Idiom of Protest in the “New Era” • Nacionalista party leaders were aware that the kalayaan ideal was

very much alive among the masses. • La Independencia - First published in 1906 - To invoke nostalgia for the revolutions in 1896 and 1898. • The Ilustrado handling of the county’s plight has run counter to the “straight path” revealed by the Katipunan. • • Ilustrado Party Leaders - Little concerned with the Katipunan spirit and experience. - Merely riding on the prevailing mood of the times to establish their political careers. “Hindi lahat ay natutulog” -a quotation from Rizal’s writings -in place of the dark night of the Spanish rule we find metaphor for the colonial politics of the present Idiom of Protest: (representation of the words/phrases in the story “Hindi lahat ay natutulog”) • Flickering light – fresh memories of the revolution • Revelation : moment of liwanag in a time of darkness • Subject of the story : Youth’s passage from darkness to light. • Pitch darkness – Ignorance and death “death-shrouded” sky Moaning of the wind barking of dogs church bells DEATH

Panucala – human projects or programs - respected - “breath of the soul which should be free” -should be oriented towards the country’s kalayaan “false kings”- the country’s leaders Hari-harian – children’s game involving pretenders or pseudo kings - play around panucala - treats politics as a game Stranger –liwanag, Christ, the country. - undergoing a pasyon or lakaran Pasion ng Bayan sa kahapo’t ngay-on -published in 1934 (eve of Phil. Commonwealth. - Joaquin Manibo - connection between the revolution and colonial politics in pasyon terms: Ang unang “Pasion ng Bayan”

Ay ang nangyaring digmaan At ang pangalawang tunay Ang lumikha’y halalan Hangang nagyo’y umiiral. “Himagsikang walang humpay/ sa larangan ng halalan “ Nang unang binabangon pa Ang Lapian na dalawa Nacionalista’t Democrata Ang binabandila nila Kulay ng Independencia Kahit ang Baga’y lumuha Sa nagdanaang pagdidigma Nagalak na at natuwa Sa discursong malalaya Ng politicong makata Sila and iisang Tawo Dalawa lamang ang bautismo Ang laya’y balatkayo’t Ang lihim na tinutungo’y And libolibong sueldo. The most prominent politicians of the time: Quezon

Roxas Osmena

• • •

They have seduced the massed with the talk of independence while actually violating the teachings of Rizal and Bonifacio. But why have they been in power for so long? Because the masses believed that they would lead the country to kalayaan. Once again we find the familiar theme of “feeding poison instead of feeding medicine”

Sinong makatataya Ng madlang potahe nila Jangang bago’y mahiwaga Saka natin nala-lasa Kapag kinakain na. Kahit lason o mapait Makalilinkag ng dib-dib Linolonlon nating pilit

Dahil sa ating nais Makalaya ang matuwid. • • • • The cross that the country has to bear is not only that of graft and corruption but also burdensome taxes, pitiful wages and the general enslavement of the people. Manibo’s Pasion is replete with condemnation of both the political and religious leaders of his time. Manibo’s message is simply that the “politics of Independence” engaged in by the ilustrados is all deceptive glitter. He also prescribes the “way” to be taken: if the people have damay for the suffering country, if they want true kalayaan, they must help carry the cross and join Ricarte’s movement.

Ricarte- the only living general of the revolution. - refused to take the oath of allegiance to the United States - continued, up to the 1930’s, to incite the people to rise up in arms against the United States. Sakdal – Ricarte-inspired peasant rebellion. - anti-American Simeon Basa – Attempted to organize a Katipunan in Zambales Atolio tolentino – “army of independence in Tarlac • • Shortly after Manibo’s Pasion was published, a ricarte-inspired rebellion called SAKDAL swept central and southern Luzon. In rural areas, various katipunans continued to offer an alternative to the ilustrado “way” to kalayaan: o Simeon basa- a draftsman who had come under the influence of Ricarte o Tolentino, a cook in Manila boarding house

The Pasyon of Felipe Salvador Santa Iglesia -a religiopolitical movement - Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac and Pampanga Mount Arayat –center of Central Luzon - base area of Santa Iglesia - highest mountain on Earth - “power” of certain relics of Noah’s Ark (According to a legend about Mt. Makiling and Mt. Arayat) Sinukuan – “to whom one has surrendered” - Marya – beautiful and rich maiden

Tikbalang – King of San Mateo mountains - brother of Marya of Mount Makiling • • In the people’s mind, there is a connection that exists between the various sacred mountains in central and southern Luzon. And a present day belief that a tunnel connects the mountains of Banahaw, Makiling and Arayat.

Felipe Salvador -religious - pope of Santa Iglesia - Baliwag, Bulacan -Born on May 26, 1870 Gabinista - confradia-type society - Gabino Cortes -”man of very small fortune” • Gabinista was changed to Santa Iglesia (1894)

Guillermo Gonzales - ex-soldier of the colonial army - joined the Santa Iglesia in June 1897 Social Conflict in the Republic “Narrative of the Feelings and Supplications of the Accused Major Felipe Salvador” • Major Maximo Hizon – ordered to kill 5 members of Santa Iglesia • Salvador’s followers were shown documents - land titles- then forcibly ejected from their ancestral lands without compensation. • Any man found to have joined the Santa Iglesia was arrested, flogged and even imprisoned. • Wives and female relatives of the soldiers were forced to walk through the center of the town while shouting “don’t be like us!” • General Mascardo – used to have compassion (lingap) for Salvador • “damay” – condition of true brotherhood • - brought Salvador and the peasantry together • To salvador the actions of mascardo were not the products of evil intentions but the predictable effects of having been seduced by the “glitter” of wealth and education. • • Puhunan – set of favors or gratuitous acts that indicates a debt relationship • • In the pasyon, it is damay that binds people to Christ, whose words being knowledge and ginhawa (contentment), and the brotherhood of the “meek” that will triumph.

For his lowliness and humility, Salvador could have been no other than a figure of Christ.