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mfida;.

dj

;sia jila

mfida;.dj

;sia jila

mdG,S pmsl rKjl


iajhx ,s; p;dmodkh

m<uq uqKh
2009 fkdjen

ISBN wxlh
978-955-98843-2-3
m.Kl wlaIr ixfhdackh
ksfrdaId mkdjekak

msgljr ksrudKh uqKh


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143" Wvyuq,a, h mdr".xf.dv,"
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f,djgu ta ms<sn| ;;= oek.kakg yelshdj f lD;sfhka ,e we;'
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bm;a lr ke;s nj o lsj hq;=h'
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Tyq i;=j we;'
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we;af;ls' f:rjd fn!oaO wkd;aujdofha;a" kd.cqkhkaf.a
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oHd m%jdoj, tk iiNd m%jdo .ek;a uekka oek tajdfha fjki
meye,s lr.; yels meye,s lrh yels nqoauf;ls' tjeks odYksl
mokula iys; ;j;a wfhla ,xldf m%isoaO foaYmd,kfha kshef,kjd
o hkak wmg k ielhls' f,dalfha foaYmd,k oYk jQ udlaiajdoh ,snr,ajdoh fukau wdl oYk jQ weveia ia;a" f ldfvda
isg flakaia olajd o uE; ld,Sk wdl oHd oaj;=ka jQ fcdaYma
ia.a,sia jekakjqka .ek o Tyqg we;af;a mqudldr oekquls' ta kj
oekqu Tyq wm iu. fnod yod.;a nj o fkdlsjukdh' .Ks;hg l=vdl,
isg Y+rfhl= jQ Tyq f uyd oekqu o ish ysi u; iqms m.Khl
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ix.; f,i" nqoau;a f,i b;d ms<sfj<g Tyqf.ka lreKq .,d tkafka
ta odYksl ysi;a" oekqf ms<sfj<;a ksidh'
fndfyda fofkla b;sydih iu. j;a jqj;a b;sydih ksudKh lsug
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kj is;=,s o h' fndfyda r is;d Tyq .;a we;e Wmdh ud.hka
fndfyda fofkl=g jegfykafka fndfyda l,a .shdg miqjh'
md,sfka;= l:dkdhl f;af ;r.fha ^2004& Tyqf.a woyilg
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md,sfka;=j wjq,a lsf yelshdj o ksYal%Sh flreKq nj fndfyda
fokd oek.;af;a fndfyda mudh' wfma NslaIQka jykafia,dg wjudk
wmjdo lrka wdKavqj;a" we;e mlaI;a uqody< ;%ia;jdoh yuqf
Tyqf.a wIaGdkh" wruqKq iy.; nj" ;sridr nj lemS fmkqfKah'
fn!oaO NslaIqjg wmydi wjudk t,a, lsug ;e;al< iEu gu
fyf;u bka,hla fia ke.S isfhah' cd;sl fy< Wreufha wfma
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f*vr,ajdoh jD; ul mrdch flrefK;a Tyqf.a roYS Wmdhka
ksid nj fkdlsjukdh' rgg wjYH fudfydf;a ksjer kdhl;ajh w;s.re uyskao rdcmlaI uy;d - oskug wm .;a ;SrKh miqmi isg
l%shd;aul lrjQfha;a Tyqh'
fndfyda nqoau;=ka ish is;=,s Ydia;%Sh f,aLkj,g iSud lr;s' pmsl
rKjl nqoau;d ish is;=,s ish ; wruqKq lrf.k tysu j;a fjhs'
ta wruqKq idlaYd;a lr.ekSu i|yd miq fkdnei l%shdY,S fjhs' mqoa.,sl
;h mjd w;yer wruqKq ch.%yKh i|yd wiS;j lemfjhs' wka
whgo lemf wdoYh fohs'
Tyq wK fokafkla fkdf' f;fu ta wK l%shd;aul lr
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tajdhska hEfuks' kuq;a pmsl rKjl uq, isgu ;ukaf.a oYkhla
u; msysfhah' ;ukaf.au jQ foaYmd,khla lf<ah' ta wkqj rg fjkia
lf<ah' Tyq 1990 .Kkaj, fld me/oh hq;=h th l< yelsh lshkd
g Tyq iu. tl`.jQfha iq msils' m%Odk foaYmd,k mlaI ;=ku tk
hQ'tkaa'mSh" Y%S','ks'mh" cfmh 1999 ckdm;sjrKhg .sfha m%Ndlrka
hqoaOfhka me/oh fkdyel" hqoaOh tmd lshdh' ishfokdu mdfya
rf talSh jHjia:dj fjkia l< hq;= hehs o is;=fjdah' kuq;a pmsl
rKjl tfia is;=f ke;s w;r" b;d olaI f,i cd;sl n,f.
wjq,jka isxy, iudch fjkia lf<ah' foaYmd,k mlaIj,g fjkia
ug n, lf<ah' Tyq fiiq kdhlhskaf.ka fjkia jkafka t;eksKs'
rg;a" cd;sh;a" cd;sl n,f.j, uyd m%pdrl hqoaOhlska .,jdf.k
cd;sl foaYmd,khlg m%dfhda.slj f.k hkakg Tyq ka kdhl;ajh
iqfYaIs jk w;r" ck;dj Tyqg lD;f o h hq;=h'
pmsl rKjlhkaf.a fkdief,k ;d .=Kh o wNsfhda. Ndr .ekSug
oela jQ ksNhlu o mqudldrh' 2000 jif ye.,af,a u,idr
yshka f*vr,a fhdackdj,shg tfrysj leml< g;a" 2005
u,afma fidaNs; yshka iqkd iyk uKav,h u.ska m%Ndlrkag fjr<

;Srh mdjdug /yeksj .sh l<;a" fidau yshka wmj;a l<


wjia:df;a NslaIQkajykafia foaYmd,khg msiSu i|yd 2004
ft;sydisl ;Skajla .;ag;a" Tyq ta wNsfhda. .sysfhl= f,i Ndr
.;af;ah' isxy, NslaIqjf.a wNsudkh /lu i|yd cd;sl wruqKq
ch.ekSu i|yd Wmu f,i lem jQfhah'
fmd;m; ,shk f,aLlfhl= u fl;r wmyiq lreKlaoehs okafka
tajd ,shkakka muKs' iuyr ue;s weue;Ska m;fmd; ,shjd.kafka
wkqka ,jdh' pmsl rKjl ta wre;ska .;al< mmQK f,aLlfhls'
Tyq ,shd we;s m;fmd; yd f,aLkj, kdu f,aLkh negu mqu isf;a'
oYkh" cd;sl Wreuh" mirjdoh" lDIsluh" n,Yla;sh" kQ;k
oHdj yd ;dlaIKh" ;%ia;jdoh yd cd;sl wdrlaIdj" wkd.; f,dalh
wd O ud;Dld Tiafia Tyq ,shd we;' ,shQ foa l%shd;aul lsug lemu
Tyqf.a iqfYaI;ajhkah' 1999 ;%ia;jdoh uevmj;ajkakg cd;sl
ie,iqula ;ekQ Tyq 2009 th id:l lr.kakg ckdm;s uyskao
rdcmlaI fiakdkdhl yd f.daGdNh rdcmlaI jeks fifkjrekg
ish Wmu odhl;ajh kafkah' jir 1990 ;srir ixjOkh y;
wdlh .ek roYSj ,shQ fmrjoka oYl follg miq mir weue;s
f,i cd;sl cd;Hka;r f,dalfha ia:dms; lf<ah'
uyd ix>r;akfha wkqYdikdfjka weue;s moh ,enQ od isg ish rdcld
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fokd cd;sl Okh ldndiskshd lr;a ish wud;HdxYh Ilhkaf.ka
IKfha msjeh whlr ,dNodhS wud;HdxYhla lf<ah' ;ukag wh;a
ke;s li< l<ukdlrKh wd jevg o lr.id wdoYhla kafkah'
iqiqlug uq,a;ek ka" IKh ke;s ldhlaIu" wdoYu;a
wud;HdxYhla ;ekqfh' wmj o u; lrka cd;Hka;r mir
iuqj, o kdhl;ajhg m;a f.da,Sh kdhlfhla jQfhah' .u ;=<;a"
rg ;=<;a" tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixOdkh ;=<;a" ;u is;s,s oYkh
fkdj,yd tl f,i lSfh' tjd l%shd;aul lsug lemh'
pmsl rKjl iu. fyd| l,dlrefjla o j;a fjhs' fy;fu fyd|
;% Ys,amsfhls' fyd| .dhlfhls' fyd| .Dy ksudK Ys,amS woyia
we;af;ls' me/Ks mqrdoHd jdia;= ksudKhkag w;sYhska wdorh

lrkafkls' iS.sh yd ., jdia;= ksudK ixrlaIKhg Tyqg wh;a


ke;s j.lSula jqj;a thg Wrkafkah' wNh.sh m%;sixialrKhg yd
W;=re yd kef.kysr ft;sydisl N+ wdl%uKslhkaf.ka frd.ekSug
fkdmels,sj bm;a jQfhah' ish foaYmd,k h mjd mrjg ;nd l%shd
lf<ah'
mdG,S pmsl rKjl kduh .;al< mf,d,a Ydlh;a ^mdG,S& imq
^pmsl& Ydlh;a wmg isyshg kef`.a' ta Ydl folu uyd jDlaIhka f,i"
w;S; nqjrhdKkag fijK ,ndka fndaka f' mdG,S pmsl k
;reK jDlaIh isxy, NslaIq mrmqrg fijK ,ndka" ,ndfok jDlaIhls'
th uyd jDlaIhla rggu fijK ,ndfok jDlaI rdcfhla fjd
hkakh wfma wjxl me;=uhs

Wodr p;d kdka ;= jiqffOj l=gqnlx


^fY%aIaG ksiqkag uq Yajhu ish mjq, yd iudkh&
mqrdoHd pl%j;S
t,a,dj, fOdkkao kdys
kdhl" cd;sl fy< Wreuh

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

ia;=;sh
wfma wdrlaIl yuqod 2009 uehs 18 od tla w`.,la kEr ish
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m;ah' thska jefhkau i;=gq jQjka w;rg uu o tla' ;%ia;jdoh
mrdch l< hq;=h" mrdch l< yelsh hkak Yajdi l< ta wkqj l%shd l<
; lem l< w;f<diai w;rg tlaf wNsudkh o ta iu. h'
;%ia;jdoh foi kslaIlfhl= f,i n,d is fndfyda msia w;r" is
udf.a yoj; oejqfKa 1985 uehs 14od ;%ia;jdka iska" ch Y%S uydfndah
wi, isl< iuQy >d;kh ksidh' wms ldf.a;a fjk fjkia foaYmd,k
u;su;dka;r ;snqK o ta ish,a,g by<ska ;%ia;jdoh me/ou ;nd.;
hq;=h hkak uf.a ; wIaGdkhla jQfha tf,ih' t;eka isg
fkdlvjd f.dvke`.=Kq fndfyda cd;sl jHdmdrj,g uf.a l%shdYS,S
iydh m<h' cd;sl jHdmdrhka yd tys kdhlhska wruqKg lem fkd
mgq mqoa.,sl yd foaYmd,ksl wruqKq yUdhk g wmsu th ksudKh
lrkakg bm;a jQfhuq' 1995 ys jQ cd;sl ix> iNdj;a" 1998 ys jQ
;%ia; frda cd;sl jHdmdrh;a kk cd;sl jHdmdrfha uq,a.,a yd
;sf.h h' isxy, r oyk yd cd;sl taldnoaO iNdj tys ks j<
jHdmdl yd jD;a;Sh iudchka foig f.k .sfhah' wms ihsn
wjldYhg o msi f,dj mqrd j;a jQ foaYfm%a msia ixOdkh
lrkakg jQfha oYlhlg;a tmsgh'
wms f.dvk.kd cd;sl jHdmdrh ms<sn| m<uqj isjQfha ldf.a;a
fkdie,ls,a, we;suh' wms jehkq olskd g Wmydi t,a, h' miqj
tajd wmydi h' bkamiq frdaO;d yd ndOd ls o" p; >d;k fukau
Ydl >d;k m%h;akhka o we;sh' ta ish,a, uev wfma uqLH wruqK

11

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

Ydlaid;a lr.kakg wms iu;a jQfhuq' ;%ia;jdofhka wfma uu uqod


.ekSu ms<sn|j w;s.re ckdm;s uyskao rdcmlaI ue;s;=ud yd wfma
rKrejka fj; cd;sfha ish f.!rj mskeh hq;=h' ta l%shdoduhg
wfma o lemu tl;= lsug yelsu ;fha ,o uy;a Nd.Hhlafldg
i,l'
;%ia;jdofhka wm ,o ksoyi ksid w;S; u;lhka wju ish' uf.a
;fha foaYmd,k ldhhka ixlaIsma; f,i ,shd ;ef wjYH;djh
ms<sn|j ;%hskaf.ka ,enqKq WmfoaYhka o jeo.;a h' ta f l=vd
lD;sfha uQ,drNh h'
f rf m<uq y; foaYmd,k jHdmdrh jQ ck;d ;=frda yslr;a
tlS foaYmd,kh wms yekajQfha ujla fia ixh; jQ msfhla fia mK; jQ"
;Km; o l;d lrkd" h oyr o is;s,s ujkd" m%{dj frdo ne|.kakd
kjd;ek f,ih' miqld,Skj O foaYmd,k jHdmdrj, kshek o tod
ta we;s jQ l=,a foaYmd,kfha yo.eiau .gu mej;=fKah' nqrcdKka
jykafia foid jod< Ouh yrfhka ykd.;a miq - wks;H" laL"
wkd;au ;%s,laIKh uf.a f,dal oelau njg m;ah' mxpYS,h /lSu"
; iodpdrhla lsug W;aidy .;s' fY%aIaG Ndr; mq;%fhl=- jQ uy;aud
.dka m%ldY l< m m%;sm;a;shla ke;s foaYmd,kh" iodpdrhla ke;s
fj<|du" jev fkdlr Wmhk Okh" iqp;j;a fkdjk wOHdmkh"
ksi;a njla ke;s oHdj" yDo idCIshla ke;s iem;" lemula ke;s
weoys,a, hkd jQ iudc mdmhkaf.ka o .e,ug l%sh lf<' wkqka o
bka .,jd .ekSug W;aidy flrefj'
oeka wfma rg wdrlaIs; w;ska iqrlaIs; we;s ksid wmg wys jQ foa
kej; ,ndf.k" w;a foa yslrf.k wdishdf tlg" f,dalfha
uq;a;ekg m;aug l%shd l< hq;=h' ta i|yd h;a lemjqKq m%{djka;hska"
ka;lhska" ksudKYS,S ksiqka uu b,a,d iskd fydardjhs wms miq
lrka iskafka' ta i|yd f rf ;reK mrmqr ;=< ie`.j iskd
l=i<;d mQK m%{d wxl=r mqnqjd,Su" lis; lsu rf uyd b msf
uQ,sl w;d,uhs'
uf.a ;fha l=vdl, isg wo olajd buy;a fokd orka ud
/l.kakg lghq;= l< uf.a uEKshka yd mshdKka fuys isysm;a lr'

12

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

tfukau uf.a wOHdmkh yd ;h f.dvke`.Su i|yd lem l<


uf.a fidhqre fidhqhka o isys lr' Ialr wjia:dj, ug /ljrKh
ka uf.a | yd uf.a ;fha i;=g fidki jvjd,ka jefvkd
uf.a hKshka fofokd o isyslrkafka j.lS yye bgq lsug
fkdyels jQ msfhl=f.a fokdfjks'
foaYmd,k ;fha ljo;a ug .=reyrel fok cd;sl fy< Wreufha
kdhl t,a,dj, fOdkkao kdys" wdpdh u,afma fidaNs; kdys"
fldgfmd< wurls;a;s kdys yd oYl follg wl ld,hl foaYmd,k
;=oula iys; w;=r,sfha r;k kdys f.!rjmQjlj isys lr' tfukau
f lD;sh ilia lsu i|yd Wmfoia ,ndka wvqmdvq ieliQ" Woh
.ukams," ksYdka; Y%S jKisxy yd wkqreoaO m%ma fidhqrka fj;
m%Kduh msku'
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f my< jQ k i|yka l< fkdyels ;j;a fidhqrka oyia .Kkla
lD;{mQjlj isyslr''
b;sydih keue;s uyd m%jdyhg uqiq wkka; jQ ndOd ueo th ;rKh
lrkd w;f fgl ta uyd m%jdyhgu f.k hk f,ig uu bv ks'
;j;a fgl ;j;a wh ,jd ta uyd m%jdyh fjkia lr,Sug lghq;=
lf<' we;e g uuu bm;a th fjkia lrfh' ishla .r
f. .sfha tfiah' b u. flfia f oehs wkdjels lsj fkdyels jqj;a
kj is;s,s iy w;aoelS b;sydifha m%jdyh ksudKh i|yd wjYH nj
fydkau oek l%shd lrkafk'

13

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

mgqk
;=re j ueka m<uq mshigyka

17

irih wr.,fhys Wr.,hs

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55

cd;sl oeyekg iujefKuq

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15

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

m<uq .yereu

;=re j ueka
m<uq msh igyka
w

fma wud <`. tkjd yd,a fiarE fol fokjd lshka ks,a
meye ye|.;a .eyekqka yd ksiaiq fm<md<s .shy' n;a ka mshd nq
fjd lshka fld<meye ye|.;a ksiaiq fm<md<s .shy' ta uf.a
;fha ug u;l uq,au foaYmd,k ixisoahhs' 1970 uyd ue;sjrKhhs'
wm tl, j;a jQfha l;r ia;%slalfha bx.sh m%foaYfhah' fi!LH
fiajlhska jQ uf.a uj;a" mshd;a bx.sh frdayf,a fiajh l<y' miqj
mshd foaYSh wdodh fomd;fka;=jg ,smslrefjl= f,i tlah'
wfma mjqf,a orejka yhfofkl= h' .eyekqka ;sfokhs' mska
;sfokhs' uu nd,hd ' f ksidu ug jeuy,a fidhqre
fidhqhkaf.ka tfkod lghq;= i|yd ukd iydhla ,eKs' wm mdi,a
.sfha wm kej;S is frday,a fiajl ksjdi wi, msys bx.sh
iqukfcda;s y,ghs' WoEik mdi,a hEu i|yd nia ho f,i i;
myla ujf.ka ,o kuq;a th b;=relrf.k mhskau rn j;= nvje
yryd mdi,a hEu jvd;au m%sh lf<' mdi,g lsf,dagrhla muK ka
l.`. .,d.sh w;r" >kj jevqKq ;=rehdhka iys; f;;a wjg
mirh mqrd me;s ;sKs' f ksid yels;dla rg .iaje" fm;aux wdh

17

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yryd mhskau .uka hEu uf.a ;fha bkamiq jk ffY,shla njg


m;ah'
ud m<uq fY%aKsfha ish tla kla uf.a fojeks wlald;a" whshd;a iu.
mdi,a hkg ldls ye|.;a fmd,sia ks,Odyq w /f.k mdfrka u;=
wmg wdmiq yehk f,i lSfjdah' flfia fyda mdi,a hEug is wmj h
joaod wdmiq yerug Tjqyq l%shd l<y' l<n, jQ ksiqka o tfy fufy
hka is w;r" f.=frdldrhka fmd,Sishg myr ug meK
hf.dia we;s j.la je yshkaf.a l;dj,ska jd;d h' thg
oYlhlg muK miq c''fm idudlhka r;= ye|f.k leg jHdmdrj,
kshef,kq olskd ;=re f.=frdldrhska flfrys ud is; ;=< ;snqfKa
.=ma; wre ye`.Suls'
rcfha fiajlhskaf.a orejkag idudkHfhka isjk moafoka wfma
foudmshkag o udre ,efnkd g ta iu.u wmg o .uka lrkakg
ish' wmf.a B< kjd;ek jQfha nq,;aisxy,h' uf.a uj nq,;aisxy,
frdayf,a fiajhg .shdh' uf.a mshdf.a Wmka.u jQfha nq,;aisxy,
fnda;f,a.uhs' wms tys iar ksjila ;kdf.k mx uq'
uf.a ;fha ish moku jegqfKa fnda;f,a.u .f ;fhks' wm
mdi,a .sfha l=Uqre hdhka ueks' .f kef.kysr foiska jQfha wyi
isU.;a lje mka;shls' we;e lje iody; f;;a jkdka;rj,ska
isxyrdchg inkaO ;snQ w;r" ismd ysu ks,a meyefhka we;e
WoEikl iah' ;j;a lje >k rn j.djkaf.ka yd iS; hlre
iys; f;a j.djkaf.ka ms f.dia ;sKs' .ug W;=ka yd ngyska l
.`. o thg c,h iemhQ l=vd w;=b;s .x.d /ila o .,d.sfha l=Uqrehdhka
uelr.ksks' ta w;r" ,a jeks ks;r .xj;=ka hgfjk mka udkd yd
;Kfld<j,ska jeiS .sh idrj;a f;;a .Kkdjla o h' .f .j
rxpq fndfydag ,e`.=.;af;a tysh' wfma mjq,aj, whg Yd, yrla
rxpq ishy' f.d;ekg Wo jQfha ta i;=kah' Yd, fl;Aj;= hdhka
fukau m<;=re wdh msreKq l=vd le,Eo tug h' l=Uqre flu"
jemsu" f.dh lemSu" f.dh ueu" f,Su" yd,a flu wd ish
l%shdoduhka b;d blauKska wmg yqreh' ta kj, meje;s wdydr wnqoh
ksid ^1973 - 1975& t<j" m,;=re jeu i|yd ksr;=reju wms fhduq
jQfhuq' ks;ru f.d;ek u;a lr.ekSf kjl%u w;ayod ne,Sug o
18

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wms fm<Uqfkuq' jemsu fjkqjg f.dh me< isgqu" lkak ;=kla


jefjkd m%fNao fhdod .ekSu" l=Uqrej, j,a fk<Su" c,h fhu
l%uj;a lsu" f.dh ueug hka;% fhdod.ekSu wdhg wm fhduq jQfha
buy;a wdYajdofhks' wfma ksjfia isg lsf,dagrhla muK wE;ska jQ
llr rn j.dj Y%s; , le,hl t<j j.djla wm iska" mj;ajd
.kakd ,' .,a.=yd" lvd yef<k fod< mdr yd l=vd jk ismdjqka yd
l=re,a,kaf.ka ms.sh ta l=vd le,h" jkh yd jk ;h ms<sn|
mqudldr wdorhla ;hg we;= lrkd ,' ug u;l we;s ld,h mqrdu
lDIsluh yd mirh Ihkag iSfhka iSh ,efnkakg f m%dfhda.sl
w;aoelSu bjy,a h'
ug jeuy,a fidhqre fidhqka mia fofkla jQ w;r" wm w;r" jhia
mr;rh jir oyhla muK h' fuh uf.a oekqu jhig jvd uqyql=rd
hEug n,mEfh' udyg l=vdl, fydah mqyqKq lsug mkaif,a wfma
{d;s iajdka jykafia W;aidy l< wjia:df w hkak hehs lSug ug
wK l< g isxy, fydahu tl yqiaug uiska m%ldY lr we;' ud uyd
m%{fhl= h yelshehs ydrdm;ska jykafia wfma ;d;a;dg lshd
we;af;a thska u;hg m;afuks' kuq;a th t;r u;hg lreKla
fkdjkafka uf.a jeuy,a ifydaorhska fydah lgmdv lsu wid
isfuka th uf.a u;lfha meje;Su ksid h hq;=h'
jeuy,a fidhqre fidhqhka ksidu uu blaukgu jeyshkaf.a
m;fmd; lshjkakg ' mfya YsIH;aj Nd.h jkg uelS .sh ovux"
iqf.dakd" wU hyfjda" jro;a;" .fmr<sh jeks l;d fndfyduhla o
fidah fll;d ix.%yhka o ud lshjd ;sKs' ud YsIH;ajfha fojeks
Nd.hg rpkdjla fkdj ,sjQfha fl l;djls' ug u;l yehg
mir jd;djla o iys;j uy jkh ueo ,N U!IO fidhd .sh
;reKfhl=f.a .ukla thg mdol h' tl, YsIH;aj Nd. folla h'
m<uq Nd.h mqyqKq lghq;a;la jQ w;r" tys tlu ms<s;=rla muKla
je/ iy.; jQ wkaish,a,g ksjer ms<s;=re ka isiqfjl= fidhd
mlaIl;=ud ^Tyq wmf.a {d;sfhls& wfma mdi,g meKs w;r" ta isiqjd
uu ' miqj uf.a hKsh YsIH;ajh i|yd Wkka lr,Sug ud lf<a f
w;S; l;dj lshd flfia fyda ;d;a;df.a jd;dj | ouk f,i wehj
Wkka lr,Suh'

19

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

.Ks;hg uf.a ymkalula we;snj ug jegyqfKa ud ;=kajeks fY%aKsfha


ishh' ud uqyqK ka m<uq .Ks; m%Yak m;%hgu ug iSfhka iShla
ysh' idudkH fm<" Wiia fm< yd Yaj oHd,h olajdu .Ks;h
inkaO YsIaG;ajh ug ysh' miqj jD; Yaj oHd,fha bxfkare
mSGfha isiqkg Wf.kaug wjia:djla ,og ud f;dard.;af;a bxfkare
.Ks;hhs' .Ks;h yd cHd;sh b;sydih mqrd mKduh jQ wdldrh miqj
yeoE' tu`.ska ug Y=kHh" >Dk ixLHd iys; .Ks;h muKla fkdj
p,Hhka" cuhY%s;" l,Kh" wd fndfyda foa wdishdf ksudK nj
meye,s h' Y=kHh w;s YsIaG fn!oaO odYkslfhl= jQ kd.cqkf.a
ksudKhls' l,Kfha uQ,h .ek tx.,ka;fha ksgka yd m%xYfha
,hskSia w;r" jdohla mj;sk kuq ta fofokdu tlS oekqu
fiqhsjre wdishdfjka meyer.;a .Ks; oekqu fldms lsfuka ,nd.;a
nj miqj uf.a fidhdne,S j,ska fmkS .sfhah' uf.a m%sh;u Ihla jQ
cHd;sh yslf<a hqla,S jqj;a Ndysl cHd;sh (Fractal Geometry)
kka iajNdl cHd;shla o we;s nj oek.;s' jD; Yaj oHd,fha
isiqka i|yd Ndysl cHd;sh ykajdkafka ud isks' ta w;f
bkahdf kfka mQ iska" ksudKh l< fo .Ks;h (Vedic
Mathematics) yodrd ta ms<sn|j o mdv ud,djla ilia lf<'
isxy,hskaf.a cHd;sh yd .Ks;h ms<sn| .eUqre mfhaIKhla lsug
bgdf.k is kuq;a" foaYmd,kh uf.a ld,h wjqrd isfhah'
YsIH;aj Nd.h iu;afuka miq fydrK ;laIs,d oHd,hg we;=
jQfh' uf.a mshd fld<U fldgqf foaYSh wdodh fomd;fka;=f
fiajh l< ksid;a" km;d tys fiajhg mefKk ksid;a" fld<U
mdi,lg ud we;= lsug we;euqkag wjYH h' ;d;a;d iu. kla
fld<U meK urodk wd m%foaYj, ;;a;ajh oelSfuka miq ug fld<U
tmd h' wl WKqiqu" jdyk ;onoh" ,s lvidmamq yd urodfka
tlf.dvg we;s l=vd ksjdi mka;s ug uy;a ms<sl=,la f.k wdfh' ks,a
meye;s l mka;shla mduq, msysgd ;snQ ;laIs,d oHd,h .f
iqkaor;ajfhka ;snqfKa ke;' wog;a ;laIs,dj ,xldf Y% mdi,a
j,ska m<uq;ek mj;sk w;r" th ug ;lai,djlau h'
;laIs,df ug ,enqKq m<uq w;aoelSu ;rula wys h' tl,
fi!kaoh Ih i|yd ;%" ix.S;h yd kegq Ihka w;=ka tlla
f;dard .ekSug h' kegq .=rejrhd jQfha frdayK neoaof.a uy;dh'
20

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

t;=ud ta l,df YsIaGfhl= jQj;a ug ta l,dj msysgd ;snqfKa ke;'


B<g uu ix.S; mka;shg .sfh' ix.S;h i|yd ug wdidjla mej;=Kq
kuq;a ta .S; .dhkh i|yd muKs' ta ld,fha .S;hla lshkakehs lS g ud
lshkafka neoaof.a f.a uf.a r;a;rka fyf,akd .S;hhs' jrla oHd,
W;aijhl lsisu ms <ufhl= .S; .dhkhg bm;a fkdjQ g ud
fldjg ke`. wurfoajf.a wvjka jQ fofk;ska .S;h .ehQfj' wfma
y,am;s jQ fjda,ag is,ajd ue;s;=udf.a meiiqug uf.a .dhkh ,lah'
kuq;a ug ix.S; NdKav jehSu fukau bkah rd.Od ix.S;h o
we,af ke;' isxy, ix.S;fha fjki yd rih ud W.;af;a oYl
.Kklg miq ,hk,a rxj,f.a ix.S; ie|Ejla rifuka miqjh'
ix.S;h riug muKla iSudu .ek lk.dgqjla ug we;sjQfha todh'
ud f;dard.;af;a ;% Ihhs' .=re;=ud wmg" zud gq isyskhlaZ kka
;%hla wkak hehs lSfh' ta kj, ;% f,i wm ykdf.k ;snqfKa
;% l;djkah' i;=g" is;a;r mqj;am;aj, ckm%sh ;%l;djkays wdNdIh
wmg fkdwvqj ,e ;sKs' ud iska" tod wk ,oafoa fy,sfldmagrhl
t,a,Shk ;reKhl=f.a oYkhls' miqod tu ;%h ne,Sfuka miq th
uf.a iajhx ksudKhla nj ms<s.ekSu wfma ;% .=re;=ud m%;slafIam
lf<ah' Tyq lSf th jeysfhl=f.a ;%hla njhs' wjYH k oeka Tyq
bmsgu jqj th h<s we| fmkah yels hehs lg m;a uu lSfj'
.=re;=ud uf.a wNsfhda.hg bv kafkah' ud th ta f,iu we|
fmkajQfh' tod isg Tyq uf.a l=i,;d w.h lf<ah' foaYSh foaYSh ;%
;r. i|yd wmj Wkka lf<ah' ;% l;dj, wdNdIh ksid uf.a
ksudKYS,S;ajh fudg we;s nj Tyqf.a o uf.a o u;h h' ;% iy
cHd;shg ieuod ug by<u ,l=Kq ,eKs' jdia;= oHd{fhl= u
l,la uf.a wruqKla h' f ksidu uf.a m%sh;u l,d uOHia:dkh
jQfha iS.shhs' ud uq,skau cd;Hka;r m%oYkhlg wekafoa iS.sfha
;%hls' iS.sfha f.dvke`.s,s ta ld,fha ;snqKq wdldrhg weug
lSmj;djla W;aidy lf<' miqj cmka lKavdhula iS.s
fl!;=ld.drh ksudKh lrkdg tys f.dia uf.a woyi Tjqkg o
lSfj' Tjqka l< m.Kl ksudKhla oeka tys m%oYkh f' iS.sfha
hlv ksudKh .ek o ug f,dl= Wkkajla h' ta ms<sn|j ,xldf yd
bkahdf isl< mfhaIK lsysmglau kslaIKh lf<' f,dalfha
uq,au hlv ksiaidrlhska f,i isxy,hskag ksis .re;ajhla ;ju;a ,e
ke;s kuq;a th ,nd.ekSu wfma oaj;=kf.a j.lSula fjhs' iS.s
21

