ How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet.

Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 1.3 mg Women: 1.1 mg Pregnancy: 1.4 mg Lactation: 1.6 mg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Are or planning to be pregnant. Over 55: Increased need for riboflavin. Pregnancy: Keep within DRI. Breastfeeding: Keep within DRI. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include red, swollen, cracked mouth and tongue; fatigue; depression; anemia; and greasy, scaly skin. The formation of cataracts may be a result of this vitamin deficiency. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: None expected in individuals with normal kidney functioning. However, in rare cases, symptoms may be itching, numbness, a burning sensation, or light sensitivity. Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Yellow urine (in large doses) : No needed action. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Antidepressants (tricyclic) : Reduces B-2 efficacy. Phenothiazines : Reduces B-2 efficacy. Probenecid : Reduces B-2 efficacy. Alcohol/Tobacco products : Reduces B-2 efficacy.

VITAMIN B3 NIACIN Overview Creates enzymes that are essential to metabolic cell activity… Benefits Decreases cholesterol and triglycerides in blood… Natural Sources Beef liver, Brewer’s yeast… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you are diabetes… Deficiency Dermatitis on the hands and face, weakness… Overdose Body flush, nausea, diarrhea, weakness… Side Effects Abdominal pain, urine darkening – Discontinue… Interactions Antidiabetics - Reduction in antidiabetic effect…

Overview: Vitamin B-3, otherwise known as niacin, acts like other B vitamins to create enzymes that are essential to metabolic cell activity, synthesize hormones, repair genetic material, and maintain normal functioning of the nervous system. Great sources of this vitamin may be found in meat, fish, and whole grains. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: May treat pellagra Decreases cholesterol and triglycerides in blood Large doses dilate blood vessels Handles ear ringing and dizziness Essential for genetic material repair Potential reduction in heart attacks, depression, and migraine headaches

Poor digestion could be improved The following may benefit from this supplement: Anyone with poor dietary intake Pregnant or breastfeeding women Substance abusers Severe burn or injury patients Infants with congenital metabolic disorders Where This Vitamin is Found: Beef liver Brewer’s yeast Chicken, white meat Dried beans/peas Fortified cereals Halibut Peanut butter Peanuts Pork/ham Potatoes Salmon Soybeans Swordfish Tuna Turkey How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 16 mg Women: 14 mg Pregnancy: 18 mg Lactation: 17 mg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Diabetes Gout Gallbladder or liver disease Arterial bleeding Glaucoma

Over 55: Individualized doses recommended. Pregnancy: Do not use. Fetus may be at risk. Breastfeeding: Always consult doctor during lactation. Keep within DRI. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include dermatitis on the hands and face, weakness, loss of appetite, sore mouth, diarrhea, anxiety, depression, and dementia. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: Signs of an overdose may include body flush, nausea, diarrhea, weakness, lightheadedness, headache, fainting, high blood sugar, high uric acid, heart-rhythm disturbances, and jaundice. Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Abdominal pain : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Urine Darkening : No action needed. Diarrhea : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Headache : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Faintness : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Feeling hot : No action needed. Jaundice : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Dry Skin : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Antidiabetics : Reduction in antidiabetic effect. Beta-adrenergic blockers : Incredibly low blood pressures. Chenodiol : Reduction in chenodiol effect. Guanethidine : Raises guanethidine effect. Isoniazid : Reduction in niacin effect. Mecamylamine : Incredible reduction in blood pressure. Pargyline : Incredible reduction in blood pressure. Ursodiol : Reduction in ursodiol effect. Tobacco : Reduction in niacin effect. Alcohol : Incredible reduction in blood pressure.

VITAMIN B5 PANTOTHENIC ACID Overview Coenzyme involved in energy metabolism of… Benefits May relieve stress and fatigue... Natural Sources Avocados, Bananas, Blue cheese… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you are hemophilia… Deficiency Excessive fatigue, sleep disturbances, loss of… Side Effects Diarrhea – decrease dose – refer to your doctor… Interactions Tobacco - Absorbs less of vitamin…

Overview: Vitamin B-5, otherwise known as pantothenic acid, is a coenzyme involved in energy metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Great sources of this vitamin include eggs, nuts, and whole-wheat products. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Helps normal growth and development Helps release food energy Could hasten healing of wounds in animals May relieve stress May lessen fatigue The following may benefit most from this supplement: Those with increased nutritional needs Pregnant or breastfeeding women

Substance abusers Those under prolonged stress Those having undergone recent surgery People with vigorous physical activity levels Where This Vitamin is Found: Avocados Bananas Blue cheese Broccoli Chicken Collard greens Eggs Lentils Liver Lobster Meats, all kinds Milk Oranges Peanut butter Peanuts Peas Soybeans Sunflower seeds Wheat germ Whole-grain products How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 5 mg Women: 5 mg Pregnancy: 5 mg Lactation: 5 mg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Hemophilia Over 55: No problems should occur.

Pregnancy: Keep within DRI. Always consult doctor during pregnancy. Breastfeeding: Keep within DRI. Always consult doctor during lactation. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include excessive fatigue, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, nausea or dermatitis. However, these symptoms are rare and if they occur, they may indicate other B vitamin deficiencies. Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Diarrhea : Decrease dose. Refer to your doctor soon. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Levodopa : Vitamin may reduce effect of medicine. Tobacco : Absorbs less of vitamin.

Vitamin and Mineral Chart
Fat Soluble Vitamins can be stored in the body and need not be consumed daily. While it is difficult to "overdose" on them from ordinary sources, consuming mega doses of fat soluble vitamins, especially A and D, can lead to a dangerous buildup in the body. Abbreviations: IU=International Units; mg=milligrams; mcg=micrograms.

