Functions of Educational/Instructional Supervision

Presenter Muhammad Abrar Khan M.Phil Student Under Guidance of Prof: Dr. Umar Ali Khan

Presentation Objectives
‡ To understand the History of Supervision ‡ To understand Definitions of Supervision ‡ To understand Functions of Supervision ‡ To understand the Process of Change ‡ To understand the Role of Principal as Change Leader

The History of Supervision
‡ In colonial New England, supervision of instruction began as a process of external inspection: one or more local citizens were appointed to inspect both what the teachers were teaching and what the students were learning. The inspection theme was to remain firmly embedded in the practice of supervision.

‡ The history of supervision as a formal activity exercised by educational administrators within a system of schools did not begin until the formation of the common school in the late 1830s. ‡ During the first half of the nineteenth century, population growth in the major cities of the United States necessitated the formation of city school systems. While superintendents initially inspected schools to see that teachers were following the prescribed curriculum and that students were able to recite their lessons, soon the job was delegated to the school principal.

‡ In the early decades of the twentieth century, the movement toward scientific management in both industrial and public administration had an influence on schools. At much the same time, child-centered and experienced-based curriculum theories of European educators such as Friedrich Froebel, Johann Pestalozzi, and Johann Herbart, as well as the prominent American philosopher John Dewey, were also affecting the schools. Thus, school supervisors often found themselves caught between the demand to evaluate teachers scientifically and the simultaneous need to transform teaching from a mechanistic repetition of teaching protocols to a diverse repertory of instructional responses to students' natural curiosity and diverse levels of readiness

‡ In the second half of the century the field of supervision became closely identified with various forms of clinical supervision. Initially developed by Harvard professors Morris Cogan and Robert Anderson and their graduate students, many of whom subsequently became professors of supervision in other universities, clinical supervision blended elements of "objective" and "scientific" classroom observation with aspects of collegial coaching, rational planning, and a flexible, inquiry-based concern with student learning.

In 1969 Robert Goldhammer proposed the following five-stage process in clinical supervision: (1) a pre-observation conference between supervisor and teacher concerning elements of the lesson to be observed; (2) classroom observation; (3) a supervisor's analysis of notes from the observation, and planning for the post-observation conference; (4) a post-observation conference between supervisor and teacher; and (5) a supervisor's analysis of the post-observation conference.

For many practitioners, these stages were reduced to three: the pre-observation conference, the observation, and the postobservation conference. Cogan insisted on a collegial relationship focused on the teacher's interest in improving student learning, and on a nonjudgmental observation and inquiry process.

³A cluster of functions -- administrative, educational and supportive -- performed within the context of a positive relationship by a person (supervisor) to whom authority has been delegated to direct, coordinate, enhance and evaluate the on-the-job performance of the supervisee(s) for whose work s/he is held accountable.´ Detail
Kadushin, A.E. (1992). Supervision in Social Work. New York: Columbia University Press.

³It is a planned activity that aims at qualitative aspect of the schools by helping teachers through support and evaluation´. Detail

In education, Academic Supervision is defined as: ³It is the process of bringing about improvement in instruction by working with people who are helping the pupils. It is a process of stimulating growth and a means of helping teachers to help themselves. The supervisory program is one of instructional improvement.´ (Spears)

Administrative Functions
‡ Staff recruitment and selection Definition ‡ Staff orientation and placement ‡ Work planning ‡ Work assignment ‡ Work delegation ‡ Monitoring, reviewing and evaluating work ‡ Coordination of work ‡ Communication ‡ Administrative buffer (Defense, Shield) ‡ Community liaison
Kadushin, A.E. (1992). Supervision in Social Work. New York: Columbia University Press

Educational Functions
‡ Identification of knowledge and skills necessary to do the work ‡ Provision of teaching/training/learning resources ‡ Socialization to professional values and identity


Kadushin, A.E. (1992). Supervision in Social Work. New York: Columbia University Press

