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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership and M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324
Name:__Sumeyye Bayar______

Date: ___6.29.2015______________

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:

Waxman, H., Boriack, A., Yuan-Hsuan, L., & MacNeil, A. (2013). Principals' Perceptions
of the Importance of Technology in Schools. Contemporary Educational
Technology, 4(3), 187-196.
Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is
the theoretical background or overarching theme):
This study focused on following research questions.
(a) What are principals perceptions of the importance of technology?
(b) Do principals perceptions of technology differ by years of experience and gender?

Purpose of the research:

The purpose of the research is the examination of principals perspectives and
orientations toward technology. Furthermore, it focuses on principal characteristics such
as years of experience and gender.
What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the
issue? Provide information regarding the following:

Participants: 310 principals from a large metropolitan area in the southwest

region of the United States ( 126 males and 184 females)
Procedures: Cognitive interview questionnaire has been asked principals about
their perceptions regarding the importance of technology for their schools.
Data Collection Methods/Data Source: Both quantitative and qualitative
measures were used in this mixed methods study to investigate the research
questions regarding the principals perceptions of technology usage in their
Data Analysis:

The principals responses for the major functions of technology were grouped into
six categories. About one-third (35%) of the principals indicated that technology
was used as a primary communication tool. Over one-quarter (28%) of principals
responded that technology was integrated in teachers classroom instruction. The
third category was using technology for data sharing and management (14%).
Category four was using technology as a resource to find information (15%).
Technology was also used for administrative tasks, such as taking attendance
(10%). Finally, technology was used for student learning (10%).

Findings or Results (or main points of the article):
Principals reported that the major functions of technology were: (a) communication, (b)
instruction, (c) data sharing and management, (d) a resource, (e) administrative tasks,
and (f) student learning. Male principals felt that technology was used as a resource and
for administrative tasks more than female principals. Furthermore, principals with 12 or
more years of experience perceived that technology was used for instruction, data
sharing and management, and administrative tasks more than principals with less than
12 years of experience.
Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):
The results of this research indicate that both gender and years of experience influence
how principals perceive the functions of technology in their schools. This could affect the
technology leadership of principals, which may influence the success of effective
technology implementation in schools.
Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your

It is a fact that school principals play an essential role for educations integration
of technology in schools. Their perceptions and attitudes towards technology
directly affects teachers technology usage. There are several studies showing
the role of principals for the technology integration. For example, Ritchie (1996),

argues that the lack of administrative support negatively influences technology

adoption and implementation in schools. On the other hand, principals who are
more capable and comfortable using technology play a leading and supportive
role in technology incorporation into the schools (Ritchie, 1996). Likewise,
Sharratt (1999) maintains that the success of integrating information and
communication technology in schools depends on the leadership and
technological knowledge of the principal.
Technology is an expensive investment. Because of that it must be used
effectively for the academic success of students. Sole providing the electronic
devices does not come up with student success. Electronic devices must be
integrated into instruction in classrooms by teachers. The role of principals for
instructional integration of technology is important in a school.
This study shows the perceptions of principals for the technology usage in
education. It is interesting that principals still consider the technology as a
communication tool and ignore importance of instructional integration of
technology. The main function of technology cannot be communication. This
study shows that principals needs trainings for the functions of technology. Due
to improved capabilities of technologic devices and educational software, the
main function of technologic devices should be instructional integration. If
principals are not aware of this fact, they cannot play a leading role in
instructional integration. Using the laptops and internet for showing you tube
videos, online search or electronic communication is basic functions of
technology and a minor part of technology usage in schools. Principals should
act as technology leaders and should be trained to support teachers for more
meaningful usage of technology.