Vitamin/Mineral Sources Indication Efficacy
Vitamin A Retinol Men: 3 000 IU Women: 2 700 IU Liver, fortified Milk (Retinol form - see below for Carotene sources.) Essential for eyes, skin and the proper function of the immune system. Helps maintain hair, bones and teeth. Deficiency: Night blindness; reduced hair growth in children; loss of apetite; dry, rough skin; lowered resistance to infection; dry eyes.

Claims

Overdose: Headaches; blurred vision; fatigue; diarrhea; irregular periods; joint and bone pain; dry, cracked skin; rashes; loss of hair; vomiting, liver damage. The antioxidant properties of this nutrient may be a factor in reducing the risk of certain forms of cancer.

Beta Carotene (Pro-Vitamin A) (See Vitamin A)

Carrots, Squash, Broccoli, Green Leafy Vegetables

Antioxidant. Converted to Vitamin A in the body. (See Vitamin A)

Vitamin D Men: 100 IU Women: 100 IU

Egg Yolk, Milk, Exposure to sun enables body to make its own Vitamin D.

Deficiency: Rickets in children; bone softening in adults; Helps build and osteoporosis. maintain teeth and bones. Overdose: Enhances Calcium calcium deposits in absorption. organs; fragile bones; renal and cardiovascular damage. Antioxidant. Helps form red blood cells, muscles and other tissues. Preserves fatty Deficiency: Rare, seen primarily in premature or low birth weight babies The antioxidant properties of this nutrient may be a factor in

Vitamin E Men: 9-10 mg Women: 6-7 mg

Corn or Cottonseed Oil, Butter, Brown Rice, Soybean Oil, Vegetable oils

such as Corn, Cottonseed or acids. Soybean, Nuts, Wheat Germ.

or children who do not absorb fat reducing the properly. risk of certain Causes nerve forms of abnormalities. cancer. Overdose: Unknown.

Green Vegetables, Vitamin K Liver, also None established. made by Estimated at 0.03 mcg/kg intestinal bacteria.

Needed for normal blood clotting.

Deficiency: Defective blood coagulation. Overdose: Jaundice in infants.

VITAMIN B6 PYRIDOXINE Overview Affect the body’s use of protein, carbohydrates… Benefits Promotes healthy skin, hair, and normal red… Natural Sources Potatoes, Salmon, Shrimp… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Stress resulting from illness, burns… Deficiency Weakness, mental confusion, irritability, nervousness… Side Effects Depression when taking with oral contraceptives… Interactions Tobacco/alcohol - Reduces vitamin absorption rates…

Overview: Vitamin B-6, otherwise known as pyridoxine, performs as a coenzyme to carry out metabolic processes that affect the body’s use of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. It helps to convert tryptophan to niacin, and may be found in meat, fish, eggs, milk, and whole grain foods. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Promotes healthy cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems Supports healthy skin, hair, and normal red-blood-cell formation Assists in production of food energy Possible anemia treatment Treatment of cycloserine and isoniazid poisoning Keeps normal homocysteine levels Functions as a tranquilizer Important for Healthy nerve and muscle functioning Blood cholesterol may decrease Inflammation of arthritis and carpal-tunnel syndrome may be reduced Reduction of PMS symptoms May reduce asthma symptoms Increases levels of serotonin to ease sleep The following people may benefit from taking this supplement: Those with increased nutritional needs Pregnant or breastfeeding women Substance abusers Long periods of excess stress Estrogen and oral contraceptive users Hyperthyroidism sufferers Those with high homocysteine levels Where This Vitamin is Found: Avocados Bananas Beef liver Chicken Fortified cereals Ground beef Ham Hazelnuts (filberts) Lentils Potatoes Salmon Shrimp Soybeans Sunflower seeds

Tuna Wheat germ How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 1.3 mg Men (Over 50): 1.7 mg Women: 1.3 mg Women (Over 50): 1.5 mg Pregnancy: 1.9 mg Lactation: 2.0 mg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Stress resulting from illness, burns, accident, or recent surgery Intestinal problems Liver disease Overactive thyroid Sickle-cell disease Over 55: A marginal deficiency of this vitamin is more likely to occur. Pregnancy: Keep dosage within DRI. Avoid large doses. May cause pyridoxine dependency syndrome in child. Breastfeeding: Large doses may cause dependency in child. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include weakness, mental confusion, irritability, nervousness, inability to sleep, hyperactivity, anemia, skin lesions, tongue discoloration, and kidney stones. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: Sustained periods of large doses may cause irreversible nerve damage. The excess of

vitamin B-6 may also lead to kidney stone formation. Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Depression when taking with oral contraceptives : Stop use and consult your doctor. Large doses may cause dependency : Keep doses within DRI. Large doses for several months severe sensory neuropathy : Stop use and consult doctor immediately. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Estrogen or oral contraceptives : Reduces vitamin absorption rates. Tobacco/alcohol : Reduces vitamin absorption rates. Phenytoin : Large doses affect medicine absorption. Levodopa : Keeps medicine from controlling Parkinson’s symptoms. Chloramphenicol, cycloserine, ethionamide, hydralazine, isoniazid, penicillamine, and immunosuppressants : Excretion of vitamin increased and may cause anemia or peripheral neuritis.

