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JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW TEMPLATE

North American University


Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership and M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324

Name: Kemal Kocak

Date: 7/11/2015

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:

Bulent Dogan & Kadir Almus (2014) School Administrators Use of iPads: Impact of
Training and Attitudes Toward School Use, Computers in the Schools: Interdisciplinary
Journal of Practice, Theory, and Applied Research, 31:3, 233-250, DOI:
10.1080/07380569.2014.932660

INTRODUCTION
Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is the theoretical
background or overarching theme):

The article was conducted to focus on school administrators use of iPads for school
administrative tasks and personal organization in their professional duties and make
research on the school administrator to see how often do they use iPad for their duties and
how much do they know how to use this technology. The participants consisted of the 51
elementary and secondary school administrator been chosen from largest public school
system in southwestern state. Administrator responded questionnaire that addressed
school administrates perception related to the major function of technology (iPad) during
their duties. This article make sense to us, using technology as like iPad reduce your

work effort during your school duties and also this encourage administrator to requested
teacher to use in classroom
1. What is the impact of the training process on school administrators use of iPads for
administrative tasks and personal organization in their professional duties?
2. What is the impact of the training process on school administrators beliefs regarding
how teachers should use iPads in the classroom?
3. Are there any differences in school administrators survey responses based on gender,
age, years of experience in school administration and education, highest degree attained,
school classification, or school size?

Purpose of the research:

This researchs purpose is figure out what is impact of the training process of school
administrators use iPad for administrative tasks and personal organization in their
professional duties and do they beliefs regarding how teacher should use iPad in the
classroom? Do administrators perception of the technology differ by years of experience,
gender, age, highest degree attained, school classification, and school size?

METHODOLOGY
What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the issue? Provide
information regarding the following:

Participants: 51 elementary and secondary school administrators

Procedures: 51 subject were selected on the differ survey and were being asked
participants on the 2 different survey that one of them post-survey other one is presurvey. 120 participants took post-survey but only 51 one them owned iPad volunteered
to complete the pre survey that 58.8% (n=30) of the participants were male, 41.2%
(n=21) of them were female. Also 37 of pre- survey respondents completed the post
survey, yielding a response rate of 72.55%. 21 (56.76%) respondents in post survey were
male, and 16 (43.24%) were female. The administrators responses for the major function
of the survey were categorize into five main group: school administrators use of iPad and
iPad application, they beliefs regarding how teachers should use iPad in the classroom,
differences in participants responses by their demographic and contextual data (gender,
age, years of experience in school administration and education highest attained), school
classification and school size, and evaluation.

Data Collection Methods/Data Source: Demographic and Contextual Data

Data Analysis:
According to data analysis of the demographic and contextual data for survey participants
were conducted and age of survey participants were 34.16 years, the average years of the
experience in education was 8.45, the average years of experience in school administrator
was 2.04, and the average school size of participants was 618.50. End of the survey all
participant in this survey was owned an iPad that 27.45 % of participants purchased their
own iPads and the majority of the iPads 72.55% were given to school administrator by
their school district.

All participants used those program;


Microsoft Windows Vista= 52.94%
iOS= 37.25%
OS= 1.96%
Other= 7.84%
The Major of the participants classified;
K-12= 62.75% elementary, middle, and high school
K-8= 19.61% elementary and middle
6-12= 9.80 middle and high school
K-5= 7.84% elementary school
Highest level of education do they had attained;
Bachler = 50.98%
Master = 49.02%

RESULTS
Findings or Results (or main points of the article):

We can sort the data analysis of this study into five principle bunches
1. Analysis of demographic and relevant information; effects of the preparation

handle on school admin's utilization of iPad and iPad applications


The average age of school administrators who participated was 34.16 years.
The average years of experience in education was 8.45
The average years of experience as a school administrator was 2.04.
The average school size of participants was calculated as 618.50.
27.45% of participants purchased their own iPads
The majority of the iPads (72.55%) were given to school administrators by their

school district.
52.94% used the iPhone (iOS) as their mobile platform,
Android platform was (37.25%),
Black-Berry was OS (1.96%),
Other was (7.84%).
The majority of participants schools were classified as elementary, middle, and

high school (K12) (62.75%)


Elementary and middle school (K8) were classified (19.61%)
Middle and high school (612) were classified (9.80%)
Elementary (K5) was classified (7.84%).
50.98% of school administrators held a bachelors degree
49.02% held a masters degree.
2. Effect of Training: Use of iPads for Administrative Tasks and Organization in

Professional Duties
School administrators were asked whether they used specific iPad applications

for work-related purposes. A majority of the participants (66.67%) responded


affirmatively to this question.