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wNsryi ;ju;a ksis wdldrfhka fkdik o tys l,d ksudK" jdia;=


ksudK yd N+ ksudK uf.a ;fha fjkal< fkdyels wd;ah
nkaOkhls'
Yaj oHd,fha kej; jrla uf.a ;% l=i,;djh mek ke.=fKa ir;a
uq;af;gqj.u uy;d h.sh khh' t;=udf.a rejla uu Yaj oHd,fha
;a;s mqj;amg wekafo' idudkHfhka fyd| ;% Ys,amSka isfha jdia;=
oHd mSGfha i wmf.a bxfkare mSGfha fkdf' kuq;a" fndfyda
fofkla ;%h w.h l<y' m%;sM,h jQfha t;eka isg Yaj oHd,fha
;a;s mqj;amf;a ksudKlrejd njg ud m;auh' uf.a ksioeia" l"
,sms" ;%" ldgQka wdfhka th ksr;=rej jKj;a h' YsIH jHdmdrfha
b;sydih w<,d ksudKh lrkd ,o iod iuruq fidfydhqfrda k
oejeka; m%oYkfha ^1986& jev j,ska nyq;rhla ieliqfKa o ud w;sks'
YsIH jHdmdrfha wr.,h .ek o tlai;a cd;sl mlaIfha uokld
md,kh .ek o oejeka; m%oYkhla uu Yaj oHd,fhka msg jQ jydu
ksudKh lf<' ^1992& rKisxy fm%auodi uy;df.a uerjrhska th
ud;r meyerf.k kdY lf<a jir .Kkla wudrefjka tlalr.;a
jkd PdhdrEm" ;%" l,d wdlD;s ksudK wmg wys lrks' miqj
B<d w.dOh ^1999& k m%oYkhla o fou< cd;sjdofha b;sydih yd
;%ia;jdofha jHma;sh ms<sn|j ksudKh lf<'
ta kj, cd;sl ix> iNdj ^1995&" ;%ia; frda cd;sl jHdmdrh ^1998&
wd fndfyda cd;sl jHdmdrj, mqj;am;a" m;%sld" m%oYkh wdh uf.a
uQ,sl;ajfhka ksudKh flKs' wdmiq ye n,kdl, ;% l,djg
uf.ka isj we;af;a m%pdrl fufyjrla muKla nj ugu miqj
wjfndaO h' jkd ksudKhla uf.ka is fkdjQ w;r" thg ld,hla o
ukila o fkdKs'
jdia;= oHdj o uf.a m%sh;u Ihla h' Yaj oHd,fha fndfyda jdia;=
oHd fidhqfrda Tjqkf.a luq jHdmD;s wjika lsu i|yd Wmldr
m;d wm fj; wdjyqh' ndjdf.a fudai jdia;= .=rel=,h (School of
Monsoon Architecture) ms<sn| Wkkaj wdf t;eksKs' Tyqf.a kq.`.
ksji udf.a m%sh;u ia:dkhla h' ud m<uqj md,sfka;=jg ^2001&
.shg k folla md,sfka;=f weo tlS wmQrE ksudKh ri
kafo' Tyq th wmg yekajQfha wms Tn iu.hs' kuq;a" uola by<ska

22

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

hk f;audj hgf;ah' Tyqf.a lKav,u fydag,hg tfrysj meje;ajQ


Woaf>daIKj, ^1992& uu o fmruqfKa isfh' th fm%auodi md,khg
oela jQ foaYmd,k w.;sfhka l< frdaOhls' lKav,u ndjdf.a lu
jdia;= ksudKhls'
ud foaY rglg .sh kEu fgl lshkafka udj l,d.drj,g /f.k
hk f,ih' m%xYfha j we;= f,dalfha m%isoaO fndfyda
l,d.drj,g;a" jdia;= oHd;aul f,i jeo.;a ukarj,g;a hEu uf.a
mqreoaols' tajdhska , .;a jkd ;% yd f.dvke`.s,s ie,iq w;sYd,
m%udKhla oeka ud i;=j we;' ;ksj isg tajd krUka i;=gq u ;r
i;=gla ;j;a ug ke;' jrla tx.,ka;fha l,d.drhlska vdkaisf.a
ish ksudK iys; lD;shla mjq ;sylg , .;s' jir ;=klg miq
tx.,ka;fhau fjk;a l,d.drhl ud gqf tu lD;shu mjq tlish
mkylg ,lr we;s njh' fya;=j fidhdne,Sf ud oek.;af;a ta
kj, vEka n%jqka iska r; vdkais flda k lD;sh w;sYhska
ckm%sh u fya;=j njh' th ^vdkais flda& , .;a uu tl yqiaug
th lshe' thg mok jQ BBC jd;d ;%mgh o th m%;sksudKh l<
;%mgh o hk folu miqj , .;s' vEka n%jqka lf;da,sl m,a,sfha
miafohs k ryis.; ixOdkh fj; fy<d we;s l,d;aul ne,au
fndfyda lreKq wm fj; lshdfohs' maiafohs ixOdkh .ek uq,au
isxy, ,smsh ,sjQfha udh' th uf.a w,alhsod w,a ydoa lD;sfha m<h'
,kavkfha f;aia kh olskdg ug u;la jkafka fha .s,ajd urk ,o
mia fohs iskau f.dvke`.+ frdnfgda le,af.a mdfmdpdrKhhs'
le,a m,a,sfha uqo,a wdfhdackh l< w;r" th miqj fy<s or lsu
ksid >d;kh flKs' hqfrdamfha ryis.; ixOdk .ek fiug ug
fndfyda l=y,la tu`.ska we;sh' t;ekska we,S .sh m%S fikajre yd
f.d;sla f.dvke.s,s l,dj .ek jQ uf.a Wkkaj ;ju;a ikaisfka
ke;'
jrla m%xYfha jif,aia ud,s.fha wek w;f tys jeisls<s - leisls<s
ne,Sug ug wjYH h' wfma m%xY rdcH ksfhda;hdf.ka ta .ek uid
is g Tyq lSf tajd f.d ler,s j,ska kdY jQ njls' ug th ms<s.;
fkdyels h' miqj ug we;a; fy<sh' tk ta kj, mjd ^18 jeks
ishji& m%xYfha rc ud,s.fha Nd;d we;af;a nd,a jeisls<s njh c,
uqs; jeisls<sh W;=re hqfrdamhg wreuhlau h' tfy;a jir fooyilg

23

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

fmr ukdj ilik ,o c, uqs; jeisls<s iqkaor ., jk wdrKHfhka


yuqfjhs' wfma YsIagdpdrfha bmerKs hqKqjg ;j;a idlaIs l=ulg o@
., jdia;= ksudK uf.a ;fha ;j;a wd;al yuqula f,i
i,l' tys my< we;s jkhg hg jQ nka|d fmdl=K keu;s .,ska l< jej
u;=lr .ekSu i|yd wmf.a y; .udk jevms<sfj< hgf;a uQ,sl ug
yelsu ta wd;ah .ufka ikaia:dkhla f,i i,l'
ud miajekafka YsIH;ajh iu;ajQg ug ,enqKq ;E.S w;r" f,kskaf.a
; l;dj iys; wdf,dalh k lD;sh o h' uu blauKskau
iudcjdfhl= ' uq, uf.a is;a.;af;a mdfj,a fldp.skaf.a ;reK
r;ajh iys; jdfka mkakrh ,enQ ye k lD;shhs' bkamiq uelais
f.dalsf.a wud ka.sia whs;au;f.a m<uq .=rejrhd wdh
lshjkakg ' ydhs,a fId,fyd yuqfuka miq ug me/Ks ish,a,ka
wu;l h' ienE ksfil=f.a l;dj f,i jQ ll=,a wys .=jka
kshuqjdf.a l;dj ud m%fndaOu;a lf<ah' lDIs .ul iudcjdoh
f.dvk`.k wmQre l;djla jQ fmr kejq mi k jQ lD;sh ud jeu
jdr .Kkla lsh jQ lD;sh h yelsh' bx.%Sis oekqu ,efuka miq fodka
kh ksi,j .,d niS k fldiela ckl;d fm< lsh' fIda,fyd
fldhqksia wdlD;shg isr fkdjQjdk f,dj YsIaG;u rplfhl=
ug bv ;snqKq nj uf.a ye`.Suh'
jhig Tfrd;a;= fkdfok f l;d lshfuka miq uu bfu iudcfha
fplfhl= njg m;a' ks;ru .=rejreka yd .egq we;slr .;af;'
fYaIfhka iudc wOHhk .=re;=h ^kkaod wur;=x.& iu. tlS .egq
we;sh' 1977 fmr<sfhka miq jD; wdlh" ksoyia fjf<| l,dm
wdh iudc wOHhk fmd;g tl;= h' uf.a jeuy,a fidhqrkaf.a fm<
fmd;aj, ;snqKq reishdkq - k ma,j ms<sn| mdv kj wdKavqj bj;a
lf<ah' uf.a uq,au jdoh wefka tlS mdv yefka ukao lshdh' ta
kj, iudc wOHhk mdvj, wikd m%Yakj,g uiska ms<s;=re kafka
udf.a foaYmd,k u;j, isgf.kh' WodyrKhla f,i ksoyia fjf<|
l,dmj, jdis i|yka lrkakehs wikd m%Yakhg ud ,shkafka tajd
Okm;s rgj, iQrdlEf Wml%uhla wd f,ih' uu ieuodu mka;sfha
m<uqjekakd ' .=re;=h ug wkqlmd lr ud ksjer lrkakg
W;aidy l<dh' uf.a mdv jev fidhd ne udf.a f,dl= wlald o ks;r
lSf ;ukaf.a woyia fkdj mdvj, W.kajk foh ,shkd f,ih'

24

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

ke;sk Nd.h wiu;a h yels nj wehf.a o wk;=re we`.u h'


kuq;a" udf.a uqrKavq is; tajd ms<sfkd.;af;ah' fjk fjkia m%Yak mjd
wikakg udf.a is; fmdf<dUjdfhah' fmdf<df WKqiqu we;sjkafka
iQhd ksid k lj, Wia uqka iQhdg jvd lsgq ksid tajd jvd r;ah
hq;= fkdfo@ kuq;a tajd iS;, wehs@ fmdf<dj N%uKh f k neul
ke.=kg wmg ngysr rglg hd fkdyelafla wehs@ ksiaiq jrkaf.ka
mkduh jQjdk jrka b;=rejQfha wehs@ wd m%Yak mjd ug mek ke.sKs'
reishdkq oajf;l= jQ ffj'fmr,auka iska" r; .Ks; oHd fkdaoh"
fN!;sl oHd fkdaoh k lD;s lshfuka miq uf.a fndfyda l=yq,
okjk m%Yak i .sh nj o u;lh' kuq;a mKdujdoh ms<sn| m%Yakh
ifKa fndfyda l,lg miqjh' vdkaf.a .,a pdldj ms<sn|j
uQ,sl igyka ud lshjQ w;r" Tyqg iq j.jdofha ;snQ n,mEu
ykd.;s' vdka Yajdi lf<a ish foa" ir, foaj, isg ixlSK foa
njg mKduh jk njg jQ nhsn,fha tk Wmam;a;s l;dfjka ckkh jQ
ngysr ixjOk kHdhhs' uQ,sl kaf.ka" jrka o Tjqkf.ka ksiqka o
wNHka;r ^cdkuh& mkduhla ksid ysjQ nj lsheKs' im%odhsl
m,a,sh tod vdkag reoaO jQj;a Tyqf.a oYkfha yrh ;snqfKa W;am;a;s
l;dfh' Yajh uyd msmqreulska we;sjQjdh lshkd (BIG BANG
THEORY) fyda lskaia f.a u;h mgka .kafka o tu`.sks' vdkaf.a
ld,fhau iQ ,udla lSf ir, foa isg ixlSK foa foig ksh; jQ
mKduhla ke;s nj;a" ;ukaf.a wNHka;r fohlg jvd ka fjkia
jkafka wjg wka ka yd mirh w;r" inkaOh ksid nj;ah' th
fn!oaO oYkfha tk mp iuqmamdoh ka;khg iudk rEmS oelauls'
ud Yajdi lrkafka ,udla ksjer njh' ksid jre l=,fha hyels
kuq;a Tyqg o jrkag fukau b;sydihla we;s njh' jrka yd ksiqka
mirh ksid fjkiajk njh'
mdif,a uu l%Svdjg o we .sfh' uu ihjekafka meje;a jQ g 75
;r.fha m<uqjekakd u;a" iu. u" mekSu wdhg fhduq' kuq;a
ug jvd l%Svdjg iu;a wh wfma mdif,a ishy' Tjqka iuyfrl= iuia;
,xld ugf Y+rhska u ksid Tjqkg fojeks u ug ,cdjla fkdh'
Wi mekSu uf.a m%sh;u l%Svdj h' uf.a Wi;a thg odhl h' Yaj
oHd,fha mjd thska uu m<uqjekakd ' iqmqre m l%Svdj o tys
;dlaIKh o uu yodrkakg ' kEu fohla ri jegqKq g th

25

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wjidkh olajd yeoEu uf.a msiaiqjls' wka;sf f,dal Y+rhska ug


wdrNh .kakd whqre" wjidkh i|yd l%shdlrkd whqre" .= r u
^uf.a m%sh;u l%Svdjls& i|yd bjiSu" ie,iq ieliSu" lKavdh
l%Svdj, kHdhka wdh fndfyda m%.=K lf<' fjd,sfnda,a" mdmka"
t,af,a" l%sl" lrdf yd l=x*q lS%vdjka yeoErE kuq;a tajdfha m%Kfhla
ug wiu;a ' tfyhska l%Svd f,da,sfhla fuka iekiqfk'
uf.a ;fha B< uxikah jQfha 1980 cQ,s jev jckhhs' wfma
;d;a;d iuiudc jHdmdrhg ys;j;a jdudxYslfhla h' Tyq foys;la
fkdys;d jev jckhg tlah' wud thg reoaO;ajh mEf /lshdj
wys jqjfyd;a wgfofkl=f.ka hq;= mjq,g w;ajk brKu .ek is;d
muKla fkdf'
weh bfjka fuka igk mrk nj oek ishdh' f'wdf.a foaYmd,k
Yla;sh ;d;a;,d f;are fkdf.k we;snj wehg jegysKs' ud is;kafka
jclhska fidfydkg hjkjd hehs lshQ f'wdf.a mqridrug jvd
jckfha wid:l;ajhg fya;+ jQfha f.j,aj, .eyekqka ish iehkag
l< n,mEuhs' ukrxck jev jckh fojdplhlska wjika h'
flrefjda Wka jev jck ukrxck jev jck kka ;%hla o
uiska h.sh fidaumd, fjkqfjka ksudKh flKs' wud ksjer
h' wms wdl w;ska w.dOhlg jegqfkuq' ;fha m<uqjrg nv.skak
wmg oefkkakg h' uq,a udi lSmfha wms lEf ojilg fof,ls' wmg
w;ajQ brKu .ek wud w;sYhska fYdalhg m;ajQjdh' ;d;a;d o
iafidamhg m;ajQ kuq;a /lshdj fidhd wdmiq fkd.sfhah' wfma f,dl=
whshdf.a Wiia wOHdmkh lvd jeKs' f,dl= wlald jvd wIaGdkYS,S
jQjdh" weh;a Yaj oHd,hg f.dia wmj;a tys weo.kakg Wmu f,i
lemjQjdh' jckfhka fyd|la o h' wms wfma wjg l=Uqre" rn j;="
t<j fldrgq lrkakg uq' l,la hkg wfma ;;a;ajh fmrg o jvd
iqNjd h' ;d;a;df.a fld<U hyjkag o Wo lrkakg wms iu;auq'
wfma rf jdudxYslhka f.k.sfha ksfIaOjd foaYmd,khls' iEu
fohlgu reoaO u" frdaO;d meje;au" igka mdG lSu" lvdlmam,a
jev lsu ta im%odhhs' 'tia' fiakdkdhl f.d .udk W;=re yd
kef.kysr msysgqjk g Tjqka .ehkag uef,ahd Wjr .ek lshd

26

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

hlrka ndOd lf<dah' 'tia'f.a moh" kafkah" lka;f,a" .,aTh


.udk fkdjkakg fms,af,a myiqfjkau fou< B<u msysgqjkakg
bv ;sKs' wfkla w;ska jdudxYslhka o uey;a tlS l%shdoduh
Yla;su;a lr jkaksh yd uvl<mqj o f.d .udk jeglska Yla;su;a
l<dk fou< fnjd ;%ia;jdohlg bvla we;s fkdjkakg bv
;sKs' jduxYslhkaf.a ksfIaOd;aul uki ta cd;sl jEhu wjq,a lf<ah'
nKavdrkdhl uy;d klrKh ,nd.ekSu i|yd cki;= jHdmdr
ysl< g jduxYslhka lf<a jev jck /,a,la we;slsuh' fld<U
jrdhg" .=jka f;dgqm,g" nexl= moaO;shg" wka;cd;sl kdl" .=jka"
uQ,H flakahla ug ;snQ wjia:dj thska kdY flKs' jduxYsl woyia
u; h;a jQ 1971" 1987-1989 le/,sj,ska o isjQfha w;sYh jkd .e
;reK ; kdY uhs' ta le/,sj,ska b;=re jQjka miqj ish iudc
;fha islr we;s ldhNdrhka i,ldne,Sf u<jqka
j;ajQjdk rgg l=uk m%fhdackhla w;afoehs is;d.; yelsh'
jdudxYslhkaf.a f ksfIaOd;aul wdl,am fukau Tjqkaf.ka idOkSh
l%shdjka o ish' .f" rf mjq,a lSmhlg iSud ;snQ n,h
m%cd;ka;%jdj fnodykakg jduxYslhkaf.a l%shdjka bjy,a h'
tfukau .S" kQ.;a ckhd urj" urjd jev .ekSf im%odhka
fjkialrkakg;a ;reK is;aj,g mrd:ld;ajh f.k tkakg;a
Tjqkg yelsh' ksoyia wOHdmkh" ksoyia fi!LHh" ksoyia Pkao l%uh
furg NslaIQka jykafia,d yd jdudxYslhska kdka jkd im%odhka
h' iudcfha my<u fldgiaj,g iudc kdhl;ajh lrd hkakg
tu`.ska msgqn,hla ,eKs'
1980 jevjckh jkg ud isfha wfmd'i'^id'fm<& Nd.h i|yd
iQodk fjks' jevjckh uf.a ;fha yerjq ,laIhla h'
foaYmd,kh uf.a wkd.; .ukau. f,i f;dard.kakg ug
n,flrefKa ta isu ksidh' tl, udf.a foaYmd,kh b;d mgq tlla
h' tk ljr fyda u.lska f'wd' chjOk wjika lsuhs' uf.a
;fha miql,l f'wdf.a mq;%hd jQ r chjOk iy uqkqnqrka jQ
relaIdka" m%ma yd wla ^Tjqka ishfokd fyd| mir fka& yuqjk
g is; hg uy;a ,cdjla w;S; chjOk flf jQ ffjrh iska"
Wmojkq ,enQ nj u;lh' miqj f'wd .ek jQ ydj ysskaia yd lsxia,s o

27

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

is,ajd ,shQ oejeka; ksnkaOkh ^,xldf foaYmd,{fhl= .ek ud lshjQ


fyd|u p;dmodkh& lshjQ g f'wd' isfjks ishjfia ,dxlSh
foaYmd,lhd f,i ykd .;s' Tyqg ;reK fha n,h ,enqKd k
uyfha Tyq l< nrm;, jer fol tk ie,iqulska f;drj jD;
wdlh ykajdu yd bkahdj fou< ;%ia;jdoh foig ;,a lsu is
fkdjkakg bv ;sKs'
idudkH fm< iu;afuka miq oHdj l<hq;= o l,dj l<hq;= o hkak
.ek h fo.shdjlg uej isg miqj oHd wxYh f;dard .;s' l=vdl,
isgu i;=kg lsis ysxidjla lsug ug fkdyels h' ud l=vdl,
l=re,af,l= wfma c, gexlsfha ue we;s nj oel w;sYh fokdjg
m;ajqfk' lerfmd;a;ka" hka lmk i;aj oHdj ug tmd h'
l=;lhg nr .Ks;h" cHd;sh uf.a ;h njg m;ah' tfyhska
idudkH fm<ska ud .sfha Wiia fm< .Ks; wxYhgh' tys ud wdYdfjka
Y=oaO .Ks;h" jHjyl .Ks;h yd fN!;sl oHdj W.;af;' ridhksl
oHdj Wf.k .ekSug ug Wkkajla fkdh' f tlu Ihla fyda
u;aj yeoEug fkdyels jQfha yisfha fykhla fuka foaYmd,k
l%shdoduhla m;s; u ksidh' th k wOHdmk Oj, m;%sldjhs' ^1981&
Yaj oHd, isiqkaf.a l;dj,g ijkafuka miq Oj, m;%sld frdaOhg
tlaug wms;a ;SrKh lf<uq' wfma mdif,a Woaf>daIKh wid:l h'
y,am;s;=ud yd .=rejre b;d fydka wfma lghq;= mrdch lf<dah'
kuq;a f yd iu. ug w;a foaYmd,khla yuqh' ta ck;d uqla;s
fmruqfKa foaYmd,khhs'
l,la c''fm by<u kdhlfhl= jQ fl,S fiakdkdhl uy;d j;ajQfha
fydrKh' Tyqf.a u,a,S iuka wfma mdif,a" wfma mka;sfha .c;=frl=
h' kuq;a Tyq lsis fgl wmj cfmg kd.ekSug W;aidy lf<a ke;'
ks;sm;d we;a; mqj;am; lshfuka W.% cfm frdafhl= jQ ud
c''fmg ks;r fodia ke.+fha 1980 jevjckh mdjdu .ekh' cfm
mQKld,Skfhl= jQ m%shka; k ;eke;af;l= iu. f inkaOfhka
jQ ixjdohlg 1982 uq, uu wfma ys;j;l=f.a ksjig .sfh' Tyq
m%ikak wfhla h' uf.a we;a; m;%fha c''fm frda ;lj,g Tyq
idjOdkj weyqlka kafkah' Tyqf.a m%;s;l o ud is;a.;af;ah' yjia
jQ g fjk;a khl idlPdj i|yd k kshu lr.;a w;r" Tyq oyj,a
lEu .ekSug mgka.;af;ah' ta jkg f,dj iji y;r miq ;sKs' ta

28

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wehsoehs uiQg Tyq lSf Tyq ojilg lkafka f,a folla muKla
njh' Tyq tod lEf lsfyd yd ifnda, iu. lel= n;ah' ug jydu
jir follg fmr wms la u;la h' fld,aka wd o is,ajd ^wfma
w,a,mq wdikfha w.j;af;a ysgmq uka;%S& we;= jduxYslhskaf.a ;
u;la h' uf.a yo WKqh' uu uq,ska m%shka; ifydaorhdf.a
mdlaIslfhl= miqj cfm mdlaIslfhl= '
1982 frdayK fr uy;d ckdm;sjrKhg bm;a jQ g wms Tyqg
iydh msKsi f.kaf.g hkakg jQfhuq' tfy;a udf.a hys; lsf
f'wd' mroaokakg k Y%S','ks'm - c''fm tl;=h hq;= njh' kuq;a wms
fjk;a mlaIj, wh iu. jdo lrka c''fm m%;sm;a;s ksjr nj
fmkajkakg W;aidy lf<uq' jrla kj iuiudcfha ch;s,l
lue,a,r uy;d iu. o mdi,a isiqfjl= f,i jdohg t<eUqKq nj
u;lh' wm fukau wfma u; o fndfyda ;reK h' ue;sjrKfhka
cfm ;=kajeks ;ekg m;ah' ,enqKq Pkao m%udKh .ek cfm
l%shdldlhka l<lsreKq kuq;a c''fm .ek fkdoek ishjqka k
mquhg m;ah' ta ue;sjrKfha m%:ujrg ug fou< B<d wr.,h
.ek oek.kakg ,eKs' wm l=vdl, fou< ;%ia;jdkaf.a cdhdrEm
wdh ;a;sj, m%oYkh lr ;snqKq w;r" mqj;am;aj, >d;k yd .sks
;e ms<sn| jd;d m<h' tajd ug oekqfKa lfndahs ;%mgj, tk
fI*a yd ovhlre w;r" .egqula f,ih' fou< ckhdg iajhx md,kh
,ndu cfm m%;sm;a;sh nj ug oek.kakg ,eKs' tys h wuq;a;la
oekqKq kuq ta .ek mq,a fidhdne,Sulg ud fm<UqfKa ke;' tayd
iu.u Wiia fm< Nd.hg iQodk jkakg ish' mdv jev .ek
uf.a wjOdkhla ;snqfKau ke;' idudkH fm< Nd.h jev jckh
ksid;a" Wiia fm< Nd.h ckdm;sjrKh ^1982& cku; pdrKh yd
cQ,s l,n, ^1983& ksid;a wjq,a h'
wfma .ug w,a,mq .u jQfha y,aj;=rh' tys Yd, f;a j;a;la h' tys 70
oYlfha fou< mjq,a Yd, .Kkla ishy' Tjqyq fndfyduhla wm
iu. mdi,a .shy' wfma f.d;eka jevg yjq,a jQy' kuq;a" isud - Ydka;%S
.siqu ^1964& yd mQ ie,eiau ksid Tjqka fndfyda fofkla bkahdjg
.shy' jrla tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uQ,ia:dkfha jd wdydr ix.%yhl ^2007&
wkalage (UNCTAD) ixOdkfha Odhsld ,laIa mQ udyg yuqh'
weh mQ ie,eiau h;a l< bkahdkq uyflduidiaf.a hKsh jQjdh'
29

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wfma .f ys; ;=rka bkahdjg hef wehf.a mshd iska nj uu


wehg lSfj' weh ,xldf iqkaor;ajh isxy, YsIagdpdrfha hqKqj .ek
jkd woyia lSmhla m< l<dh'
mQ ie,eiau fkdjkakg ,xldf fou< m%Yakh ;j;a W.% jkakg bv
;sKs' 1977ka miq wfma .j, j;= hdhj,ska bkahdjg hjkq ,enQjka
fndfyduhla k;r jqfKa jkaksfha hqo .udkj,h' .dkahka"
'wd'wd''" frndkd yd ifjdaoh tla fms,af,ag f fou<
orejka mQcd lf<dah' wfkla w;ska lais;a ^1983& cQ,s l,n, j,ska miq
fou< ckhd Ndr .ekSu m%;slafIam lf<ah' m%;sM,h jQfha l%ufhka
ish,a,kag ,xldf mqrjeislu ,euh' fuh %;dkHhka yd bkahdj
tlS fou< ckhdg;a" ,xldjg;a l< ft;sydisl widOdrKhls'
1983 cQ,s flda,dy,j,g wfma .j, is hQ'tka'mS mdlaIslfhda o tlajQy'
kuq;a" .uq iduQyslj ke`.S isg j;af;a fou< ckhd /l.;ay' tfy;a"
f'wd' lf<a c''fm yd jf mlaI ;yk lsuh' f wkqj uu Wiia
fm< Nd.h ,Sf mdGud,dfjka hka; wvla yudrlr l,n, f.dvla
ueoafoakah' yeuodu wdrx jQfha c''fm i.hska w;awvx.=jg .ekSf
m%jD;a;Skah' fuhska isjQfha f'wd .ek ud ;=< ;snQ mgq frdaOh
W;aikak uh' uQ wmsg foaYmd,kh lrkak fokakE" uQg;a wms
foaYmd,kh lrkak hhq;= kE f,i tlS frdaOh W;aikak h'
Wiia fm< Nd.fhka miq ;% wkakg;a" m;fmd; lshug;a"
f.d;eka lghq;=j,g;a uf.a ld,h jehh' uf.a ukfia yerjq
,laIhla tys Wodh' ta we;sjQfha udka l%uisxyf.a fmd; m;
lshu;a iu.h' fYaIfhka Tyqf.a fidah foaYfha ke.Su k
lD;sh lshu;a iu. udlaiajdoh .ek uf.a ;snQ Yajdih m< h'
iudcjdohg tlu u. udlaiajdoh fkdjk nj;a" nq oyf tk idx>sl
oelau thg fhdod.; yels nj;a" ug wjfndaO h' f .ek uu c''fm
b;=re is kdhlhska iu. lSfj' kuq;a" Tjqka isfha tjeks
u;jdoj,g weyqlka h yels ;;a;ajhl fkdf' kdYld uokh;a
yd is hk mlaIh;a iu. fmdrnks' c''fm mSvdjg m;aj we;s
fudfydf;a tys u;jdoh je/ jQj;a th yer fkdhd hq;= nj
bgd.;af;' tfy;a je jefhka udlaiajd fkdjk m;fmd; flf
wjOdkh fhduqlrjQfh' fvdiafgdialsf.a zwmrdOh yd o`vqjuZ
30