VITAMIN B9 FOLIC ACID/FOLATE Overview Important to reproduction of all body cells… Benefits Promotes a healthy pregnancy… Natural Sources Potatoes, Salmon, Shrimp… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Anemia, a need for methotrexate… Deficiency Anemia, mood disorders and gastrointestinal disorders… Side Effects Diarrhea - Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately… Interactions Methotrexate - Folic acid efficacy reduced…

Overview: Vitamin B-9, otherwise known as folic acid, serves as a coenzyme during the creation of DNA. This vitamin is also very important to the growth and reproduction of all body cells, including red blood cells. Great food sources of vitamin B-9 include liver and dark green leafy vegetables. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Formation of red blood cells Creation of genetic material Promotes a healthy pregnancy by regulating the nervous system development of the fetus Helps treat anemic patients resulting from folic acid deficiency Functions to metabolize proteins Cervical dysplasia may be reduced The Following People May Benefit from the Consumption of This Vitamin: Those with increased nutritional needs Pregnant or breastfeeding women or those planning to become pregnant Oral contraceptive users Substance abusers Those who have undergone partial removal of the gastrointestinal tract Where This Vitamin is Found: Asparagus Avocados Bananas Beans Beets Brewer’s yeast Brussels sprouts Cabbage Calf liver Cantaloupe Citrus fruits/juices Endive Fortified grain products Garbanzo beans (chickpeas) Green, leafy vegetables Lentils Sprouts Wheat germ How to Use:

Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: Available as tablet. Swallow whole with a full glass of liquid without chewing or crushing. Take with or 1 to 1-1/2 hours after meals unless otherwise directed by your doctor. Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 400 mg Women: 400 mg Pregnancy: 600 mg Lactation: 500 mg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Anemia Taking methotrexate Over 55: Not overly necessary. Pregnancy: Always consult doctor during pregnancy. Keep within DRI. Breastfeeding: Always consult doctor during lactation. Keep within DRI. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include anemia, mood disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. Neural tube defects may occur when a deficiency occurs during pregnancy. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: In large doses, the following may occur: Loss of appetite Nausea Flatulence Abdominal distension May produce folacin crystals in kidney Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do

Urine is bright-yellow : No action necessary. Diarrhea : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Fever : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Shortness of breath resulting from anemia : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Skin rash : Discontinue. Consult doctor soon. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Analgesics : Folic acid efficacy reduced. Antacids : Folic acid efficacy reduced. Antibiotics : Low false results for serum folic acid test may occur. Anticonvulsants : Folic acid and anticonvulsant efficacy reduced. Chloramphenicol : Folic-acid deficiency occurs. Cortisone drugs : Folic acid efficacy reduced. Epoetin : Folic acid efficacy reduced. Methotrexate : Folic acid efficacy reduced. Oral contraceptives : May need increased consumption of folic acid. Phenytoin : Phenytoin effect reduced. Avoid taking folic acid if you are a patient taking phenytoin. Pyrimethamine : Folic acid and pyrimethamine efficacy reduced. Keep away from combination. Quinine : Folic acid efficacy reduced. Sulfa drugs : Effect of folic acid decreased. Triamterene : Effect of folic acid decreased. Trimethoprim : Effect of folic acid decreased.

VITAMIN B12 CYANOCOBALAMINE Overview Performs as a coenzyme for the creation of DNA… Benefits Promotes growth and cell development… Natural Sources Dairy products, Eggs, Flounder… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you have anemia…

Deficiency Nausea, loss of appetite, sore mouth… Side Effects Diarrhea - Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately… Interactions Tobacco/Alcohol - Reduces the absorption of vitamin…

Overview: Vitamin B-12, otherwise known as cyanocobalamin, performs as a coenzyme for the creation of DNA material. It also promotes growth and cell development and is important to fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. Although vitamin B-12 is not found in plant foods, good sources of this supplement include meats, fish, eggs, and dairy products. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Growth and development of nerve, skin, hair, and blood cells Produces genetic material Metabolizes amino and fatty acids Works to release food energy Helps treat Alzheimer’s disease May help sufferers of nervous disorders Could improve immune system May see increase in energy and memory The Following May Benefit from the Consumption of This Vitamin: Vegans Those with increased nutritional needs Substance abusers Those with chronic illnesses or recently undergone surgery, especially removal of portions of gastrointestinal tract Burn and recently injured patients Those with malignancies of the pancreas or bowels Where This Vitamin is Found: Beef Beef liver Blue cheese Clams Dairy products Eggs Flounder Herring Liverwurst

Mackerel Milk Oysters Sardines Snapper Swiss cheese How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 2.4 mcg Women: 2.4 mcg Pregnancy: 2.6 mcg Lactation: 2.8 mcg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Anemia. Over 55: Those with achiorhydria may absorb less. Pregnancy: Keep doses within DRI. Breastfeeding: Keep doses within DRI. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite, sore mouth, diarrhea, abnormal gait, loss of sensation in hands and feet, confusion, memory loss, and depression. Harmful anemia may be a result of this deficiency. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: When taken in conjunction with large doses of vitamin C, nosebleeds, ear bleeding, or dry mouth may occur.

Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Diarrhea : Stop use and call doctor. Skin itching : Obtain emergency treatment immediately Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Tobacco/Alcohol : Reduces the absorption of vitamin. Antibiotics : False low test results for vitamin may result. Chloramphenicol : If vitamin is being used to treat anemia, response may be hindered. Cholestyramine : Reduces the absorption of vitamin. Colchicine : Reduces the absorption of vitamin. Epoetin : Reduces the absorption of vitamin. Folic acid : Vitamin deficiency masked in large doses. Neomycin (oral forms) : Reduces the absorption of vitamin. Potassium (extended-release forms) : Reduces the absorption of vitamin. VITAMIN C ASCORBIC ACID Overview Participates in oxidation-reduction reactions... Benefits May prevent or reduce symptoms of the common cold & infections... Natural Sources Orange juice, lemons, guave, tangerines... How to Use Oral tablets, time release formulas, orange juice... Cautions Consult your doctor if you have kidney stones... Deficiency Muscle weakness, swollen gums, loss of teeth, tiredness... Overdose Flushed face, headache, increased urination, lower abdominal cramps... Side Effects Headache - Call Doctor Immediately... Interactions

Tobacco decreases absorption...

