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1.1.Compare different learning styles.

Many people recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques.
Learning styles group common ways that people learn. Everyone has a mix of learning
styles. Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use
of the other styles. Others may find that they use different styles in different circumstances.
There is no right mix.

The Seven Learning Styles


Visual (spatial):People prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding.
Aural (auditory-musical): People prefer using sound and music.
Verbal (linguistic): People prefer using words, both in speech and writing.
Physical (kinaesthetic): People prefer using their body, hands and sense of touch.
Logical (mathematical): People prefer using logic, reasoning and systems.
Social (interpersonal): People prefer to learn in groups or with other people.
Solitary (intrapersonal): People prefer to work alone and use self-study.

Visual (spatial):
If people use the visual style, people prefer using images, pictures, colours, and maps
to organize information and communicate with others. People can easily visualize
objects, plans and outcomes in their mind's eye. They also have a good spatial sense,
which gives them a good sense of direction. They can easily find their way around
using maps, and they rarely get lost. When they walk out of an elevator, they
instinctively know which way to turn.
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Aural (auditory-musical):
If people use the aural style, they like to work with sound and music. They have a
good sense of pitch and rhythm. They typically can sing, play a musical instrument, or
identify the sounds of different instruments. Certain music invokes strong emotions.
They notice the music playing in the background of movies, TV shows and other
media. They often find themselves humming or tapping a song or jingle, or a theme or
jingle pops into their head without prompting.

Verbal (linguistic):
The verbal style involves both the written and spoken word. They use this style, they
find it easy to express themselves, both in writing and verbally. They love reading and
writing. They like playing on the meaning or sound of words, such as in tongue
twisters, rhymes, limericks and the like. They know the meaning of many words, and
regularly make an effort to find the meaning of new words. They use these words, as
well as phrases they have picked up recently, when talking to others.
The Physical (Bodily-Kinesthetic) Learning Style:
If the physical style is more like to people, it's likely that they use their body and
sense of touch to learn about the world around them. It's likely they like sports and
exercise, and other physical activities such as gardening or woodworking. They like to
think out issues, ideas and problems while they exercise. They would rather go for a
run or walk if something is bothering them, rather than sitting at home.
Logical (mathematical):
If we use the logical style, we like using our brain for logical and mathematical
reasoning. We can recognize patterns easily, as well as connections between
seemingly meaningless content. This also leads us to classify and group information
to help us learn or understand it. We work well with numbers and we can perform
complex calculations. We remember the basics of trigonometry and algebra, and we
can do moderately complex calculations in our head. We typically work through
problems and issues in a systematic way, and we like to create procedures for future
use. We are happy setting numerical targets and budgets, and we track our progress
towards these.

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Social (interpersonal):
If someone have a strong social style, he communicate well with people, both verbally
and non-verbally. People listen to him or come to him for advice, and he is sensitive
to his motivations, feelings or moods. He listen well and understand other's views. He
may enjoy mentoring or counselling others.
He typically prefer learning in groups or classes, or he likes to spend much one-onone time with a teacher or an instructor. He heighten his learning by bouncing his
thoughts off other people and listening to how they respond. He prefer to work
through issues, ideas and problems with a group. He thoroughly enjoy working with a
'clicking' or synergistic group of people.
Solitary (intrapersonal):
If people have a solitary style, they are more private, introspective and independent.
They can concentrate well, focusing their thoughts and feelings on their current topic.
They are aware of their own thinking, and they may analyze the different ways they
think and feel.
They spend time on self-analysis, and often reflect on past events and the way they
approached them. They take time to ponder and assess their own accomplishments or
challenges. They may keep a journal, diary or personal log to record their personal
thoughts and events.
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 1.1
1.2. Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning
to the workplace.
A learning curve is a graphical representation of the changing rate of learning in the average
person for a given activity. The learning curve also represents at a glance the initial difficulty
of learning something and how much there is to learn after initial experience (Dewey,2011).
With repetition of almost any motor task, learning occurs, and a person becomes more
efficient or effective at carrying out a task. In the pursuit rotor tasks, time spent on the metal
dot increases. In the mirror-tracing task, the tracing becomes more accurate. Progress in skill
learning commonly follows an S-shaped curve, with some measure of skill on the Y axis and
number of trials on the X-axis. Progress is slow at first, then a subject may experience a burst
of learning that produces a rapid rise on the graph (Fitts and Posner,1967).
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Many people believe that plateaus or flat periods during which a skill does not improve
normally punctuate learning curves. But the idea of a plateau as a temporary stagnant period
followed by more learning is a myth. Fitts and Posner (1967) found gradual improvement
with practice in almost all motor skills. They said flatly there were "no plateaus." Fred Keller
of Harvard referred to the "phantom plateau" since one seldom occurred, but people believed
that it did.

The S-shaped "learning curve" typical of complex learning

What people call a plateau may be a period of stability after a skill is learned as well as it can
be learned. Most growth processes follow the same S-shaped curve as motor learning. In
general.

An

S-shaped

curve

of

growth

levels

off

because stability is

attained,

a resource needed for growth is limited, or a ceiling of performance is reached. For example,
mirror tracing cannot improve forever. Given enough time, one should become very good at
it, then improvement in performance stops. This is a plateau of sorts, indicating maximum
competence has been attained (Fitts and Posner,1967).