Supportive Functions
Provides psychological and interpersonal "supplies³ that strengthen capacity of worker to deal with
‡ Job demands ‡ Job stresses ‡ Workplace tensions These include: ‡ Encouragement ‡ Recognition ‡ Approval ‡ Opportunity to "vent³ (Expression of ideas) ‡ Perspective ‡ Flexibility
Kadushin, A.E. (1992). Supervision in Social Work. New York: Columbia University Press

Functions of Educational Supervision
The functions can be categorized into seven as listed below (Wiles & Loveel, 1975): 1. Goal development 2. Program development 3. Control and coordination 4. Motivation 6. Professional development 7. Evaluation of educational outcomes. 5. Problem solving

1. Lovell, J.T (1967). ³A perspective for viewing instructional supervisory behavior´ in supervision. Perspectives and propositions ed. W.H Lucio Washington, D.C Association for supervision and curriculum development. 2. Lucio, W.H (1979) .´Supervision: a synthesis of thought and action´. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Goal Development
The most important function of supervision is to ensure that teachers and supervision work together cooperatively in developing the goals of the school organization. It should be noted that the school goals are generated from the goals of society. Goal development as a function of supervision is a continuous process which requires regular examination, evaluate, modification and changing (if need be) of the goals of the teaching/learning process through the cooperative efforts of both the teachers and the supervisors. The regularity of concern for goal development is a measure of the sensitivity and responsiveness of the supervision scheme to the dynamism of the societal goals as well as clear indicator of the degree of effectiveness of the supervision system.

Program Development
The development of curricula and co-curricula activities is a primary responsibility of the teachers. The role of supervision in the matter is to provide appropriate complementary technical and professional services and support. The number and types of programs developed for the teaching/learning process at the level of either an educational sub-system or individual school or classroom are determined by the earlier developed for the teaching/learning process. So changes in these goals are expected to lead appropriate. Changes, facilitated by the supervisory system, in the programs developed.

Control and Coordination
Education is a system made up of many interrelated, interdependent and interacting units. Each unit has its own goals to achieve and at the same time contribute to the realization of the overall goals of the system or sub-system. It is a basic function of supervision to facilitate the proper coordination of the various units. Effective coordination requires the establishment of a comprehensive system of communication among the units in order to strengthen the system of supervision and improve the quality of instruction for the learner.

Problem Solving
Teachers and learners are always confronted with a variety of problem of varying degree of difficulty. These problems may be related to inputs into the educational organization, anticipated learning outcomes, curricula and co-curricula programs and actual learning. It may be possible for the teacher to solve some of these problems immediately by himself, many other problems may take days or weeks to resolve and require the assistance of the supervisor. In all cases, the supervisory system put in place should be that readily facilitates the resolution of emerging problems.

Professional Development
Teachers are professionals. They are trained, but the needs, problems and aspirations of the society which owns the education system as well as the society¶s expectations from the teachers keep changing. Teachers as custodians of the education of the society must also change and reflect these changes in technology, the development of goals, learning engagements and learning environment of educational organization.

For this to happen, teachers must be exposed to a continuous, comprehensive and systematic program of in-service training to enable them cope with these change of course, it is the function of supervision to initiate , support coordinate and facilitate the realization of the program of professional development for teachers and supervisors.

‡ As an enterprise, educational management is responsible for producing a service ± i.e. Education of which there are three domains i.e. Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills. Since education is a complex, intricate and extending endeavor, thus needs constant and regular technical assistance and professional growth for coordinating and unifying efforts to ensure the best delivery.

‡ In education there are two types of supervision. (i) Administrative supervision. (ii) Academic supervision.


The first one deals with internal efficiency of the system ---- quantitative aspect, giving answer to the question that how the educational institutions are running in a disciplined manner, and making wide use of available resources, Communication and Information are the two major functions of this type of supervision. This type of supervision is carried by upper level management to lower management, however, the degree and emphasis may differ. This includes all the physical facilities like buildings, furniture, equipment, power, water etc., etc.