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

fgda,aiafgdahsf.a wekd lerkskd yd hqoaOh yd iduh" isf,dakaf.a


ld wd kjl;djka ud f.k.sfha jvd;a jD; jQ ksi;alula
lrdh' fla' ch;s,l yd ihsuka kj.;af;a.uf.a l;djka o uf.a uki
jvd;a mq,a lf<ah' uu udlaiajdofhka imQKfhka le fjkajQfh'
^1984& c''fm he hEu;a iu. wNHka;rfha jQ uQ,H jxpd" Iap;
ls%hd" h.= mdjd wdh o lr,shg wdfh' uf.a uq,a .=rejrhd jQ
m%shka; o mlaI kdhlhska ms<sl=,a f,i fpkh lr mlaIh yer
.sfhah' bkamiq jrla ud yuqjkakg wmQrE mqoa.,fhl= wdfh' Tyq
miqlf,l rgla h jeoa ikakoaO jHdmdrhl wKfokakd jQ iuka
mshis m%kdka h' Tyq wfma .ug w,a,mq .u jQ fmdarefjoKav
m%foaYfha wfhla h' fldg iuka f,i m%p,s; Tyq mlaIh je we;s
;ekska f.dv .ekSu .ek ug wdf.YS,S foaYkd lSmhlau lf<ah'
bkamiq Tyq ug le,Ksfha Wmd,sj;a" Tyqf.ka fmardfoKsfha bvf.u;a
ykajd kafkah' wdkkao bvf.u jvd;a iqyoYS,S ;%YS,S wfhla jQ
w;r" bxfkare isiqfjl= o h' miqj Yaj oHd,fha foaYmd,kh
lsug f ;=ouo bjy,a h'

31

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

fojeks .yereu

irih
wr.,fhys Wr.,hs
fl

;r wms<sfj<g Nd.h l<;a" Wiia fm< ud iu;a jQfha


l;r ia;%slalfhau m<uqjekakd f,ihs' ug YsIH;aj lSmhlau ,eug
ksh; jQj;a uf.a wdvnrlu iska" tajd m%;slafIam flKs' thska
isjqfKa wudg;a" wlaldg;a ud nrla uh' uu fudrgqf bxfkare
mSGhg we;=<;a jQfh' bxfkare mSGhg ud .sh m<uq oji wo fuka ug
u;lh' uf.a mqreoao jQfha fldms fmd; fyda *hs,a ljrh folg kjd
l,si idlal=f oudf.k hEuh' ud m<uq ojfiau Yaj oHd,hg .sfha
ta f,ih' we;e fcHIaG isiqka kjlhskag ndOd lsu i|yd fm< .eiS
is w;r" ug lsis ndOdjla jQfha ke;' kjlhskaf.a bx.%Sis oekqu i|yd
Nd.hla meje;ajqKq w;r" Nd. Yd,dj fidhd .kakdg fyd|gu mud
;sKs' tys ug oek.kakg ,enqfKa uq mdGud,dju mj;ajkafka
bx.%Sisfhka njh' tjlg uf.a bx.%Sis oekqu ;snqfKa fndfyda j,
;eklh' wm" isxyf,ka jir 12la wOHdmkh ,nd ;sKs' fuh uy;a
widOdrKhla nj ug jegysKs' le/,sld f,i ke.S iskakg wjYH
m<uq miqu m<uq kfhau f.dvke.sks' Nd.h ,shd t<shg tk udj
fcHIaGhskag yiqh' Tjqka ug l,ska ndOd ls lr ke;af;a ud
fcHIaGfhl= f,i is;dh' uf.a Wi;a" lsis mels,Sula ke;s .uk;a"

33

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

idlal=f *hs,aljrh oudf.k hEu;a" ta je/ug fya;= h' ug;a"


kjljoh ,eKs' th nrm;, fohla fkdjQj;a kjl joh ;=rka lsug
th ug wIaGdkhla h' miqj ug fmkS .sfha kjl johg fhduqjkafka
fjk;a lsisu yelshdjla ke;s" ,sx.sl fyda mka;s mSvkhka iys;
mqoa.,hska njh' wms fojk jirg md ;nkd g fm!oa.,slju f.dia
kjlhska /lafluq' ud yd iudk woyia orkd fndfyda fcHIaGhska o
iskd nj ug wjfndaO h' wfma W;aidyh ;rulg id:l h' ud
is;kafka wo olajd fudrgq bxfkare mSGfha kjl joh w;sYh iSudld
tlla njh' kuq;a" chjOkmqr" le,Ksh" reyqK jeks Yaj oHd,j,
ud w;aoel we;s i;Hh k mrmSvl lduql;ajh" mka;s ffjrh"
;uka f .a fnda , a f Ila foa Y md,khg mq o a . ,hs k a kd.ekS u "
fkajdisld.drj, mSvl wd{odhl;ajhla mj;ajd .ekSu wdh wruqKq
lrf.k kjl joh mj;ajd f.k hk njh' kjl joh je<elau
msg;ska kS;s f.ktafuka muKla fkdj Yaj oHd, we;=<;skau
we;sjk jHdmdrhlska l< hq;a;ls' %;dkHfha m%N+jreka idudkH
orejka ;u Yaj oHd, im%odhg we;=<;a lr.ekSu i|yd we;sl<
im%odhla mrmSvl lduqlhkaf.a yd m%cd mSvl r;= ifydaorjrekaf.a
w;fldjla ug bvh hq;= ke;'
Yaj oHd,fha m<uq jif ug fmkS .sfha ud muKla fkdj ug
my<ska ;j;a w;s Yd, msila bx.%Sish ksid la kd njh' bx.%Sis
fkdf;au ksid m<uq jir wiu;aj f.or f.dia id:l jHdmdlhka
njg m;ajQjka .ek o" bx.%Sis fkdf;au ksid f.or f.dia fydka
bx.%Sis Wf.kf.kjq;a w;sid:l foaYSh bxfkarejka uyd c,dY yd
jd ludka; iqoaokaf.a weia;fka;=j,ska 1$4lg l< Yajluhka
.eko" wfmau Yaj oHd,fha wdpdh uydpdh mo fukau foaY
oHd,j, wdpdh uydpdh mo ,nd.;a;jqka .ek o uu oks' Yaj
oHd,hg taug fmr;a" mdGud,d werug fmr;a" mdGud,d we;=<;;a"
bx.%Sis ni Wf.kaf u;a l%uhla ilia lr.ekSug iy m<uq jif
isxy,-fou< niska meye,s lr.ekSug m%udKj;a WmfoaYlhka
,nd.ekSug Wmu igkla h;a lf<' wfma Wml=,m;s ,s uekaia"
uydpdh mS'ta''is,ajd" uydpdh ''t*a is,ajd ^miqj Wml=,m;s h&
wdka wfma igkg iydh ,ndka w;r" wmg my<ska meKs isiqyq o thg
iydh oelajQy'

34

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

iuyreka is;kafka 1956 isxy, rdcH NdIdj lsu ksid .j,ska meKs
wmjeks whg bx.%Sish ksjrj yeoEug Wiqreug fkdyels jQ njh'
2000 ue;sjrKfha isy< Wreufha jeu ukdm yd ukdm m%;sY;h .;a
ud cd;sl ,ehsia;= uka;%Sjrhd f,i m;afkdl< hq;af;a foaY ckudOH
bfha bx.%Sisfhka lreKq olajkakg ud wiu;a ksid nj wfma ys;j;a
uOHu ldrl iNslfhla m%ldY lf<ah' kS;s oHd,fha lghq;= o
bx.%Sisfhka l<hq;= njg tjlg w.ksiqre ir;a is,ajd uy;d l<
fhdackdj ;=< .ejQfha o foaY kvq ;Ska lsheu yd foaYSh f,i
bx.%Sisfhka kvq ;Ska ,sug yelshdj ,ndu .ekh' ud jvd;au
u;hg m;ajQfha 1988 ckdm;sjrKfha fmd m%;sm;a;s ieleiS
lghq;=j, bx.%Sis o rdcH nila hhq;= njg c''fm bm;a l<
fhdackdjh' Tjqkaf.a idudlhka yd kdhlhska lsisfjl=g ckau
bx.%Sish l;d lsug fyda ,sug fkdyels nj uu oek isfh' ud
mir weue;s jQ g uf.a cmka" fldhka" isx.mamQre rdcH ;dka;%slhka
ks;ru ug lSf ,xldf hqKq bx.%Sis Nd;fhka mq, M,
fk<d.ekSug ;ju;a wiu;a we;af;a wmf.a mgq ngysr frdaOh ksid
njh' ms<s;=re f,i ud Tjqkg ks;ru lSf BY%dh,h ish ish
oHd;aul yd jdKsc lghq;= id:l lr.;af;a wka lsisfjla l;d
fkdlrk ySnDD niska njh'
id;sYh nyq;rhla ffjoHjreka" bxcsfkarejka" kS;sfka"
l<ukdlrejka lghq;= lrkafka isxy, ^fyda fou<& Nd;d lrkakka
iu.h' wfma fjf<| fmd< isxy, tlls' b;d iq jYfhka wmg
bx.%Sis iudchka yd fjf<| fmd< yuqf' b;ska f iq;rh fjkqfjka
nyq;rh n,fhka bx.%Sishg oeu lsisfia;a idOdrK fkdf' th
Tjqkf.a ckau whs;sh Wrd .ekSuls' flfia fj;;a" wka;cd;sl
NdIdjla f,i wo f,dalfhau Wiqrejk bx.%Sish bf.k .ekSfuka
jdishla i wjdishla k ke;' tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixOdkfha NdId
yhla we;;a" fndfydarg Nd;d jkafka bx.%Sishu nj cd;Hka;r
iuqj, ud yg f;are .sh lreKls' bx.%Sis hkq ye - .Eremamq jeksu
we;eg m%fhdackj;a WmlrKhls' WmlrKh wfma isrer njg
m;aug bvh hq;= ke;'

35

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wfma Yaj oHd, mdGud,d .ek o hula lsj hq;=h' wms Yaj oHd,fha
pkasld .ek" ;rx. isoaOdka; .ek" frdl ;dlaIKh .ek bf.k
.kakd kuq /lshd lsf jvd jeo.;a jkafka tlS by< bxfkare
oekqu fkdj fiajlhska l<ukdlrKh lr.ekSf yelshdjhs' uf.a
ffjoH ys;;=rka lshkafka;a Tjqka W.;a oE" m%dfhdackhg
.efkkafkau ke;s ;r njh' wms bxfkare - ffjoH wd jD;a;slhka
yslrkafka rf wjYH;d u; fkdj ngysr rgj, iu; wkqjh'
ngysr rgj,g Wiia wOHdmkhg hkafka b;d iq msils' kuq;a ta iq
msi fjkqfjka Yaj oHd, mdGud,djka o" Wiia fm<;a" idudkH
fm<;a" nd, wxYh;a ish mdGud,d ilihs k t;ek we;af;a uyd
wjq,ls' tmuKla fkdf' Ifhys w;s olaIhska ish Wiia wOHdmkh
i|yd f;dard.; hq;af;a ffioaOdka;sl oHdjkah' kuq;a wfma rf
jkafka je ,l=Kq .;a isiqka bxfkare - ffjoH jeks m%dfhda.sl
jD;a;Skag keUqre u;a" wvq ,l=Kq .;a;jqka fN!;sl - .Ks; - j ridhk ffioaOdka;sl wOHdmkhg fhduq u;ah' fuh ta lafIa;% folu
| jeug fya;= idOl ;sf' uf.a ye`.Su k Wiia fm< yd Yaj
oHd, fojk jif muK w;s olaIhska f;dardf.k Tjqka
wka;cd;sl ugug mqyqKq lrkd w;f fiiq nyq;rh rgg .e,fmk
mdGud,dj,g fhduql< hq;= njh'
wm Yaj oHd,hg we;= jQ udifha u m%n, YsIH igkla we,S .sfhah'
f'wd' md,kh 1983 cQ,s flda,yd,j,ska miq c''fm yd jdudxYsl mlaI
iu. YsIH iNd o ;yk lr ;sKs' YsIHhska foaYmd,k jYfhka
tluq;= YsIH l%shdld lgq ;kdf.k ;snQ w;r" tajd i|yd ks, Pkao
uiSula fkdh' 1984 fmardfoKsh Yaj oHd,h we;=<; fmd,Sishla
msysgqu;a iu. YsIHhska idudkH kS;shg iudko ke;ak Wka iso
hkak .ek jdohla h' b;d,sfha fndf,[af[da k.rfha kQ;k Yaj
oHd, ysjk g tys ;snQ iajdldrh (Autonomy) hkafkka woyia
jQfha Yaj oHd, isiqka idudkH kS;shg hg;a fkdjkd njh' jel,la
ta ixjdoh fmardfoKsfha fkdmej;s w;r" u;ska is isiqka msila
w;awvx.=jg .ekSu;a" isiqka fmd,Sish jg,Eu;a" fmd,sia fj myka
isiqfjl= h hEu;a" ^moauis wffialr& ish' ^1984& thg m%pKav
f,i frdaOh mE fld<U Yaj oHd,fha o isiqfjl= ^frdayK
r;akdhl& h .sfhah' th 1976 riQh isiqjd >d;khg tfrysj

36

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

isudfjdaf.a md,khg tfrysj ke.=Kq isiq /,a, ;ru m%n, f,i ke.
wdj;a" thg ck;d iydhla fkdh' 1985 mqoa.,sl Yaj oHd, kS;s.;
lsug;a" ;yk l< YsIH iNd wfydaislr YsIH iqNidOk i;s
msysgqug;a" tfrysj igk wdrN h' wms fm<md<s .sfhuq' ud. wjysr
lf<uq' jck lf<uq' mdi,a isiqka thg weo .ekSug l%shd lf<uq'
llre mka;sh wjlsu i|yd jev fmd<j,g .sfhuq' mquhlg rch
wmg myru i|yd fhdod.;af;a o cd;sl fiajl ix.ufha llrejkah'
ta kj, ^1989& r;au,dfka ysrdKs lyf,a fiajl wr.,hla jQ w;r"
udi .Kkla wms thg o iydh oelaug .sfhuq' wka;sf llre
mka;sh wmg;a fkdlshd jevm<g .sfhah' llrejka .ek udf.a
Yajdih ;jrg;a | jeKs' llrejka igka lrkafka wdl
jqjukd i|yd muKla nj;a" foaYmd,k jqjukd ch.ekSug llre
mlaIhla wjYH nj f,kska l< hq;af;a l=ulao@ ^1905& lD;sfha lshd we;s
nj;a wfma irifha kHdhdpdhjrhd jQ le,ia is,ajd ^Tyq c''fm
ysgmq mQK ld,Skfhls& wmg meye,s lr kafkah' llrejkag we;af;a
;ukaf.a mh jelr .ekSu ms<sn| wdl {dkh muKla k
ma,jhla lsug llre mka;sh tl {dkhlska ne mj;skafka
flfiao hkak uf.a ;lh h' mka;sh fjkqjg mlaIh le,iaf.a
iQ;%h h' f ;l ;lj,ska udlaiajdoh ms<sn| uf.a ielh ;j;a
jeh' ta kj, fndfyda ma,jld isiqyq ish ,shk fi u;
f,kskaf.a tl;= l< lD;s fod<y ;ndf.k ishy' fjd tlska tl uu
lshjkakg ' ug ye`.S .sfha tajd fndfydauhla ikd;ksl lreKqj,g
jvd ta wjia:dj i|yd f,kska ;kdka iQ;%hka njh' llre mka;sh
fjkqjg llre mlaIh" Okjd ma,jh" iudcjd ma,jh iu. tlg
lsu ^fg%dialsf.a fkdkj;sk ma,jh& jeks iQ;% flfia fyda n,h
w,a,d .ekSu i|yd f.dvk`.k ,o l;d nj ug ye`.S .sfhah' ud
udlaiajdoh yodrkakg" yodrkakg thska jv jvd wE;au o ish'
1985 uehs 14 od ;%ia;jdka wkqrmqr Y=oaO k.rhg myrka w;r" wirK
Wjeis Wjeishka 150la muK ch Y%S uydfndah wi, >d;kh lrkd ,'
ud miqj mir weue;s f,i ,am;a;= WoHdkhg .shg ^2007& ud gqf
,am;a;=f fiajlhska 18 fofkl= o tku urdoud we;s njh' wfma Yaj
oHd,fha ta kj, fou< fnjdohg ys;j;a fou< isiqyQ o" fou<
ckhdg fjka hEf whs;shla we;ehs lS udlaiajd ma,jjdyQ o ishy'

37

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wkqrmqr m%ydrh .ek Tjqka ish,a,kaf.a woyi jQfha Y%S ,xld yuqod
wysxil fou< jeishka >d;kh lrkd ksid f >d;kh o tlg tl
lsula f,i ie,lsh yels njh' uu th ms<sfkd.ks' wkqrmqr >d;kh
uf.a foaYmd,k ;fha ;j;a lvb ,laIhla h'
hkd yd fldhd hqoaOj, m%xY" tlai;a ckmo yuqod ,laI .Kka
ksiqka ur;a hkd fyda fldhd uqla;s yuqod Tjqkg ta i|yd
widudkH yelshdjla ;sh;a" m%xYfha" %;dkHfha fyda tlai;a
ckmofha ksrdhqO ckhd tlg tl lsula f,i urd oef ke;'
fms,af,a m%Ndlrka yd Tidud ka,doka fofokdu uqla;sldka
fkd yq ;%ia;jdka jkafka Tjqka ksrdhqo ckhd urd oeu rdcH yuqod
iu. hqoaOfha Wmdhla lr .ekSu ksidh'
fuf;la l,la kslaIlfhl= f,i f'wdg myrfok fou< ;%ia;jdoh
foi h is;ska i;=gqfjka n,d is uf.a oEia werefKah' fou<
;%ia;jdka igka lrka iskafka f'wd fyda hQtkamSh iu. muKla
fkdj isxy, u ksid wm ish fokdu iu. nj m<uqjrg ug .eUqka
f;are .sfhah' tk isg f'wd'g;a jvd jefhka uu fou<
;%ia;jdohg tfrysj l%shdlrkakg mgka .;s' th fou< ;%ia;jdoh
iyuq,ska w;=.E hkf;la ^2009& uf.a yo ;=< jQ wIaGdkfha m%uqL;u
wx.h h'
1985 jif is jQ ;j;a isula ksid ud YsIH foaYmd,kfha by<gu
;,a h' wmf.a Yaj oHd,fha is,a bxfkare wxYfha f.dvke.s,a,
jD; lsug tjlg uqo,a weue;s frdkS o ue,a uy;d meKSug ksh;
jQ w;r" fcHIaGhskaf.a lSu u; wms thg tfrysj i;H.%yhla h;a
lf<uq'
frdkSo ue,a uy;d W;aijhg fkdmeKs w;r" wd; iS la,dla uy;d
w;ska f.dvke.s,a, jD; Ks' m%;sM,h jQfha YsIH kdhlhkaf.a mka;s
;yk uhs' fuh fl;r W.%o lshf;d;a ish fcHIaG YsIH
kdhlhskaf.au mka;s ;yk /iaul l;djla meje;augj;a wfhla
ke;s ;rug ;;a;ajh W.%h' miafokdg jvd tla/iau" l;d meje;au"
m;%sld fnu" wdOdr tl;=lsu wd ish ls%hd ;yk h' we;a;gu wo
fuka fkdj tod Yaj oHd, isrf.j,aj,g iudk h' kdhlhska

38

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

t<shg oeu ksid m<uqjrg ud l;djla meje;a' ud mdif,a fyda


fjk;a ia:dkhl m%isoaO l;d mj;ajd ke;s w;r" YsIH kdhl Oqr" jdo
lKavdh hkdh lsisod ksfhdackh lr o ke;' iEugu ud isfha
;srfhka msgqmih' t<sfha iskd wh yhg jef fkdlrk nj wjfndaO
jQ g lr<shg tau uf.a m%;sm;a;sh h' Yaj oHd,fha isiqka iyuq,ska
uokh l<g wka;sf ke`.S iskakg ud ;SrKh lf<a ta ksidh'
uf.a o mka;s ;yk h' kuq;a llfhl=" ixOdfhl= yd kdhlfhl=
f,i t;eka mgka wfma Yaj oHd,fha muKla fkdj ishu Yaj
oHd,j, mdfya ms<s.ekSula ud yg ,eKs' fujeksu isula 1996 o
h' ;srfhka msgqmi is ud yg t<shg tkakg isjQfha fou< cd;sjd
u; orkd wh iu. jdo lsug isxy, cd;sljd u; oerEjka mels,S .sh
wjia:dfh' nKavdrkdhl iuka;%K Yd,df tlS m%isoaO jdoh
meje;ajqKq w;r" uydpdh ;siai ;drK ^uydpdh 'we,a' mSiag;a
wdrdOkd l<uq;a Tyq iyNd.S jQfha ke;& tia't,a'.=Kfialr yd uu thg
iyNd.S jQfhuq' ,xldf isxy, cd;sl fldf llfhl="
ixOdhlfhl= yd kdhlfhl= f,i ud lr<shg wdf o tf,ih' th o
wynhla f,ih'
1986 jif taldnoaO YsIH igka mej;=fKa ke;' ta fjkqjg fou<
fnjdoh inkaOfhka ;Srl jdohla Yaj oHd,j, yg.;af;ah'
m%Odk jYfhka th udlaiajdoh yd cd;sljdoh w;r" we;sjQ ixjdohla
h' f jkg uydpdh k,skao is,ajd" wdpdh iQh .=Kfialr"
ffjoH .=Kodi wurfialr wdka cd;sl ka;k m%jdoh bm;a lr
fmrg f.khka ;snQ hq.hhs' fYaIfhkau k,ska o is,ajd uy;d Yaj
oHd, .=rejrfhl= jQ neka" >Dcqju YsIH foaYmd,kh iu. inkaO
h' foys;la ke;sj ud;a" Tjqka iu. cd;sljdohg tlajqfk' tfy;a
uf.a je wjOdkh fhduqjqfKa ;dlsl ixjdoj,g jvd ixOdkd;aul
cd;sudul YsIH n,f.hla f.dvk`.d .ekSu .ekh' f jkg cfm
isfha b;d j, ugulh' Tjqkg u;jd f,iska" udlaiajdkg
ms<s;=re h fkdyels jQfha udlaia fukau f,kska o cd;Skaf.a iajhx
ksKh fyj;a fn fjka hEf whs;sh ms<s.;a ksidh' f ksid
/ljrKh m;d Tjqka wm msgqmig h'
ta kj, uu udlaiajdoh yd Okjdoh hk folu ngysr foaYmd,k
oYk folla nj;a wmg .e,fmkafka nq oyug wkql+, idx>sl
39

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

iuQyjdoh nj;a" fmkakd fok > ,smshla cfm kdhlhskag ,Sfj'


th uf.a cfmka ks, jYfhkau b,a,d wiaf ,smsh o h' ^1985& kuq;a
fYaIfhka fudrgq Yaj oHd,fha n,hla tjlg c''fmg fkdjQ
ksid;a" fmdf Tjqka cd;sljdoh f'wdg tfrysj fhdod.ekSug
bgdf.k is ksid;a Tjqyq ;jrg;a wm iu.u tlg isfhdah' c''fm
wm weiqre l< kdhlhska jQ 't'wdkkao" rxo .=Kr;ak" wdkkao
bvf.u wdka O l=i,;d iys; ish kdhl;aj .=K iys;
mqoa.,hska jQ nj o lsj hq;=h' Tjqka ksjer m%dfhda.sl cd;sljdka jQjdk
f rgg fndfyda fiajhla jkakg bv ;sKs' fYaIfhka wdkkao
bvf.u fyj;a Ol" we;sf;la wu;l l< fkdyels iqyo
;=frl= h'
cfm uqyqK ;snQ kHdhsl wdrjq, iug fr uy;d 1986 uq,
uOHu ldrl iNdj wu;k ,smshla f,i lD;shla t<s oelajQfhah' ^B<d
wr.,hg iu l=ulao@ - 1986 ud;= - m<uq msgm;a fmd,Sish iska w;a
wvx.=jg .;a nj jd;d h&' tu.ska fou< ckhd cd;sl;ajhla nj;a
isxy,hska o cd;shla fkdj cd;sl;ajhla nj;a" cd;sh k Y%S ,dxlsl
cd;sh nj;a" m%ldY lrkd ,' tfyhska udlaia - f,kskaf.a cd;Skaf.a
iajhx ksKh ms<sn| whs;sh fou< ckhdg fhh fkdyels nj m%ldY
lrkd ,' fou< fnjdoh fhdodf.k bkahdj fnug tlai;a
ckmoh l%shdlrkd ksid bkahdf yd Y%S ,xldf iudcjdka tlah
hq;= nj fhdackd h' iudcjdoh hgf;a cd;sl mSvkh bj;a iq
cd;Skag iajhx md,kh (Self Rule) ,enqKq g m%Yakh if|k nj o
m%ldY h' uq,a lD;sh oe bkahdkq .e;s tlla h' miqj jd;d jQfha
c''fm bkahdj iu. in|;d we;slr .kakg W;aidy l< o Tjqka ta
jkg;a" cfm frda fldgia iu. in|;d we;slrf.k ;snQ njh'
bkahdj iska" m%;slafIam lrk ,o cfm B<g oe bkahdkq frda
h' ta i|yd by; lS lD;sfha ixialrKhlao ksudKh h' ta w;f
cfm f;dard.;a msiaj,g ikakoaO mqyqKqj fokakg o h' cfmg
ndOdjla f,i ie,l+jka bj;a lsu o wdrN lrkd ,' oe
B<djdfhl= jQ ohdm;srK fld<U Yaj oHd,fha cd;sljdkag
foaYmd,kh lsug bv fkdkafkah' Tyq c''fmg k fldyduj;a bv
kafka ke;' 1986 foienrfha Tyq >d;kh h' ud wfma ish
ys;j;=kg lSf fuf;la l,a ifydaor;ajfhka hq;=j l=uk u;jdo
hgf;a jqj tlg igkal< ish fokd oeka fjkaj Tjqfkdjqka .y
40

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

urd.ekSug ksh; njh' th ta f,iu h' flfia fj;;a" m%;sreoaO


u; iys;j jQj;a fudrgq Yaj oHd,fha wms .egqug ue fkd
wkkH;djh /l .;af;uq'
;ukg nyq;r n,h fkd,ef hehs is;+ f'wd' 1977 ue;sjrK
m%ldYkhg ij mdlaIsl jg fi idlPdjla ms<sn| fhdackdjla
oef fou< tlai;a uqla;s fmruqK iu. wjfndaOhlsks' kuq;a"
yfhka myl n,hla ,enQ f'wd' iqmqre f,i th wu;l lf<ah'
kuq;a 1977 isg l%ufhka fou< cd;sjd fnjd ;%ia;jdoh ke.S toa
f'wd' yerefKa fou< tlai;a uqla;s fmruqK fj;gh' 1981 msysgq jQ
ixjOk iNd tlS foaYmd,k iu h' th msgqmi tlai;a ckmoh;a
Tjqkf.a iqjp f.da,hka jQ ,,s;a we;=<;auqo,s yd kS,ka ;srefp,a,uq;a
ishy' tod ia;%sla ixjOk iNd iu f,i ms<s.;a fou< tlai;a
uqla;s fmruqK fp,ajkdh.f.a oeka lla miqj ;j;a lla hk
kHdh hgf;a 1986 jif m<d;a iNd l%uh b,ay' bkah n,mEu f
jkg >Dcqj ;snQ w;r" fou< fnjdka jD;j bkah f mqyqKq
lrkd ,' tlai;a ckmo T;a;= fiajd iska imhk ,o mqyqKq l|jqrej,
PdhdrEm we;=<;auqo,s iska bkah ksfhda;hskg ,ndka njg o
jd;d m<h' fou< m%Yakh ovud lrf.k bkahdj" Y%S ,xldj
isrlrka isfhah' th 1971 " kef.kysr mlsia;dkfha zuqla;dNdkSZ
jHdmdrhg Wmldr lr nx.,sfoaYh ysl< fufyhqug fndfyda
iudk fohla h' k oyhla we;=<; fckrd,a ufklafIda hgf;a jQ
bkah yuqod bkard .dka yd bkah nqoa wxYfha fla'tka' ldfjda f.a
fufyhu hgf;a kef.kysr mlsia;dkh hg;a lsu ms<sn| l;dj
^1971 foien 06& ud is; ks;r hm;al< l;djls' kfha m%ydrhka
iska wd;au Yajdih |f.k is bkahdj ^cjy,d,a fkare h.sfha
kh yuqf we;s jQ mrdcfha fokdfjka nj bkard .dkaf.a p;
l;dj ,shQ mdmq,a chld m%ldY lr ;sKs& mdlsia;dkh mrojd tlS
Yajdih kd .;af;ah' bkard mlaI mlaI ish,a,kaf.a .d
foj`.k njg m;ah' 1984 iSlajre iska" ta bkardj >d;kh l<
w;r" kej; bkahdjg wd;au Yajdih wjYHj ;sKs' f'wd'f.a uq.ao
rdcH;dka;%sl ngysr .e;snj fiajh lf<a bkahdf Kq
wd;au.re;ajhgh' r .dka yd lais;a f.fhka YS% ,xldjg tfrysj
l%shdlrka ishy'

41

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

m;idr;S yd ^iS& weuKqu (Annexure C) u.ska m<d;a iNd l%uhla


ykajdfok ,' m%;sM,h laIKsl h' uu iq/lSf jHdmdrh ysh'
thg Y%S,ksmfha yd ;yk lrkd ,o c''mfha muKla fkdj is,a
ue;s jeks hQtkamS kdhlhskaf.a o" tjlg wia.s uydkdhl Oqrhka o
m,smdk pkaodkkao uy kdys jeks uOHia: NslaIQka jykafia,df.a o
iydh m<h' foys;la fkdis;d uu thg tlajqfk' id:l /,s
lSmhla uykqjr" kqf.af.dv wd m%foaYj, meje;aKs' uy;a
WfoHda.fhka fmdaiag we<u" fldje,a oeu wdfha isg tlS /,sj,g
uf.a iydh m<h' l%ufhka ke`.S tk cd;sl /,a, l,a;shd gq f'wd'
kqf.af.dv m%isoaO /,shla ;nd m<d;a iNd wl=,d .;af;ah' B<g Tyq
b;d iQlaIu f,i Y%S','ks'mh yd c''fm w;r;a" NslaIq ix>hd w;r;a"
nqoau;=ka w;r;a fNao we;s lf<ah' uu iq/lSf jHdmdrh folv
h' isudfjda ue;sKsh" fnx.uqf kd,l ys" .dKs Bhf.d,a, jeks
wh uu iq/lSf ixOdkh f,i;a" m%skaia .=Kfialr" fkaIa
.=KjOk" udjdf fidaNs; ys jeks wh uu iq/lSf jHdmdrh
f,i;a" ixOdkh jQy' uu fojeks ixOdkhg tla' cfm iydh
,enqfKa o thgh' flfia fj;;a" isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrfha NslaIq
kdhl;ajh" foaYmd,k kdhl;ajh" nqoau;=ka wdkaf.a mgq ye`.S
fYaIfhka mqoa., lemS fmkSf wdYdj cd;sl jHdmdrfha b.ufka
f,dl=u ndOdj f,i wjfndaO lr.;s' f'wd' W;aidy lf<a Y%S,ksm
bj;alr c''fm yqol,d lsu jqj;a isjQfha c''fmg cd;sl jHdmdrfha
kdhl;ajh bfu ,euh' lue,s m%N+jd Y%S','ks'm kdhlhska bj;aj
hdf fldkalr is flfia fyda lr,shg taug j,slka is c''fm
nv.sks jDlfhla fuka cd;sl jHdmdrh veye.;af;ah' ;%ia; l%shd
W;aikak fjka bkahdj ish ol=Kq l,dmfha fou< nx.,s foaYh
yslrka iskd g c''fm ish ikakoaO l%shdoduh mshjrhlska fmrg
.;af;ah' ta m,af,alef,a yuqod l`ojqka w meyer .ekSfuks' ^1987&
1987 wms%fh,a wjqre ksjdvqjg uu f.or fkd.sfh' thg fya;=j wmj
w;awvx.=jg .ekSug rch jEh lrkd njg jQ rdjhhs' wm%sfh,a 18
ls;=,aW;=fo wm%sfh,a 21 msgfldgqf o iuQ, >d;k ish' th
f'wd'g bkahdj ,ndka f,a msreKq ix{djla h' uehs kh ;yk
h' kuq;a wfma ffOhh thska ug fkdyels h' kdrdfyakamsg
wNhdrdufha wms uehs kh ieurefjuq' uehs khg fmrod rd;%sfha