The S-shaped learning curve is most obvious when someone learns a highly complex task.
The initial part of the curve rises slowly as a person becomes familiar with basic components
of a skill. The steep ascending phase occurs when there is enough experience with rudiments
or simple components to start "putting it all together." Rapid progress follows until the skill
"hits a ceiling" or stabilizes at a high level.
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People often speak of a steep learning curve when they mean the opposite. A steep learning
curve is one in which skill improves quickly, meaning something is easy to learn. However,
what most people mean by "steep learning curve" is difficult learning experience. No doubt
they are thinking of steep hills and steep mountains which make climbing difficult. In
actuality, the steepest part of the learning curve is the portion where learning is fastest and
easiest (Fitts and Posner,1967).
Importance of transferring learning to the workplace:
Despite the current economic uncertainty organisations are continuing to spend a significant
amount of money on the development of their employees, with the aim of creating a
competitive advantage in a fast moving and competitive climate. In times of austerity
however, when every penny counts, how can they ensure the learning from these
development programmes is transferring to the workplace?
There appear to be three key components:
The learner's characteristics, such as how prepared they are to attend a programme, or
how motivated they are to apply their learning.
The programme design, including how relevant the content is to the learner, and how
helpful the methods are in assisting them to apply learning.
The work environment, such as the level of support learners get from their manager to
apply learning, or whether their schedules allow them the time to try out new ways of
working. These components constitute the 'transfer system'.

Whilst all these areas have an impact on whether a learner will use what they have learned,
what appears from our research to be most influential is the learner's characteristics - whether
they were keen to be on the programme, motivated to use their learning, believed they could
improve their performance, and anticipated benefits from using that learning.
So how therefore, should we set about improving transfer of learning? Does the responsibility
for ensuring learning transfer rest primarily on the shoulders of the learner? Whilst this might
be a prudent conclusion, the transfer of learning is a complex business. What happens in the
classroom, and what happens back in the office will both bear influence on transfer directly,
as well as through their impact on the characteristics of the learner?
For example a learner who, when returning to the office, receives little support from their
peers when trying new things, is unlikely to feel motivated to use what they have learned.
Similarly, a learner who is not given opportunities to practice new skills in the classroom is
likely to have doubts about their ability to use these skills in the workplace, which will again
affect their motivation to use what they have learned.
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Given the complex nature of the transfer system and the countless ways in which the different
factors can influence each other, it would seem that all stakeholders in the learning process
have a part to play in ensuring that what is learned in the classroom is used in the workplace.

The learner needs to ensure they understand how the programme they are to attend will
benefit their role and career to encourage their engagement in learning from the outset.
Taking responsibility for transferring learning, and identifying and creating ways in which
they can use the learning will help ensure learning is not lost. Seeking feedback from peers,
direct reports and managers will also help to build confidence in the development of their
skills.

Programme designers need to ensure that content is relevant to those who will attend. A
learner who can recognise the relevance of a programme to their role will not only have
opportunities to use the learning, but is likely to be motivated to learn and to transfer. It is
also important that programmes provide opportunities to practice new skills and make clear
links to the workplace, to help learners identify ways to apply learning, and develop the
confidence to use these skills back at work. Providing opportunities for coaching, feedback
and reflection during programmes also helps build confidence by identifying strengths, areas
for development, and ways to apply learning and overcome obstacles and also it helps for
performance and positive attitude .
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 1.2
1.3.The contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a
learning event.
Learning theories:
Behaviourist Approach:
Behaviourism assumes, when born our mind is a blank slate and afterwards our mind is
shaped through punishment, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement from our
environment
Positive reinforcement: Involves the adding of something
Negative reinforcement: Involves the removal of something
Punishment: Behaviour which is punished so that it is less likely to occur in the
future.
According to this theory there is little difference in the learning process of humans and other
animals. Therefore same research can be carried out on an animal as well as humans.
Here, learning is defined as a change in behaviour in the learner
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Cognitive Concept:
The cognitive concept assumes that our mind is an information processing system like the
computer and how we see the world depends on our mental processes such as pattern
recognition, perception, problem-solving and mental imagery.

Here, knowledge is seen as a symbolic mental construction and learning is recognized via
change in learners plan.

Social Learning Theory:


According to social learning theory, people learn from each other via observation, imitation
and modelling. The modelling process involves several steps:
1. Attention
in order for an individual to learn something, they must pay attention to the features of the
modelled behaviour.

2. Retention
humans need to be able to remember details of the behaviour in order to learn and later
reproduce the behaviour.

3. Reproduction

in reproducing behaviour, an individual must organize his or her responses in accordance


with the model behaviour. This ability can improve with practice.

4. Motivation
there must be an incentive or motivation driving the individuals reproduction of the
behaviour. Even if all of the above factors are present, the person will not engage in the
behaviour without motivation.

Since this theory encompasses attention, memory and motivation it can be viewed as a bridge
between behaviourist and cognitive learning
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 1.3
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2.1: Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in an organisation.
One way to review office operations for potential topics is to examine these operations in
terms of five categories of training needs listed by Rae (1992)
Newcomers to an organisation
a change in work within an office
improvement of poor performer
developmental requirements
consideration of a potential promote

Let's examine each of these categories individually and define what each category
refers to
Newcomers to an organisation:
When a new employee arrives at an office ,he/she needs to become acquainted with
the duties and responsibilities of his or her position. This may require a formal
training program for personnel new to an organisation; or it may be as simple as a
good orientation for someone transferring in from another part of a new employee
orientation program (Rae,1992) .