Analysis of the question, What is the best feature of iPad in your experience?,

being mobile was the most selected response with 21.43%


touchscreen was (20.88%),
being able to use various applications (15.93%)
compact and light (13.74%)
digital camera feature (10.44%),
connectivity (9.89%)
camcorder feature (7.69%).

Participants were asked to rate their iPad knowledge and skills prior to

and after completing the training process.

31.37% rated themselves as a beginner in their iPad skills and knowledge,


64.71% of participants rated themselves as intermediate
3.92% of the participants rated themselves as advanced prior to the study.
After completing the training process, the percentage of participants rating

themselves as intermediate (70.27%)


advanced (10.81%) increased
the percentage of participants rating themselves beginner (18.92) decreased.
Analysis of a question measuring what type of applications school administrators

use the most on their iPads for work-related purposes indicated that education was the
modal response (23.84%).

Other popular answers for this question were communication and books and

reference applications,both at 11.92%.


A similar trend was observed for responses to the same question in the postsurvey. The education related applications were again the most selected

response (23.62%)
communication was (12.60%)
books and reference were (12.60%).
The same trend was observed for the remaining items in the post-survey, except
that there were increases in the participants responses with productivity

(4.64% in pre-survey vs. 7.87% in post-survey)


tools (5.30% in pre-survey vs. 7.87% in post-survey) related iPad applications.
Other measured types of applications included games, business, comics,
entertainment, finance, health & fitness, media and video, news &
magazines, photography, social, travel and local, and weatherall

yielding less than 5% in the post-survey.


Data analysis of the item, I believe that iPads are effective tools for principals

regarding administrative tasks and personal organization, yielded a mean score

of 3.73 in the pre-survey and 4.27 in the post-survey


A mean scale score close to the value 5 would indicate that the participants
Downloaded by strongly agreed with the statement and a mean scale score close
to the value 1 would indicate that the participants strongly disagreed with the
statement. Given these scores, participants in this study mostly agreed with this

statement.
These results suggest that the overall training process in this study had a
statistically significant effect on participants beliefs about the effectiveness of

iPads as a tool for administrative tasks and personal organization.


The analysis of the question measuring the frequency of how school

administrators responded to, I use my iPad for administrative tasks and personal
organization in following areas, in the pre-survey yielded mean scores
ranging from 2.57 to 3.84 (Table 2). Data analysis of the same item yielded
mean scores ranging from 3.32 to 4.00 in the post-survey. A mean scale score
close to the value 5 indicated that the participants always used their iPads
in the stated area

whereas a mean scale score close to the value 1 would indicate that the

participants never used their iPads in the stated area


3. Effect of Training on School Administrators' Beliefs Regarding How Teachers

Should Use iPads in the Classroom


School administrators were asked to report their opinions regarding how teachers
should be using iPads in the classroom. Virtually all participants in both the presurvey (98.04%) and the post-survey (97.30%) stated that they would like to see

their teachers using iPads for teaching in the classroom.


When school administrators were asked whether they thought that computers used

in courses would be replaced by iPads in the future, 76.47% of the participants in

pre-survey and 86.49% in post-survey responded yes.


The analysis of a question asking how school administrators would like to see
their teachers using iPads in the classroom revealed that there were slight
increases between the pre- and post-survey in the following responses: using
iPad for class communication (e-mail, messaging, contacting parents, etc.)

(11.59% vs. 13.22%)


making specific applications (created by the teacher) that might help students

(10.30% vs. 12.07%);


using specific applications (created by others) that might help students (15.88%

vs. 16.67%)
projecting/streaming lessons/presentation to the iPad (17.60% vs. 18.39%).
Alternately, there were slight decreases between pre- and post-survey regarding
the number of responses selected for remaining items, such as, Requiring

creative assignments involving iPad use (18.88% vs. 16.67%),


Referencing/sharing a specific content item (picture, document, video, etc.) as an

example (17.17% vs. 14.94%)


Encouraging taking notes (8.15% vs. 8.05%).
4. Differences in Participants Responses by Their Demographic and Contextual

Data
Neither the one-way ANOVA nor the t test revealed significant differences for the
item asking school administrators to rate their beliefs about iPads being effective

tools.
The same result occurred for the item measuring school administrators selfreported levels of iPad skills and knowledge, with the exception of school

classification.
There was a significant difference on the item measuring the self-reported level of
iPad skills and knowledge by the school classification