42

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wmqre fohla h' tk fmardfoKsfha isg meKs w;=r,sfha r;k yshka


yd wfma Yaj oHd,fha ksu,a nd,iqh w;r nqoyu yd udlaiajdoh
ms<sn| ixjdohla we;s h' r;k ys fndfyda myiqfjka nd,iQhj
mrdch lf<ah' ndf,a ye`.snr ls%hdldlfhl= i nqoauh
;lfhl= fkdh' Tyq l,la c''fmg tfrys kj ck;d jHdmdrh
iu. tla miqj th w;yer c''fm iu. tlajQ wfhls' r;k yshkaf.a
;l ffY,sh ud is;a.;af;ah' oYl .Kkla jhk foaYmd,k ;=oula
we;sjQfha ta ks ke;s rd;%sfha we;sjQ ;l ;l ksidh' r;k yshkao
ud fukau llre mka;shg jvd NslaIqka jykafiag cd;sl >dudh
ma,jhla l< yels nj Yajdh l< ta wkqj l%shdl< YsIH
l%shdldlfhl= h'
uehs kh f,a ,la h' wNhdrdufha ; folla ,s.kakd ,'
f'wd' f.a woyi jkakg we;af;a ;uka isxy, cd;sl n,f.
uokhg iQodk nj bkahdjg fmkau h yel'kuq;a m%dfhda.slj
isjQfha f'wd'meroug w wdhqO wjYH njg jQ c''fm u;h foig
m%fldam jQ isiqka we hEuh' fndfyda l,l isg rxo jeks c''fm YsIH
kdhlhska m%isoafha lSf w;a jk jkd fmd,sia fj myrg ,lau
i`oyd fm<md,ss .sh hq.h kqfu k;rjk njh' wysxidjdoh weoyQ
wfma u. f'wd'f.a ;=jlal= uokfhka hgm;a h' ;=jlal=fjkau
m%;spdr oelaf c''fm u.g kj cjhla thska iemhsks' f'wd' k;r
l< yelafla ;=jlal=fjka muKls hkak f'wd' iskau fmkakd fok
,'
f'wd' m<uqj Y%S,ksmh | oud cfmg cd;sl jHdmdrfha kdhl;ajh
kafkah' B<`.g wysxidjd YsIH jHdmdrh ikakoaOj uokh lr
cfm ikakoaO wxYhg mlaIh ug bv ,ndkafkah'
1987 cqksui rgmqrd YsIH kdhlhska w;awvx.=jg .ekssKs'Yaj oHd,h
jid ;snqKq w;r ud isfha ksjig fkdf.diska fudrgqf fndaulh'
fndfyda fofkla w;awvx.=jg m;ah' f'wd' f jk g bkahdj
iu. tl`.;djhla i`oyd l%shdlrka is w;r thg m%;smlaIj ke`.S
ish yelsjQjka l+vq lsf W;aiydhl kshe,S isfhah' w;awvx.=jg
m;ajQjka frd.ekSf igk .ek is;ka iskd w;f bka-,xld
.siqula tk nj mqj;am;a jd;d lf<ah' wms jydu ixOdkh jQfhuq'

43

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

m<uq /iau oHd,xldr msfjfka ^le,Ksfha& meje;ajq kuq;a th


Wmjdihla lrd f.khEf W;aidyh id:l fkdh' miqk
foHdohg ^ud,s.dlkao& tla/ia msgfldgqf Wmjdihla wereu
B< b,lalh h' Y%s','ks'm kdhlhskao ydruydfoa WoHdkh wi,
Wmjdihla lsug hk nj jd;d h' tlajQ uy i`.rejk iu. isxy
Och f.k fldgqj n,d bfhkau .sfha udh' fld<U kS;s mSGfha
lreKdr;ako ud iu. h' meh lSmhla we;=<; YS%','ks'm kdhlhskao
thg tlajQ w;r ud. wjysr th oejeka; Wmjdihla njg m;ah'
^1989 cQ,s 28& jir oy;=klg miq 2000 wf.daia;= 14 od o f*vr,a
fhdackdj,shg tfrysj msgfldgqf ta f,igu Wmjdihla yd
frdaO;djhla meje;aug wmg ish' m<uq igfka w;aoelSu fojeks
igfka ch.%yKh i`oyd fndfyda Wmld h'
f'wd'Wmjdih uokh lf<ah' fj m%ydr ueo wms foHdoh foig
m<d.sfhuq' wdrlaIl wxYh wm tys fldgq lrk ,' rd;%sfha w`rg
uqjd wms lSmfokla thska mekf.dia fld<U ffjoH mSGhg wdfjuq'
wmg fmkS .sfha fmd,Sish l=uk whqka yeiqreko yuqodj
frdaO;dlrejkg wk;=rla fkdlrk njh' uf.a ;lafiarej k
c''fmg ksis hqo ixOdkhla ;sKs k yuqodj, iydhfhka
f'wd'n,fhka mylsug jqj yelshdjla ;snqKq njh' kuq;a th tfia
jQjdk wksjdfhkau bkah yuqod iu. ,laI .Kkla hhk hqoaOhla
we,S hEuo je,elah fkdyels jkq we;'
frdaO;dlrejka 147 fofkla hf.dia ishy'ffjoH mSG uD;
Yrd.drfha Tjqka iu. .;l< k foll ld,h uf.a ;h iyuq,ska
fjkia lf<ah' wfma Yaj oHd,fha ys;dor isiqka fofofkl= jQ la,s*
fmfrd yd ksu,a ,shkf.ao h.shjqka w;r h' j;=r muKla fndka
we` kS;sh hgf;a k;=kla u< isrere iu. .;lf<' jir 20lg miq
la,s* yd ksu,a kka Ndrldr wruq,la f.dvk.kakg tod b;=re
lr.;a fidhqrka iu. tlaf Nd.Hho ug ysh' urKh ms<sn`o hla
ms<sl=,la ksk ta ish,a, ta f,a jel=Kq k lSmh ksid uelS .sfhah'
c''fm ish m%pKav Woaf>daIK /,a, bka - ,xld .siqu;a iu. wdrN
lf<ah' Yaj oHd, .gu jid ;eKs' m<d;a iNd l%uh we;slsu
i`oyd jQ wkmk;a md,sfka;=jg bm;a jkg Yaj oHd, jD;j
44

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

;su wmg uy`.= wjia:djla Wodlf<ah' wms thg tfrysj Wmjdihla


wdrN lf<uq' fudrgqf wfma wysxidjd im%odh c''fmg bjiq
kafka ke;' ikakoaO ls%hdoduhg thska ndOdjla we;sjk nj Tjqkf.a
ye`.Su h' Tjqka iydh kafka ke;' wdrlaIl yuqod iska jglrkq ,j
Wmjdih is .sfhah' m<d;a iNd ue;sjrK wdrN h' c''fm tlS
Pkaoh jckh lsu i`oyd ikakoaO n,h fhdod .kakd ,' m<uq
mshjfu uu th fpkh lf<' ck;djf.a Pkao n,h hm;a lr
k;r lsu oreKq m%;smdl fok isu;a nj uf.a ye`.su h' kuq;a
f'wd' lf<a w;g yiqjk ish,a,ka uokh lrka c''fm ikakoaO
.ukau. idOdrkSlrKh lsuh'
1988 fmnrjd ui is jQ jeo.;a isula jQfha jdudxYsl mlaI tlai;a
iudcjd fmruqK kka ikaOdkhla msysgqug wr wkd w;f Y%S
,xld uyck mlaIfha kdhl ch l=udr;=x. uy;d >d;kh lsuh'
>d;kfha m%jD;a;sh wikd g ud isfha Yaj oHd, lekaf wdydr
.ekSug iQodk fjks' chg fj ;enqjd hehs m%jD;a;sh weiQ g
lekaf u; folla we;sh' chg iskud Ys,amsfhl= f,i fyda
foaYmd,lfhl= f,i wdorh l< wh lEu .ekSu kj;ajd >d;lhskag
fodia lshkakg jQy' c''fm wdOdrlrejkag jQ l=;=y,h k ch
we;a;gu h.shdo hkakh' ohd m;srK isoah fukau fuh;a Yaj
oHd,fha .egqula we;sh yels isula f,i f;are .;a uu f ms<sn|
i;Hh uiSu i|yd wdkkao bvf.u yuqug fld<U ffjoH YsIH
fkajdisld.drhg .sfh' ta jkg;a chf.a foayh tys jQ
uD;Yrd.drhg f.k;a ;snQ ksid ie,lshhq;= msila tys meK
ishy' wdkkao fyj;a Ol iskduqiq uqyqKska ug lSf ch
fdaysfhla lshdh' m%;sma,jh k;r lsu i|yd fujeks fdaySka
oekauu bj;a l< hq;= nj t;ek is uykdu lSfh' Tyq tl, c''fmg
is f,dl=u kHdhdpdhjrhd jQ w;r" udlaiajdoh yd cd;sljdoh .ek
wm iu. .gu .egq we;slr.;a wfhla o h' Wmje" Y+r ll;ajhla
iys; wfhla jQ Tyq wmg myrkafka nqoajdka f,i yxjvq .eiSfuks'
ma,jhg fmr m%;sma,jh uokh lsug lghq;= lrkafka k ;uka
m%;sma,jjdka f,i ykd.kakd fndfyda fokd o oekauu m%;sma,jh
iu`. tlaug bv we;s nj uydkdug ms<s;=re wdmiq meKsfh'

45

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

ch l=udr;=x. h hkg" Tyq f'wd'g is f,dl=u ;=remqj h'


B< ckdm;sjrKhl isudfjda nKavdrkdhl mrdch lsu i|yd
wjYH Pkao leug ch Tyqg w;HjYH h' uf.a u;h k ;=kajeks
jrg;a ckdm;sjrKhg bm;a ug f'wd' bhg fkdmeKsfha
ch >d;kh ksid njh' ch fm%auodi iu. o fou< ikakoaO l,a,s
iu`. o lsgq inkaOhla f.k .sfhah' Tyq uyck mlaIhg tlaj is
ysgmq cfm msia i|yd ikakoaO mqyqKqjla o ,ndka nj tlS mqyqKqjg
inkaO jQ l=reKE., fodrf?f ;reKfhla ud yg mejiqfh' ch
hhEfuka miq f'wd ;jrg;a ;nd.ekSu i|yd ,,s;a ;=remqjla
.eiqfh' ta fr lr<shg .ekSu i|yd c''fm ;yku 1988 ud;=
ui bj;a lsfuks' bkah frda fmruqKla ms<sn| jQ idlPdj,
c''fm ,,s;a we;=<;auqo,s fukau r chjOk iu. o idlPd
lrf.k .sfhah' wdKavqj yd c''fm w;r" we;s jQ .siqu msgqmi is
frdydka fmfrd fkdfyd;a mia,sksid we;=<;auqo,sf.a f.da,fhl= jQ
w;r" ;siai nd,iQh msh;=ud yd fla'iS' fiakdkdhl ta i|yd fomsiu
iska" wkaojkq ,enQjka h' c''fm idu idlPd m%;slafIam lf<ah'
m%pKav l%shd W;aikak h'
f jkg Yaj oHd,j, uQ,sl igka mdG folla h' tlla k
w;awvx.=jg m;ajq YsIH kdhlhska uqodykq hkakhs' rxcso jeks ck;d
uqla;s fmruqfKa uOHu iNslhskaf.a isg c''fmg ys;lr u;jdoj,
fkdis w;=r,sfha rkk ys" wfYdal wf.=KjOk" f. l=udr;=x.
jeks who w;awvx.=f ishy' uf.a b,lalh jQfha flfia fyda YsIH
m%Yak i`odf.k wOHdmkh h:d ;;a;ajhg m;alr ckdm;sjrKfha
f'wd' mrdch lr bkah yuqod msg;alr m<d;aiNd wfydais lsf
u.la ;ekSuh'
w;awvx.=jg m;a isiqka ksoyia lsu;a" mqoa.,sl ffjoH oHd,h ms<sn`o
m%Yakh;a idlcd ls%hdoduhlska i`od.; yels nj wfma Wml=,m;s ,s
uekaia uy;d ud yg m%ldY lr isfhah' uu f .ek wka; Yaj
oHd, YsIH uKav,hg oekq ks' 1987 isg YajoHd, jid oeu
ksid isiqkao" foudmshkao isfha uy;a wiykhlssks' kuq;a c''fm Wmdh
ud.h jQfha yels;r ld,hla Yaj oHd, jidf.k ish le/,a,
i`oyd Yaj oHd, isiqka fhdod .ekSuh' cfm fuu Wmdh wka; Yaj
oHd, YsIH uKav,h ;=< fnula we;s lf<ah' fld<U Yaj oHd,fha

46

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

f.` l=udr;=x." fmardfoKsfha r;k ys" chjOkmqr n


odkm;srK wd fiiq cd;sljd uOHia: kdhlhskao isfha ta
u;fhaah' we;af;kau nyq;r YsIHkaf.a .re;ajh ;snqfKa f ckm%sh
kdhlhska iu.h' wka;sf wdKavqj iu. idlcd l< hq;=h hk u;h
ch.kq ,eh' wdKavqj me;af;ka ta'iS'tia' y uy;d iu. m%;smdok
fldI iNdf iNdm;s iageka,s l,amf.a meKs w;r YsIHhskaf.a
me;af;ka idlcdj fufyh jQfha ud h' idlcd jg lSmhlska miq
wfma b,a,S ,ndug wdKavqj tl`.h' uydpdh ,s uekaia yd
uydpdh wcqk wydf tlS idlcd id:l lr .ekSu i`oyd
fndfyda lem l<y' ksfhdacH fmd,siam;s tj .=KjOko thg
iydh h' w;awvx.=j m;a is isiqka ksoyia h' mqoa.,sl ffjoH
oHd,h cki;= h' ^we;a;u ;;a;ajh k 1980 uq,a Nd.fha we;sl<
rd.u mqoa.,sl ffjoH oHd,h ms<sn`o igk hgf.dia ;sh 1987 uq,a
Nd.fha th u;=lr .;af;a wmh' miqj c''fm th ;ukaf.a igka
mdGhla lr.;af;a ffjoH mSGfha m<uq yd fojk jirj, l%shdld
isiqka kd .ekSfuks& fnd,afIla le/,a, i`oyd f.fhka bhg
hka is c''fm Yaj oHd, iu:hlg m;au bjiqf ke;' Tjqka
wmg ndod lsug mgka .;ay'
Yaj oHd, iduld lr.ekSf b,lalh kd .ekSfuka miq fojekak
lr<shg .;suq' tk" f w;r f'wd' md,kh fmr<d oeu i`oyd
fmd ikaOdkhla we;slr .; hq;=h hk u;hhs' ta i`oyd m<uqfjkau
c''fm yd Y%S','ks'm tlah hq;= njg u;hla we;sh' .=Kodi
wurfialr iska r; .Kr uehu" olsfk wreK lD;sh;a
k,skao is,ajd uy;df.a 56 orefjda ixl,amh;a fuhg fndfyda bjy,a
h' c''fm fjk;a wruqKlska fuhg tl`. h' tk ish ikakoaO
ma,jh fmrg f.khEu i`oyd jQ wdjrK m%cd;ka;%jd fmruqK
yslsu i|ydh' fld uE;l fou< ikaOdkh fhdod .;a;d fia
Y%S','ks'mh ;u wruqKq i|yd fhdod .ekSu c''fm Wmdh h' YsS%,ksmfha
Wmdh jqfhao c''fm irKska fyda n,hg meKSuhs' jir 11 la n,h
wysfuka Y%S','ks'mh nv.sks ysjf,l=f.a ;;a;ajhg je ;sKs' wfma
wruqK jQfha f'wd' yd bkah yuqod hqoaOhlska f;drj bj;alr
.ekSuh'

47

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

Y%S','ks'm yd c''fm w;r uq,au idlcdjg w;ruehd jQfha udh' th


meje;ajqfKa 1988 cqks 06 od frdia fmfofia nKavdrkdhl
ksjfiah' tys wkqr nKavdrkdhl yd wdkkao bvf.u
fomdYajfhka yuqh' miqj fjk kdhlhskao thg inkaO h' ta
kj, reyqKq Yaj oHd,fha wdpdh i;Hmd, jkaks.u w;=reoyka
;snQ w;r ta ms<sn`o ijmdlaIsl yuqjla meje;aks' wms th mq,a
foaYmd,k ikaOdkhla njg mj;kh lf<uq' foaYfm%a cd;sl
fmruqKla ms<sn`o l=vd jevms<sfj<la ud iska flgqm;alr wka;
Yaj oHd,hSh YsIH n, uKav,hg bm;a lr wkque;sh f.k miqj
fiiq mlaIj,g bm;a lrk ,' fmardfoKsfha iqo;a nKavdr"
chjOkmqr .dKs ud,isxy hk isiq kdhlhskao tlS idlcdj,g
iyNd.S h' fu;r ;reK fha rf cd;sl mlaI ikaOdkhla i|yd
jQ uQ,sl m%;sm;a;s flgqm;la ieliSug ud yg wjia:djla ,ndu
mquhg lreKla h' fuhu udf.a Nd.Hhls' miqj isy< Wreufha;a"
bkamiqj cd;sl fy< Wreufha;a m%;sm;a;s flgqm;a lsug;a bkamiqj
uyskao ka;k m%;sm;a;sh ieliSug;a tod ,o mqyqKqj yd mkakrh ud
yg Yla;shla h'
f idlcdj wmQre foaYmd,k w;aoelSula f.k kafkah' isudfjda
nKavdrkdhl ue;sksh" wkqr nKavdrkdhl uy;d" relauka
fiakdkdhl" ta't't'wIar*a" l=ud fmdkakn," pdkl wur;=x."
ta't'wiSia" fkaIa .=KjOk jeks kdhlhska /ila weiqre lsug;a
Tjqkaf.a mqoa.,sl re wrel foaYmd,k woyia wdh ykd .ekSug;a
yelsh' jrla l=ud fmdkakn,f.a ksjfia tys jQ PdhdrEmhla
t;=ud fiiq whg fmkah' tys ;snqfKa '' fmdkakn,"
nKavdrkdhl" ms,sma .=KjOk yd v,s fiakdkdhl uy;ajrekaf.a
iuQy PdhdrEmhls' l=ud fmdkakn, th fmkakd lSf ta
ish,a,kaf.a mq;=ka fyda {d;s mq;=ka ^l=ud" wkqr" fkaIa" relauka& oeka
fu;ek iskd njh' ke;af;a f'wd'f.a mq;=ka njo Tyq ysjg
lSfh' ;j jir lSmhlska wmf.a orejkao tla wm .ek f f,igu
l;d lsug bv i,ikq jia wfma iuQy cdhdrEmhla .ksuqhehs Tyq
fhdackd lf<ah' tg ud lSf frf.a yd m%Ndlrkaf.a orejka thg
bvfoa oehs is;d ne,Su jvd iqiq njhs' wms ish fokd y`v k.d
iskdiqfkuq' h:d:h k fr yd m%Ndlrka ksfhdackh l< .e

48

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

f.d mrmqr fld<U 03 - fld<U 07 m%N+ mrmqrg bvla ug iQodk ke;s


nj Tjqka tod f;are fkd.ekSuh'
fuys,d lsjhq;af;a l=ud fmdkakn, uy;d fndfydarg is; ;=<
m%N+jdohla ;ndf.k fkdis wfhla njh' fuh isxy, kdhlhskaf.a
olskakg fkd;snqKq ,l=Kla h' Tyq jrla lSf ;u ksjfiys
Wvquyf,a t,a'''B yd maf,d lSmfofkl=g kdjd;eka ka nj;a"
rd;%sfha tlg wdydrf.k miqj t<shg f.dia Tjqka fj ;nd.;a nj;ah'
fld<U fndfyda fou< m%N+ ksfjia fld,a,kag ta kj, jD;j
;sKs' c''fm le/,a, mrdch jQ miq ^1991 & fld<U Yaj oHd,h
wi, mhska hka is ud oel ish fnkaia r:h k;r lr jwjq;a fyf;u
ud je<|.;a wdldrh ;ju;a u;lhg ths' pkasldf.a md;d,h Tyq
urdoeuQ g tys we`.s,a, wm fj; fhduql< wjia:dj" fokd;aul
w;aoelSula h'
wIar*a uy;d ish Wmdhka jD;ju wm iu. l;d lf<ah' isxy, - fou<
.egqu W;aikak jkg uqia,sjre bfu ch.%dylhd ;SrKh lrkakd
njg m;ajk nj Tyqf.a u;h h' th ;udf.a Wmdh nj o fyf;u
m%ldY lf<ah' fou< cd;sjd m%ydr ksid uqia,s fldx.%ih ysjqj;a th
ks;ru isxy, frda f,i mj;ajd .ekSu .ek fyf;u ie,els,su;a
h'Tyq yd relauka fmd ikaOdkfhka bj;a ckdm;sjrKfha
fma%uodi uy;dg iydh ug bm;a jQy'
foaYfma% fmd ikaOdkhla i`oyd jQ idlcd wid:l h' thg
wdikaku fya;=j jQfha ljr mlaIhla fyda ^wdKavqjla msysg jQ miq& b,a,d
wia wdKavqj iqreh hq;= njg c''fm f.k wd u;hg Y%S','ks'mh
tfrys uhs' wfkla w;ska ckm;s Y%s','ks'mfhka k w.ue;s cfmka
f,i jQ n,h fnodyod .ekSf c''fm iq;%ho Y%S','ks'm ms<s.;af;a ke;'
idlcd wid:l c''fm Pkao jckhg .sfhah' uu m%isoafhau f
.ek c''fm fpkh lf<' fm%auodi ckdm;sjrKh yd uyd
ue;sjrKh hk folu ch.;af;ah' cfm Pkao jckh fm%auodi ish
jdishg fhdod.;a w;r cfmg fm%auodi iu. in`o;djhlao h' iuyr
c''fm kdhlhska w;awvx.=jg m;ajQ miq ^1989& ;ukag ckdm;s yuqh
hq;=hehs b,a,d is njo jd;d h' cfm Wmdh YsIHhskag muKla
fkdj rggu kdYh le`ojkakla nj;a cd;sljdoh" wysxidjdoh" wfma

49

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

u. h hq;= nj;a fmkajk lD;shlaa ksl=;a lf<' thska ud W;aidy


lf<a cfm cd;sljdoh Wmdhla lrf.k ;reK jHdmdrh ish;g
.ekSu je<elau;a" fms,af,ag yd fld<U m%N+jdkag tfrysj isxy,
cd;sl n,hla Yaj oHd, ;=< frdamKh lsu;ah'
fm%auodi uy;df.a ch.%yKfhka miq mlaIfha ffjrh c''fm fj;g
fhduqh' c''fm lSf fm%auodi hkq f,dal,a flrkaials njh'
fnda,afIlajre 1917 reishdf yhuila we;=<; flrkaials
n,fhka myl< f,i fm%auodi o n,fhka mylrkq ,nk nj
fm%auodig udi yhhs hkafkka m%ldY flKs' Yaj oHd,j,
;;a;ajh jQfha c''fmg /yeKsj YsIH fm<.eiaula we;suh' ud iska
,shk ,o" ka;k mIoh iska t<solajk ,o wfma u. lD;sh
c''fmg /yeKs cd;sljd YsIH kdhlhskaf.a w;afmd; h' 1989 uehs
ui YajoHd, jD; jQ g c''fmg tfrys le/,a, mqmqrd .sfhah'
fudrgq Yaj oHd, isiqka wu;d bkah yuqod msgux lsu yd chjOk
bj;a lsu ms<sn| jQ wfma W;aidyh wid:l jQ nj m%isoafha ms<s.;s'
cfm ikakoaO Wmdh bfha rg kdYh lrd f.khk ksid thska
j,lsk f,i o b,a,d isfh' m<uq jif c''fm l%shdOrhska
lSmfofkl= yereKq g uq Yaj oHd,hu c''fm kdYld u.ska
.e, .;af;ah' c''fm ;=jlal= lrefjda tg islf<a uydpdh
mgqjg;dk urdoud Yaj oHd,h jid .ekSuh' th miqmi is
;=jlal=lrejd miqj rEmjdysksh bfha c''fm fpkh l< nj o
oek.;s' th b;sydifha fojdplhla h' fld<U Yaj oHd,fha o
fuh ish' oHd mSGfha f." wkQm" ud,sl" frdIdka jeks kdhlhska
>Dcqj c''fmg tfrysj ke.S iskd ,' m%isoaO jdo jdo l< fkdyels
jQ c''fm uydpdh fiqkaor urdoud tu Yaj oHd,h o
jid.;af;ah' tlS ;=jlal=lre o miqj wm .;au. jerh hkqfjka
c''fm isr l|jqrej, foaYk meje;ah' lk.dgqfjka jqj lsjhq;af;a
fnda,afIla ma,jhg iydh fkdfokakka w,hska f,i ykajka
uu ke;ak urKh lshd tod ^1989& Wia y`ka lE.eiQjka miqj
tlaflda rcfha T;a;=lrejka jQ nj fyda uu ke;ak meish lshd
hqfrdamhg m<d.sh njh'
1989 cqksui jkg c''fm ish le/,a, W;aikak lf<ah' f jkg
c''fm iska" ;uka urdou;ehs h jQjka fndfyduhla" tlaflda

50

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

foaY.;u fyda rcfha wdrlaIl wxY fj;g keUqreu isl<y'


fYaIfhka fld<U iajdk YsIH ix.uh yd Y%S ,xld uyck mlaIfha
msia fjku ikakoaO l,a,shla f,i c''fm fyda cd;sljd u;
oerEjka miqmi mkakkag jQy' f w;r" c''fm cd;sl ka;k kvh
f,i k,ska o is,ajd uy;d yd wm ishfokd klr m;%sldjla ksl=;a
lf<ah' th tla wdldrhlska wfma urK jfrka;=j h' fuf,i
wysxidjd u ksid wms fome;af;au f.dre njg m;ajQfhuq' fijk
fidh .sh iEu ;eklu urKfha fijke,a, wm fidhd wdfh' jrla
.,alsiafia tla;rd ydria:dkhl wm >d;kh i|yd fndanhla
wgjk f,i ;ukag Wmfoia ,enqKq nj oekg Wmej isk tjlg
NslaIQka jykafia flfkl= jQ fld<U Yaj oHd, isiqfjl= ud yg
lSfh' f w;r" iajdk YsIH ix.uh o wfma ysia fidhd fmfcfrda
j,ska k.rh mSrkakg jQfhah' fld<U Yaj oHd,fha fyauka;
pkais meyer .ekSug Tjqka iu;a jQ w;r" Tyq fidhd.sh ud yd ;j;a
wfma ys;j;a ffjoHmSG isiqfjl= iajdk YsIH ix.ufha urejka w;g
m;ah' wm ks;r ieierE fld<U Yaj oHd,fha kS;s mSG foaYk
Yd,djla weiajid ,x.= oud is wmf.a jOld.dr ksjdih njg m;ah'
tys .;l< udi ;=kl ;r ld,h w<,d uiska ,shk ,o wuq
fidfydkl ,x.=,d k f,aLkh jhsk nodod ix.%yfha m<fuka
fndfyda fofkla le/,a, ms<sn| ksrej;a f,a jel=Kq we;a; oek .;ay'
tlS ,sms fm<g Wo lf<a wo wm w;r ke;suq;a iod ys;dor ls;ais ksu,a
Ydka; uy;dh' wms w;awvx.=jg .eKqfka Tlaf;dan uih' fkdjen
jkg c''fm ishu kdhlhska tlje,g w;awvx.=jg m;ah' fndfyda
msilg hhkakg" urkakg jh lejQ Tjqka ish,af,dau mdfya wka
ishfokdu mjd kay' fldkau c''fm iellrejka ykd.ekSu"
myru" jO u" >d;kh wdh islf<a;a cfm kdhlhskau isks' ;j
ks;a;=jla fyda j;a u Tjqkf.a tlu me;=u ;sKs' c''fm
kdhlhska fmkajQ f h.= yeisu yd kskaod iy.; urKh ljod
fyda fld ixOdkfha kdhlhskag o w;ajk nj uu Yajdi lf<'
2009 uehs ui ta Yajdih o ;yjqre h' fld kdhlfhdao ish
idudlhska mdjdkay'
c''fm ;yk lr ^1983& th le/,a,g weo oeuQfha;a" Tjqka cd;sljd
mlaIfha kdhl;ajhg f.kdf;a" Tjqkf.a ikakoaO l%shdld;ajhg
wjYH iudc ms<s.ekSu ,ndkafka;a f'wdf.a jer foaYmd,k Wmdh
51