A change in work within an office:


Change is a constant part of any business. Some changes evolve slowly while other
changes arrive suddenly. These changes may include things such as a formal business
re-organisation, new tasks , new equipment, or new software. These types of change
require training and will probably be the biggest source for new or continuing training
requirements.

Improvement of poor performer:


Occasionally inefficient, ineffective or incorrect

performance by an employee

requires a change in the way an employee does something .Training may be the
vehicle used to make this change easier. Identification of the need for this type of
training is not always easy (Rae,1992) .

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Developmental requirements:
Many employees seek tasks or knowledge that go well beyond their basic job
requirements. These desires are referred

to as their self-actualization or self-

development needs. Supervision can often help motivate employees by helping them
satisfy these needs through training.

Consideration of a potential promote:


In some organisations training is provided as part of an internal advancement
program. This training encourages personnel to seek higher levels of authority and
responsibility, as well as provide some of the skills needed for these higher positions
(Rae,1992) .
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 2.1
2.2:Assess the advantages and disadvantages of training methods .
Many methods of training are available- each has certain advantages and disadvantages. Here
we list the different methods of training.
1.Simulators:
Simulators are used to imitate real work experiences. Most simulators are very expensive but
for certain jobs, like learning to fly a 747, they are indispensable. Astronauts also train
extensively using simulators to imitate the challenges and micro-gravity experienced on a
space mission. The military also uses video games to train soldiers.
Advantages of Simulators
The system to be examined can be too small, e.g. molecular movements.
The system to be examined can be dangerous to manipulate, e.g. a nuclear reactor, a
ship or a human body.
The process to be examined can proceed too slowly in reality
Disadvantages of Simulators

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A computer simulation program cannot develop the students' emotional and intuitive
awareness that the use of simulations is specifically directed at establishing relations
between variables in a model. So this intuition has to be developed in a different way.
Computer simulation programs may function well from a technical point of view, but
they are difficult to fit into a curriculum.
Often a computer simulation program cannot be adapted to take into different student
levels into account within a group or class. A computer simulation program can
certainly be made to adapt to different circumstances if the designer bears that in
mind; however, for many computer simulation programs this has not happened.
2. Case Studies:
Case studies provide trainees with a chance to analyze and discuss real workplace issues.
They develop analytical and problem-solving skills, and provide practical illustrations of
principle or theory. They can also build a strong sense of teamwork as teams struggle
together to make sense of a case.
Advantages of case studies
Case studies allow a lot of detail to be collected that would not normally be easily
obtained by other research designs. The data collected is normally a lot richer and of
greater depth than can be found through other experimental designs.
Within the case study, scientific experiments can be conducted.
Case studies can help experimenters adapt ideas and produce novel hypotheses which
can be used for later testing.
Disadvantages of case studies
One of the main criticisms is that the data collected cannot necessarily be generalised
to the wider population. This leads to data being collected over longitudinal case
studies not always being relevant or particularly useful.
Case studies are generally on one person, but there also tends to only be one
experimenter collecting the data. This can lead to bias in data collection, which can
influence results more than in different designs.
It is also very difficult to draw a definite cause/effect from case studies.
3.Off the job training:
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This occurs when employees are taken away from their place of work to be trained.
Off the job training advantages
This type of training gets employees away from their work environment to a place
where their frustrations and bustle of work are eliminated. This more relaxed
environment can help employees to absorb more information as they feel less under
pressure to perform.
As the courses are held externally, our company would not have added costs incurred
as a result of extra equipment or additional space.
Sending an employee on a course could help to make an employee feel more valued
as they would feel as if they are receiving quality training.
Off the job training disadvantages
The different learning speeds of individuals who are usually forced to progress at a
compromise rate.
As there is no real way to know the abilities both as a trainer and their subject
knowledge of the people delivering the external training courses, there is no guarantee
that sufficient skills of knowledge will be transfers or valuable.
4. Lectures:
Lectures usually take place in a classroom-format.
Advantages of lectures:
Gives the instructor the chance to expose students to unpublished or not readily
available material.
Allows the instructor to precisely determine the aims, content, organization, pace and
direction of a presentation. In contrast, more student-cantered methods, e.g.,
discussions or laboratories, require the instructor to deal with unanticipated student
ideas, questions and comments.
Can be used to arouse interest in a subject.
Complements certain individual learning preferences. Some students depend upon the
structure provided by highly teacher-cantered methods.

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Disadvantages of lectures:
Places students in a passive rather than an active role, which hinders learning.
Encourages one-way communication; therefore, the lecturer must make a conscious
effort to become aware of student problems and student understanding of content
without verbal feedback.
Requires a considerable amount of unguided student time outside of the classroom to
enable understanding and long-term retention of content. In contrast, interactive
methods (discussion, problem-solving sessions) allow the instructor to influence
students when they are actively working with the material.
5. On the job training:
Jumping right into work from day one can sometimes be the most effective type of training.
Advantages for on the job training:
Low cost - does not require the development of potentially expensive training
materials or classroom/computer-based instruction.
Task-based - Since OJT is performed at the work area, training tends to be focused
on performing real job tasks.
Well suited for small groups - OJT is often the most practical training method when
you only need to train one or two employees at a time.
Disadvantages for on the job training:
Inconsistent - Traditional OJT relies heavily on an experienced employee to provide
the instruction based on what they feel are the most important topics. What is
important to one employee may not be important to another. The result is what is
learned may vary greatly, depending on who is assigned as the trainer.
Incomplete - Without a structured lesson guide, OJT trainers often forget to cover
important information. What is learned is likely to be based on what happened that
day rather than on what a new employee needs to know to be safe and productive.