‡ The other is Instructional or Academic Supervision which deals with external effectiveness ---- qualitative aspect, giving answer to the question that how pupils can learn more and better. Support and Evaluation are the two major functions of this type of supervision. This type of supervision is exclusively carried out by the field supervisory staff for evaluating the work of the teacher.

‡ Function of support is to provide professional guidance and technical assistance to the teacher to improve the teaching process. To teach better means to help the pupils : To learn more. To learn faster. To learn more easily. To have more pleasure while learning, and To use/apply what they learn more effectively

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Go to Definition

Five Tasks of Supervision that Impact Instructional Improvement
Prerequisites Function Tasks Unification Product

Direct Assistance

Group Development Organizational Goals
Student Achievement

Interpersonal Skills

Supervision As Developmental

Professional Development Teacher Needs

Technical Skills

Curriculum Development

Action Research

Glickman et al., 2001, p. 443

Qualities of a Supervisor
‡ However, to accomplish items of this nature the supervisor himself must have the qualities of : listening patiently. demonstrating skills clearly. offering incentives appropriately. judging reactions and understanding accurately. explaining, stimulating and praising sympathetically increasing his own knowledge constantly

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

‡ Support stands nowhere if actual µneed¶ is perceived before hand. No effective guidance can be provided with out evaluation. Evaluation is an act of examining the worth, quality, significance, amount, degree, emphasis or condition of some comparison of situations under evaluation to some similar situation used as a standard of comparison whose quality is well-known. The following definition makes the concept more clear

‡ ³Evaluation is the process of ascertaining the decision area of concern, selecting appropriate information, collecting and analyzing that information in order to report summary data useful to decision makers in selecting among alternatives (Alkin).

Characteristics of Evaluation
‡ The characteristics of evaluation are: ‡ identification of the aspects to be evaluated. ‡ facilitating judgment. ‡ providing useful information (scientific, reliable, valid & timely). ‡ reporting deviations/weaknesses for taking remedial measures in time.


In an education system the quality of teaching vary from excellent to good, adequate, poor and hopeless. This determination is the evaluative function of the Academic supervisors either the head of the school or field staff in the district. Providing support is the next function of academic supervision. Before µsupport¶ it is necessary to assess actual need and type of support for which the teachers stands for --- this type of evaluation is called Formative Evaluation. After having provided support it is necessary to judge the effectiveness of the same. This is called Summative Evaluation. This indicates that µevaluation and support¶ are the cyclical function with no end --- Evaluation --- Support --- Evaluation.





‡ Monte, S. N (1960) ³ Are classroom visits worthwhile´ . The clearing house xxv. 41. ‡ Edwin, H.R (1963). Supervision in the Elementary School ‡ Bostin Hougton Mifflin , L. K. (1961) Supervision in Action Washington , D.C . ‡ Association for supervision and Curriculum Development pp 56. ‡ Harold Spears (1963) . Improving the supervision of Instruction Englewood Cliffs, ‡ New Jersey: Prentice ± hall Inc. pp 62.

School Principal As Change Leader

Understanding the Change Process
Every change leader knows that effecting change in a School, college or university is an art, not a science. Complexities arise from The traditions and history of the institution, external and internal pressures, competing constituencies, the loose connections among units, and pressing questions with no immediately clear answers.

Institutions struggle with two different issues related to change. The first issue concerns where the change has originated, whether by the institution¶s positional leaders, a small innovative group of school stakeholders, or some combination of the two Change directed from the top generally happens more quickly than that Which percolates up from the bottom,

The second issue, which arises after a change initiative is identified, concerns who involved and how. These kinds of complexity make change in higher education an exciting, unpredictable, and difficult undertaking.

The Challenge/characteristics of Change
It is important for institutional leaders to be aware of these common characteristics/challenges and to take them into account as they proceed.