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

isks' f'wdf.a jD; wdlh ;=< m%Odk ixprlh jQ fiajd wdlh


iska" we;sl< mka Okm;Ska fukau mS;hska o c''fm fukau
fm%auodif.a o mokula h' uokfha 1971 fuka .e f.d r;ajhla
1989 - 90 cfmg wdfrdamKh fkdjqfKa f mka l%shdld;ajfha
f.dre njg Tjqkf.a kdhlhska yiq is ksidh' Tjqka kdY
flrefKa o fm%auodi - l=f yjq, iska ;kkd ,o f,darkaia ud*shdj
k ;j;a mka ixOdkhlska u o wNdjjdpl l%shdjla h'
jrla 1988 ;%Sud;dk >d;k isoah iufha ud yuq jQ ch u,r;ak
uy;d m%ldY lf<a W;=f fukau ol=fKa le/,a, o ch.; fkdyels
(No Win)
;;a;ajhlg m;aj we;s njhs' ;%Sud;dk ms<sn|
fm<md<shlg wjir .ekSu i|yd Tyq yuq jQ gh ta i|yk flrefKa'
wdrNfha yuqod ks,Odka mjd c''fm Yla;sh ms<sn|
w;lafiarejlg wdf f'wd .ek l,ls is oejeka; mlaIhl
irK Tjqkg ,enqKq ksidh' kuq;a c''fm .;a wka;jd bkah
frdaOh;a" bkahdjg tfrysj tlai;a ckmoh iu. fyda tlaug Tjqka
oerE W;aidyh;a" fld ixOdkh iu. mjd ikakoaOuh in|;d
mj;ajd .ekSu;a" 1988 ckdm;sjrKh yd uyd ue;sjrKh lvdlmam,a
lsu;a ksid mlaIh c''fmka bj;a h' c''fm flavrhg iSud jQ
mlaIhla h' f jro c''fm 2007 o lf<ah' ta rf cd;sudul
foaYfm%a ckhd ckm;s uyskao iu. fld frda igfka bhg hoa
jck" ;ck" ndOd lsj,g hEfuks' Tjqkf.a oejeka; Pkao moku
B< ue;sjrKj, lvdje th flavrhg iSud jQ mlaIhla h' ^2009
m<d;a iNd ue;sjrKh&
f w;r" yuqodf fYaI m%ydrl wxYj,ska c''fm iodpdrhla ke;s
.,a,d hqoaOhg (DIRTY WAR TACTICS) ms<s;=rla f,i tlS
Wml%uhkau fhdod.kakg h' (MIRROR IMAGE TACTICS) c''fm
uokh i|yd ish fokd w;awvx.=jg .kakd" jD;j fj ;nkd
kHdh fjkqjg f;dardf.k kdY lsu we/Ks' r;au,dfka
uqKisxyf.ka we/UqKq tlS m%;sn m%ydr udi lSmhlska fr .ukdhl - 't' wdkkao olajdu .uka lf<ah' f w;r" fjk;a
m%;sreoaOjdka >d;khg o wdKavqj fukau jdudxYsl l,a,s o Wmu
f,i tlS NSIK iuh fhdod.;af;dah' cfm wdrNh yd | jeu
ms<sn|j f,a l ueka kka ,sms ud,djla ,laK mqj;amf;a
52

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

^1991& m< lf<' tl, iqks,a udOjf.a ixialrKfhka hq;= ,laK


mqj;am; is .sh c''fm l%shdOrhska tlalrk kjd;ekla f,i o l%shd
l< w;r" tlS ,sms fm< Tjqkf.a oe fpkhg o yiqh' thg ,sms
iemhQjka w;r" v,ia w,ymafmreu uy;d fukau u,a rjxY uy;d o
is w;r" th uqKh lf<a ;s,la lreKdr;ak uy;df.a wdOdrfhks'
miqj k,ska o is,ajd yd ;s,la lreKdr;ak w;r" we;s jQ .egqulska miq
wms tlS mqj;amf;ka iuq.;suq' jOld.drfhka ksoyia flrek o
urKfha fijke,s wm miqmi je ;sKs' tjlg w;=reoyka is ud
h<s;a fidhd.kakg wfma f,dl= wlald m%uqL mjqf,a ieug tjlg
rdjh l;D jQ lag whsjka uy;d;a" wkqreoaO r;aj;af;a uy;d;a
Wmldr lr ;sKs' ud m<uq ,smsh YsIH jHdmdrh ms<sn|j rdjhg ,sjQ
w;r" ,laKg inkaO jkf;la fndfyda ud;Dld hgf;a thg ,sms
,shQfj' jrla whsjka uy;d iska" pkasldg mdr lemSu ^1994& i|yd
jD; wdlh ms<sn|j lrkd ,o idjdoH lreKq oelaula ksjer
lrkd f,i Tyqf.ka b,a,d is wjia:df th bgqfkdl< ksid rdjhg
,sms iemhSu k;r lf<' rdjh mqj;am;la jQfha ,,s;a we;=<;auqo,sf.a
le/,a, fmrg f.khEu i|yd jQ w;r" th b;d id:l f,i rdjh
iska" bgqlrk ,' 2001 hQtkamSh n,hg f.ktau i|yd ,ika;
l%u;=x. iska isl< fufyhg iudk fufyhla 1994 pkasld
n,hg f.ktau i|yd rdjh iska bgqlrk ,' fujeks l,am udOH
tajdfha iudc ldhh bgqlrk wjia:df ,dNodhS jHdmdr f,i
mj;ajdf.k .sh o fndfydarg kv;a;= jkafka foaYSh fyda fn!oaO
frda wd.l l,a,sj, fyda isxy, frda l,a,sj, wruqo,a j,sks'
ka g m%.;sYS,S fjia .;a; o iuia;hla f,i tajd ish iajdkag
fiajh lr;s' brek" ,Sv" hqla;sh yd rdjh l,am ckudOH ckm%sh
f;aud .kakd w;r" udOHf *eisiajdohla o uqody;s' cd;sl;ajh
mok lr.;a Yla;su;a p; yd jHdmdr kdY lsu ta *eisiajdofha
uqLH wruqKhs'

53

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

f;jeks .yereu

uu is;"
ta ksid uu mj;s
1

990 jir uf.a ;fha odYksl jir h' ;h .ek jvd


mq,a wjfndaOhla jOld.drj, f,a jel=Kq u;lhka iska" ,nd
;sKs' Yaj oHd, wOHdmkh ms<sn| lsis wdYdjla we;s fkdKs' ks;H
wOHdmkfha foaYmd,kh ug ks;ru ndOd lf<ah' idudkH fm< 1980
cQ,s jevjckh ksid o Wiia fm< ckdm;sjrKh" cku; pdrKh
yd 83 cQ,s l,n, ksido" Yaj oHd, wjika jir fol c''fm le/,a,
ksid o lvdlmam,a .sfhah' ;h fidhd O ia:dkj,g m<dhka
ish tlu foh jQfha yels;dla lshf kshe,Suh' wmg ys;j;a
ydria:dk .Kkdjla ta i|yd fijk Ks' ydria:dk wkdrlaIs;
jkg wfma ys;;=re frdIdkaf.a u.fmkau hgf;a l,l isg oek
yek is cQ,d,a msh;=ud yuqjqfk' Tyq ta kj, ^1990& ls;=Kq oyu
i|yd uqla;s foajOuh ykajdf W;aidyhl kshe,S is nqoau;a
olaI ;reK mQcl;=fula h' uOHu weueldf ^1950-70& w;r" m%p,s;
jQ Tiald frdfuhsfrdaf.a uqla;s foajOufha (LIBERATION
THEOLOGY) mok ykd.kakg ud yg thska yelshdj ,eKs' tlS
msia miqj ol=Kq yd uOHu weueldkq m%foaYj, jdudxYsl ma,jhkaf.a
;Srl n,f.h njg m;ah' we;af;kau frdaudkq lf;da,sl ,;ska

55

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

rgj, isjk f iudc fjkialu .ek ie,ls,su;a jQ tlai;a ckmoh


ta i|yd Wmdhka folla fhfh' tlla k .shka i|yd Wmldr
lsug iafPd ixOdk cd,hla yslsuh' f i|yd uQ,sl wdNdIh
bkahdf yd ,xldf ifjdaoh jeks iudc ixOdkj,ska ,nd.eksKs'
foaY wdOdr ,nk rdcH fkdjk ixOdk ud,sh thska Wm; ,eKs'
iudc wiykhka mqmqrd fkdhjd mSvkhka msglr md,kh lsu tajdfha
wruqK h' fojeks Wmdh jQfha ixOdkd;aul m,a,sh fjkqjg mqoa.,
weoys,a, f.ktauh' fmka;fldia; m%pdrlhska oi oyia .Kkla f
m%foaYj,g hef m%;sM,h jQfha ck;dj uOH lf;da,sl m,a,sh
w;yer l=vd tjekac,sl m,a,s jgd frdlauh' ,;ska weueldf
we;sfjka .sh uqla;s foaj Ouh yd neKq .S ma,jh md,kh
flrefKa ta f,ih'
cQ,d,a msh;=ud uqla;s foajOuh wkql%ufhka fou< cd;sjdohg uqiq
lf<ah' thska Tyq yd wm w;r" .egq yg.;af;ah' 2002 jif fld<U
we;s jQ fmdx.= ;,a .egqf yueo isfha Tyqh' Tyq oeka foaY.;j
is' Tyq ug lf;da,slhka w;r" iqfYaIS p;hla ykajd kafkah' ta
Tiald wfr;ak msh;=udh' t;=ud o 1971 ma,jjd woyia ord m,a,sh
iska" fldkalrk ,oafols' t;=udf.a m%Yxidrdufha k .Kkdjla ud
/ is w;r" uy;a jkd fmd;a .=,l irK ,nkakg o yelsh'
uis,ska chfld msh;=ud fukau Tiald wfr;ak msh;=ud yd
t;=udf.a msjr isxy,lu;a" fn!oaOlu;a flf f.!rjhla oelajQy'
miqj isxy, fldiu ^1997& msysgq jQ g thg idlaIs ug;a bm;a jQy'
isxy, ni" idys;Hh" .S; l,dj fuka cd;sljdoh i|yd;a Tiald
wfr;ak msh;=udf.a ls;= okmqnqj o we;=<;aj fndfyda ls;=Kqjka
fiajh lr we;snj o lsj hq;=h'
w;e mgq woyia iys; msia ug uv.eiSu i|yd ks;ru mqnqj yd wm
w;r" we;s inkaOh fhdod .;ay' lf;da,sl T;a;=lrejka f,i l,la
wmj yxjvq .eiQ we;e NslaIQka jykafia,d miqj fIdma ukarfha
odkh j<|k ;;a;ajhg o m;ajQ nj fkdlsjukdh' we;e c''fm
kdhlfhda" ud jdyjQfha mqnqf ls;=Kq l;la iu. nj lshd m%isoaO
mqj;am;aj,g ,sfjdah' ta ms<sn|j kvqu.g f.dia uf.a | fn!oaO nj
Tmamqlr ,shk 20l jkahla c''fm z,xldZ mqj;am;ska ,nd.kakg
mjd ug ish' fjd bfha ud fkdiefKa ufya uykdhl yshka
56

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

iy fikr;a mrK;dk Y+kaf.a mjqf,a wh ls;=Kqjka nj lshd uv


.ikakg mjd msia is ksidh' wfma cd;sl kdhlhskag fujeks uv
m%ydr t,a, lrkd tla;rd rdcH fkdjk ixOdkhl kdhlfhl= jrla
b;d,sfha ug yuqh' ,xldf froao nekshu ye|f.k isxy," cd;sl
kdhlhskaf.a mjq,a fpkh lrkd Tyq mQK hqfrdamSh weu ye|
frdauhg f.dia isfha m,a,sfhka wdOdr tl;= lrkakgh' rdcH
fkdjk ixOdk .ek fpkh lr l,amh o" ;uka iskau
f.dvke`.Sug ;r we;eg ngysr n,f. iQlaIu fj;s' wegueiaid
k iqm%lg lD;sfha l;dkdhlhd mqj;am;lg mlaIj yd mlaIj o ,sms
,shQ wdldrhgu fuh isf' f l+G mqoa., p; tlska tl
ykd.kakg ,eu uu ,enQ f,dl=u w;aoelSula f,i i,l'
nq oyu ms<sn|j idudkH wjfndaOhlska is uf.a oelau cd;sl ka;k
m%jdofha lreKq uiSfuka miq mq,a h' kuq;a tys odYksl oelau uf.a
isrer yd uki ;=<g uq,a nei.;af;a wd'' o tia fj;a;uqKs uy;d
iska" ,shk ,o nq oyu" oHdj yd iu iu jk whqre yd nqoyu yd
meje;af wiar;ajh (Buddhism and Ambiguity of Existence) k
lD;s fol lshfuks' f,dalfha fndfyda oYkhka idrhla" wd;auhla"
h:d:hla" fofhla fyda tjeks hula we;ehs hkak mQj ks.ukhla
f,i .;a; o nq oyu th iyuq,skau m%;slafIam lr ish oYkh
f.dvkxjd we;s nj tlS lD;sj,ska meye,s h' tfukau oHdj kka
wms ykd.kakd l%shdoduh yd nq oyu i;Hh fidhd hk ud.h
ms<sn|j o ukd jrKhla tu`.ska iemhsks' fndfyda .=reka irK .sh o
ug i;Hh iyuq,ska mila jQfha fj;a;uqks uy;d ksidh' ta uy;dg;a ta
uy;d .ek ug lshdka fmardfoKsfha chka; whshdg;a fndfyda
mskafo'
,xldf cfm le/,a, mrdch u;a iu.u mdfya fidah foaYfha |
jeu o ^1989& ish' uq fldhqksia f,dalhu | jegqKq w;r" kh"
hkduh wdh fika" fika fjf<|fmd< l%uhg wkqj;kh
fjka meje;sKs' f ;;a;ajh ,xldf jdudxYsl jHdmdrhg o ta kj,
;ka oeksKs' f.dnfpd iska ykajdka fmfriaf;%dhsld k
ixl,amh .ek ixjdo lsu i|yd ixjdo uKav,hla oaj;=ka lSm
fofkl= iska f.dvkxjd ;sKs' th ixOdkh lrkakg uydpdh
wcqk fidhsid uQ,sl h' Tyq fyd| ukila fukau fyd| yoj;la o ys

57

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

.=K.rel nqoauf;l= h' tlS ixjdo uKavmj,g ye wNh.=KjOk"


fy' Ys%hdkkao" l%undyq lreKdr;ak" k,ska o is,ajd jeks wh iyNd.s
jQy' f whf.a ixjdo fj;ska uu fkdfhla lreKq Wf.k .;s'
fYaIfhka ye wNh.=KjOkhkaf.a f,aLkj,ska iudcjdofha ;j;a
me;sudkhla oel .;s' Tyqf.a ;lh jQfha ishu ka rxpq jYfhka
iduqysl jYfhka hefmkd nj;a" j;ajk nj;ah' ksid o hqKq
fhls' tfyhska Tyqg jvd u;a ia:djr iduQysl ;hla ,nd.;
yelsh hkakh'
wfma rf iudch ;=< iudcjdoh yd udlaiajdoh tlu were;ska
fhdod.kS' kuq;a th b;du jer ks.ukhls' udlaiag fmr is fndfyda
hqfrdamSh iudcjdka tlaflda mrd:lduh" ksia hy.=Kh wd.l
iuQy ka;kh u; fyda j" udkj jd ,l=Kq u; iudcjdoh fyd|u
iudcl%uh f,i ksfoaY lf<dah' ,xldf o fndfyda iudcjdka
wh;ajkafka m<uq .Khgh' kuq;a udlaia Tjqkag ks.%y lf<a
ufkdardlhka f,ih' udlaiag wkqj ksIamdokh je hqKq lsf
ixjOkh Okjdohg l< fkdyels jk jljdkqjl ta i|yd iudcjdoh
w;HjYH fjhs' Tyq th oHd;aul iudcjdoh f,i k lf<ah'
udlaiajdoh ,xldjg meKs uq,a wjia:df oHd,xldrfha j,afmd,
rdyq, ys" Wvlekaofj, irKxlr ys" udka l%uisxy jeks uyd
m%d{hska mjd udlaiajdohg ji`.jqfKa tys i|yka iduQysl iudch"
nqrcdKka jod< idx>sl iudchu kK wdldrhg .ekSula f,i
is;dh' fuhg mgyeks u;hla oerEf hlalvqf yshka muKs'
Wkajykafiaf.a u;h jQfha nq oyka oeuqKq is;a we;sj Tjqfkdjqka
iu. mfrdamldrfhka neKq Odl iudch udlaiaf.a nvq NdKavj,ska
neKq iudchg jvd Wiia iudcjdohla njh' hlalvqf yshka fukau
wk u;hla wfma NdIdj .ek m<lf<a l=udr;=x. uqKsodihka isks'
isxy,h wdh NdIdjla f,i uelaiauq,f.a j.SlrKhka Tiafia wfma
oaj;=ka oel mqre wjia:djl" isxy, ni wdh - v wd l=,lj,g
oeh fkdyels wkkH nila nj fy<s fmfy<s lf<a l=udr;=x.hkah'
tfyhska nqoauh wdk;ajh iska f fofokdu iqfYaIS mqoa.,hska
fj;s' by; lS wre;aj,g fjkia jQ wre;la iudcjdoh i|yd uu
tlalf<' ta 1990 r; ixjOkfha ;=kajeks hduh k lD;sh
u.sks' thska lshjqfKa f,dalfha im;a iS; u;a" mirhg IKh

58

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

Wlyd.; yels m%udKh iSud iys; u;a ksid wm; ixjOkhla


we;slr.; fkdyels njh' f ksid j;auka mrmqr w;r;a" u;= mrmqr
iu.;a mir im;a iSud iys;j fnod yod.; yels iudc l%uhla f,i
kj iudcjdohla - ^ud th klf<a y; iudcjdoh f,isks& - wjYH
nj lSfj' fuh je jefhka ixjOkh b,a,k udlaiajd
iudcjdohg mgyeks m%jdohla f,i b;a lf<' bka jir 19 lg miq
ug fmkS hkafka th oeka oeka fl;r m%fhdackj;a m%dfhda.sl u;hla
o hkakh' 2009 jif khsfrda k.rfha meje;a jQ (UNEP) tlai;a
cd;Skaf.a iuqf bm;a jQ y; wdlh ms<sn| kHdh m;%fha wvx.=
jQfha tjka fnod yod.kakd wdlhl Pdhd ud;%hls' miqj uu f
ms<sn|j tlai;a cd;Skaf.a mir jevigyfka Odhl wlS iaghsk
iu. idlPd lf<' Tyq ug lSf y; wdlhla ms<sn| uQ,sl
l;sldj ieliqfKa f mshia" wks,a ulkaod" tj ndh
iska r; y; wdl oHdj (BLUE PRINT FOR A GREEN
ECONOMY - 1989) k lD;sh u.ska" njhs' jydu fmd;ay,g f.dia
Tjqkaf.a ta l=vd fmd; , .;s' th lshefuka uu u;hg
m;ajqfk' Tjqka .ek ydxlishla fkdoek f,dalfha fjk;au uq,a,l
isg ud r; lD;sfha;a" Tjqkf.a oYkfha yd mj;sk ;;a;ajh ms<sn|
fpkfha;a" mqudldr iudk njla ;sKs' flfia fj;;a" y;
wdlh ms<sn| kQ;kjd lD;shla fkdue;s lf wvqj uu ' y;
wreK ( TOWARDS A NEW GREEN ERA ) lD;sh ksudKh lf<a ta
wkqjh' th cd;slj;a cd;Hka;rj;a fndfyda mirfka yd
foaYmd,lhskag fhduq lf<' fndfyda oaj;=ka lSf ;srir ixjOkh
yd y; wdlh w;r" w:f fjki Tjqka ykd.;af;a tlS l=vd
lD;sfhka njh'
wcqk fidhsid uy;df.a wdrdOkfhka Yaj oHd, wOHdmkh ksu
fuka miq ^1992& uu jD; Yaj oHd,fha bxfkare .Ks; wxYhg
nefk' ta foaYlfhl= yd WmfoaYlfhl= f,ihs' ud uQ,sl jYfhka
W.ekajQfha bxfkare .Ks;hhs' wfYdal wNh.=KjOkf.a u.
fmkau hgf;a oHd;aul ka;kh foig keUqre jQfh' wcqk
fidhsid uy;d miqj tlS Ih ms<sn| j.lS o ud fj; fhduq lf<ah'
ta kj, jD; Yaj oHd,fha .Ks; wxYfha wdpdh l%undyq
lreKdr;ak o fiajh lf<ah' fndfyda kj, udlaiajdoh .ek Tyq iu.
59

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

jdoj, megfk' wcqk fidhsid uy;d tg wm w;r" jdohla


ixOdkh lf<ah' tys m%;sM,h jQfha udlaiajdoh ms<sn| uf.a oekqu ;j
;j;a ix; u;a thg mgyeks u;jdoh ;j ;j;a Yla;su;a u;ah'
m%d.aOkh" fidndoyf ohf,la;slh" vQka frdaOh wd udlaia yd
tx.,aia ,shQ lD;Ska .Kkdjla tlS jdoh ksid ud yg lshjkakg
ish' ug tlS ixjdofha ye`.S .sfha wfma fndfyda udlaiajd
nqoau;=ka udlaiajdoh fndfyda .eUqka yodrd ke;s njh' tys fldgia
yodrd we;s njh'
jrla wm Yaj oHd,fha iskd ld,fha ^1985& wfma YsIH kdhlhd jQ
;s,lis .d,a,f.af.ka wfma jif is ;shqKq YsIHfhl= jQ Woh bks,a
m%Yakhla weiqfh' th k Tn udlaiajdfhl= we;af;a wehs lshdh'
.d,a,f.a f.a ms<s;=r jQfha th oHd;aul ksid hkakh' oHdj lshkafka
l=ula o lshd bks,a weiqfh' thg .d,a,f.a ka ms<s;=r jQfha isoaOdka;
- ks.ukh - mlaIKh - idOkh hk oHd;aul l%ufoh wkqj
yslrk isoaOdka; moaO;sh lshdh' b;ska udlaiajd isoaOdka;h
mlaIKhlska Tmamq ;sfoehs bks,a fmr<d weiqfh' .d,a,f.a ka
ms<s;=r ug oeka u;l ke;' bks,a miq lf,l kid .;af;ah'
hhk g Tyq we,afnhd leuq" idf;%a jeks idxoDIal jdfhla yd
mir jdfhla njg m;aj isfhah' kuq;a Tyq weiQ m%Yak udlaiajdkag
k nrm;, m%Yak fjhs'
oHdj yd oHd;aul ka;kh .ek pe,auia" ld,a fmdm" fmda,a
fmhnka" f;dauia l+ka" wdkaf.a uQ,sl lD;Ska lshjQfh' tys ug
fmkS .sfha isoaOdka;j,ska wkdjels lSu - ^ks.ukld& fyda
w;aoelSj,ska isoaOdka; ;ekSu - ^Woa.ukld& wd f,i mej;=Kq
me/Ks oHd;aul l%ufohkag jvd w;sYh ixlSK f,i ngysr
f,dalfha oekqu tla/ia we;s njh' fldkau oekqu tla/ia lsu
i|yd ksYa; l%shdud.hla ke;s nj;a" oekqu mjd ksYa; ke;s nj;a"
l%ufhka i;Hh lrd hkjd hkak ldrhla nj;a" thska ug fmkS
.sfhah' uf.a is;a .;af;a iqiquoYh (Paradigm) ms<sn| f;dauia l+kaf.a
isoaOdka;hhs' f,dal oelaula u; mok jQ jkdl moaO;shla
we;su;a" tlS moaO;sh we;=<; O l=vd l=vd isoaOdka; rduQka

60

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

we;su;a thska meye,s flKs' fYaIfhkau fuys ksrfmalaI


wjldYh yd ld,h" jia;+ka u; mok jQ ksfgdakshdkq iqiquoYh yd
whskaiaghskshdkq iqiqu oYh idlPd h' fN!;sl oHdf u;= jQ f
iqiquoYh ms<sn| woyi ixjOkh yd iudcl%uhka .%y lrkakg
miqj uu fhdod .;af;' fuh uiska r; idfmlaId ^1994& lD;sfha
ia;r lrk ,'
ta kj, wcqk fidhsid uy;d;a uu;a lSm gla odYksl ixjdo i|yd
fmardfoKshg .sfhuq' fmardfoKs oYk wxYfha .=Kmd, Ouis" vhia
.=Kr;ak" mS'' fm%auis jeks uydpdhjre tys wmg yuqh' ta
idlPdj,ska oYkfha uQ,sl m%Yak ms<sn|j;a nq oyf ta ms<sn|j we;s
.%y ms<sn|j;a ixhqla; oekqula ug ,eKs' fya.,a" ldka yd yshq
.eUqka yodrkakg ug yelshdj ,eKs' oYkfha uQ,sl m%Yakh wfma
bkaShkag oefkkd" w;aoelSula lr.; yels f,dalhg jvd fjk;a
f,dalhla ;sfo@ tfiak th mj;sk nj wm oek.;af;a flfiao
hkak f,i ykd.;s'
f ld,fha fkl p; fyar;a iska" ud yg m%sfcda*a lmard iska"
r; fN!;sl oHdf ;dfjda jdoh (TAO OF PHYSICS ) lD;sh
,ndkafkah' th lshfuka buy;a wdYajdohla ,nd.;af;'
miqj Tyq iska" r; b;sydifha ikaia;dkh ( TURNING POINT )
yd y; foaYmd,kh ms<sn| lD;Ska o lsh' fN!;sl oHdf .eUqre
m%Yak l,d;aul f,i kjl;djla f,i rpkd lrkakg Tyqg ;snQ wmQre
yelshdj ms<sn| ;ju;a uu mqu fj'
lmard iska' mqnqjk ,o is;=,s wkqj hka fN!;sl oHdf isoaOdka;
.eUqka yodrkakg jQfh' ud Wiia fm< fN!;sl oHd m%Yak m;%hg
ms<s;=re fo;a tla;rd m%Yakhlska wid ;snQ pqNl i%djh ms<sn|
.egjlg ysrjqfk' tjlg ud W.;a wdldrhg oHQ;a fyda pqNl
m%Yak tajd wjldYfha we;s l=vd wxY= f,i ie,lSfuka fyda wjldYfha
me;s .sh i%djhka f,i ie,lSfuka fyda ih yels fjhs' by; lS
.egj f fohdldrfhkau iug ud W;aidy l< o th wid:l h'
f .ek .=rejrekaf.ka ,;a ms<s;=reo ud iEySulg m;a fkdlf<ah'

61

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

miqj ud oek.;af;a oHQ;a pqNlfha we;e .=Kdx. tajd wxY= f,i


.ekSfuka o we;e .=Kdx. tajd ;rx. f,i .ekSfuka o ih yels
njh' ta fol ieugu tlla njg m;al< fkdyels nj;ah' ud Wiia
fm< i|kakg .sfha whskaiaghska yd fnda wdka iska oYl .Kkla
jdo l< wo olajd mj;sk wxY= - ;rx. jdohhs' ug fyda uf.a
.=rejrekag thg ms<s;=re fkdmej;Su .ek oekak ug lsisu
lk.dgqjla ke;' kuq;a ta .egf t isu ksid ug fN!;sl oHd
W;a;r m;%fha fiiq m%Yak iug ld,hla fkdu .ek k ;ju;a
lk.dgqjla we;'
Wiia fm< .Ks;h ud yg b.ekajQ fikaokdhl uy;d;a fN!;sl oHdj
b.ekajQ f.%. m%kdka uy;d;a hk fofokdf.kau ud weiQ m%Yakhla
h' tk fihg .i;a wfma w;g oefkkd fN!;sl n,h .=re;ajh
inkaOfhka wmg fkdoefkkafka wehs@ lshdh' ta fofokdu ug lSf
tlS n, fofla lsisu fjkila ke;s njh' fikaokdhl uy;d ug miqj
lSf m%Yakh nrm;, tlla nj;a" th fkdis;d .Kka yokd f,i;ah'
jir oyhlg miq f ms<sn|j fidhd h;a ug fN!;sl oHdf is
fY%aIaG;u odYkslhd yuqh' Tyq ksgka fyda fld fyda
whskaiaghska fkdj wkia udlah'
udla b;d ksjer odYksl m%Yak lSmhla weiqfh' wfma Kq
udmlj,g - fkdoefkk f,i ld,h fyda wjldYh mj;So@ wfma
bkashhkag fkdoefkk f,i jia;= mj;So@ mj;Sk tajd wm
oek.kafka flfiao@
udla ksNS; f,i lSf wfma bkaShkag" WmlrKj,g fkdoefkk
ld,hla" wjldYhla fyda jia;= fkdmj;sk njh' thska ksjqgkaf.a
f,dalh wNsfhda. flKs' whskaiaghska ld,h yd wjldYh ms<sn| ;snQ
udlaf.a u;jdoh .Ks;hg;a m%dfhda.sl;ajhg;a f.kwdfh' kS,aia
fnda - yhsikan.a jekakka jia;=j, meje;au bkaSkag - WmlrKj,g
idfmalaI nj .Ks;hg yd m%dfhda.sl mlaIKj,g f.kwdfh'
iqm%isoaO whskaiaghska - fnda jdoh ;ju;a mj;S' fndfyda fofkla
fkdokakjdg whskaiaghska uejqldr fohka yd foaj ie,eiau Yajdi
l< fyd| hqfofjl= h' th h rlg wNsfhda. lf<a kS,aiafnda yd
Tyqf.a fldamkafya.ka odYksl .=rel=,h isks'

62

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

idfmalaI;d jdoh yd lajkag hdka;%Kfha we;s h:d:h ms<sn|


;;a;ajh .%y lrka uu Y%dia;S%h ,smshla - lajkag h:d:h
(Quantum Reality) kka m<lf<' thg wu;rj wfma mdi,a
orejkaf.a Wkkaj Wfoid ir i`.rdjg ,sms ud,djla imqu,a
fiakdkdhl kka ,shd m< lf<' oHd;aul f,dalfha jdo jdo
ms<sn|j Wf.kSfuka ud ,o oekqu yd wdYajdoh fnod .ekSug;a
jerg;a ta oekqu ix; lr .ekSug;a thska ug yelsh' miqj f
,sms fm< lajkagdjl ksjk k lD;shla f,i ilia l<o th m<l<
fkdyels h'
l=vdl, isg h Ihhla ms<sn| bf.kSfuka miq ta ms<sn| ,su" wka
whg bf.kau uf.a ms<sfj; h' Wiia fm<g bf.k .kakd ld,fha
uf.a mka;s ldur i.hskag ijiajref .Kka bf.kau uf.a fkdaoh
h' tu.ska Ifha .eUqre ;eka ms<sn| w;a wjfndaOhla ud fj;
,eKs' Yaj oHd,fha o wkqkg b.ekafuka ta f,iu fkdaohla yd
wjfndaOhla ,nd.;s' wm W.kajkafka wfma u;lh o ke;ak wfma
woyia o lshd ;ukg ielhla we;ehs jrla ,,s;a we;=<;auqo,s m%ldY lr
;sKs' ud is;kafka wms W.kajkafka wkqkaf.a oekqu wfma f,i
.ekSfuka ;kd.;a kj woyila njhs' fldkau oekqu ms<sn| wfma
lshu njhs' th wfma isiqka Wlyd .kafka o Tjqkaf.a fohla f,i
njhs'
uf.a oekqu oYkh" oHdj" wdlh" mirh" iudch" foaYmd,kh
hk lafIa;%j, tla;rd mK; wjia:djlg meKs l< uu kj lD;shla
lf<' thg idfmalaId f,i k ;enqfj' fidndoyu lsis
isoaOdka;hlg wkqj l%shd fkdlrk nj;a" tys we;sjk rgd wfma
oekqfuka ksudKh jk nj;a" meye,s lf<' ksia iudch yq ksia
wd;ah ksudKhla nj;a" th ta ksidu iajNdj oyug jvd fjkia f,i
yeisfrk nj;a we;eg ;sj,g hg;aj yeisfrk nj;a" ^th ksia
ksudKhla ksid& tfukau tys yeis wkdjelsj,ska lsj fkdyels
nj;a" m%ldY lf<' udlaiajdoh fyda ngysr rgj, tk isoaOdka;jdoh
fuka f,dalh ;ks tl isoaOdka;hlg .; fkdyels nj" f,dalh wfma
bkashhkag ukig" oekqug" wjg iudchg" mir moaO;shg" Yaj
in|;dj,g idfmalaI nj;a tys yrh h' udlaiajd - ,snr,ajd

