You are on page 1of 27

Jack Arnold, Marcos Madrigal, Maria Hall,

Haley Vanwormer, Megan Moore

o Introduction
o What is diabetes
o Types
o Type 1
o Type 2
o Gestational
o Main
o Pathophysiology
o Whos at risk
o Tests/symptoms
o Causes of diabetes
o Age
o Heredity
o Race
o Obesity
o Diet
o Other comorbidities
o Treatment
o Prevention
o Conclusion

What is Diabetes?
Marked by high
levels of blood
glucose

Disorder of
metabolis
m

Glucose, main
source of
energy

Defects in insulin
production, action, or
both

Insulin is a
hormone
Created by pancreas
Converts into energy

Type 1
Previously called IDDM/
juvenile
Body destroys pancreatic
beta cells
Cells that create insulin

Must have insulin


delivered or pumped
Usually strikes children
and young adults
Onset can occur at any age

Type 2
Previously called NIDDM
Accounts for 90-95%
cases
Usually begins with insulin resistance
Cells dont properly use insulin

Type 2 diabetes is associated with older


age, obesity, family history of diabetes

Gestational
Glucose intolerance during pregnancy
More common among obese women
Requires treatment to optimize
maternal blood glucose levels to lessen
the risk of complications in the infant

Pathophysiology
Insulin is a hormone produced by the
pancreas

Pancreas is located behind the stomach

Insulin circulates throughout the bloodstream


until it binds with cell receptors, triggering
the intake of glucose.

Insulin is necessary for the body to


be able to use glucose for energy

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of


diabetes. According to the CDC, it is estimated that
90-95% of the people with diabetes have type 2.
With type 2 diabetes, either:
The body does not
produce enough
insulin

O
R
The cells ignore it

When you eat food, the body breaks


down all of the sugars and starches
into glucose, one of the simplest
forms of sugar, which is the basic
fuel for the cells in the body

When glucose concentrations


increase, insulin is released
exclusively from the beta cells
of the pancreas in response.
Beta cells are located in the
pancreas in clusters known as
the islets of Langerhans

Insulin release is a biphasic


process*

When glucose builds up in the blood instead of


going into cells, it can cause two problems:
Right away, your cells may be starved for
energy
Over time, high blood glucose levels may
hurt:
Or your
nerves

Your eyes

Your heart

Whos at Risk??

Age- 65 or older
Obesity
Family history
Race
History of gestational
diabetes
Physical activity level
High Cholesterol
High Blood Pressure
High Glucose
Unhealthy Eating Habits
Smoking

Symptoms

Frequent Urination
Hunger and thirst
Extreme fatigue

Blurry Vision
Slow Healing
Tingling, pain, or
numbness in hands/
feet

Diagnostics
A1C
Measures your average
blood glucose levels
over past 2-3 months
Normal: less than 5.7%
Prediabetes: 5.7%-6.4%
Diabetes: 6.5% or higher

Fasting Plasma Glucose


(FPG)
Measures glucose level
after fasting for at least
8 hours
Normal: less than 100
mg/dl
Prediabetes: 100 mg/dl
Diabetes: 126 mg/dl or
higher

Treatment Options
Diet Modification
Fitness Regimen

Coping
Strategies
Medication

Diet Modification
Counting Carbs
Complex Carbs
Go Brown with grains
Clear out fat
Lean the protein
Alcohol-put a cork on it
Small, Frequent meals
Glycemic index vs
Glycemic load

Carbs are NOT created


equal
Benefits of Whole
Grains and
Complex Carbs:
Nutrient Dense
High in Fiber
Slower breakdown
into glucose

Fats

Saturated
Trans fat
Cholesterol

Monounsaturated
Polyunsaturated
Omega-3 Fatty
Acids

Alcohol

Diet Modification

V
S

Fitness Regimen
Exercise increases uptake of glucose by
muscles without increasing insulin needs
Improves insulin sensitivity to cells
Decreases body fat
Increases endorphins
Improves cardiovascular health
Weight control
Decreases risk for complications

Coping Mechanisms

Cortisol is released under stress and


prompts body to produce more glucose.
Long term this causes hyperglycemia.
Implementing stress coping mechanisms
can allow a better management of
glucose levels

Medications

Sulfonylureas
Biguanides
Meglitinides
Thiazolidinediones
DPP-4 inhibitors
SGLT2 Inhibitors
Alpha-glucosidase
inhibitors
Bile Acid Sequestrants
Oral combination therapy
Insulin

Prevention
Obesity- control
Healthy Eating
Physical Activity

COSTS
The total estimated cost of diagnosed
diabetes in 2012 is $245 billion, including
$176 billion in direct medial costs and $69
billion in reduced productivity.
The largest components of medical
expenditures are:
Hospital inpatient care (43% of total cost)
Prescription medications (18%)
Anti-diabetic agents and diabetes supplies
(12%)
Physician office visits (9%)

Conclusion
Diabetes type 2 is a lifestyle disease
that is strongly associated with high
blood pressure, high cholesterol and
weight gain mainly around the waist. It
may be prevented and treated, but it
cannot be cured.

References
Braun, C.A., Andeson, C.m.(2011) Pathophysiology: A Clinical
Approach(2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Diabetes (2014, March 13). In Center for disease control and
prevention. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from
http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes.htm
Diabetes Overview. (2014, April 2). In National Diabetes Information
Clearinghouse
(NDIC). Retrieved April 15, 2014
Glycemic Index and Diabetes(2014). Retrieved April 16,2014, from
http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-ieat/understanding-carbohydrates/glycemic-index-anddiabetes.html#sthash.5jcKtyVQ.dpuf
Insulin- from secretion to action (n.d.). In Beta Cell Biology Consortium
.Retrieved
April 9, 2014
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. (2011, February). The
National Institute of Health, 11(3892). Retrieved April 9, 2014