2. While often exciting, change may provoke fear and anxiety. This simple statement masks great complexity, for it deals with the unpredictable reactions of human beings to new situations. Fear can be a major issue for people whose professional and personal lives may be altered by change. They may fear ambiguity or the unknown future; they may fear that they will be incompetent or that their skills and knowledge will not be valued in the changed organization. Because they see the world differently from those who are trying to initiate and implement change, they may have a different assessment of the worthiness of a particular change. (Kotter and Schlessinger, 1979).

Managing Fear and Anxiety
The following strategies can help manage fear associated with institutional change. ‡ Reduce the stress of change by providing clear reasons for it, by outlining the direction of the change, by framing the debate, and by offering feedback (Heifetz, 1994). ‡ Encourage discussion and reflection of the change through town meetings, discussion groups, seminars, and listserv conversations. ‡ Moderate the pace of change so that people have time to understand it and to incorporate it into their thinking and their actions, and to be less overwhelmed by the prospect of doing things a different way. ‡ Support change by providing the training needed by people to do things differently and to feel competent in the new environment.

‡ For people who experience change as loss, an important component of transition to a new way of doing things is the ritual of mourning (Bolman and Deal, 1991).Leaders should encourage people to acknowledge their loss openly so they can constructively move into the future. ‡ Reframe the change so it highlights opportunities that stakeholders²such as faculty, staff, students, alumni, legislators, boards, and parents²might view as beneficial.

2. The change is anchored in the institution¶s mission and values. ‡ Changes that are not a good ³fit´ with the ‡ institution¶s mission and values are likely not to succeed.

3. Stakeholders participate in developing and implementing the agenda for change. Participatory decision making is an integral part of academic life. Although participation can slow the decision-making process, a change effort will generally be more successful if many people with different perspectives contribute to its formulation and implementation. For example, improved learning will occur because of the experience and insights that faculty, administrators, students, student affairs staff, learning specialists, and many others bring to this complex issue. (Continued«.)

No single individual or group has the breadth or the wisdom to formulate a comprehensive change. But more importantly, if people involved in formulating the change feel ownership, they are more likely to be willing participants in the process.

4. Change begins with an exploration of why a particular change is necessary or important. A thorough exploration of why a change is important and how it contributes to continuing excellence is a vital first step in the process. That exploration begins with a set of questions rather than with answers. What is the problem? How might the institution be improved? In what ways will students benefit? Is the change necessary to the institution¶s survival? Well-being? Competitiveness?

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Pervasiveness means Occurrence, frequency, popularity and depth means deepness, intensity, strength

Adjustments include a change or a series of changes that are modifications in a particular area. As Henderson and Clark (1990) suggest, changes of this nature occur when current designs or procedures are improved or extended, but they neither alter the basic ways of doing business nor have deep or far-reaching effects. An example is the incorporation of computer simulations into introductory biology labs.

The second quadrant is isolated change, which is deep but limited to one unit or particular area and is not pervasive.

‡ The third quadrant is far-reaching change; it is pervasive but does not affect the organization very deeply. An example might be the development of online submissions of reading lists to the bookstore. The change affects all faculty but not in profound ways.

‡ The final quadrant is transformational change, which occurs when a change exhibits dimensions of both depth and pervasiveness.

Principals can Improve Schools by
‡ Feeling a genuine commitment to school projects ‡ Being an advocate who promotes and defends school improvement projects ‡ Being one who links the school improvement project with other parts of the system ‡ By acquiring resources ‡ Careful selection of staff ‡ Supplying initiative, energy, and direction ‡ Providing problem-solving assistance and support ‡ Delegating and moving to the back when teachers assume leadership ‡ Providing words of encouragement and acts of assistance ‡ Giving feedback and providing two-way communication