63

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wdlh ixjOk ka;kh wdh ms<sn| fpkhla o thg we;=<;a


h'
f mdil oYkh Tiafia tla jQ wms lKavdhula 1992 ck;d
;=frda msysgqjQfhuq' w;=r,sfha r;k ys" ud,sl u,iQh" wfYdal
wNh.=KjOk yd ud tys uQ,slfhda jQfhuq' NSIKfhka ysjegqKq
iudch fj;g ks,a wyi yd m<djka u ms<sn| w;a woyila iu. wms
.uka lf<uq' th wm yekajQfha m%{dj frdo nk ;K m; o l;d
lrkd foaYmd,khla f,ih'
ck;d ;=frda f.dvke.Sf wE; ynkaf;dg rlefha ckl
nKavdrf.a ^inr.uqj wdKavqldr& ksji;a" w;=r,sfha r;k yshkaf.a
ud;r m,a,suq,a, wdkkaodrduh;a" wfYdal wNh.=KjOkhkaf.a
ynrdf me/Ks ksji;a" fYaIfhka nka, pkafialrhkaf.a
r;a;kmsh ksji;a uQ,sl h' nka,f.a udud oe m%;sm;a;s.rel
udlaiajdfhl= jQ w;r" Tyqf.a wkq.dlfhda fyd| mqia;ld,hla yd
uqKd,hla mj;ajdf.k .shy' f fol;a Tyqf.ka ,enqKq /ljrKh;a
uq,a hq.fha wfma ; wjYH;d bgqlr,Sug iu;a jQ nj wo;a
isyslrkafka lD;{mQjljh'
zck;d ;=frdaZ msysgqu;a iu. wms Yaj oHd,j, isiqka iu. kj
ixjdohlg .sfhuq' wfma im%dma;sh iu. ta jkg ;ek ;ek kej;
tl;= fjka is c''fm ldvrhska l,n,hg m;ah' kuq;a Tjqka
fndfyduhla isfha rcfha yd jdudxYsl ikakoaO l,a,sj,g fhks'
fldkau 1990-91 jljdkqf Yaj oHd,j, YsIH iNd i|yd
bm;aug;a lsisfjla fkdishy' fld<U Yaj oHd,fha >Dcqju
iajdk YsIH ix.ufha m%pKav n,h b;s f.dia ;sKs' .= lka" rdcH
uokhg uqyqK foka YsIH iNd kej; l%shdld lf<a wmh'
fYaIfhka 1983 ;yk lr 1985 wfydaislr" 1988 kej; kd.;a
YsIH iNd l%shdld l<hq;= nj wfma wIaGdkh h' thg fya;= folla
h' m<uqjekak rch iu`. idlPdj, ^1988& kj YsIH iNd mk;
flgqm;a lf<a wm lSmfofkl= isks' tajd l%shd;aul lr,Su tfyhska
wfma j.lSula h' wksla w;g ks, wdh;k wl%Sh jqjfyd;a kej;;a YsIH
l%shdld lgq yryd ks, fkdjk" YsIHhskag j. fkdlshk foaYmd,k
ldvr iska" kgjk wdh;k we;sf hehs wms huq' c''fmg wjYHj
64

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

;snqfKa ks,jrK ke;s tjeks wdh;khs' wfma W;aidyh id:l h'


fndfyda YajoHd, ks,jrK iys;j YsIH iNd msysgqjd .;ay' ;ukg
YsIH n,h md,kh l< fkdyels nj gq c''fm ldvjre tlS YsIH
iNdj,g fmd YsIHhka f,i x.d .;ay' c''fm fyysg ish
m%;sixOdk lghq;= i|yd ux., iurr;a u fmruqK;a fhdod.;a
w;r" tys iu ixOdhl jQ uyskao rdcmlaI iu. .ska .gu .egq
we;slr.;ay' ck;d ;=frda m%cd;ka;%jd wjldYh mqrdjd,kq we;ehs
hg m;a cfm ish jD; lghq;= o f.j;a lf<ah' wjidkfha Tjqkg
wdOdr ,enqfKa Tjqka uokh l< hQtkamS wdKavqfjkauh' t<efUk
uyd ue;sjrKfha ^1994& yd ckdm;sjrKfha cfm Pkao fmd
fmruqKg tlau je<elau i|yd c''fm lr,shg .ekSug hQ'tka'mS
wdKavqjg o wjYH;djhla we;s ;sKs' m%.;sYS,S fmruqK tys m%;sM,h
h'
ck;d ;=frda iska uQ,sl jYfhka ,xld foaYmd,kfha yrj;a
fjkila we;slrk ,' thk mir ys;ld y; foaYmd,kh
uq,ajrg ykajd uhs' iqmqre m wmg fpkh wdf udlaiajdofhks'
c''fmka 1971 .sh ck;d ix.ufha idudlhka iska mj;ajdf.k
.sh hei i`.rdj tys,d wmj oe f,i fpkh lf<ah' th wmg
Wmldrhlau h' udlaiajd ohf,la;slfha iSudj yd hdka;%sl jdoh"
udlaiajd wdl oHdf iSud yd Y%u iQrdlEug jvd mir iQrdlEu
n,j;a nj fmkau" udlaiajd iudc ixjOk kHdfha fnd<|lu"
wid:l lu yd mka;s igfka lD;Ska fmkakd ug wmg yelsh'
hqf.daia,d odYksl ,dia lS whqre ro,hska yd f.dhka .efg;a "
Okm;Ska fmrg wd whqka Okm;Ska yd llrejka .efg;a
jD;a;Shfka n,h meyer .ekSu ms<sn| jdohka o we;sh'
fYaIfhka mir ys;ld ;dlaIKh ms<sn| uQ,Ouhka" mir
ys;ld f.d;ek ms<sn| uQ,Ouhka" rdcH ixOdkh ms<sn| kj
uQ,Ouhka ykajd ug wmg yelsh' cmka cd;sl mql=hdflda ,shQ
msre .il ma,jh (One straw revolution) lD;sh isxy,g fhdod
.kska ridhksl fmdfydr" lD fyda j,a kdYl ke;s f.d ;ek
ms<sn| ud ,shQ ,sms fm< jhsk nodod ix.%yfha w;sYhska ckm%sh h'
Yaj oHd,j," ta jkg YS>%fhka me;sr .sh rdcH fkdjk
ixOdkj," .j," ydria:dk wdY%s;j wd ;ekaj, / is foaYmd,k
65

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

Wkkaj iys; fndfyda ;reK yd jeys msia w;r wfma u;h il%Shj
f.khkakg yelsh' uq, flfia fj;;a" oYlhlg muK miq Tjqka
l%ufhka wfma u;jdoj,g msiqKq nj miqj ug fmkS .sfhah' cj
imkak ;reK nqoau;=ka msila ldvrh f,i kd.kakg wmg
yelsh'
1990-91 jljdkqj YS>% f,i rdcH fkdjk ixOdk jHdma; jQ ld,hla
h' fm%auodi md,kh ngysr f,dalh iu. m%Yak ;kdf.k ;snqfKah'
fm%auodif.a ksm%N+ mka iudc lKavdhu hQtkamSfha im%odhsl m%N+
mka;sfhka fjka jefvkakg h' rkacka fr;ak h hEu;a" ,,s;a .dKs le/,a,;a iska fm%auodi ngysr f,dalh bfha yqol,d h'
udkj ysl" m%cd;%ka;jdoh" udOH ksoyi" mirh iq/lSu" wd.l
iu.sh wdh Tiafia y;= msfmkakd fia rdcH fkdjk ixOdk
ysjkakg h' mlaIhg jvd bfhka f ixOdk isg.;af;ah' fuh
fmda,ka;h yd kef.kysr hqfrdamfha fldhqksia md,khka |
oef o w;ayodn,d id:l jQ ngysr Wmdhls' fm%auodig /yeksj is
fndfyda jduxYslhka oek fyda fkdoek f cd;Hka;r tka'' cd,hg
yiqjQ w;r" wka lsis /lshdjlg yelshdjla fkdjQfhka tajdfhau mQK
fiajlhska njg B,`. jgfha yiqjQy' tka''' cd,h rf u;jdo
yiqrejk fjku n, cd,hla njg m;ah'
y; foaYmd,khla ms<sn| odYksl m%jdohka bhg f.k .sh o
iudcfha wmg isjQfha m%cd;ka;%jdoh yd ksoyi fjkqfjka igka
lsugh' we;e udliajdka wmg fpdaokd lf<a mirh iq/lSu pd
ir< ; jeks igka mdGj,ska wfma f,dalfha ixjOkh wek ysgjd
ngysr Okm;s f,dalhgu ta im;a l;a ,ndug wm l%shdlrkd njhs'
tfukau m%cd;ka;%jd m%Yakj,ska wms ria: njhs' f ksid blauKskau
wfma ndysr uqyqK; udkj ysl yd m%cd;ka;%jdoh kd.ekSu njg
m;ah' urd oukq ,enQjkaf.a wd;auhka hqla;sh b,a,d is w;r" th
wmf.a wd;ah j.lSu njg m;ah' wms fm%auodi m<jdyef
m%cd;ka;%jd wr.,hg tlajqfkuq'
fm%auodi mekakSu i|yd foaYmd,k jevms<sfj<la ;sfnk nj ug
uq,skau oekq kafka rdjfha iqks,a chfialrh' ^1991& thska uu
wukaodkkaohg m;ajqfk' rkacka fr;ak h .shod wfma

66

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

fkajdisld.drj, m%S;s W;aij meje;aKs' le/,af,ka miq Yaj oHd,


jD; l<g ljqfoda wfma mka;s ldurj, rkacka Tng ;=;s " Thank
you Ranjan" lshd ,shd ;su .ek we;s jQ m%fldamh;a thska msg .sfhah'
cfm iska isrlr ;snQ tla YsIH lKavdhula rkackag ryfia wdYsjdo
l< w;r" ;j;a msila Tyqg ffjr lrka is nj thska fmkS .sfhah'
rkackaf.a urKfhka miq fm%auodi m%N+ mka;sh iu. f.k.sh iu;=,s;
nj wjika h' ,,s;a - .dKs tla fm%auodi fkrmSu i|yd
fodaIdNsfhda. jevms<sfj< bm;a lf<dah' ^1991&
fodaIdNsfhda.fhka miq uu ,,s;a" .dKS fofokdu yuqjqfk' ,,s;a h
wdrEvlr.;a nqoa fm!reIhla fmka jQ w;r" .dKS iqyo ;%;ajhla
fmkajQfhah' fofokdgu ,xldjg l%shdYS,S ckdm;sjreka ug bv
;sKs' tjeks yelshdjla Y%S','ks'mfha kdhlhska w;r oHudk jQfha
ke;' r;k yduqrefjda .dKs iu. fyd| in|;djhla f.dvk.d .;a
w;r" tlajrlg jvd ud .dKS fyda ,,s;a yuqjQfha ke;' fodaIdNsfhda.h
yd nekq fm%auodi frda wr.,hg wfma Wmu odhl;ajh ,eKs'
miqj ug ye`.S .sfha th ksm%N+ fm%auodig tfrysj m%N+jre .eiQ
le/,a,la njh' miqj f m%N+jdofha l;=rg wmj o yiqjk g fm%auodi
ms<sn| wkqlmdjla we;s fkdjqkd fkdf' fckrd,a fldnElvqj
>d;kh fm%auodi ms<sn| ffjrh ;%Sj l< wjia:djla h' ljqre flfia
lSj;a fldnElvqj - u,r;ak >d;kh i|yd l=uk fyda inkaOhla
wdKavqf ud*shdjl ;sKs' we;eg wdKavqj yd fld w;r" oa;aj
T;a;=lrejka yryd th l<d h yelsh' msmsu is jQ fudfydf;a .kq
,enQ cdhdrEm ud i;=j ;snQ w;r" thska fmkS .sfha th fndanhla
fkdjk njh' tajd ug ,ndkaafka fld<U cdhdrEm Yd,djl
fiajlfhl= isks' fldnElvqjf.a wju`.=,a f.h fm%auodig tfrys
le/,a,la njg m;alrkakg wmg yelsh' fm%auodi inkaOfhka
idudkH ck;dj w;r" h Yajdihla jqKsk ta f >d;kh iu.
kdY .sfhah' th h<s;a f.dvke.sh fkdyels u;jd |jeula h'
,,s;a >d;khg tfrys Woaf>daIKh yd ta iu. meje;s m<d;a iNd
ue;sjrKh i|yd wms il%Shj odhl jQfhuq' 1988 mlaI
kdhl
/iaj, ykd.;a Ouis fiakdkdhl uy;df.a iydfhka by<
;,fha foaYmd,k f;dr;=re fndfyduhla wm fj; ,eKs' fYaIfhka

67

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wkqr - pkasld .egqu tys uQ,sl h' 1993 meje;ajQ ;Srl ol=Kq m<d;a
iNd ue;sjrKfha wms ;SrKd;aulj l%shd lf<uq' .= lka nv.skafka
ie;mq .Kka mhska hka wuris fodvxf.dvf.a wdlIKSh ol=K
jug f;aud mdGh fmrg f.k .sfhuq' m%cd;ka;%jd ksoyi fmdf
wfma f;audj h'
fm%auodi yd hQ'tka'mS md,khg tfrysj mqrjeis fmruqK kka wms
ixOdkh oejeka; m%oYkhla o ixOdkh lf<uq' th fm%auodi
uokh lf<ah' miqj wmj w;awvx.=jg .;a w;r" T;a;=j ;snqfKa
ux., iurrf.a ksjfiks' rejka *kekavia o ta kj, c''fm
m%;sixOdk lghq;=j,g wu;rj ux.,f.a o f,al lghq;=j, kshe,S
isfhah' isr f.oka ksoyia wms fl,skau tlajQfha uyskao rdcmlaI
ixOdkh l< l;r.u md .ukgh' fndfyda fofkla ta i|yd
mqudldr lem l<y' fYaIfhka orejka w;=reoyka jQ wu,d tys
w;s fYaIs; h'
wu,df.a l yd orejkaf.a lemu u.ska fm%auodi md,khg tfrys
nyqO fmruqKla we;sh' fm%auodi >d;kfhka isjQfha tlS n,f.h
;j;a f.j;a u muKs' jrla fm%auodi mjq, fjkqfjka >d;khkag
mjd iyNd.S jQ wfhla ud yg lSf fm%auodi jrla m%Ndlrkag yuqodm;s
moh fhdackd l< w;r" nd,isxyg w.ue;s moh fhdackd l< njh'
ta w;f uy;a;hd iu. ys;j;a m%Ndlrka bj;a lsu .ek o
l,amkdjla Tyqg jQ nj;a" m%Ndlrka Tyqg jvd iQlaIu fm%auodi yd
uy;a;hd fofokdju bj;a l< nj;ah' fuhg iudk woyila l,la
kef.kysr fld kdhlfhl=j is wfhla o ud yg m%ldY l< ksid th
we;a;la h yels hehs ug ta;a;= .sfhah' flfia fj;;a" fm%auodi
urKfhka i bj;al< fkdyelalla nj ta kj, udf.a f;are .ekSu
h' flfia fj;;a Tyqf.a urKh od ld,lKaKs i;=g |.;a wh w;r
udo tla wfhla u .ek miqj uu yoj;skau lk.dgq jQfj'
fm%auodi frda nyqck wr.,h hka lu cd;sl l=uka;%Khla h;a
h' tu.ska islsug .sfha jD; wdlh ta f,iu f.khk w;f
m%Ndlrkag f*vr,a rdcHhla ,ndfok foaYmd,k l%shdoduhla h;a
lsuh' pkasld - ux., - tia' iy Tjqka jgd is chfoaj Whkaf.dv -

68

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

lag whsjka - jika; rdcd jeks wh o is;d isfha o nyqck wr.,hg


uqjd ngysr kHdh m;%h l%shd;aul lsuh' fuh miqmi isfha tjlg
tlai;a ckmo ;dkdm;skS fgiagd fIam uy;ahhs' wms f nj oek
isfhuq' kuq;a rg b,a,d is m%cd;ka;%jd ksoyig wms uq,a;ek
kafkuq'
uf.a m<uq Pkaoh 1994 fmd fmruqKg md lf<' pkasld
w.ue;s miqj ckdm;s jQjdh' .dKs idkdhl >d;kfhka wehg
,enqKq 62]l ckjru weh fukau wehf.a flajghska o Woaoduhg
m;alrjQfhah' Tjqka f.fhka ish ie,iqu fmrg .;ay' pkasld l<
hq;af;a l=ulao hkak .ek ck;d ;=frda iska" rgmqrd iuka;%K
jghla mj;ajk ,' kuq;a cd;sl n,f. ish ie,iqu YS>%fhka
l%shd;aul l<y' m%Ndlrka iu. .siqj,g t<UqKq w;r" iduh ms<sn|
uy;a n,dfmdfrd;a;= we;slrkd ,' fmr fkdjQ re m%pdrl /,a,la
h;a h' idu idlPd w;f mqmqrK jH fgdka 60la yd iE ihs,
f.dvnd .ekSfuka miq m%Ndlrka hqoaO m%ldY lf<ah' wdKavqj idu
hqoaOhg .sh kuq;a we;=<; m<uq fnu we;sh' fou< cd;sjd
flajghska wdKavqfjka t<shg isks' ;j;a msila iq fku yd
;j,u yryd thg we;=<;a jQy'
1994 ue;sjrK fjkila iu. ck;d ;=frda o tla;rd ikaia:dkhlg
msiqfKah' th lreKq ;=kla ksid ish' tlla k tys by< kdhlhska
ish fokdgu ,dnd, ;reK fha isg ;reK h olajdu l<
foaYmd,ksl lemu ksid mqoa.,sl ;fha fndfyda foa wys ;suh'
iuyrekg foudmshka yd fidhqre fidhqhka kv;a;= lsug is
;sKs' ;j iuyrekg f.afodr bvlv n,d .ekSu iar /lshdjla
fidhd.ekSu wdh wjYHj ;sKs' we;euqkg wdpdh Wmdh jeks
b,lalhkao ;sKs' jdyho uQ,sl m%Yakhla h' wfkla w;ska ck;d
;=frda ixOdkhla f,i f.dvke.=k o th .g mj;ajd.; yels
uQ,H hdka;%Khla fkdh' c''fm" t,a'''B jeks jHdmdr fyd| krl
foj.fhau jHdmdr f.k.shy' ;ukaf.au lshd jQ jHdmdl cd,hka
mj;ajd .;ay' fjk;a ixOdkj,g jD;a;Sh i;s" foaY YdLd" foaY
wdh;k" wdfhka wruqo,a ,eKs' wms f lsisjla lsug wiu;a jQfhuq'
wm lf<a wmf.a Y%ufhka ,enqKq foaj,ska yd fjfyi uykais l<
m;a;r lsKSu" f,aLk lsKSu" leg jHdmdr" ys;j;=kf.a wruqo,a
69

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wdfhka hemSuh' ud tys wjfndaO lr.;af;a Odl jHdmdrhla u.ska


fidhkd uqo,aj,ska foaYmd,k jHdmdrhla mj;ajd .; fkdyels njh'
l=vd mudKfha laIq nexl=jla njg jHdmdrh m;alsug .;a
W;aidyhka o wid: h' we;e g uqo,a Wmhk jHdmdl {dkh i;=
lsisfjla wm iu. fkdisu thg fya;=jkakg we;' ;=kajk fya;=j 17
jirl hQtkamS md,kfhka yd fm%auodif.a NSIKfhka miq we;s jQ
m%cd;ka;%jd fmr<sh wm w;r is fndfyda fokd w;r" oeka wfma
ldhNdrh wjika jeks ye`.Sula ckkh lsuh' fuh kEu wr.,hl
fh iskakka w;r" we;sjk ld, pl%hls' c''fm foi nefjd;a th
jir 6-12 w;r" f pl%hg yiq we;s nj;a" fld ixOdkh 15-25 w;r"
pl%hg yiq we;s nj;a" fmkS hhs' fldkaf.a ldvrhkaf.a meje;af
pl%h .a.eiqfKa Tjqka ;ukaf.au m%foaY md,kh l< ksidh' ke;sk
Tjqkq;a c''fm fukau fl ld, pl%hlg yiqug bv ;sKs' f,dal
b;sydih foi n,kd g lemjqKq jHdmdrhka jir 30l meje;af
pl%hlg Wmufhka hg;a nj fmkShkq we;' rdcH n,h fyda ;ukaf.a
n, m%foaY ke;sjqjfyd;a Wmu hdyels r thhs'
1992 uu jdy jqfk' m<uqj jdy f woyila ke;sj ish o
yisfha tlS ;Skajg t<eUqfk' yis blauka ;Ska .ekSu uf.a
;fha wx.hls' iuyr wjia:dj, wms ie,iqlr ;Ska .ksuq'
iuyrg yisfha .ksuq' ta folu we;eg id:l f' ke;ak
wid:l f' m<uqjekak fufyhjkafka nqoahhs' fojekak ye`.Su fyda
bj iska fufyhjkq ,nhs'
uf.a jdyh isjqfKa ud l=vdl, ;laIs,df idudkH fm< tlg
bf.k.;a isiqhla iu.hs' weh fKqld ouhka;s k jQjdh' wm w;r
h h mriamrl we;s nj miqj wms f;are .;suq' wm l=vd ksjila
;kd.;a w;r" lu reje;s" keK;s hKshla" wud ukaoia;d" wmg
,eKs' ^1996& f <sh ksid ud i;=g ;fha ,o f,dl=u iqjh h'
fndfyda g m%;sreoaO p; we;s mshd yd .eyeKsh jdy ;h
i|yd tluq;= lrkafka Tjqkg odj ,efnkd orejdh' orejd keue;s
jHqyh iska foudmsh p; kej; yev.iajkq ,ef' th foudmshka
orejka yev.eiau ;ru m%n, l%shdoduhls' miqj wmg ;j;a hKshla"
wisks nqjkcd" ^2001& ,eKs' weh lir" o`.ld" iQlaIu p;hla jQjdh'
foaYmd,kh iska" l< tla wlghq;a;la jQfha Tjqka fofokdgu ,eh
70

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

hq;= msh fifkyi ksis whqka fkd,e hEuh' Tjqka hm;a jQ g wdmiq
n,d ud fj; iudj kfyd;a th f fha ug ,efnk f,dl=u i;=g
h hq;=h' ksia in|;d bfha ud j, nj we;eyq lsh;s' Tjqka ug
lshkafka gqjka yd iskdfik f,i;a" ys;j;=ka yd ks;r fYaIfhka
udOH iu`. in|;d" m%sh iNdIK mj;ajk f,i;a" w;afkdyer m%sh
iNdIK wdhg iyNd.S iudcYS,S jk f,i;a" lsisfjl= i;=frl= lr
fkdf.k ish,a,ka iu. j;=r fuka l%shd lrkd f,i;ah' uf.a ys;
;=frla uf.a phdj fjkia lsu i|yd frdn .%Ska iska r;
foaYmd,kfha uQ,sl isoaOdka; 48 (48 Laws of Politics) lD;sh f.k;a
kafkah' th lshfuka miq f,df rcjre" rdcH kdhlhska" rdcH
;dka;%slhka /ju" jxpdj" fndrej wd;au.;lrf.k foaYmd,kh l<
wdldrh ug ;jrg;a meye,s h' kuq;a ksia phdjka h h
m%udKhkaf.ka fjkia l< yels jqj;a we;e phdjka wfma urKh
olajdu j hhs' f uf.a ye neka th iu. uu j;a fj'
ta kj, wms wfma uQ,ia:dkh f,i f.dvk.df.k ;snqfKa ud;r
m,a,suq,af,a r;k yshkaf.a ydria:dkhhs' r;k yshkaf.a .=re
yduqrefjda fndfyda W.;a .=rejrfhl= jQ w;r" mkai,lg jvd th
wdjdihla f,i mj;ajdf.k .shy' tys nrmek fndfyda rg oeref
r;k yshkau isks' ikaia:dkhlg meKs is ck;d ;=rkaj
foaYmd,k fhdackd folla bm;a h' tllska lshjqfKa r;k
yshkaf.a ud;r mkai, w;yer l%shdOrhkq;a iu. fld<U ia:dk.;
h hq;= njh' fojekafkka lshjqfKa cd;sljdoh .ek wfma wjOdkh
jel< hq;= njh' udlaiajdka fyda ,snr,ajdka fuka fkdj cd;sl
ye`.Su oYkhla f,i ms<s.;a msila f,i th wNsfhda.hg ,laj we;s
fudfydf;a ta fjkqfjka l%shdl< hq;= nj thska lshKs' wms ta fhdackd
folu l%shd;aul lf<uq' flfia fj;;a wm iu. is mK; fndfyda
fofkla mqoa.,sl ;" Wiia wOHdmkh yd iar /lshdjka lrd
fhduqjQy' kjl jvd lemjqKq msila iu. wms bh n,d hkakg
jQfhuq' fld<U wfma kjd;ek jQfha l=mamshdj;a; chfYaLrdrduhhs'
rcj;af;a jmam ysfhda wmj wdorfhka /ln,d.;ay'

71

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wfma f foaYmd,k fjki c''fm mqj;am; jd;d lr ;snqfKa ud;r


isg fhka fld<U meKs ck;d ;=frda fld<U msgfldgqj iafIu
bfha tla/ia is f.j,a n,d .sh njh' Yaj oHd, iufha isg
;ukag ysirohla yd ;r.hla ka msila is .shd hehs c''fm is;
idod.kakg we;' ;j;a fndfyda fokd o th tfia olskakg we;'
we;a;gu bkamiq ck;d ;=frda k ixOdkh is .sfhah' kuq;a wms
fjk;a wdldrhl ixOdkhla f.dvk`.d .;af;uq' th wfma ;j,o"
rf foaYmd,kfhao w;a wdrNhla nj wm o tod oek isfha ke;'

72

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

isjk .yereu

cd;sl oeyekg
iujefKuq
urodk"

l=mamshdj;a; l,n,ld kd.l mirhla jqjo


ydria:dk N+h b;d ksi," lu mirhla h' tys isg wms wfma
ms<s.ekSug wkqj NskaIQka jykafia iudc ldhNdrhlg fm< .eiaug
bgd .;suq' r;k yshkag Yaj oHd, iufha isg ;snQ NslaIq in|;d;a"
wka wh ish,a,kaf.a in|;d;a tys m%fhdackj;a h' b;a;Emdfka
Oud,xldr ys" udjdf fidaNs; ys" uqre;af;gqf wdkkao ys
jeks iajdka jykafia,d uq,alr.;a cd;sl ix> iNdj ^1995& ysu
tkhska ish' tys uQ,ia:dkh iuia; ,xld fn!oaO uyd if,kfha
msysgqKs'
l,lg by; uydpdh k,ska o is,ajd" 'whs'' Oufialr ^oeka
wk.dl Oufialr;=ud&" udjdf fidaNs; ys hk ;sfokdf.a
uQ,sl;ajfhka mlaIhla msysgqh hq;= njg o fhdackdjla h' th
l%shd;aul jQfha ke;' ta ksid wms 1989 uyd ue;sjrKfha uyck
tlai;a fmruqKg l%shdldj iydh ksuq' miqj Y%S','ks'mh ;=< ;s,la
lreKdr;ak" tia' t,a' .=Kfialr wdka f.dvk.d.;a fy< Wreuh
lKavdhug yd .dKS chiQhf.a isxy, wdrlaIl iNdjg iydh ug
fm<Uqk o .gu fmkS .sfha u;a ixOdkhla ke;=j fulS kdhlhska
73

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

w;kska fu;ekg" fu;ekska w;kg md hk njh' jrla fn!oaO uyd


if,kfha isxy, iuqjla meje;ajQ w;r" ^1995& m%isoaO ksfol
md,s; fmfrd uf.ka weiQfha thg iyNd.S isk tlu ;reKhd ud
ksid thg fya;=j l=ula o@ hkakh' ta kj, isxy,lu fjkqfjka
/iaulg fyda wdf jeys W.;a msils' uf.a laIKsl W;a;rh jQfha
isxy,lug ;reKhska fm<.eiaiu i|yd tys wd njh' B<`. wjqre
fofla cd;sl ix> iNdj yd th hgf;a msysgqjkq ,enQ cd;sl oy .=re
iNdj hgf;a wms ish .Kka fkdj oi oyia .Kka cd;sl ukila we;s
;reK ;reKhska w;rg hkakg mgka .;af;uq'
f w;r" wmg uyd b msula mekSug yels wjia:djla Wodh' th k
pkasld wdKavqj f*vr,a meflach 1995 wf.daia;=f f.k tauh'
1991 isg tlai;a ckmo ;dkdm;s ldhd,h Y%S,xldj f*vr,a rgla lsu
i|yd jHdmD;shla l%shd;aul lr ;sKs' l,ska o i|yka l< m thg
uQ,sl;ajh .;af;a fuys is tlai;a ckmo ;dkdm;sksh jQ fgiagd
fIam uy;ahhs' f i|yd moku lr.;af;a kS,ka ;srefp,aj
uy;df.a ckjd.sl wOHhk flakahhs' fmardfoKsh yd fld<U
irifha wdpdh uydpdh msila o" rdcH fkdjk ixOdk udOHf
msilao Y%S','ks'mfha yd tcdmfha kdhlhska msila o thg .eg.eiS
ishy' 1995 pkasld - m%Ndlrka idu .siqu yryd f fhdackdj,sh
fmrg .ekSu Tjqkf.a m<uq Wmdh h' idudkHfhka w;S;fha jQ f,i
fhdackdj,shlg ^1956 nKavdkdhl - fp,ajkdh." 1965 - v,s fp,ajd 1987 f'wd' - r& mlaIfha frdaO;djh t,a,u je<elau
i|yd jfrl .dKS idkdhl o" B<`.g rks,a l%uisxy o f*vr,ajdka
f,i fn!;siau lrkd ,' m%:u jrg m%Odk mlaI folu 1971 iduQyslj
fhdackd l< talSh Ndjh ms<sn| m%;sm;a;sh 1995 bj;a lrkd ,'
m%Ndlrka yisfha hqo jeu ksid ^1995 wfm%a,a 19& l,ska ie,iq l< m
mshjka mshjr f*vr,a jHjia:dj ykajdf lag whsjka ie,eiau
wjq,a h' fld ;%ia;hskaf.a wjika b,a,Su f,i b,a,d is mqkka
l|jqr bj;a lsf fhdackdj wkqreoaO r;aj;af;a bj;,Sfuka miq
whsjka yd Whkaf.dvf.a myiql iemhSf N+ldj o wjika h' thg
wfma yuqod tl`.jQjd k w,suxlv jefgkafka 1995 h' miqj fufyhq