This provides evidence for assessment criteria 2.3


2.3:Use a systematic approach to plan training and development for a training event.

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Training is most effective when it is planned implemented and evaluated in a systematic way.
Unplanned uncoordinated and haphazard training efforts greatly reduce the learning that can
be expected. Table below shows three major components of a systematic approach to
training:
Assessment:
1) Determining training needs
2) Identify training objectives

Implementation:
1) Select training methods
2) Conduct training

Evaluation:
1) Compare training outcomes against criteria

Training needs assessment:


Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the organization (Long term) and
the individual employees (short term). This involves finding answers to questions such as:
Whether training is needed? If yes, where it is needed? Which training is needed? Once we
identify training gaps within the organization it becomes easy to design an appropriate
training program. Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis as
shown in Table.
Organizational analysis: It involves a study of the entire organization in terms of its
objective its resources the utilization of these resources in order to achieve stated objectives
and its interaction pattern with environment. The important elements that are closely
examined in this connection are:

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Analysis of objectives: This is the study of short term and long term objectives and the
strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives.
Resource utilization analysis: How the various organizational resources (human, physical
and financial) are put to use is the main focus of this study. The contributions of various
departments are also examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. This is done
to find out comparative labour costs, whether a unit is under manned or overmanned.
Environmental scanning: Careful, diligent monitoring of an organizations internal and
external environments. Contrast to surveillance, confined to a focused objective or a unique,
focused sector. Seeking to detect early signs of opportunities and threats that may influence
the organizations current and future plans..Here the economic, political, socio-cultural and
technological environment of the organization is examined.
Organizational climate analysis: The climate of an organization speaks about the attitudes
of members towards work, company policies, supervisors etc. Absenteeism turnover ratios
generally reflect the prevailing employees attitudes. These can be used to find out whether
trainings efforts have imported the overall climate within the company or not.
Task or role analysis: This is a detailed examination of a job, its various operations and
conditions under which it has to be performed. The focus here is on the roles played by an
individual and the training needed to perform such roles. The whole exercise is meant to find
out how the various tasks have to be performed and which kinds of skills, knowledge, and
attitudes are needed to meet the jobs needs. Questionnaire, interviews, reports, tests,
observation and other methods are generally used to collect job related information from time
to time. After collecting the information an appropriate training program may be designed
paying attention to (1) performance standards required of employees (2) the tasks they have
to discharge, (3) the methods they will employ on the job and (4) how they have learned such
methods etc.
Person analysis: Here the focus is on the individual in a given job. There are three issues to
be resolved through manpower analysis. First, we try to find out whether performance is
satisfactory and training is required. Second, whether the employee is capable of being
trained and the specific areas in which training is needed. Finally, we need to state whether
poor performers (who can improve with requisite training inputs) on the job need to be
replaced by those who can do the job. Other options to training such as modifications in the
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job or processes should also be looked into. Personal observations performance reviews,
supervisory reports, diagnostic tests help in collecting the required information and select
particular training options that try to improve the performance of individual workers.
To be effective, training efforts must continuously monitor and coordinate the three kinds of
analyses described above. An appropriate program that meets the companys objectives, task
and employee needs may then be introduced. Further, the training needs have to be prioritized
so that the limited resources that are allocated to fill training gaps are put to use in a proper
way.
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 2.3
3.1.Prepare an evaluation using suitable techniques.
Evaluation is a process that critically examines a program. It involves collecting and
analyzing information about a programs activities, characteristics, and outcomes. Its purpose
is to make judgments about a program, to improve its effectiveness, and/or to inform
programming decisions (Patton, 1987).
Methods of evaluation:
Qualitative Methods
Introduction
Personal Interviews
Focus Groups
Participant-Observation
General Information
Quantitative Methods
Introduction
Counting Systems
Surveys
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
Factors To Be Eliminated as Contributors to Program Results
Schematics for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
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Examples of Experimental Designs