Overview: Vitamin C is essential for the manufacturing of collagen, necessary for tissue repair. It is needed for metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine, folic acid, iron. Vitamin C is also vital for healthy immune and nervous systems because it strengthens blood vessels, as it is an antioxidant that participates in oxidation-reduction reactions. Also, it is required for utilizing carbohydrates and synthesizing fats and proteins. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Vitamin C is one of the most crucial vitamins in your body for the very fact that plays a large role in hundreds of the body’s functions. The most plentiful tissue in the body is collagen, which is a connective tissue. The primary role of Vitamin C is to help this connective tissue. Because collagen is the defense mechanism against disease and infection, and because Vitamin C helps build collagen, it makes sense that it is also a remedy for scurvy by contributes to hemoglobin production. It promotes the production of red-blood-cell in bone marrow. Ascorbic Acid also supports healthy capillaries, gums, teeth, and even helps heal wounds, burns, and broken tissues. It contributes to hemoglobin and red-blood-cell production in bone marrow while even preventing blood clots. The list goes on. It helps heal urinary-tract infections, and helps treat anemia. Another large benefit of this vitamin is the fact that it plays a large role in the production of antibodies. When the immune system is being overworked, for example when a cold strikes or when your body is wounded, Vitamin C comes in to play by beefing up the white blood cell count and function. It also functions as a promoter of interferon, a compound that fights cancer. An example of this would be blocking production of nitrosamines which are thought to be carcinogenic Other functions of Vitamin C include: Tthe promotion of iron absorption and calcium absorption. Aids adrenal gland function Reduces free-radical production May reduce cholesterol Potential protection against heart disease May prevent allergies May reduce symptoms of arthritis, skin ulcers, allergic reactions Possible relief of herpes infections of eyes and genitals May prevent periodontal disease May reduce toxic effect of alcohol and drugs May promote healing of bed sores May retard aging

May improve male fertility Additional Vitamin C may be required for: Anyone with inadequate caloric or nutritional dietary intake. People receiving kidney dialysis. People over 55 years of age. Those with recent burns or injuries. Users of alcohol or tobacco Those with a chronic illness, such as hyperthyroidism, AIDS, cold exposure, acute illness with fever, or tuberculosis. People with infection. Those under prolonged periods of stress. Post surgery patients. Those who are continually exposed to toxins. Where This Vitamin is Found: Fruits Grapefruit Guava Lemons Mangos Orange juice Tomatoes Strawberries Vegetables Black currants Broccoli Oranges Brussels sprouts Cabbage Peppers, sweet and hot Collards Potatoes Green peppers Kale Papayas Rose hips Spinach Tangerines Watercress How to Use: Consume fresh fruits lightly cooked or raw. Steaming vegetables may reduce Vitamin C concentration. Leaving food exposed to light and air may decease concentration. Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet.

Tablets: taking 1.5 hours after a meal is generally recommended. Effervescent is also available. Injectable forms are available from your doctor. Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Gout Kidney stones Sickle-cell anemia Iron storage disease Over 55: Intake of specific vitamins may decrease as you age, therefore extra supplementation may be necessary. Side effects are more frequent. Pregnancy: Do not take doses greater than RDA. Choose a prenatal multivitamin with Vitamin C because bone development, teeth, and tissue formation of the fetus are developing. Megadoses during pregnancy may result in deficiency symptoms after birth. Breastfeeding: Continue prenatal vitamins. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Prolonged healing of wounds Easy bruising Frequent infections Prolonged colds Scurvy: weak muscles, fatigue, loss of teeth, bleeding gums, depression, bleeding beneath the skin Swollen or painful joints Nosebleeds Anemia: tired, paleness Overdose: Signs of Overdose: Overdose of oral forms: headache, increased urination, flushed face, nausea or vomiting, lower abdominal cramps, diarrhea. May feel like the flu or common cold. Injectable forms may result in dizziness or fainting. : Discontinue vitamin and consult doctor immediately. Dial 911 or 0 or Poison Control Center immediately.

Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Anemia : Discontinue. Call doctor immediately. Flushed face : Discontinue. Call doctor when convenient. Headache : Discontinue. Call doctor when convenient. Increased frequency of urination : Discontinue. Call doctor when convenient. Lower abdominal cramps : Seek emergency treatment Mild diarrhea : Decrease dose. Call doctor when convenient. Nausea or vomiting : Seek emergency treatment. Rebound scurvy-like symptoms : Call doctor when convenient If you decide to reduce dose, do so gradually to prevent deficiency symptoms. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Aminosalicylic acid (PAS for tuberculosis) : Increases chance of formation of drug crystals in urine. Large doses of vitamin C must be taken to produce this effect. Anticholinergics : Decreases anticholinergic effect. Anticoagulants (oral) : Decreases anticoagulant effect Aspirin : Decreases vitamin-C effect. Barbiturates : Decreases vitamin-C effect. Increases barbiturate effect. Calcium : Assists in absorption of calcium. Copper : Decreases absorption of copper. Large doses of vitamin C must be taken to produce this effect. Iron supplements : Increases iron effect. Quinidine : Decreases quinidine effect. Salicylates : Decreases vitamin-C effect Sulfa drugs : Decreases vitamin-C effect. May cause kidney stones. Tetracyclines : Decreases vitamin-C effect. Tobacco/Alcohol : Decrease absorption of vitamin.