74

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wdrN jQ g ^/i& zrdjhZ mqj;am; mqkka wk;=f k YSI


mdGhla f.k.sh w;r" tys wruqK jQfha hdmkfha fomilska ^m,d,s w,suxlv" mqkka& fldgq kdY ug .sh ;%ia;hskg mqkka yryd hqo
w /f.k m<d hEug u.la iemhSuh' f,aLlhska" l;Djreka" f,i l%shd
l< fld ;=rkaf.a ;;a;ajh f;are .kakg wfma yuqod kdhlfhda
wiu;a jQy' m%;sM,h jQfha hdmkfha w f;d. jkakshg f.k f.dia miq
ld,hl uq,;s jglr kdY lsug fldkag yelsuh ^1996&'
m%Ndlrkaf.a hqo jeu ksid isxy, frdayq ish ie,iq fjkialr
.;ay' B<`. ie,iqu jQfha hdmkh uqukskau w,a,df.k tys Yla;sh o
iu. f*vr,a l%uh ch.%dyS hqo fikam;Ska w;skau ms<s.ekauh' ^1995
foien& fuh m,ia;Sk fjku rdcHhla ms<s.ekSf" BY%dh,
fhdackdj" tys hqo rfhl= jQ hsiela rka w;ska bm;a lsug
iudk l%shdoduhls'
1995 wf.daia;= ui fkl ud yuq jQ 'we,a' mSia weue;s;=udf.a
ldhd,fha fiajlfhl= lSf kj f*vr,a jHjia:djla ;kd ksulr
we;s njh' hdmkh ch ,nd th ch.%dyS isxy, ukig .s,a,ug hk nj
uu oek .;s' blauKskau th fy<s or lsu isxy, frda ngysr
kHdh m;%h wvmK lsf u. f,i oel .;s' m<uqj meflacfha
msgm;a udjdf fidaNs; ys yd fn,a,ka, u,r;k ysjrekg
,ndka w;r" ta ms<sn| .%yhla uiskau ,shk ,' jhsk mqj;am; th
fy<s or lf<ah' wdKavqf Wmdh uy;a wjq,l jeKs' th g jvd
u;aj islsug ;snQ nj miqj wmg wjfndaO jqj;a wfma .,a,d
m%ydrh wdKavqf ie,iqu wjq,a lf<ah'
ish isxy, ixOdk jydu wj h' wdKavqf ux., iurr iu. is
wfhla ta kj, ud yg lSf jhil isxy, ,a fndahsia, l ke.sg
f.fhkau ks|d.kq we;s nj wdKavqj lrjk ;j,u we;a;kaf.a u;h
njh' f kj, cfm isfha ux., yryd wdKavqfo wkq.%yh
,nd.kska mlaIh iS>%fhka f.dvk.kah' Tjqka f*vr,a meflach
.ek l%shdlrkakg wdf ke;' kuq;a f jkg isxy, cd;sl
jHdmdrhg th weof.k hd yels NslaIq jHdmdrhla" ;reK ldvrhla yd
wruqo,a iemhsh yels jHdmdl cd,hla ^isxy, r oyk& ys ;sKs'

75

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

isxy, r oyk ys lrkq ,enQf Uq,d., kdyshka ;%ia;jdka


iska" >d;kh lsfuka miq ta .ek lmd jQ jHdmdlhka i;afofkl=
isks' 'ta'uySmd," lrE ySk.," pQ,d kodi" l=,;=x. rdcmlaI"
iqfka wf.=Kfialr tys,d uQ,sl jQ w;r" iQh .=Kfialr yd
i;siapka tisxy uy;ajre th ixOdkh lsf ldhhg uq,a
ishy' isxy, r oyk iska" isxy, jHdmdlhka cd;sl u;hlg
tlalr ixOdkh l< w;r" thska isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrhg kj cd,hla
fukau wruqo,a imdokh o ish'
pkasld - ux., - tia'' ;j,u - iq fk yjq," ngysr tka'''
cd,h" hQ'tka'mSh fyda f''mSh f ;;a;ajh ksrjq,aj .%y lr.;af;a
ke;' m<uqjrg ;reK l%shdOrhska" ixOdhlhska" fn!oaO NslaIQka"
wruqo,a yd cd,hla iys; isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrhl cqjg my,j ;sf'
wms wjia:dj w;afkdyefhuq' m<uqfjkau wms oejeka; NslaIQ le|ula
cd;sl ix> iNdfjka lf<uq' th w;sYhska id:l h' B<`.g ish
ixOdk tlalr cd;sl taldnoaO ixOdkh ysh' lS;su;a
ksiqrejrhl= jQ wd'tia' jkiqkaor tys iNdm;s;ajhg m;ah' thg
.dKS chiQhf.a isxy, wdrlaIl ixOdkhg w;ajQ brKu w;afkdu
i|yd wms l%shdld jqfkuq' wmg m<uq frdaOh wdf wfma me/Ks w;S;
in|;dj,sks' wfma ixOdk cd,h jvd;a Yla;su;a tlla jQ ksid tjeks
yqol,d m%Yak ls myiqfjka bj;a lf<uq' kuq;a jvd;a nrm;,
l%shdoduhla o we/ ;sKs' tk hQtkamSfha Wmdhhhs' rks,a" ,sh
f*dlaia iu. tl;= pkasld iu. fudk .siq .eiqj;a mlaIfha
m%;sm;a;sh ishqj fjkia l<;a" wdKavqj .ek ffjrfhka miqjk
fldgia fYaIfhkau fld,amsfha m%N+ msia mjd wkql%ufhka f
kK cd;sl jHdmdrhg we;= fjka ishy' uq,ska rks,a thg ndOd
l< o miqj ishq Wmdhla .kska ;skshdj, md,s; ys m%uqL msila thg
we;= lf<ah' wms uq, isgu fuh oel .;suq' b;d f.fhka tl;=jk
msia u;jd ;,hlg .ekSu wfma b,lalh h' nKavdrkdhl
iuka;%K Yd,df meje;ajQ ;siai ;drK - tia' t,a' .=Kfialr yd ud
iyNd.S jQ ^thg iyNd.S ug wfma we;e isxy, oaj;=ka h jQ w;r" ud
iyNd.S jQfha ta ksidh& jdofhka miq wfma wr.,h l+G m%dma; h'
m%isoaO jHdmdlhka" oaj;=ka we;= fndfyda ;reK msia lSf
isxy,hskag kj kdhl;ajhla oeka ,e we;s nj Tjqkg iy;sl we;s

76

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

njh' ta kj, wmg bvlvla ,ndka tlu kd<sldj 'tka't,a jQ w;r"


jevigyk cky`v h' uu ksr;=reju f jdoj,g .sfh' miqj
wfkla kd<sldj,g o inkaO jqfk' oHQ;a udOH iska jD; lr ;snQ
kj jgmsgdj o wms w;sl%uKh lf<uq' wkql%ufhka mQK cd;sl
jHdmdrhla njg wms isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrh m;alf<uq' mqj;am;a ,sms"
jdo jdoj,ska Tng .sh uy fmdf<df msysgqjkq ,enQ uyck cd,hla
njg th m;ah'
kuq;a fld ixOdkh wmg jvd f.fhka jev lf<ah' wdKavqf
udOH fufyhqu o w;s m%n, h' taldnoaO fldiu iska ia:dms; l<
isxy, fldiu rgjgd hkg wkql%ufhka wdKavqf m%ydrhka
f.j;a h' ux., iurr iska" isxy, fldiu b;sydifha l=Kq
l+vhg oeh hq;= hehs m%ldY l< g isxy, frdaka Woaoduhg m;ajQ
uq;a blauKskau ux.,g th mdrdj<,a,la lsug wms l%shd lf<uq'
bkamiq Tjqyq NslaIQka jykafia ixOdkh lrkakg;a wmg /yeksj NslaIq
jHdmdr fhdod .kakg;a jQy' uq taldnoaO ixOdkhgu lem is
mQKld,Skhd jQfha wdpdh mshfiak idkdhlhka muKs' f ksid
wkql%ufhka taldnoaO ixOdkh ;j;a tl ixOdkhla wfkla
ixOdk fjk fjku l%shdlrkakg h'
f w;r" 1996 t,a, flreKq uy nexl= m%ydrh" 1996 u t,a, jQ uq,;s
m%ydrh wdh iska" wdKavqf hqo jEhu mqiaila f ,l=Kq my<h' iq
fku yd ;j,u f.k.sh hqoafog i;hla - finf<la fkdfokq
m%pdrl jHdmdrh ksid wfma yuqod jkaksfha fldgq fjka ;sKs' uqod.;a
m%foaYj,g we;=jk ;%ia;hska yuqodf miquQKg oreKq m%ydr t,a,
lf<ah' A - 09 ud.h kSlj,ska f.dv .efikakg h' 1997 - 98
is jQ fld<U f,dal fjf<| uOHia:dk m%ydrh" o<od m%ydrh yd urodk
- foysj, h fndan m%ydrh wdh lshd mEf fld l%ufhka
fmruqK foflau tk fld<U h me;sr ug;a" jkaksfha yuqod
>d;kh;a id:l f,i lrf.k hk njh' foaYmd,k fudfyd; jydu
w,a,d.; hq;= nj wmf.a ks.ukh h' 1998 ckjd 25 t,a, jQ o<|d
m%ydrh ta fudfyd; h' wms th ;srj w,a,d .;suq' wfma oejeka;
Woaf>daIKh ksid fld ixOdkh ;yk lsug wdKavqjg ish'
bkamiq urodfka fndanfhka mdi,a oehka hf.dia iudch
m%lmkh jQ g ^1998 ud;= 08& wms ;%ia; frda cd;sl jHdmdrh msysgq
77

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

jQfhuq' tys,d wfma wruqK jQfha fld ;%ia;hskaf.a m%ydrfhka mSvdjg


m;ajk wirK ckhd ixOdkh lsuh' rgjeis fmruqK yd u
fmruqfKa ixOdk rgdj fuys wmg buy;a m%fhdackhla h' ;%ia;
frda cd;sl jHdmdrh iEu ;%ia; isula iu.u hg neiafiah'
;reK ;reKshka we;= fld<U m%N+ iudchg wh;a msila thg
wemlem jkakg h' Ysjka;s ud,d o is,ajd ue;sKsh tys flakafha
jQjdh' m<uq iNdm;s jQfha fckrd,a ;s,la mrK.uh' wks,a chjOk"
l=uqld my;al=Uqr" wkqrdOd hym;a" wreK - Ysrka;kS ngqjka;=vdj
hqj, jeks ;reK l%shdOrhska o" .s,avd .=Kr;ak" Nd .=K;s,l" ohd
iur;=x." ;s,la - lu,d tr ffjoH hqj, ,skalka - iqcd;d
neiahka" ffjoH hqj," fk,a lreKd;s,l" mqkHldka;s fidhsid"
u,a,sld jks.iqkaor" h%ia .=Kfialr wd jeys msila o wmg
tlah' uykqjr o wmg ;j;a msia tlah' ffjoH bxfkare"
l<ukdlrK jeks lafIa;%j, jD;a;Shfkaf.a iydh lemS fmksKs'
fuf,i ;%ia; frda cd;sl jHdmdrh ;reK jD;a;Shfka msila
ixOdkh l<d muKla fkdj foaY.; isxy,hska ixOdkh lrkakg
o jQfjuq' ta jljdkqf ^1998& oHQ;a ;emE," fj wvh wdh myrKh
lf<a b;d iq msils' ihsn wjldYfha f jkg fld ixOdkh
w;s m%n,j is w;r" isxy,hska tys isfhau ke;s ;rh' kuq;a fou<
foaY.; m%cdjg iudk m%udKhla isxy,hska o foaY.;j iskd nj
^,shkh ne.ska& wms oek isfhuq' b;d fl l,la we;=<; wms
iaf%,shdj" tx.,ka;h" lekvdj" tlai;a ckmoh" hqfrdamh yd vqndhs
wd m%foaY iu. ihsn wjldYfha in|;d m;=rejd .;suq' ihsn
wjldYfha cd;sh f.dvke`.Su k kj jHdmD;shla uqodyf<uq' jirla
we;=<; isfofkl=f.a cd,h 20"000 olajd kxjkakg wmg yelsh'
ls,sfkdh fld iska" w,a,d.ekSfuka miq wfma ys;j;a ;reK
yuqod ks,Odka lSf igk .a.eiSu jeu wfma mrdchg fya;= jk
njh' f jkg wdrlaIl yuqodj, by< ;reK ks,Odka /ila
wm%isoafha wm iu. tla ishy' fYaIfhka hqoaOh ms<sn| ;;a;aj
jd;dj,g wu;rj fmd,sia T;a;= fiajdj,ska wfma ixOdkj,g x.jd
islrkd lvdlmam,a l%shd wmg jd;d lsu o TjQyq is l<y' tod
f.dvke`.=Kq we;e Yla;su;a in|;d wo olajdu mej;Su wfma
id:l;ajhg tla fya;=jla h'
78

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

ukia folla iys;j hqoaO l< fkdyels nj ;SrKh l< wms fld
mrok u. kka ;%ia; frda cd;sl ie,eiaula bm;a lf<uq' thska
hqo" wdl" iudchSh yd foaYmd,k lafIa;%fha blauKska l<hq;=
m%uqL;d l%shd 29la ykd.;a w;r" ;=ka wjqreoaola ;=< ;%ia;jdoh
iyuq,ska me/ou wruqK lr.;a uyd hqo - foaYmd,ksl m%;sm;a;s Wmdh
ud.hla bm;a h' fuh uq,ska yuqod yd foaYmd,k kdhl;ajhg
bm;a l< o th m%;slafIam jQ ksid ck;dj fj;g uqod yefhuq' ^1999
wm%sfh,a& <`. tk wk;=r t<sfha is wms ykd.;a kuq yuqod yd
foaYmd,k kdhl;ajh th ykd.;af;a ke;' 1999 jirg
ckdm;sjrKh ie,iqfldg ;snQ w;r" fmd fmruqK" hQ'tka'mSh yd
c''fm thg m%uqL;djh foka ishy' fYaIfhka fmd fmruqKg
wjYH jQfha W;=f ;;a;ajh flfia fyda iduldj ;nd.ekSuh'
fms,af,af.a Wmdh jQfha ol=K yd yuqod ckdm;sjrKhg ysi
fhduqlrkd g ysi wys yuqodjkag fld lefvkakg m%ydrhla uhs'
f w;r" hQ'tka'mSh isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrfha is ish tacka;hska
fhdodf.k yq pkasld frdaOhla u; isxy, u;h rks,ag f.khEug
W;aidy l<y' b;a;Emdfka ys" udjdf ys mjd hQtkamShg ys;j;a
njla oelajQy' wfkla me;af;ka hqoaOh fmrg oud isxy, u;h ;uka
foig .kakg wkqreoaO r;aj;a; W;aidy lf<ah' we;e jHdmdlfhda ta
foig o we .shy' kuq;a Tjqka fomsiu t;r id:l fkdjQfha nyq;r
NslaIq .sys n,hla uOHia:j r|jd.kakg wm iu;au fya;=fjks'
m%Ndlrka ish fudai jId m%ydrh 1999 fkdjen 01 od wdrN
lf<ah' fkka k jkaksfhka jd;d jQfha l|jqre msg l|jqre weo
jefgkd njls' ;j;a n,d ishfyd;a rgu fldkag hg;ajkq we;ehs
is;+ wms jjqkshdjg .sfhuq'
ta kh 1999 fkdjen 05 od h' ta jkg;a jkaks fmruqfKka
miqnisk oyia .Kka finkaf.ka jjqkshdj yd wjg m%foaY ms ;sKs'
b;d wudrefjka mj;ajf.k .sh moh yd je,sTh .udk ish,a,
wels,S .sh nj o jd;d jqKs'
;;a;ajh ord.; fkdyelsj uu;a ye.,af,a u,idr yshkq;a
brgfmhl=,u l|jqrg we;=a jqfKuq' uy jeiafia ksrdydrj

79

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

fldkaf.a ld,;=jlal= m%ydrj,g ,laj ;=jd, ,enQ fndfyda finka


tys isfha le/,a,lg iQodkjh' ;reK lk,ajre lSmfofkla wmg
iydh ug meKshy' miqj th %f.ah,d" fc fckrd,a,d olajd
jOkh h' fndfyda mud jd wdydrh .;al< fmkS .sfha n;a ;e
fkdue;s njh' f,a .o .yk" fndr j;=r ms l|jqre N+fha fjjq,ka
is finkaf.a .efykd uki ug fydka oeKsks' u,idr ys Tjqkg
mkais,a ka w;r" yska yska uu Tjqka wu;kakg ' th yuqodf
khg mgyeks jqj;a ish,af,da th bjid ishy'
wms udkal=,u fuka jjqkshdj o w;ay<fyd;a fld ch Y%S uyfndah o"
rejkaje,siEh o kdY lr wfma ckhd oUq,a,g;a t;ekska
l=reKE.,g;a m<jd ykq we;ehs uu lSfj' wms wdmiq fkdf.dia
fmrg f.dia igka l< hq;= nj uu lSfj' wjidk jYfhka Tjqkg
lSug we;af;a l=ulaoehs weiQg mrdcfha fya;=j Tn miqmi isgf.k
iskd ks,Odka nj w;la t,a,d.;a ;reK finf<la lSfh' tg uyd
f>daIdjla we;sh' wms ;;a;ajh md,kh lr.;suq' fYaI n,ldfha
ksNh ks,Odka msila jydu fmrg hEug ;SrKh lf<dah' jjqkshdjg
Wka ukaf;a iSudj wefKa Tjqkf.a lemu ksidfjks'
wms B<`.g je,sThg .sfhuq' flfia fyda ck;dj mofha k;r lr.;a
wms fld<Ug l;dlr wdOdr b,afjuq' meh 24la ;=< ffjoH yd
w;HjYH wdydr wfma i.fhda f.k wdy' wms wkd: l|jqre u;a
lf<uq' bkamiq wdOdr u;a lf<uq'
k .Kklg miq fld<U tk w;r ud l,amkd lf<a fld<U
fm<md<sj,ska m%Ndlrka me/oh fkdyels njh' foaYmd,k n,h
w,a,d .ekSu ;SrKd;aul njh' foaYmd,k jYfhka n,h w,a,d .ekSug
tlaflda wms kj mlaIhla yslr ;j;a ld,hla W;aidy oeh hq;=h' taid
ld,hla m%Ndlrka wjika ch.%yKh ,eu je<elaug wfma yuqod
iu;a fo@ Tyq hqo ch.%yKhla ,enqj;a miqj wmg ixOdkh Tyqj
m<jdyeh yels fkdfo@ nefj,dj;a" Tyq ish hqo ch.%yKh
foaYmd,k ch.%yKhla lrf.k cd;sl yd wka;cd;sl f,i ks,
ms<s.ekSula we;slr .;fyd;a wmg isjkafka l=ulao@ n,h w,a,df.k
th l,la ord.; fkdyelsj miqj mrdch we;=.E .sh jHdmdr
f,dfjys tugh' kuq;a foaYmd,ksl f,i ia:dms; fuka miq tlS kj
80

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

rdcHh hg;alr .ekSug hEu th fl;r l=vd jqj;a myiqjkafka ke;'


f,dalh th wdl%uKhla f,i olskd ksidh' brdkh tlai;a wrd t
rdcHhka inkaOfhka o" brdlh - l=fgh inkaOfhka o"
bkakSishdj - kef.kysr fudarh inkaOfhkao" l,ska fjkaug
bv miqj hd lrkakg f.dia islr.;a rdcH ;dka;%sl kdYh ms<sn|j
O f,aLk lshjd wjfndaOhla ,nd.;s' fpkshdf fnjdoh
reishdj iska" th ia:djr fuka miq;a" me/ou muKla tlu iqNjd
WodyrKh h' kuq;a" reishdj kHIal n,jf;l= jQ w;r" ,du
mqka hgf;a wdl n,jf;l= njg o m;afjka isfhah' N+
m%udKfhka yd im;aj,ska ta rg f,dalfha f,dl=u rg h' th
flfiaj;a wfma ikaoNh yd .ef,fmkakla fkdh'
1995-2005 oYlfha f,df Y+r;u" kdhlhd ljqoehs weiqfjd;a ud
lshkafka ta reishdf ,du mqka njh' jrla tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uyd
uKav, f.dvke.s,af,a wuq;a;kaf.a Yd,df ^2007& ug reishdf
foaY weue;s;=ud yuqh' t;=ud ;uka l,la Y%S,xldf fojeks
;dkdm;sjrhd f,i fiajh l< nj m%ldY l<d u;lh' Tyqf.a ldh
uKav,fha fndfyda fofklam%;dmj;a fmkqulska hq;= jQ nj o u;lh'
fndfyda rgj,a ish foaYSh ldh uKav," .=jka fiajd jeks fjk;a
rgj,a iu. inkaO jk fiajdjkag m%;dmj;a lvji fmkque;s
mqoa.,hska m;alr;s' tu.ska m<uq oelafu ;u rg .ek m<uq fmf<a
wdl,amhla f.dvkxjd .ks;s' isx.mamQrej f.dvk.oa ,S lajdka hQf.a
fka cd;sl WmfoaYlhd jQ we,anfgda ka m%Odk;u WmfoaYh jQfha
isx.mamQref wkd.;h foaYSh wdfhdaclhska" ixpdrlhska .=jka yd
uqyq kehka wdka u; hefmkd ksid m<uq oelau Tjqka u; lrjk
ms<sfj< iqkaor;ajh wdfhka mej;sh hq;= njh' isx.mamQre .=jkaf;dg"
jrdh" k.rhg msfik m%Odk udj; ms<s.ekSf ks,Odka wd ish
fokd m<uq isx.mamQre fm%auh i|yd fydka iQodk lr we;af;ah' wms
fujeks foa ms<sn|j lsis Wkkajla ke;s cd;shls' jrla wrdfha rdcH
kdhlfhl= yuq ud bxfkarefjl= yd .Ks; lldpdh flfkl=
nj;a" Tyqf.a rf oyia .Kkla wmf.a bxfkarejka" jdia;= oHd{hska
wdka fiajh lrkd nj;a lS g t;=ud yd Tyqf.a ldh uKav,hg
iskyd .shy' Tjqkag wm rg ms<sn| wdl,am f.dvke`.S ;snqfKa wO
jyka yd ,sx.sl NdKav f,i weiqre lr ;snQ Y%S,dxlsl .Dy fiajl fialdjka fj;sks' wms wfma m%;srEmh f.dvkxjd .ekSug k wfma
81

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

.=jkaf;dgqfmd<" jrdh" k.rhg tk m%Odk m%fY ud.h" k.r uOHh"


rdcH ;dka;%sl ldhd, yd ;hska wd ldrKd .ek o ie,ls,a,g
.;hq;=h'
reishdkq foaY weue;s;=udf.a jYSfhka miq tku ksfhdala
fmd;ay,lg f.dia mqka ms<sn| lD;shla , .;s' th lshefuka
miq ud w;ska ke;sh' kuq;a Tyq |jefgkd reishdj fh,aiSka w;ska
Ndr.;a ye" reishdkq T;a;=fiajd yd mSgian.a k.rfha mmd,kfha
Tyq ,nd.;a w;aoelS rdcH md,khg fhdod.;a ye" reishdf ke`.Sf
yd jef m%Odk ryi Okjd fyda fldhqksiajdoh fkdj f;,a yd
.Eia , nj wjfndaO lr.;a ye" m%n, cuksh we;= wka hqfrdamSh
rgj,a NS;sh uqiq .re;ajhlska kd.;a ye uf.a is; ;ka
meyer.;af;ah' fidah foaYh |jefuka miq ;ekska ;ekska reishdj
flks;a;Su i|yd fhdodf.k is fnjd n,f. wIaGdkYS,Sj Tyq
iska kdY lsu uf.a is; jvd;a ;ka meyer .;af;ah' wmg;a mqka
flfkla wjYH nj fnjdoh ;%ia;jdoh f,dj fld;eklj;a mrdch
ke;ehs mdrndka is fou< cd;sjdkaf.a u; |,Su i|yd ks;r
fhdod.;af;'
tlska tl lreKq ie,lSfuka miq wms ;SrKh lf<a Yla;su;a isxy,
cd;sljd mlaIhla f.dvke.Su iska cfm Y%S','ks'mh yd hQ'tka'mSh
md,kh l<yels jkq njh' bkahdj ,xldf iajdk ke.Su bjikafka
ke;suq;a" ta Y%S,xldj j, lsu i|yd ksr;=reju fou< fnjd
;%ia;jd ;=remqj md lrkduq;a" Y%S ,xldj ;=< ikakoaO n,fhka
fjku rdcHhla i;=frl= f,i ysjKq oelSu bjikafka ke;s nj wfma
;lafiarej h' 1948 fmhdf.a fou< lid. ikakoaO jHdmdrh
bkah kdhlfhda ;yk l< w;r" wkakfodff.a m%cd;ka;%jd
fnjdohg ;,akdvqf n,h ,nd.kakg ^1967& bvy<y' f ksid
;j l,la hkf;la bkahdf ljr wdKavqjla n,fha ish;a" m%Ndlrka
fjku rdcHhl kdhlhd wkd.; via:dkhl uyrcq f
isyskhg bvfkdfokq we;s nj wfma ye`.Su h' m%Ndlrka tjeks hqo
chla ,ofyd;a bkahdf fnjdo muKla fkdj udjd kelaia,hs
jHdmdrhkao msoug ls%hdlrkq we;' thg bkahdj bvla fokafka
ke;s njo wmf.a ;lafiarej h'

82

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

mlaIhla msysgqu ms<sn| woyi wm ;=< muKla fkdj f jkg isxy,


cd;sl jHdmdrfha l,la l%shdldj is fndfyda fofkl=g tljru
mdfya jegyS .sh fohla h' mlaIhla ;r.ldj bhg f.khEug k
wvqu ;rka rgmqrd is .sh mQKld,Sk ldvrhka oyila j;a wjYH
nj wm w;=ka wd tla u;hla h' ;j;a u;hla jQfha th cfm
foaYmd,k rduqj u; nei.;a ks.ukhla nj;a" lemS fmfkkd cd;sl
ugf foaYmd,k p; y; wgla tlajqjfyd;a thg jydu ck;djf.a
ms<s.ekSu ,efnkd ksid isl< hq;af;a th nj;ah' t;ek WodyrKh
jQfha ,,s;a - .dKS" nKavdkdhl - rdcmlaI jeks mlaI yerf.dia kj
jHdmdrhka yslsf WodyrKhlah' tjeks Yla;su;a msila cd;sl
u;jd foaYmd,khlg lvd .ekSug wms iu;ao@ hk m%Yakh B<`.g h'
f w;r" ;=kajeks u;hla o h' tk" ldvrh fyda cd;sl p;j,g
jvd udOH lmkh l< yels cd;sl f;audjla we;ak ta Tiafia
mlaIhla id:l l< yels njh' fuys foaY rgj, cd;sl mlaI
fYaIfhka bkahdf Ndr;Sh ck;d mlaIh WodyrKhg .kakd ,'
Ndr;Sh ck;d mlaIfha WodyrKhg ud leu;sjQfha ke;' ukao@ rdIah
iajhx fiajla" cdka ika.a wdh yryd jmdhs" woajdks jeks kdhlhska
oYl .Kkdjla bkahdf k.r iNd" m%dka; iNd" uOHu wdKavqj jeks
wdh;kj, O mo o" rdcH n,h o" ta ish,a,g jvd oyia .Kkl
mQK ld,Sk n,ldhla o iys; jHdmdrhla i udOH fmk nqnq,la njg
^Ndr;Sh ck;d mlaIh BJP) ie,lsh fkdyels jQ ksidh'
flfia fj;;a" f hq.fha foaYmd,kfha mQK ld,Sk ixOdkh fyda
mlaI hdka;%Khg jvd udOH - .=jka ,sh" rEmjdysksh" cx.u rlkh"
m.Klh mok lr.;a ikaksfok cd,h w;sYhska jeo.;a nj wfma
ms<s.ekSu h' ;%ia; frda jHdmdrfha we;e l%shd ^,xld llre
fldx.%ia ldhd,fha is jQ .egqu& udOHj, by<skau jd;d jQ w;r"
tfyhska wmg ,enqKq m%;spdr mqudlr h' ud udOH fmk nqnqj,g
oe wlue;a;la oelajQj;a h:d:h th nj uf.a o ye`.Su h' rks,a
l%uisxy 2005 ckdm;sjrKfha fkdis;+ ;r uyskao rdcmlaIg
lsgq lf<a iq cd;sl Pkaofhka muKla fkdj oHQ;a udOHfhka Tjqka
isl< oejeka; m%pdrh ksidh' rf ck;djf.ka 5]l muK Pkaohla
tyd fuyd lsug oHQ;a udOH m%pdrh iu;a nj rks,a Tmamq lf<ah' fuh
wf;a uqo,a ke;s" wh:d l%uj,ska uqo,a fiug hkafka;a ke;s fndfyda
foaYmd,lhskag r;= t<shls' kEu wh:d l%uhlska uqo,a fidhd oHQ;a
83

