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BI TON STEINER-LEIMUS

CHA DNG LI
Sau khi c bi vit tp ch s 1, chc l rt nhiu bn cho rng, nhng yu cu
m D. Ch. L Leimus t ra cho J. Steiner c gii quyt trn vn. Cuc tm
kim n lc ca bit bao ngi trong hn mt trm nm qua c th ti hi kt
thc. Vng, chnh ti cng tng ngh vy. Nhng ! Cng li chnh ti, gn y,
nhn thy rng, vn vn cha kt thc, bi ton 2 ch l h qu ca bi ton
tng qut sau.
Bi ton 3 : Cho tam gic ABC, phn gic AD. I l im bt k trn on AD. BI,
CI theo th t ct AC, AB ti E, F. Bit rng B C. Chng minh rng BE
CF.
Bi ton 3 c chng minh thng qua b 2 sau.
B 2 : Cho tam gic ABC. M l mt im thuc on BC. Khi : AM < max
{AB, AC}.

Chng minh :
Ta c : M1 + M2 = 180o (h.4)
=> M1 90o hoc M2 90o
=> AB > AM hoc AC > AM => max{AB, AC} > AM.
B 2 c chng minh.
B 3 : Cho t gic ABCD. Cc ng cho ct nhau ti I. Mt ng thng i
qua I, ct cc cnh AB, CD theo th t ti M, N. Khi : MN < max {AC, BD}.

Chng minh :
Trng hp 1 : AB, CD song song. (h.5)

Qua M, k cc ng thng song song vi AC, BD. Chng theo th t ct ng


thng BC ti E, F.Theo b 2, MN < max {ME, MF} => MN < max {AC, BD}.
Trng hp 2 : AB, CD khng song song. Khng mt tnh tng qut, gi s giao
im ca AB, CD nm trn tia i ca cc tia AB, DC (h.6).

Dng cc hnh bnh hnh ACEM, BDFM. t K l giao im ca CD v EF. D


thy K thuc cc on CD, EF. Qua M, dng ng thng song song vi CD.
ng thng ny theo th t ct AC, BD ti P, Q. D thy, P thuc tia i ca tia
AC, Q thuc on BI. T => :
IP > IA v IQ > IB => S(IMP) > S(IMA) v S(IMQ) < S(IMB)
=> S(IMP)/S(IMQ) > S(IMA)/S(IMB)
=> MP/MQ > MA/MB => NC/ND > EC/FD
=> NC/ND > KC/KD => NC/ND + 1 > KC/KD + 1
=> CD/ND > CD/KD => KD > ND
=> N thuc on KD => N thuc tam gic AEF.
Theo b 3, ta c : MN < max {ME, MF} => MN < max {AC, BD}.
Tm li, trong c hai trng hp, ta u c : MN < max {AC, BD}.
Tr li vic chng minh bi ton 3.

Trng hp 1 : B = C. D thy BE = CF.


Trng hp 2 : B < C. Ta c AB > AC nn trn tia i ca tia CA tn ti
im C sao cho AC = AB. t F l giao im ca AB v IC. D thy, CF =
BE (1).
p dng b 3 cho t gic BCEF ta c : CF < max {BE, CF} (2).
T (1) v (2) => : BE > CF. Bi ton 3 c chng minh.
Trong bi ton 3, nu cho I trng tm ng trn ni tip ca tam gic ABC th ta
li nhn c bi ton 2. Cng nn ch rng, trong php chng minh bi ton 2

ta phi dng n kin thc ca hnh hc 9 (t gic ni tip) nhng trong php
chng minh bi ton 3 ta li ch cn n kin thc ca hnh hc 8 (nh l Talt).
Bn c thn mn ! K t nm 1840, khi m D. Ch. L Leimus gi th cho J.
Steiner, n nay qu mt trm nm mi nm. T cch chng minh ca J.
Steiner n cch chng minh ca R. W. Hegy, t bi ton 1 n bi ton 3, kht
vng vn ti ci n gin nht, ci tng qut nht ca con ngi dn dn
c thc hin. Nhng c l, qu trnh ny cha dng li y. Hi vng rng,
mt ngy no , mt bn c no ca Ton Tui th 2 li a ra mt php
chng minh mi, n gin hn php chng minh ca R. W. Hegy, li a ra v
chng minh mt bi ton mi tng qut hn bi ton 3. kt thc, xin gii thiu
vi bn c mt s bi ton gn gi vi nhng vn t ra trong bi ton ny.
Bi ton 4 : Cho tam gic ABC c cc ng trung tuyn BM, CN. Bit rng B
C. Chng minh rng :
a) BM CN.
b) BM + MC CN + NB.
Bi ton 5 : Hy m rng bi ton 4.
Bi ton 6 : Cho tam gic ABC c cc ng cao BH, CK. Bit rng B C.
Chng minh rng :
a) BH CK.
b) BH + AC CK + AB.
Bi ton 7 : Cho tam gic nhn ABC, ng cao AD, trc tm H. im M thuc
on HD. BM, CM theo th t ct AC, AB ti B, C. Bit rng B C.
Chng minh rng : BB CC.
Bi ton 8 : Cho tam gic nhn ABC. Bit rng ng cao AH, phn gic BE,
trung tuyn CM c di bng nhau. Chng minh rng : tam gic ABC u.
TS. Nguyn Minh H
(HSP H Ni)