VITAMIN D CHOLECALCIFEROL/SUNSHINE VITAMIN Overview Used to absorb calcium and phosphorus to create bone… Benefits Promotes normal cell growth and maturation… Natural Sources

Sunlight, Tuna, Vitamin-D-fortified milk… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you have anemia… Deficiency Bone pain and tenderness and muscle weakness… Side Effects Headache - Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately… Interactions Antacids with magnesium - People with kidney failure should…

Overview: Vitamin D, otherwise known as the sunshine vitamin, is significant in normal body growth and development. In particularly, vitamin D is used to absorb calcium and phosphorus to create bone. Great sources of this supplement include fortified milk, oily fish, liver, and eggs. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Absorbs calcium and phosphorus to aid in the development of bones and teeth Promotes normal cell growth and maturation Prevents rickets Maintains a healthy nervous and immune system Treats low blood calcium with patients with kidney disease Potential reduction in breast and colon cancer Aging symptoms may be treated The Following May Benefit from Taking Vitamin D: Kids living in places with little sunshine Those who need additional nutritional intake People over 55 who receive little sunshine, such as those in nursing homes Pregnant or breastfeeding women Substance abusers Those under prolonged stress Those with partially removed intestinal tracts Dark-skinned individuals Babies who are breastfed Vegan vegetarians Cystic fibrosis patients

Where This Vitamin is Found: Cod-liver oil Egg substitutes Halibut-liver oil Herring Mackerel Salmon Sardines Sunlight Tuna Vitamin-D-fortified milk How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 200 IU (over 50) 400 IU (over 70) 600 IU Women: 200 IU (over 50) 400 IU (over 70) 600 IU Pregnancy: 200 IU Lactation: 200 IU Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Have planned pregnancy while taking vitamin D Epilepsy Heart or blood-vessel disease Kidney, liver or pancreatic disease Chronic diarrhea Intestinal problems Sarcoidosis Over 55: Higher potential for adverse reactions and side effects. Pregnancy: Always consult doctor during pregnancy. Abnormalities within the fetus may occur in too high of a dose. Remember to keep within the DRI. Breastfeeding:

It is vital to normal growth and development of the child to get the correct intake of vitamin D. Always consult doctor during lactation. Remember to keep within the DRI. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include bone pain and tenderness and muscle weakness. In children, rickets may occur, in which bones lose calcium and become soft and curved. Without proper intake, there is an increased risk of osteoporosis, arthritis, and cancer. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: High blood pressure Irregular heartbeat Nausea Weight loss Seizures Abdominal pain Appetite loss Mental-and physical-growth retardation Premature hardening of arteries Kidney damage Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Loss of appetite : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Constipation : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Diarrhea : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Dry mouth : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Headache : Discontinue. Consult your doctor immediately. Increased thirst : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Mental contusion : Discontinue. Consult your doctor immediately. Nausea or vomiting : Discontinue. Consult your doctor immediately. Unusual tiredness : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Antacids with aluminum : Absorption of vitamin D reduced. Antacids with magnesium : People with kidney failure should be aware of possibly too much magnesium in the blood. Anticonvulsants : Vitamin efficacy may be reduced. Barbiturates : Vitamin efficacy may be reduced. Calcitonin : Calcitonin effect reduced when treating hypercalcemia. Calcium (high doses) : Risk of hypercalcemia increased.

Cholestyramine : Vitamin absorption reduced. Colestipol : Vitamin absorption reduced. Cortisone : Vitamin absorption reduced. Digitalis preparations : Heartbeat irregularities increased. Diuretics, thiazide : Hypercalcemia risk increased. Hydration : Vitamin efficacy may be reduced. Mineral oil : Absorption of vitamin D increased. Phosphorus- containing medicines : Risk increased of too much phosphorus in blood. Primidone : Vitamin efficacy may be reduced. Vitamin-D derivatives : Increased potential for toxicity due to additive effects. Alcohol : Depletes storage of vitamin D in liver.

VITAMIN E ALPHA TOCOPHEROL Overview Keeps excessive oxidation from occurring… Benefits Protects fats, cell membranes, DNA, and enzymes… Natural Sources Spinach, Sunflower seeds, Walnuts… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you have Cystic fibrosis… Deficiency Infant irritability, fluid retention, and anemia… Side Effects Breast enlargement - Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon… Interactions Antacids - Vitamin-E absorption reduced…

Overview: Vitamin E, otherwise known as alpha-tocopherol, serves as a cofactor in several enzyme systems. It keeps excessive oxidation from occurring that could cause harmful effects in

the body. Great sources of vitamin E may be found in wheat germ, nuts and seeds, whole grain cereals, eggs, and leafy greens. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Protects fats, cell membranes, DNA, and enzymes against damage Encourages normal growth and development Helps prevent vitamin E deficiency in premature infants and those with low birth weights Acts as an antioxidant to protect against heart disease and cancer Anti-blood clotting agent Helps protect against prostate cancer Improves immune system Reduces risk of first fatal heart attack in men Where This Vitamin is Found: Almonds Asparagus Avocados Brazil nuts Broccoli Canola oil Corn Corn oil/margarine Cottonseed oil Fortified cereals Hazelnuts (filberts) Peanuts/Peanut oil Safflower nuts/oil Soybean oil Spinach Sunflower seeds Walnuts Wheat germ Wheat germ oil How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 10 mg alpha TE (15 IU) Women: 8 mg alpha TE (12 IU) Pregnancy: 10 mg alpha TE (15 IU) Lactation: 12 mg alpha TE (18 IU)

Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Iron-deficiency anemia Bleeding or clotting problems Cystic fibrosis Intestinal problems Liver disease Overactive thyroid Low-birth weight baby Over 55: Not problems should occur. Pregnancy: Always consult doctor during pregnancy. Keep dosage within DRI. Low-birth weight babies at risk for deficiency. Breastfeeding: No problems should occur. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include in infants irritability, fluid retention and anemia. Adult symptoms may include lethargy, loss of balance and anemia. There may be increased risk of heart disease, cancer, and premature aging with marginal deficiencies. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: Very high doses may cause: Nausea Flatulence Headache Fainting Diarrhea Tendency to bleed Altered immunity Impaired sex functions Increased risk of blood clots Altered metabolism of thyroid, pituitary and adrenal hormones Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to Do Abdominal pain : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Breast enlargement : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon.