5-Evaluation of Training Process

Participants were asked in the post-survey which iPad applications they found
most useful among those highlighted in the training session and post-training
resources. Google Drive storage and sharing files was the most selected

response (22.30%) to this question


Other popular responses included syncing Google Calendar to your iPad

(16.55%)
Dropbox for storage and sharing files (13.67%)
Go Tasks with Google Tasks (10.07%).
When school administrators were asked in the post-survey which applications
they actually used among those highlighted in the training session and posttraining resources, Google Drive storage and sharing files was again the most

selected response (23.53%),


syncing Google Calendar to your iPad was (20.59%)
Dropbox for storage and sharing files were (17.65%)
Evernote for note taking/organizing was (8.82%).
School administrators were further solicited to evaluate the training process that
they participated in during the study. A majority (81.08%) responded that they
would like to continue receiving training and resources on the use of iPads for

administrative tasks and teaching.


48.65% of participants found the training session and the resources provided

afterward very useful


43.24% finding them useful
8.11% finding them somewhat useful.

DISCUSSIONS

Conclusions/(for your profession):


School administrators in K5 reported their level of iPad aptitudes and data higher
than administrators of K8 and K12 schools. In addition, administrators in K-12 schools
reported lower level of iPad capacities and data as compared to the directors of K-5 and
K-8 schools paying minimal notice to age, years of contribution in school association and
in guideline, most essential degree fulfilled, school size, or sex, school managers
responded additionally to things in this study. The way of individuals with the iOS
working system showed that individuals in this study had the vital

competency expected to use iPads before the readiness. The vast majority of school of
administrators reported that they used specific iPad applications for business related goals
in this study. Regarding the iPads' convenience, school chiefs reported the touchscreen,
and the ability to use diverse application highlights for business related purposes. Before
the readiness process, pretty much 68% of the school administrators evaluated their iPad
aptitudes and adapting as widely appealing to cutting edge. After the arrangement
methodology, school heads reported augmentations in their iPad capacities and data.
According to the eventual outcomes of the post-review, right around 80% of school
officials considered their iPad capacities and learning at the level of widely appealing to
critical edge. These results recommend that, all around, the arrangement strategy had a
helpful result on the change of iPad capacities and learning of the school heads.
Results in like manner demonstrated that applications in the "educational" class were
the most used sorts of iPad applications, trailed by "correspondence" and "books and
reference" going before the planning.

According to results, school administrators acknowledged that iPads were practical


instruments for administrative errands and individual affiliation. Likewise, chiefs were
essentially more in simultaneousness with this idea ensuing to completing the readiness
process. All around, there were additions in the repeat of school heads' usage of the iPad
for definitive endeavors and individual relationship in every purposeful domain.
All school chiefs going before or after this study reported that they may need to see
their educators using iPads for classroom teaching. Specifically, directors expected to see
their instructors' endeavor and stream lessons or presentations from their iPads, use
specific iPad applications that may help understudies, and use their iPads for class
correspondence. Additionally, school administrators looked to see educators using iPads
as a piece of the already expressed locales all the more resulting to completing the
arrangement process.
The overwhelming piece of school heads acknowledged that iPads would be
supplanting PCs later on. This conviction was more pervasive in school directors who
wrapped up the arrangement process. These results suggest that school heads in this study
had positive points of view as to the capacity of iPad present and future use in the
classroom by instructors.
The greater part of school administrators found the arrangement process
accommodating (92% with joined classes of "amazingly profitable" and "significant"),
and they moreover needed constant get ready and resources on using iPads for definitive
assignments and teaching.
All in all, these data suggest that giving constant planning open entryways may help
school supervisors' accomplishment in using iPads for master commitments furthermore

realizing iPads in the classroom. General delayed consequences of this study suggest that
all together for school chiefs to be productive in using iPads for master commitments,
especially for legitimate errands and individual affiliation, satisfactory and advancing
planning is recommended.
REFLECTIONS
It is seen that, the impact of the readiness change on school administrators` usage of iPads for
administrative assignments and individual relationship in their master commitments extended.
This lead to use iPads more for administrative assignments. Actually, I was expecting these
results, following these trainings help to indicate how components of iPads can be utilized.
Trainings impact on chiefs about instructors should use iPads more instructional activities along
these lines it has various applications introduced to rules. This will facilitate to climb engagement
of understudies as well. Supervisors similarly acknowledge iPads will be supplanted by
convenient workstations later on. The results are impressive, especially when I took in the results
from outline about K-5 officials are more attracted than K-8 and K-12 heads paying little mind to
sexual introduction, age, years of contribution in school association, and preparing, most
important degree accomplished , school game plan or school size.