Examples of Quasi-Experimental Designs
Converting Data on Behaviour Change into Data on Morbidity and Mortality
Converting Data on Behaviour Change into Data on Cost Savings
Summary of Quantitative Methods
Explanation of Qualitative Methods:
Introduction
Because qualitative methods are open-ended, they are especially valuable at the formative
stage of evaluation when programs are pilot testing proposed procedures, activities, and
materials. They allow the evaluator unlimited scope to probe the feelings, beliefs, and
impressions of the people participating in the evaluation and to do so without
prejudicing participants with the evaluators own opinions. They also allow the evaluator to
judge the intensity of peoples preference for one item or another.
Qualitative methods are also useful for testing plans, procedures, and materials if a problem
arises after they are in use. Using these methods, evaluators can usually determine the cause
of any problem. Armed with knowledge about the cause, program staff can usually correct
problems before major damage is done.
Personal Interviews
In-depth personal interviews with broad, open-ended questions are especially useful when the
evaluator wants to understand either 1) the strengths and weaknesses of a new or modified
program before it is in effect or 2) the cause of a problem should one develop after the
program is in effect. Relatively unstructured personal interviews with members of the target
population allow interviewees to express their point of view about a programs good and bad
points without being prejudiced by the evaluators own beliefs. Open-ended questions allow
interviewees to focus on points of importance to them, points that may not have occurred to
the evaluator. Personal interviews are particularly important when the target population
differs in age, ethnicity, culture, or social background from program staff and when the
program staff has a different professional background from those directing the program.
Through the interview, the interviewee becomes a partner in, rather than the object of, the
evaluation.
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Focus Groups
Focus groups serve much the same function as personal interviews. The main difference is
that, with focus groups, the questions are asked of groups. Ideally these groups comprise four
to eight people who are likely to regard each other as equals. A feeling of equality allows all
members of the group to express their opinions freely. Focus groups have an advantage over
individual interviews because the comments of one participant can stimulate the thoughts and
ideas of another. We must conduct several focus groups because different combinations of
people yield different perspectives. The more views expressed, the more likely we are to
develop a good understanding of whatever situation you are investigating.
General Information
Who To Interview, Invite to Focus Groups, or Observe: If we are evaluating our
programs methods, procedures, activities, or materials, select people similar to those
our program is trying to reach. Indeed, we could even select members of the target population
itself, if that is possible.
Number of People To Interview, Focus Groups To Conduct, or Events To Observe: The
number depends on the size and diversity of the target population. The larger and
more diverse the target population, the more interviews, focus groups, or observations are
needed. In all cases, the more interviews, observations, or focus groups we conduct, the more
likely we are to get an accurate picture of the situation we are investigating.
Trained Evaluator: For several reasons, all qualitative evaluation must be conducted by
people trained in the particular method (interview, focus group, or participant
observation) being used:
Participant-Observation
Evaluation by participant-observation involves having members of the evaluation team
participate (to the degree possible) in the event being observed, look at events from the
perspective of a participant, and make notes about their experiences and observations.
Aspects

to

observe

include physical

barriers

for

participants,

smoothness

of

program operation, areas of success, and areas of weakness. Observers should be unobtrusive
and ensure that their activities do not disrupt the program. They should be alert, trained

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in observational methods, and aware of the type of observations of greatest importance to the
program evaluation.
Sample evaluation report:
Topic Title: _________________________________________________________

Participant's Name (optional): _______________________________________


EVALUATION TOOL
We appreciate your help in evaluating this program. Please indicate your rating of the
presentation in the categories below by circling the appropriate number, using a scale of 1
(low) through 5 (high). Please fill out both sides of this form:
OBJECTIVES

This program met the stated objectives of:

1. Identify three types of neurological complications often found after


traumatic brain injury.

1 2 3 4 5

2. Identify three types of other traumatic complications often found


after traumatic brain injury.

1 2 3 45

3. List two types of medications to be avoided after traumatic brain


injury.

1 2 3 4 5

SPEAKERS (generally)
1. Knowledgeable in content areas

1 2 3 4 5

2. Content consistent with objectives

1 2 3 4 5

3. Clarified content in response to questions

1 2 3 4 5

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CONTENT
1. Appropriate for intended audience
1 2 3 4 5
2. Consistent with stated objectives
1 2 3 4 5
TEACHING METHODS

1 2 3 4 5

1. Visual aids, handouts, and oral presentations clarified content


1 2 3 4 5
2. Teaching methods were appropriate for subject matter
Knowledgeable in

Content consistent

Clarified content in

FACULTY

Content area

with objectives

response to questions

Dr. Smith

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

COMMENTS:

RELEVANCY

1. Information could be applied to practice

1 2 3 4 5

2. Information could contribute to achieving

1 2 3 4 5

personal, professional goals

FACILITY

1. Was adequate and appropriate for session

1 2 3 4 5

2. Was comfortable and provided adequate

1 2 3 4 5

space

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This program enhanced my


professional expertise.

I would recommend this

____ Substantially

____ Somewhat

____ Not at all

____ Yes

____ No

____ Not sure

program to others.

COMMENTS/PROGRAM IMPROVEMENTS:
I would like (name of APA-approved sponsor) to provide seminars or workshops on the
following topics:

IN GENERAL

Do you prefer: ____half-day seminars ____full-day seminars

Do you prefer seminars in: ____hotels ____hospital

___multi-day seminars

____no preference

How much time do you need to respond to a program announcement?


____less than 1 month

____4 to 6 weeks ____more than 6 weeks

How did you learn about this program?


____brochure

____supervisor

____colleague

____other

How far did you travel to attend this program?


____0-25 miles

____25-50 miles

____50-100 miles ____over 100 miles

THANK YOU

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This provides evidence for assessment criteria 3.1


3.2.Carry out an evaluation of a training event.
Conducting a training evaluation completes the learning cycle that would have started with
first identifying gaps in employee skills and knowledge, using a training needs analysis. The
tangible symbol of this completion is the training evaluation report.
The training evaluation report is used to communicate information to stakeholders about the
training that was provided, how it was received, it's possible/potential impact, together with
any additional observations and recommendations. This information forms part of the
organisational training feedback loop and serves as an important guide to future training
needs analysis, training events and training evaluations.
Data for the Training Evaluation Report
Typically the majority of the information that comprises the training evaluation report comes
from the training delegates however their supervisors/managers and perhaps the training
instructor may provide input as well.
This information will usually be collected from completed training evaluation forms (paper or
electronic) which are collated and analysed by the training administrator using training
evaluation software or else survey software or Microsoft Excel.
Whatever the method of data collection, the training evaluation report, whether its for a
single workshop or a suite of linked courses, will need to represent the views of the various
stakeholders while presenting conclusions that are both meaningful and actionable.
The following is a checklist of points to guide this approach:

Does the report follow a standard format? - The stakeholders should be provided with
reports in a consistent format that allows them to easily absorb key information and
make comparisons with earlier reports if they need to.