Diarrhea : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Dizziness : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Flu-like symptoms : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Headache : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Nausea : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Tiredness or weakness : Discontinue. Refer to your doctor soon. Vision blurred : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Antacids : Vitamin-E absorption reduced. Anticoagulants, coumadin- or indandione-type : Spontaneous or hidden bleeding may result. Aspirin (long-term use) : May reduce blood doffing to greater extent than desired to decrease cardiac disease. Cholestyramine : Absorption of vitamin E reduced. Colestipol : Absorption of vitamin E reduced. Iron supplements : Use of iron for with iron-deficiency anemia efficacy decreased. Vitamin-E effect reduced in healthy people. Mineral oil : Absorption of vitamin E reduced. Sucralfate : Absorption of vitamin E reduced. Vitamin A : Aids absorption storage and utilization of vitamin A. Possible toxicity of vitamin A reduced.

Vitamins and Minerals Chart
Water Soluble Vitamins are not stored in the body and should therefore be consumed daily.

Vitamin/Mineral Sources Indication Efficacy
Thiamine Vitamin B1 Men: 0.8 - 1.3 mg Women: 0.8 mg Sunflower Seeds, Pork, whole and enriched Grains, dried Beans. Necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and muscle coordination. Promotes proper nerve function. Deficiency: Anxiety; hysteria; depression; muscle cramps; loss of apetite; in extreme cases beriberi (mostly in alcoholics). Overdose: Unknown,

Claims

although excess of one B vitamin may cause deficiency of others. Needed for metabolism of all foods and the release of energy to cells. Essential to the functioning of Vitamin B6 and Niacin. Deficiency: Cracks and sores around the mouth and nose; visual problems. Overdose: See Vitamin B1. Deficiency: In extreme cases, pellagra, a disease characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea and mouth sores. Overdose: Hot flashes; ulcers; liver disorders; high blood sugar and uric acid; cardiac arrythmias. Deficiency: Unclear in humans. Overdose: See Vitamin B1. Deficiency: Anemia, irritability, patches of

Riboflavin Vitamin B2 Men: 1.3 - 1.6 mg Women: 1.1 mg

Liver, Milk, Spinach, enriched Noodles, Mushrooms.

Needed in many enzymes that convert food to energy. Helps maintain a healthy Niacin Mushrooms, digestive tract Vitamin B3 Bran, Tuna, and nervous Men: 16-23 mg Chicken, Beef, system. In very Women: 14-16 mg Peanuts, large doses, Niacin is converted to enriched lower niacinamide in the body. Grains. cholesterol (large doses should only be taken under the advice of a physician). Converts food to molecular Abundant in forms. Needed animal tissues, to manufacture whole grain adrenal cereals and hormones and legumes. chemicals that regulate nerve function. Animal protein foods, Spinach, Broccoli, Needed for protein metabolism and absorption,

Pantothenic Acid Vitamin B5 Men: 2.5 mg Women: 2.5 mg

Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine Men: 1.8 mg Women: 1.5 mg

Bananas.

carbohydrate metabolism. Helps form red blood cells. Promotes nerve and brain function.

itchy, scaling skin; convulsions. Overdose: Nerve damage.

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin Men: 2 mcg Women: 2 mcg

Deficiency: Pernicious anemia; nerve damage. (Note: Deficiency rare except in strict Found almost Builds genetic vegetarians, exclusively in material. Helps the elderly or animal form red blood people with products. cells. malabsorption disorders.) Overdose: See Vitamin B1. Deficiency: Seborrhic dermatitis in infants. Rare in adults, but can Needed for be induced by metabolism of consuming glucose and large amounts formation of of egg whites certain fatty anorexia, acids. Essential nausea, for proper body vomiting, dry chemistry. scaly skin. Overdose: See Vitamin B1

Biotin 60 mcg

Cheese, Egg, Yolk, Cauliflower, Peanut Butter

Folic Acid (Folacin) Men: 180-220 mg Women: 160-190 mg

Green, leafy vegetables, Orange Juice, organ Meats, Sprouts

Essential for the manufacture of genetic material as well as protein

Impaired cell division; anemia; diarrhea; gastrointestinal upsets.

Adequate amounts of this nutrient in the first stage of pregnancy

Overdose: Convulsions in metabolism and epileptics. May red blood cell mask formation. pernicious anemia (see Vitamin B12 deficiency).

may reduce the risks of neural tube birth defects.

Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid Men: 40 mg Women: 30 mg

The antioxidant Antioxidant. Deficiency: properties of Helps bind cells Muscle this nutrient together and weakness, may be a strengthens Citrus Fruits, bleeding gums; factor in blood vessel Strawberries, easy bruising. reducing the walls. Helps Broccoli, In extreme risk of certain maintain Green Peppers cases, scurvy. forms of healthy gums. cancer. May Aids in the Overdose: reduce the absorption of Unknown. effects of the iron. common cold. Deficiency: Rickets in children; osteomalacia (soft bones) and osteoporosis in adults. Overdose: Constipation, Kidney Stones, calcium deposits in body tissues. Hinders absorption of iron and other minerals. Deficiency: (Rare) Weakness;

Calcium Men: 800 - 1000 mg Women: 700-800 mg

Helps build strong bones and teeth. Promotes Milk, Yogurt, muscle and Cheese, nerve function. Sardines, Helps blood to Broccoli, clot. Helps Turnip Greens. activate enzymes needed to convert food to energy.

Phosphorus Chicken Men: 1000 mg Breast, Milk, Women: 850 mg (3-6 g) Lentils, Egg

With calcium builds bones and teeth.

Yolks, Nuts, Cheese

Needed for metabolism, body chemistry, nerve and muscle function.

bone pain; Anorexia. Overdose: Hinders body's absorption of calcium. Deficiency: Nausea, irritability, muscle weakness; twitching; cramps, cardiac arrhythmias. Overdose: Nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, nervous system disorders. Warning: Overdose can be fatal to people with kidney disease.

Magnesium Men: 230 - 250 mg Women: 200 - 210 mg

Activates enzymes Spinach, Beef needed to Greens, release energy Broccoli, in body. Tofu, Popcorn, Needed by cells Cashews, for genetic Wheat Bran material and bone growth

Deficiency: Nausea, anorexia, Peanuts, muscle Bananas, Helps maintain weakness, Orange Juice, regular fluid Potassium irritability. Green Beans, balance. Men: 40-80 mmol (Occurs most Mushrooms, Needed for Women: 40-80 mmol (3often in Oranges, nerve and 6 g) persons with Broccoli, muscle prolonged Sunflower function. diarrhea.) Seeds. Overdose: Rare. Iron (Elemental) Liver, lean Essential for Meats, Kidney making Deficiency: Skin pallor;

Men: 8-10 mg Women: 8-13 mg

beans, enriched Bread, Raisins. Note: Oxalic acid in spinach hinders iron absorption.

hemoglobin, the red substance in blood that acrries oxygen to body cells. Overdose: Toxic buildup in liver and in rare instances the heart. Deficiency: Slow healing of wounds; loss of taste; retarded growth and delayed sexual development in children.

weakness; fatigue; headaches; shortness of breath (all signs of irondeficiency anemia)

Zinc Men: 12 mg Women: 9 mg

Oysters, Shrimp, Crab, Beef, Turkey, whole Grains, Peanuts, Beans.

Necessary element in more than 100 enzymes that are essential to digestion and Overdose: metabolism. Nausea, vomiting; diarrhea; abdominal pain; gastric bleeding.

Selenium 0.05-0.2 mg

Adequate amounts are found in Seafood, Kidney, Liver and other meats. Grains and other Seed contain varying amounts depending on the soil content.

Antioxidant. Interacts with Vitamin E to prevent breakdown of fats and body chemicals.

Deficiency: Unknown in humans. Overdose: Finger nail changes, hair loss.

Copper 2-3 mg

Component of several enzymes, including on The richest needed to make sources of skin, hair and copper in the other pigments. diet are Liver Stimulates iron and other absorption. organ Meats, Needed to Seafoods, Nuts make red blood and Seeds. cells, connective tissue and nerve fibres. Tea, whole Grains and Cereal products are the richest dietary sources. Adequate amounts are found in Fruits and Vegetables. The concentration in food varies depending on the environment in which the food was grown. Milk, Beans, Breads and Cereals contribute the highest amounts.

Deficiency: Rare in adults. Infants may develop a type of anemia marked by abnormal development of bones, nerve tissue and lungs. Overdose: Liver disease; vomiting; diarrhea. Deficiency: Unknown in humans. Overdose: Generally results from inhalation of manganese containing dust or fumes, not dietary ingestion.

Manganese 2-5 mg

Needed for normal tendon and bone structure. Component of some enzymes important in metabolism.

Molybdenum 0.15-0.3 mg

Component of enzymes needed in metabolism. Helps regulate iron storage

Deficiency: Unknown in humans. Overdose: Gout-like joint pain.

VITAMIN H BIOTIN Overview Essential to normal growth and development… Benefits Could relieve muscle pain and depression… Natural Sources Split peas, Tuna, Walnuts… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin… Deficiency Hair loss, dermatitis, anemia, muscle pain, loss of appetite… Side Effects No side effects should occur if taken within… Interactions Alcohol/Tobacco products - Absorption of biotin reduced…

Overview: Vitamin H, otherwise known as biotin, is essential to normal growth and development and overall health. Bacteria in the intestines produce enough biotin for the body so that most people would not need an additional supplement of vitamin H. However, additional great sources of vitamin H are found in egg yolks, fish, nuts, oatmeal, and beans. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Essential for release of food energy Reduces symptoms of zinc deficiency Functions in protein metabolism Helps in the formation of fatty acids Could relieve muscle pain and depression People who consume large amounts of raw eggs may benefit from this supplement Where This Vitamin is Found: Almonds Bananas

Brewers yeast Brown rice Bulgur wheat Butter Calf liver Cashew nuts Cheese Chicken Clams Eggs, cooked Green peas Lentils Liver Mackerel Meats Milk Mushrooms Oat bran Oatmeal Peanut Butter Peanuts Salmon Soybeans Split peas Tuna Walnuts How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 30 mcg Women: 30 mcg Pregnancy: 30 mcg Lactation: 35 mcg Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: No problems should occur. Over 55: No problems should occur.