Resisters of School Improvement
‡ Positive²person who agrees with all the new program but never does anything about them ‡ Unique²change may be good for others, but not this department ‡ Let me be the last²does not say change is not wrong, but wants to be last in case the change dies out ‡ We need more time to study² ³the person who insists upon seeing with perfect clearness before deciding about change never changes´ Amiel ‡ They don¶t know what it is like²any new program from central office can¶t work because only those at the school know effective programs ‡ Cost²don¶t have enough money ‡ Incremental²only tries something new if every old way is tried

Resistance can be minimized by
‡ Making participants feel the project is their own ‡ Making sure of central office support ‡ Showing how change can reduce burden, not increase ‡ Making sure the project is in accord with existing values ‡ Making sure the program is of interest to teachers ‡ Showing that autonomy and security is not threatened ‡ Involving teachers in diagnosing problems and developing solutions ‡ Communicating and relieving fears ‡ Developing internal support of the project ‡ Developing trust among teachers ‡ Staying open to revision and reconsideration

Nine Components of School Reform

Role of Principal In promoting Change for instructional Improvement
‡ The administrator can act as the change agent by facilitating the changes needed in the beliefs, attitudes, and practices of the teachers (Dooley, 1999).

‡ ‡




Rogers (1995) identifies five categories relevant to how open individuals are to an innovation and change: Innovators tend to be risk-takers, able to deal with uncertainty, and have access to financial resources. Early adopters tend to serve as role models for their colleagues and are often influential based on respect from their colleagues. Early majority tend to interact frequently with peers and are willing to adopt new ideas but within their own time frame. Late majority tend to approach new ideas with some skepticism and don't tend to adopt new ideas until there is some pressure from peers. Resisters tend to be more isolated and reluctant to try something new unless they are sure they won't fail.

Principal can Support to Develop and Implement Change. Hargreaves el al. (2001) state that a change leader has three fundamental tasks: ‡ To support teachers, and, where necessary, push them to be able to implement appropriate changes that matter. ‡ To ensure that the changes teachers make can be sustained over time. ‡ To ensure that changes can be generalized beyond a few enthusiastic teachers or specifically supported pilot affect whole systems (p. 157).

Checklist of Suggested Actions to Support Change
‡ Six distinct categories of interventions have been identified and are called game plan components (GPC): Each category identifies varies actions that a change facilitator can take. (Hord et al., 1987, p. 75)

GPC 1: Developing Supportive Organizational Arrangements
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ developing innovation-related policies establishing global rules making decisions planning preparing scheduling staffing restructuring roles seeking or providing materials providing space seeking/acquiring funds providing equipment

GPC 2: Training
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ developing positive attitudes increasing knowledge teaching innovation-related skills reviewing information holding workshops modeling/demonstrating innovation use observing innovation use providing feedback on innovation use clarifying innovation misconceptions

GPC 3: Consultation and Reinforcement
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ encouraging people on a one-to-one basis promoting innovation use among small groups assisting individuals in solving problems coaching small groups in innovation use sharing tips informally providing personalized technical assistance holding brief conversations and applauding progress facilitating small groups in problem solving providing small ³comfort and caring´ sessions reinforcing individuals¶ attempts to change providing practical assistance celebrating small successes (or large ones, too)

GPC 4: Monitoring
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ gathering information collecting data assessing innovation knowledge or skills informally assessing innovation use or concerns formally analyzing/processing data interpreting information reporting/sharing data on outcomes providing feedback on information collected administering end-of-workshop questionnaires conferencing with teachers about progress in innovation use

GPC 5: External Communication
‡ describing what the innovation is ‡ informing others (than users) ‡ reporting to the Board of Education and parent groups ‡ making presentations at conferences ‡ developing a public relations campaign ‡ gaining the support of constituent groups

GPC 6: Dissemination
‡ encouraging others (outside the implementing site) to adopt the innovation ‡ broadcasting innovation information and materials ‡ mailing descriptive brochures ‡ providing charge-free demonstration kits ‡ training innovation representatives ‡ making regional innovation presentations to potential adopters ‡ marketing the innovation (Hord et al., 1987, p. 75)