Are findings of the training needs analysis referenced? - The training evaluation
report should tie back to the organisational objectives which led to the training
needs analysis and as a result the training event.

Have there been any material changes to the organisations objectives since training
began? - This may need to be highlighted in the body of the report

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Is there anything special about the training event? - For example, why is this
particular training event being evaluated compared to others that are not
evaluated? Is the nature of the training sensitive such that the results of the
evaluation are likely to be highly politicised? These should be taken into account in
detailing the findings.

Are conclusions logical and sufficiently explained? - It is important to demonstrate


how the reports' conclusions were reached to maintain credibility. Supporting data
should be made available by way of appendices where required.

Are recommendations included? - There should be at least one recommendation that


can be applied to future training courses or training needs analysis.

Does the report provide sufficient content to be useful? - Different reports lengths will
be suitable for different stakeholders so this can be addressed by providing perhaps
the executive summary and recommendations and holding back the extended report
to be supplied on request.

This provides evidence for assessment criteria 3.2


3.3.Revieew the success of the evaluation methods used.
Failure Through Intimidation
Companies that use the evaluation process to intimidate employees experience much worker
dissatisfaction and even drops in productivity. According to Tool pack Consulting, managers
who conduct evaluations often feel like uncomfortable judges, and the employees feel
stripped of self control. Structure your employee evaluations in such a way that managers
spend at least part of the time praising what the employee has done right. Also make the
evaluation a platform for the employee to raise concerns, so that a sense of empowerment
emerges in the evaluation (Kelly,2009).
Peer Reviews
One technique that helps make the employee evaluation process more productive is the peer
review. This method uses employee teams to set criteria for evaluation. These reviews should
not be used to set pay, provide promotion opportunities or discipline employees. They should
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be used to find ways to improve worker satisfaction and productivity. Employees show a high
level of acceptance of this type of review, especially when they are allowed input in the
process of creating and conducting the evaluations. Your business may find success with
using peer reviews as part of the employee evaluation procedure.
Self Evaluations
One tool to make employee evaluations more empowering is to use self evaluations in the
mix of methods you choose. Employees are often remarkably honest and accurate in
assessing their own performance. The manager takes on the role of coach rather than judge,
helping the employee pinpoint ways to achieve higher productivity (Kelly,2009).
Playing it by Ear
According to Archer North, many companies fail to get what they need out of employee
evaluations because managers improvise during the session. You should provide your
managers with a set of criteria for evaluating employees. A checklist can be helpful for
managers to use to ensure they cover all important criteria. Your company will be more likely
to succeed with employee evaluations if you plan them.
Setting Goals
One of the most important ways your company can succeed with employee evaluations is to
use the review session to set goals with the employee. These should be discussed first, then
written down, so that the employee understands the benchmarks for the next evaluations. This
provides objective criteria for future performance reviews, and those criteria are chosen by
the employee in conjunction with the manager, rather than simply being imposed
(Kelly,2009).
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 3.3
4.1.Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning.
A skilled and appropriately trained workforce is essential to organisational performance.
Consequently, it is in the interests of organisations to ensure that employees have
opportunities for training and development. Such opportunities will aid recruitment, retention
and succession planning.

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It is also in your interest to ensure that your skills and knowledge are as current and up to
date as possible. This will not only help you to perform your job better, but will also increase
your employability during uncertain times.
In recent years, government has promoted the notion of lifelong learning: individuals are
encouraged to accept that learning does not stop when we leave formal education, but
actually continues throughout life. Since April 2009, individuals working in organisations
with 250 employees or more have had the statutory right to request time off for study or
training. Employees in sufficiently large organisations are eligible to make a request if they
have worked for the employer continuously for 6 months and are over 18 (16-18 year olds
have a separate right to time off for study or training).This right was to be extended to all
employees irrespective of the size of their employer. Unfortunately, this has been postponed
by the Conservative-led Government.
Government initiatives
Government is emphasizing the importance of training and development as they aim to
remove the barriers of employability of those that have fewer opportunities to do so. This is
where the idea of life-long learning is becoming the main initiative of the government to
create such opportunities to a wide-range of communities and backgrounds. The life-long
learning aim is remove and combat social exclusions which will then help to promote
employability and active citizenship amongst communities.
The aim of life-long learning is to:
Increase the demand for learning, using vocational learning to create a fun and
stimulating learning process
Develop world class training, to satisfy the UK and European domestic markets, and
also to satisfy the needs of the economy
Give people the opportunity to re-develop their skills, without having to continually
take courses, but to simply update their current skills and knowledge.
The basic education provided by schooling only provides a foundation for learning, however
there are then gaps in the skills required for young people to development the skills that they
are able to transfer into the workplace. This is also aimed at adult learners, whom have not
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been able to seek and sustain employment due to their gaps in skills. The life-long learning
project aims to remove the barrier of the lack of skills and tries to help those that are not
equipped for workplace environments to gain the confidence to do so.
The encouragement to keep life-long learning an important part of someones life is being
encouraged by the governments continuous investment in education and training; not just for
young people but also for adults with no basic skills which are needed in the workplace.
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 4.1
4.2.Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the
public and private sectors.
Impact of competency movement on the Public Sector:
A wide variety of generic competency models are available for performance improvement
when driven by a strategic planning process in both the private and public sectors (Bryson,
1995; Dror, 1997; Dubois, 1996; Lado and Wilson, 1994; Snell &Youndt, 1995). These
models typically link organizational core competencies with employee core competencies, as
distinguished from employee job-specific competencies, in order to establish a direct linkage
between the organization's priorities and employee behaviours. Creating effective linkages
can be problematic and the above mentioned potential advantages and disadvantages of the
competency approach also apply to competency programs in the public sector. For example,
the British civil service designed competence checklist to replace its traditional, centrallycontrolled selection criteria and it resulted in a pattern of strengths and weaknesses similar to
those reported in the North American literature on competencies (North, 1993).