Pregnancy: No problems should occur. Keep within the DRI. Breastfeeding: No problems should occur. Keep within the DRI. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms are incredibly rare. However, if such a deficiency occurs, symptoms may include hair loss, dermatitis, anemia, muscle pain, loss of appetite, lethargy, depression, hallucinations, and lowered immunity. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: Amounts in excess of the manufacturer’s suggested dosage is nontoxic. Side Effects: No side effects should occur if taken within the daily recommended amount. Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Long term antibiotics (broad spectrum) : May lead to significant biotin deficiency. Sulfonamides : May lead to significant biotin deficiency. Alcohol/Tobacco products : Absorption of biotin reduced. VITAMIN K PHYTONADIONE Overview Promotes normal blood clotting… Benefits Essential for kidney functioning… Natural Sources Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Cheddar cheese… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability... Cautions Consult your doctor if you have Cystic fibrosis…

Deficiency Clotting time, easy bleeding, and bruising… Side Effects Gastrointestinal upset - Discontinue… Interactions Antacids - Large amounts reduce vitamin efficacy…

Overview: Vitamin K, otherwise known as phytonadione, promotes production factors critical to normal blood clotting. When foods are processed or cooked, very little of vitamin K contained in foods is lost. Great sources of this vitamin include dark leafy greens, oils from green plants, and some dairy products. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Regulates normal blood clotting Promotes normal growth and development Essential for kidney functioning Where This Vitamin is Found: Alfalfa Asparagus Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage Cheddar cheese Green, leafy lettuce Liver Seaweed Spinach Turnip greens How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes Men: 80 mcg Women: 65 mcg Pregnancy: 65 mcg Lactation: 65 mcg

Cautions: Consult your doctor if you have: Cystic fibrosis Prolonged diarrhea Prolonged intestinal problems Taken any other medicines Plans for surgery in the near future Over 55: No problems should occur. Keep within DRI. Pregnancy: Keep dosage within DRI. Always consult doctor during pregnancy. Breastfeeding: Keep dosage within DRI. Always consult doctor during lactation. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: Symptoms include prolonged clotting time, easy bleeding, and bruising. This deficiency is rare in adults and normally limited to those with liver or food absorption disorders. However, it may occur in premature babies. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: Infants may have brain damage and impaired liver function. Side Effects: Reaction or effect : What to do Hemolytic anemia in infants : Emergency treatment should be immediate. Hyperbilirubinemia (too much bilirubin in the blood) in newborns or infants given too much vitamin K, marked by jaundice (yellow skin and eyes) : Emergency treatment should be immediate. Allergic reactions, including: Face flushing : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Gastrointestinal upset : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Rash : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Redness, pain or swelling at injection site : Discontinue. Consult doctor immediately. Skin itching : Seek emergency treatment Interactions: Interacts with : Combined effect Antacids (long-term use) : :Large amounts reduce vitamin efficacy.

Antibiotics, broad spectrum (long-term use) : Vitamin-K deficiency results. Anticoagulants (oral) : Anticoagulant effect reduced. Cholestyramine : Vitamin-K absorption reduced. Colestipol : Vitamin-K absorption reduced. Coumarin (isolated from sweet clover) : Decreases vitamin-K efficacy. Dactinomycin : Decreases vitamin-K efficacy. Hemolytics : Toxic side effects could result. Mineral oil (long- term use) : Vitamin-K deficiency results. Primaquine : Toxic side effects could result. Quinidine : Vitamin-K deficiency results. Salicylates : Vitamin K need increased. Sucralfate : Decreases vitamin-K efficacy. Sulfa drugs : Vitamin-K deficiency results.

Vitamin P (Bioflavinoids Phytochemicals) Overview Vitamin Penhances the use of vitmain C by... Benefits Promotes blood vessel health, including improving… Natural Sources Apricots, Bilberry, Blackcurrants, Broccoli… How to Use Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability… Cautions Consult your doctor if you medicate yourself…

Overview: Vitamin P, otherwise known as flavinoids, enhances the use of vitamin C by improving absorption and protecting it from oxidation. Great sources of this vitamin are found in the edible pulp of fruits, green pepper, broccoli, and red wine. How This Vitamin Works in Your Body: Promotes blood vessel health, including improving capillary strength Prevents accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque Has anti-inflammatory properties acting against histamines

May help protect against infection and blood vessel disease May lower blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscle of cardiovascular system May inhibit tumor growth May have estrogen-like activity May prevent hemorrhoids, miscarriages, capillary fragility, nosebleed, retinal bleeding in people with diabetes and hypertension May lower cholesterol levels Where This Vitamin is Found: Apricots Bilberry Blackcurrants Broccoli Buckwheat Cherries Citrus fruits Ginkgo Grapes Green Pepper Green tea Hawthorn Milk thistle Onions Red wine Rose hips Tomatoes Yarrow How to Use: Available as: Liquid: the best form due to its high bioavailability and fast absorption. Always choose liquid as your first choice when supplementing your diet. Tablets: available Recommended Daily Intakes There are no daily recommended allowances for this vitamin. Cautions: Consult your doctor if you: Medicate yourself Take any of the following: Aspirin Laxatives Cold and cough remedies Antacids Vitamins

Minerals Amino acids Supplements Other prescription and OTC drugs Pregnancy: If you take supplements, tell your doctor. Breastfeeding: If you take supplements, tell your doctor. Storage: Heat and/or moisture may alter the vitamin. Refrigeration is recommended. Symptoms of Deficiency: No reports exist of this deficiency. Overdose: Signs of Overdose: No overdose symptoms are expected. Side Effects: No overdose symptoms are expected. Interactions: No overdose symptoms are expected. Latest page update: made by dr.rufusrajadurai , Nov 30 2007, 3:47 PM

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