Bryson (1995) describes several methods by which public sector and non profit organizations
can identify their organizational core competencies as a significant output of the strategic
planning process. For example, a strategic consideration of a public sector organization's
strengths and weaknesses can identify its organizational core competencies in concrete terms.
Improvement of organizational core competencies can then be achieved through coordinated
adjustment of HRM administrative policies and practices covering all, or selected, personnel
functions. In some cases even in public sector settings, it may be important to ensure that an
organization's competency model be explicitly future oriented, rather than implicitly historic,
and that it identify levels of superior strategic performance rather than levels of threshold, or
minimum, operational performance (Jacobs, 1989). For example, entry level recruitment to
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government based on the assessment of potential could include future oriented expectations
in the priority assigned to different competencies, and in the design of competency
assessment instruments.
Using a top-down approach, Dror's (1997) generic strategic analysis of the alternative roles
of senior civil services links the core capacities of the organization with the attributes of its
individual members. These are equivalent to organizational core competencies and employee
core competencies, respectively. Dror's recommended future-oriented core capacities
(organizational core competencies) include: intervening in history, energizing, adjusting
social architecture, risk-taking, handling complexity, making harsh tragic choices, and
mobilizing support for constructive destruction.
A similar typology of functions unique to the public sector provided by Carroll
(1997)includes: reconciling differences, achieving agreement, and using legitimate authority
to carry agreements into effect. Dror suggest that these core capacities can be actualized
through utilization of six attributes -- super-professionalism, innovation-creativity, meritelitist but society reflecting, virtuous, autonomous but subordinated, and mission-oriented-(employee core competencies) of the senior executive cadre. Dror believes that these
executive core competencies are required to carry out higher order tasks which have strategic
importance in determining the relative success of government in an era of globalization and
rapid change

Impact of competency movement on the Private Sector:


Recent surveys indicate widespread use of competency-based human resource models by
banks, insurance companies, management consulting firms, technology companies,
transportation companies, utility companies, delivery companies, retail eating outlets,
manufacturing industries, and mining companies. Industry publications suggest ongoing use
of competencies in the private sector, but the extent of use remains uncertain.
For example, North American Life (NAL) used the Hay system in 1995 (Orr, 1995) to link
competency, performance management, and pay. They came up with a short list of 10
competencies -- analytical thinking, conceptual thinking, customer focus, developing people,
flexibility, information seeking, listening and understanding and responding, performance
excellence, team leadership, and teamwork -- specific to NAL using a standardized menu of
competencies to survey employees and identify proficiencies relevant to each job
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Other private sector initiatives reported by Czarnecki (1995) include the finance department
of McDonald's Canada which introduced competency modelling for its 50 employees and
Purolator Courier which used a project team to identify 10 to 30 technical competencies (e.g.
keyboard, software skills) and five to eight behavioural competencies (e.g. time planning,
initiative, telephone presence).
Winter (1996) has described how Guardian Insurance uses competencies to assess and reward
individual performance in terms of core competencies that reflect the company's strategic
focus and priorities and how Bell Sygma applies the notion of competencies to all aspects of
human resources management, starting with the HR plan. In the latter case, gap analysis
provides the basis for behavioural-based interviews to select candidates who fit with their
core competencies, for an individual development process, for succession planning, and for
job definition determined by the competencies an employee applies.
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 4.2
4.3: Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the Uk government
contribute to human resources development for an organisation

The Governments main aim has been to help ensure that basic skills education is included in
mainstream Government initiatives. In practice, many courses provide basic skills education
alongside the development of wider life skills including the key skills. The initiatives include
government education and training programmes and family and community based initiatives,
which by their nature, tend to be more attractive to women. Amongst these initiatives are:
Family Literacy where parents and their children learn basic skills together and
separately, usually over a 12 week period of 90 hours learning. It is school-based and
at present focuses on families with very young children, aged 3 - 6 years. The
Government has made available 5 million funding for Family Literacy for 1999 2000 so that all local education authorities now have access to provision. A diverse
range of Family Numeracy projects is for the first time available to 52 LEAs, with a
grant of 1 million. Evidence from evaluation of the pilot Family Literacy initiative
suggests that 60% of parents took a further course of study after completing the
Family Literacy course (Harrison, 2005) .

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The University for Industry (UfI), in which the Government has invested 44
million to date, will be launched in Autumn 2000. It will be a new kind of
organisation for open and distance learning aimed at both individuals and businesses.
Using modern information and communications technologies, it will broker the
provision of high quality learning products and services and make them available at
home, in the workplace and at learning centres (including up to 1000 new IT centres)
country-wide. Basic Skills is one of four key priority areas for UfI. Their aim is that
within 5 years an additional 200,000 people per year undertake basic skills
programmes through the UfI up to level 2 of the National Vocational Qualifications
framework (Harrison, 2005).
Promotion of the benefits of improving basic skills either through direct
promotional activity like that sponsored by the BSA or through other routes. The
National Year of Reading was launched in September 1998, and will end in August
1999. One example of the many national and local projects is the Brookie Basics
campaign. This project is a joint initiative between Channel 4, Mersey TV, and is
sponsored by Collins in partnership with DfEE. It involves a popular television series,
Brookside which has 6 million viewers a week, and features a storyline where the
mother of one family has a literacy problem. As the storyline develops viewers are
able to phone the Learning Direct helpline to talk to trained advisers. About 800
centres across the UK have agreed to participate in the project.

Community based initiatives such as the new Adult and Community Learning Fund
launched in 1998 which will provide 20 million over four years to support new,
innovative, community-based activity offering opportunities for learning. It will use
familiar local activity - which may have its primary focus on other issues such as
tenants rights, crime prevention, carers support, arts, the environment - as a context
for learning which is relevant and useful to people. A secondary aim is to build the
capacity of such neighbourhood-based groups to deliver these kinds of opportunities.
A significant proportion of the available resource will be for basic skills education
(Harrison, 2005).
Employment and Training Programmes

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The Governments key employment and training programmes have a crucial role to play
given the high proportion of unemployed people with poor basic skills. The Employment
Service are working to ensure young people facing issues associated with literacy and/or
numeracy are identified as quickly as possible and referred to appropriate provision. An
assessment instrument to assist this process is currently being piloted (Claydon,2007).
The New Deal for 18-24 year olds gives young people with reading, writing or numeracy
problems who are at risk of finding it particularly difficult to find work the choice to enter the
New Deal immediately upon becoming unemployed. The Government promised in its
manifesto to help 250,000 young people into jobs and set aside 2.6 billion for this
programme .
The New Deal provides "Gateway" provision which aims first to get young people into work,
and includes help with job search, careers advice and guidance, basic and key skills. There
follow four work experience or learning options which each include an element of education
or training. Finally, a Follow Through strategy ensures that New Deal clients are helped,
throughout their participation on an option, to progress towards the goal of finding or
sustaining employment, and are given further assistance if they return to unemployment
(Claydon,2007).
Work Based Learning for Adults provides help for adults who have been unemployed longterm in England. There is a client group that has difficulty in getting jobs because of a
combination of disadvantages, such as very low self-esteem, poor motivation or lack of
interpersonal skills. This multiple disadvantage goes beyond simply a lack of basic skills. for
example, a family history of being without work. Flexible learning packages are designed to
meet their basic and occupational learning needs and follow up once in employment is also
provided. Between 1998-2000, 668 million was made available to offer 235,000
opportunities of which one third included courses to support basic employability.
It is difficult to provide evidence of the effectiveness of programmes which have only been
running for a short period of time. However, evidence from a recent evaluation of the PreVocational Training initiative pilots, which preceded Work Based Learning, suggests that
they were successful in attracting groups on the margins of the labour market and that most
participants reported benefits, particularly increased motivation and confidence. Around a

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third of participants with basic skills needs gained a whole qualification during their training
(Claydon,2007) .
This provides evidence for assessment criteria 4.3

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References:
Claydon, T.(2007). Human Resource Management: A contemporary approach. Pearson
education limited: England.
Fitts , P.M., & Posner, M.I.(1967). Learning and skilled performance in human
performance. Belmont CA: Brock-Cole.
Harrison, R.(2005). Learning and Development. Chartered Institute of Personnel and
Development: London.
Rae,J.(1992). Artificial Intelligence and Economic Analysis: prospects and problems.
Edward Elgar Publishing Limited: USA.
Kelly,D.(2009).Methods for Evaluating Interactive Information Retrieval Systems with
Users. Now Publication: Netherlands.
Internet references:
1.http://www.learning-styles-online.com/style/solitary-intrapersonal-Accessedon
07/05/13
2. http://www.intropsych.com/ch07_cognition/learning_curve.html_Access on 08/05/13
3.http://www.hrmostinfluential.com/research/ensuring-learning-transfers-to-theworkplace-where-does-the-buck-stop_Accessed on 10/05/13
4. http://www.worksmart.org.uk/rights/training_Accessed on 13/05/13
5.http://www.exploreadultlearning.co.uk/job-training-pros-cons.html_Accessedon
15/05/13
6. http://www.citeman.com/13086-a-systematic-approach-to-training.html_ Accessed on
17/05/13
7.http://www.chron.com/search/?action=search&channel=business&search=1&firstReq
uest=1&query=carry+out+an+evaluation+of+a+training+event&x=39&y=12&searchin
dex=property_ Accessed on 19/05/13
8.http://www.marblewire.com/articles/writing-a-training-evaluation-report.aspx_
Accessed on 17/05/13

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