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

udOH w;am;alr.; yels m%idx.sl fudv, j,g bfha foaYmd,kh


je jefhka jD; ug ksh;h'
f ish lreKq is; ;ndf.k isxy, cd;sljd mlaIhla ;ekSu .ek
wms is;a fhduq lf<uq'
wmg is ; is ; d is ka k g ld,hla fkd;s Ks ' m% N dlrka
ckdm;sjrKhg fmr ;,a B<u msysgqu i|yd f.fhka l%shd
lrka ;sKs' jkaksh msi,Sfuka miq Tyq mrka;ka" w,suxlv
jg,Efh' th b;d ie,iq.; jg,Eula h' f w;r"
ckdm;sjrKh i|yd pkasld" rks,a yd c''fmka kkaok bm;a jQy'
pkasld isfha t;r myiq ;;a;ajhl fkdf' fndfyda n,dfmdfrd;a;=
;nd is idu hqoaOh mrdch fjka ;sKs' th r;aj;af;a lS f,i
Wml%l miqneiSula f,i ck;dj f;are .;af;a ke;' tfukau weh
f*vr,a meflach f.ktaug ;e;alsfuka NslaIq uyd ix>hd w;r;a
isxy, cd;sl u; orkakka w;r;a msyS ishdh' rks,a ;uka iska"
isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrhg we;= l< NslaIQka yd .syshka yryd h
muKlg isxy, n,f. u; wKil m;=rejdfhah' wm fkdishdk
Tyq isxy, cd;sl n,f. .s,.kakg fndfyda rg bv ;sKs' cfm
fl,skau udlaiajd wka;fha isg hqoaOh fpkh lf<ah' Tjqka ta
jkg m<d;a md,k" m<d;a iNd wd Pkaoj,ska ,laI y;rl muK
Pkaohlao" Yla;su;a ldvrhla o f.dvk.df.k is w;r" isxy, cd;sl
n,f. flf jQfha o wj;lafiarejls' uqia,s tlai;a uqla;s
fmruqfKa bia,dh uQ,Oujdka jQ uqn ryuka,d o" fou< tlai;a
uqla;s fmruqfKa b;=re ;=re o" fou< cd;sjd jdudxYslhka jQ
l%undyq - jdiq wdyq o 1999 ckdm;sjrKfha cfmg iydh oelajQy'
rks,a idu idlPd i|yd f*vr,a iul Pdhdjla fhdackd l< w;r"
pkasld ish 1997 kj f*vr,a jHjia:dj foaYmd,k iu f,i m%ldY
l<dh' rks,a w;sYh ;SrKd;aul f,i m%Ndlrkag jir 05l wka;
md,khla fhdackd l< w;r" pkasld ish ghs (TIME) idlPdf
wka; md,kh jir 10lg fok nj m%ldY lr ishdh' cfm j.jd
hqoaOh jydu k;r lr iudkd;au;djh u; fou< ckhdg iajhx md,k
m%foaY fokakg fmdfrdka jQfh' miqj isxy, fld kka m%p,s; jQ
frdays; NdIK iska" fufyh jQ ysre lKavdhu c''fm m%pdrl
hdka;%Kh fufyhh'
84

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

m%Ndlrka ;Srlj l%shdlr ;sKs' Tyqf.a b,lalh ;snqfKa j, lrk


,o rks,a flfkla n,hg f.ktkakgh' ckdm;sjrKh wjika
jkg w,suxlv we;= hdmkhg hg;aug i,iajd iar rdcHhla
i|yd cd;Hka;r .siqulg hEugh' fldkau hqo ch tlgu
foaYmd,k chla lr.ekSugh' nd,isxy ta i|yd hqyqiqj l%shdlrka
isfhah'
ta kh ug ;du;a u;lh' uu ckdm;sjrKh i|yd lvj; ;snQ l=vd
ckyuqjla - ^th foaYm%sh w,yfldaka ixOdkh l< tlls& - wu;d
wdmiq tka isfh' rks,a - pkasld hk lsisfjl=g;a Pkaoh fkd
Pkaoh jckh lsu wfma wNs,dIh h' thg .xf.dv, fidau
iajdka jykafiaf.a o wkq.%yh ,eKs' lvj; ykah wi, fc
fckrd,a ,lS w,a.u" wkqreoaO r;aj;af;a m;=re .ikd y`v Yo
ldYkfhka weisKs' Tyq rks,af.a wdKavqf wdrlaIl weue;s nj isxy,
u; we;a;kag hQ'tka'mS ldrhska iska mejiQfha rks,a rg mdjd ug
hkjdh hkakg ms<s;=re f,ih' ,lS w,a.u kef.kysr uqod.;a l;dj
hqouh f,i we;a;la jqj;a ^1993& th ;ukaf.a foaYmd,k ch.%yKhla
f,i hQ'tka'mSh m%ldY lsu wuk ysjla h' ukao kef.kysr mdjd
kafka o ^1990& Tjqka iska u ksidh' tk weiajdgqj yryd ud
meKsfha fmruqfKa /,sho ksl oeln,d .ekSf wdYdj iys;jh' ud
? fndajkakg fmr kjd;ekg meKs w;r" m<uq wdrxh ta iu.
wdfh' cd - we, hQ'tka'mS /,shg fndan m%ydrhla ,laIauka w,a.u
urdoud we;s mqj; thska jd;d h' m%Ndlrka rks,af.a fnd.d
l,skau bj;a lr ;sKs' cdkl fmfrd hQ'tka'mSfhka foaYmd,khg
msfik nj ug m%ldY l< g ud Tyqg lSf Tng o ,lS w,a.ug jQ foa
isug bv we;s ksid thska j<lsk f,ih' th Tyq weiQf ke;' is
folu tlu wdldrhg ish' B<`.g jd;d jQfha pkasld >d;k jEhu
.ekh' ud ykk fld,amsfha m%N+ ldka;djla lSf hQ'tka'mSfha msia
oekgu chmeka fndk njh' ;ju;a WoEik fkd;sKs' pkasld
isfha ;h yd urKh w;r" igklh' wfma foaYmd,kfha wkaO
uq.aoNdjh thska lemS fmksKs' fld 1994 .dKS idkdhl >d;kh
lr pkasldg mdr lemQ wjia:df Y%S',ks'm kdhlhska yeisrefKa o f
wdldrhguh'

85

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

fmdgqwudkaf.a b,lalh jerKs' pkasld .,jd .;a w;r" weh


fj; wkqlmdf /,a, .,d wdfh' wm;a iu. Pkaoh jckh lsug
.sh wh mjd pkasldg Pkaoh kafka m%Ndlrkag mKsjqvhla f
mrud:h we;=jh' Pkao jckh" Pkaohla .ekSug jvd wudre nj wms
jgyd .;suq' wfma Pkao jck jHdmdrhg pkasld yd tia'f.a uer
l,a,s ;ka ndOd lf<dah' ta ish,a, ueo wms wIaGdkYS,S l%shdoduhla
f.k.sh kuq ck;dj Pkao wmf;a yeug wlue;s nj kej; wmg
fmkakd ;sKs'
ckdm;sjrKhg fmr isxy, mlaIhla msysgqu ms<sn| wms fkdfhla
fokd iu. woyia yqjudre lr .;suq' kS;s{tia't,a .=Kfialr jeks
jD;a;slhka fukau isxy, r oyk jHdmdlhka o ta w;r h' ta
fomsiu mdfya m%;sm;a;shla f,i mlaIhla msysgqug tl`.jqj;a
mriamrhka o h' r oyk kdhlhska fhdackd l< mlaI jHjia:df
jQ kdhlhdg ish n,;, ,eu jD;a;slfhda m%;slafIam l<y' TjqyQ
jvd;a ,sys,a m%cd;ka;%jd jHqyhla b,a,d ishy' fomsiu NslaIQka
jykafia mdlaIsl N+ldjla r`.oelau .ek leue;a;la oelajQfha ke;'
th wfma fkdi;=gg fya;= h' wka;sf cd;sl ih kka mlaIhla
t<s oelaug r oyk ;SrKh lf<ah' ckdm;sjrK m%;sM, ksl=;a
jkg thg wod< oeka o m%pdrh h' kuq;a ckdm;sjrKfhka miq
ta woyi Tjqka w;ka .s,syS .sfhah'
ckdm;sjrKhg fmr flfia fyda w;a mlaIh msysgqjd ,Sug wmg
wjYH jQfha ckdm;sjrKfhka miq jydu md,sfka;=j isrejd,Sug
pkasld l%shdlrkq we;ehs wms is;+ ksidh' th idudkHfhka isl<
hq;a;ls' ukao ckdm;sjrKfha WKqiqu;a" wruqo,a wdh wjika fuka
mlaIh ukao W;aidySu;a ksid meye,s nyq;rhla tu.ska ,eh yels
uh' kuq;a mquhlg fuka pkasld tfia lf<a ke;' weh is;=f weh
.ek muKls' uyd ue;sjrKh fkdmj;ajd hQ'tka'mSfha fyd| ys; o
we;sj Odhl ckdm;s Oqrh wfydaisjk f*vr,a jHjia:djla ish
fojeks Oqr ld,h wjika fuka miq l%shd;aul l< yelshehs weh
is;kakg we;' mrdcfha w ,s jid.kakg hQ'tka'mShg o l,a wjYH jQ
ksid Tjqka o kj jHjia:dj ieliSu i|yd ngysr ;dkdm;s ldhd,j,
wdYsjdofhka msfikakg h'

86

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

f w;r m%Ndlrka ish m%ydrfha f.h je lf<ah' hqof wfma


i.hska jd;d lf<a w,suxlv fl l,lg jvd w,a,d ish fkdyels
nj;a" hdmkfha wfma yuqod fldgqu iar nj;ah' r oyk isxy,
mlaIh ms<sn| woyi w;ayeh w;r" wfma W;aidyh wms
w;afkdyefhuq' jHdmdlhka f,i >Dcqj foaYmd,khg msiSf
we;sjk jHdmdl wk;=r .ek wms o wjfndaO lr.;suq' kuq;a jD;a;Sh
lafIa;%j,ska .gu fm<Uu ;sKs' f w;r" hQtkamS md,sfka;=
uka;%S ;s,la lreKdr;ak ;uka" mlaIfhka bj;aug leu;s nj m%ldY
lf<ah' wms jydu mlaIhla msysgqug leue;af;ka isk iq msi
w;f idlPdjla le|jQfhuq' tk yhgu rdc.sfha wkqreoaO
r;aj;a; b,lal lrf.k fld m%ydrh t,a, jQ kh h' rdc.sh
m%foaYfha ie`. .sh fld idudlhka fidhd wdrlaIl yuqod
fufyhq lr;a isxy, foaYmd,kh i|yd kj fufyhqula wms
je,a,j;af;a wks,a chjOk uy;df.a fydag,fha wdrN lf<uq'
mlaIfha ku" jHqyh" jHjia:dj" m%;sm;a;s wdh .ek uQ,sl
tl`.;djhlska miq isxy, w;a wjqreoafoka miq mlaIh ks, jYfhka
msysgqf wruqKska isr .sfhuq'
k lSmhlg miq hqo fuka wdrx jQfha w,suxlvg W;=ka m,af,hs
m%foaYh fld w,a,df.k we;s w;r" wfma yuqod fld .srhg yiq we;s
njh' 2000 isxy, wjqreoao f.jqfKa b;d ld<lKaKs f,ih' 1954
hkahka mQ m%xY n,fldgqj | f,i ;u yuqod w,suxlvg we;= jQ
nj fld m%ldY lf<dah' iajK tys Och ti jQ nj ge,afk j;d
lf<ah' w,suxlv yuqod m%OdkS %f.ah mis m%kdka urd oeuqKq nj;a"
w;s oejeka; w f;d.hla fldka i;= jQ nj;a" jd;d h' fuh 1996
isg n,dfmdfrd;a;= jQjls' uq,;s" ls,sfkd" mrka;ka yd w,suxlv
jegqfKa tlu f,igh' tlu rgdjlgh' tlu hqo Wmdhlgh' th tfia
isjQfha wehs@ wfma Wmdhka w;a fkdjQfha wehs@ pkasld yd ux.,f.a
idu hqoaOh fojdplhlska wjika f ,l=Kq my<j ;sKs'
w,suxlv iqkan;a u;a iu. wdKavqj jeuk;au h jQfha fldkag
fkdj wmgh' isxy, ck;djgh' /ia" fm<md,s ;yk lrkd ,' hqo
yuqod l=uka;%Khla .ek liq l=iq me;sr hk ,' w u ;nd wka;
cd;sl hg;af .siqula w;aika lr finkg hdmkfhka bj;aug

87

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

bvfok nj fld m%ldY l<y' wdKavqf kska;lug iSudjla fkdh'


pkasld finka fld<U f.ktau .ek idlPd lrkakg jQjdh'
bkah yuqod kdhlhska fuys meKs w;r" Tjqka iu. idlPd jQfha o
bkah kej,ska fin fld<U f.ktau .ekh'
f w;r" Y%dl yuqod ks,Odfhl=f.a ksjfia Y%S ,xld yuqodf Wiia
ks,Odka msila yuqjqfk' Tjqka ishfokdu lSf iemhq f.khd
fkdyels ksid hdmkh w;ayeu yer wka l,amhla ke;s njh' uu
Tjqkg lreKq ;=kla fmkakd ks' 1999 fkdjen jkaks w;aoelSu
.ek m<uqj lSfj' m%Ndlrkag ish hqo ch.%yK /l.ekSug ;r msia
fyda .sks n,hla ke;s w;r" wm Tyqj w;lafiare lr we;s nj;a" wfma
m%Yakh msia fyda .sks n,h fkdj hqo udkisl;ajh ke;su nj;a
lSfj' wfkla w;g iemhq ke;=j fldgqu hqouh f,i ydkshla jqj;a
fmr<d igk fidfydfka igk (Death Ground Battle) ksid wfma
finka ;Srlj igka lrkq we;ehs o lSfj' ukao m<dhkakg w;la
fkdue;s ksidh' wfkla w;ska hqoaOh me/ fld<U wdj;a fld<U
we;sjk le/,s uev,kakg .shfyd;a yuqodf wmlS;sh fo.=K
f;.=K we;eg rgu m%Ndlrkag hgjkq we;s nj o lSfj' ta ksid
flfia fyda l< hq;af;a uq jerfhdod igka lsu nj;a" uq rgu hqo
iQodkul ;eu nj;a" lSfj' yuqod ks,Odka uola ta;a;=.;a nj ug
jegysKs' miqj yuqod uQ,ia:dkfha idlPdjla h' fc fckrd,a
cdkl fmfrd hdmkhg heks' wms wfma l%shdOrhka yd ysjre iu.
hqo fmruqKg f.dia finka .ekaf m%pdrl igklg tl;=
jqfkuq' iq fk mr ;j, wdmiq yer ;sKs' f w;r" cdkl
fmfrd uy;d wfma ys;jf;l=f.a ksjfia yuqjqfk' Tyqg igk
ch.ekSug wdYSjdo lrkd f,i Tyq b,a,d isfhah' igk ch.ekSug
Tyqg iydhug kEu lemula lrkd nj Tyqg lSfj' igk ;=<
pkasld h.kajk iq foaYmd,kh k fkdlrk f,i Tyqf.ka
b,a,d isfh' kuq;a wfma wjxl wruqKqj,g tf,iu l%shdld ug
fkdyels h' cdkl fmfrd hQtkamSh iu. l=uka;%K lrkd njg
rdjhla me;sr .sfhah' ta Tyq mlaI kdhl rks,ag hdmkfha isg
rl;k weu;=ula u ksidh' wka;sf wkqreoaO r;aj;af;a we;=
msila hdmkhg .shy' th iEu w;skau fyd|g .sfhah' pkasld hdmkh
w;ayeu .ek is;=j;a r;aj;af;a is;=f th flfia fyda /l.ekSughs'

88

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

Tyqf.a w;S; {d;shd jQ f,fla ue;s fuka wd;au.re;ajh i|yd Tyq


;ks isfhah' kej; j;djla fldkaf.a hqo Yla;sh w;sYfhdala;shg
ke.Su oyd olajka hdmkfha ;Srl igk Tjqka mrdch h' hdmkh
w,a,d .ekSug fld l< igk kdYfha ch.%yKhla" mhsfrla (Phyric
Victory) ch.%yKhla h'
hdmkh /l.ekSf igk wfma ch.%yKfhka fl<jr jqjo thska b;d
.eUqre foaYmd,k mKjqvhla ,eKs' tk Y%S ,xldf yd bkahdf
foaYmd,k kdhlhskaf.a hiq" lm" kska;" iajrEmhhs' fYaIfhka
bkahdj m%Ndlrka fjku rdcHhla we;slsu wka;su fudfydf;a fyda
j<lajhs hk wfma Wml,amkh je/ nj fmKs ;sKs' m%Ndlrkaf.a hqo
ch fmkSfmkS ;sh bkahdj lsis Wmldrhla fkdlf<ah' wmg
Wmldr lf<a mlsia:dkh yd khhs' thska fmkS.sfha 'f'mS' md,kh
tys wdrlaIl weue;s jQ ls;=Kqfjl=" fldxka.%ia frdafhl= yd .dka
mjqf,a ffjrlaldrfhl= jQ fcdma mkekavia ksid we;s;rug fld
ys;jd we;snjh' 'f'mS'fha kHdhdpdh yd ixOdhl jQ
t,a'fla'woajdksf.a ; l;dj ^My Country My Life& lshfuka miq
ud f;are .;af;a 'f'mS h mjd m%p,s; fou< cd;sjd u;fhka tk
,xldf fou< ckhd mSvdjg m;aj we;'fld tys uqla;sodhlhdh hk
u;fhka .e,e .;a tlla fkdjk njhs'wfkla w;g 'f'mS h ish
n%dyauK jxYsl lu miqmig oud ol=Kq bkahdf foaYmd,k mokula
oud .ekSu i`oyd fou< ys;jd Wmdhlao f.k .sfhah' bkaosrd iy
r" f'wdg mdvula b.ekaug yd ;,akdvq foaYdmd,k ke,eug
^1983 - 89& m%Ndlrka ke,jQjdfia 'f'mSho th ish moh lrf.k
;sKs' fkdf rdcHh mjd ish fld ys;jd ldhhka i`oyd
'f'mSfha wdYsjdoh ,nd.;a nj miqj jd;d h' fla'mS' fy<sor
lf<a Wvisg my<g bkah foaYmd,kh ish me/Ks uqndhs md;d,fha
lmamj,ska kd.;a wdldrhhs' bkahdj ljq,a,hka f,i fkdj
fudavhska /,la f,i yeisfrk nj fmkS .sfhah' bkahdf
'f'mS'mlaIfha m%n,fhla udyg 1997 jIfha yuqh' ,xldj ms<sn`o
fldka.%ia wdKavqj oelajQ isxy,hska i;=re msila hk wdl,amh bj;alr
isxy,hska yd ,xld fj<`ofmd, fyd`o wdYSjdohla f,i i,lk f,i
b,a,d isfh' Tyq th ms<s.;af;ah'kuq;a 'f'msh flka.%ihg;a jvd
fudav f,i m%Ndlrkaj Yajdi lrka isfhah'f 1948 fou<

89

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

;Hd. ikakoaO jHmdrh ^fmhdf.a& uokh l< bkahdkq


kdhlhskaf.a mrmqreuo @ tod fou< fnjdoh i`oyd uqia,s w,skakd
yd mS; l< ksfhdackh l< wfnldf.a iydh fmh yd
wkakfodhs b,a,d is w;r n%dyauK - yska frdaOh Tjqkf.a fmd
moku h' oeka n%dyauK - yska - uQ,Oujdka via:dkh /lSug
bm;a we;so@ 'f'msh yd tys yska;aj oYkh .ek meyeulska is
udyg Tjqkaf.a f ;,akdvq wjia:djdoh .ek we;sjqfha ms<sl=,ls'
2009 uehs ui fms,af,a yd fld .,jd .ekSu i`oyd ;,akdvq
ue;sjrK fldj 'f'msh iska Nd;d l< wdldrfhka fmkS .sfha
Tjqkf.a uq.ao Wmdh ud.h fjkia fkd we;s njhs'
2000 wm%sfh,a 19 jeksod wms iqNfudfyd;ska isy< Wreufha kj
jHjia:dj yd ks,Od uKav,h wkqu; lr.ksuq' mlaIfha iNdm;s
f,i tiaa't,a' .=Kfialr uy;d;a" uyf,al f,i ;s,la lreKdr;ak
uy;d;a" cd;sl ixOdhl f,i ud;aa"NdKavd.dl f,i fk,a
lreKd;s,l uy;d;a" f;a m;ajqy'wm%sfh,a 26 jeksod mok
wdh;kfha wms mlaIh l<t<s neiaijQfjuq' rg mqrd fyd`o m%;spdr wmg
,enqKs' uykqjr" l=reKE., wd m%foaYj,o Yaj oHd, uydpdhjre"
ffjoH" bxfkare yd jHdmdl jD;a;slhka /ila wmg tlah' wms
kqf.af.dv m<uq ckyuqj iqodk lf<uq'
pkasld wfma m<uq ckyuqj ;yk l<dh' th m%cd;ka;%jdj
meje;aug .sh wmg l` .Eia m%ydr t,a,h' ta ckyuqj id:l jk
nj;a th isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrfha uyd b msula jk nj;a ux.,
iurr jgd is cd;sl l,a,s yd c''fm flajghska wjfndaO
lrf.k ;sKs' ta oreKq uokh hgf;a jqj wms ;eka;ekaj,
wm%isoafha /ia meje;ajqfhuq' uykqjr /iau meje;ajqfha iqms
fj<`o ie,lh' .d,af,a /iau yuka .=Kr;ak uy;df.a j;=hdfhah
cd;sl ixOdhl f,i Wmu Yla;sfhka mlaIh ixOdkh lf<' h
fyda iajdk ixOdk cd,hla ;snqfKa l;r ;s,la lreKdr;ak
uy;dg muKs' wka lsisfjl=g ixOdk cd,hla fkd;sKs' wruqo,a
i`oyd mqoa.,sl odhl;ajh yereKqg fmd l%ufohla fkdKs' r;k
ys uOHu ldrl iNdjg meKSu je<elau i`oyd NslaIqkg
foaYmd,kh wlemh hk igka mdGho ke.sKs' bx.%sis W.;a" kQ.;a
fNaoho isy< Wreuh ;=< u;=Ks' fjd ishq whqka fkdj
90

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

l<ukdlrKh flrefKa ;rula r whqks' ys;a wdh f ksid


uq,isgu meje;sKs'
uyd ue;sjrKhg fmr pkasld ;j;a fudav W;aidyhla orka f*vr,a
meflach wkqu; lr.kakg W;aidy l<dh' f w;r c''fm by<gu
inkaO uf.a ys;jf;l= lSf isy< Wreuh ksid ,hska udre lsug
c''fmg by<ska Wmfoia ,e we;s njh' pkasldf.a f*vr,a meflach
wIaGdkYS,S Wmjdihlska me/oug wms bgd .;suq' ye.,af,a
u,idr yshka thg tlajQ w;r" wfma wr.,h k lSmhlau cd;sl
wr.,hla h' pkasld meflach w;yer md,sfka;=j iqrejd
yehdh'
pkasldf.a meflach me/ou i`oyd u,idr yshka udrdka;sl
Wmjdifhka ,o cjh ue;sjrKh i`oyd wmg fyd`o W;af;aclhla h'
Pkaoh i`oyd wmg w;aoelSula fkdjQ w;r fndfydarg mkai, yd
ysjre Wmu Yla;sh wmg ,nd kay' uqo,a m%Yak uq,isgu h' wfma
tx.,ka; YdLdf ffjoH rK;=x. m%uqL msia yd m%xYfha lreKdkdhl
uy;d wmg iDcqj Wmldr lf<dah' fuys k i`oyka l< fkdyels yuqod
ks,Odka msila wmg wdrlaIdj yd msi ,ndfuka Wo lf<dah'fuys
k i`oyka l< fkdyels jHdmdl uyf;la wfma m%pdrl jHdmdrfhka
nyq;rhl nr oerefh'
ue;sjrK m%;sM, wfma fndfyda fokd wffOhg m;alr ;sKs' Pkao
oyila jeks iq m%udKhlska wmg fld<U wdikh wys h' ud
ixOdkh l< leianEj wdikh jeu Pkaoh .;a w;r jeu ukdmh;a
^37"550& jeu ukdm m%;sY;h;a ^75]& ,enqfKa udygh' ue;sjrKhg k
mylg fmr m%n, rdcH fkdjk ixOdhlfhl= jQ l=i,a fmfrd oHQ;a
;emE,g mKsjqvhla oud lSf isy< Wreuhg fld<ka wiqkla tk
nj;a th ,efnkafka jeo.;a uy;ajrekag fkdj isxy, *eisia kdhl
pmsl rKjlg nj;a l=uk l%uhlska fyda th je<elah hq;= nj;ah'
isy< Wreuh yslsfu wmg lscdjla h' tk mlaIhla
yslsug ;r wm ixOdkd;aul o@ foaYmd,k tald.%;j o mK;o
hkakh' ta .ek lsjhq;af;a ta folu wmg ksis muKg fkd;snQ njh'

91

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

rf wjYH;jh wmg m%uqL h'ikaksfokh yryd f.dvkef.k


cd,h .ek wms Yajdi lf<uq' wfma `ojeuo ta yrydu ish'
ue;sjrKh wjidkfha wms uOHu ldrl iNdj /ia lf<uq wmsg tl`
ia;s%lalhl fyda wdikhla ke;s nj ta jkg oek isfhuq' bfha o
mrdch fkd;ld lghq;= lrkakg ish,a,ka ;SrKh l<o mlaIh
fu;ekska wjidk nj foaYmd,kh o;a ish,af,dau oek ishy'
yisfhau cd;sl ,ehsia;=fjka wmg wdikhla ,e we;s nj jd;d h'
ta jkg fndfyda fofkla iNdfjka msg ishy' cd;sl ,ehsia;= Oqrhg
m;alrkafka ljqrekaoehs miqj ;SrKh lruq hkak woyila f,i
bm;a jqjo thg tia't,a'.=Kfialr uy;d m;al< hq;= njg uydpdh
bkar;ak we;= we;e msila ;rfha m%ldY lr ishy' Tyq thg
kqiqiafila fkdh' kuq;a wfma ;reK msia yoj;g uq,a;ek
l%shdl<y' iuyre bkar;ak uy;df.a hdno msys ksjig f.dia l,n,
we;slr .;ay'fndfyda fofkl=g wjYH jQfha flmdvqf f ms<sn`o
idlPdlr ;SrKhla .ekSuhs' mlaIh fjkqfjka .=lka fjfyi
uykais jQ fndfyda fofkla ;uka tlS jeo.;a ;SrKj,ska bj;a
lf<ahehs fldam ishy' Tjqka ish fldamh m< lf<a ta i`oyd udju
m;al< hq;= nj lshks' wfkla msi .=Kfialr uy;dju m;al<
hq;=nj lSfjdah' wka;sf fndfyda wudrefjka fomsiu tla uOHu
ldrl iNdjla meje;ajQfhuQ' ta jkg wmj f.dvke`.= udOH wmj
kdY lr ;sKs' cd;sl n,f. wfma msu ;sf.hu keiSug
is;df.k isfhdah' c''fm ish me/Ks Kh ish,a, .ekSug iQodkka
Wmu f,i ish m%pdrKh wmg tfrysj uqodyefhah' ta jkg
c''fmg wdik 10 la ,e fyd`o ue;sjrK m%;sM,hla ,e ;sKs'
l,ska uOHu ldrl iNdf kHdh m;%fha fkdjQ ksid;a thg nyq;rh
iyNd.S fkdjQ ksid;a b ihjir i`oyd mlaIhg f tlu wiqk b;d
jeo.;a ksid;a f ms<sn`o .eUqre f,i ixjdo lr ks.ukhlg wd hq;=
nj ckdm;s kS;s{pQ,d o is,ajd wdrNfhau m%ldY lf<ah'mlaIfha
iu.sh ;Srl fyhska wjYH k fuh m;afkdlr wms wfma lghq;=
lruqhs fmardfoKsfha ysgmq Wml=,m;s uoau nKavdr uydpdh;=ud
lSfh' wka;sf nyq;r ;SrKh jQfha ud;a" .=Kfialr uy;d;a
fofokdu fkdj uyf,a l ;s , la lreKdr;a k uy;d
m;alsugh'mlaIh folv h'fpdaokd m%;sfpdaokd we;sh' l%shdOrhska
92

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wm iu. /k;a Pkao odhlhd wfmka fjkah' ;=jd,h iqjlr .ekSug


fndfyda l,la hkq we;snj wfma ye`.Su h' udi lSmhlg miq ;s,la
lreKdr;ak uy;d Oqrh ug mejerefh'by< uKav,fha
mQKld,Skfhl= f,i foaYmd,kfha fhfka ud muKs' f ksid
md,sfka;= uka;S% Oqrh mQKld,Sk foaYmd,khg uy;a rel=,la h'
md,sfka;=jg tk udj /.a lsu i`oyd mlaIfha whjkaf.ka ;ukg
fhdackdjla wd nj;a kuq;a uf.a m<uq l;dj ^th mirh .ek h& weiq
muKska ;u woyi w;ayer.;a nj;a miqj 'ufyaIajrka uy;d m%ldY
lr isfhah' ug m<uq kfha ndOd lf<a wiaj yd ufkda fr;ak
fofm<h' ta rks,af.a bf.kakq nygh' miqj Tjqka ishfokd uf.a
;=rka h' 17 jk ixfYdaOkh u.ska iajdk fldI iNd i`oyd
cd;sjd mokka jHdjia:d iNdj msysgqu reoaO;ajh m<l< tlu
uka;%S uu ' miqj 17 jeks ixfYdaOkh yd iajdk fldI miqj
ldrhla njg m;ah' we;a;gu fmd fmruqK yd c''fm i;s folla
md,k n,h .=lr .ekSu i`oyd l< foaYmd,k ldrhls th'
foaYmd,kfhka f;dr rdcH fiajhla b;d fyd`oh' kuq;a wms lreKq
folla f;are .; hq;= fjuq' ,xldf isjQ f,dl=u jxpd ^je
jxpdj"fyaka iQj" rlaIKh yd f;,a mqoa.,SlrKh& islf<a
ks,Odkah' rdcH fiajh foaYmd,k Is;hkaf.ka bj;alr ks,Od
Is;hkag ,ndfuka m,la ke;' fojekak rdcH fiajd fldI ^rdcH
fiajd" ue;sjrKh" fmd,Sia" kS;s& m;als uQ,sl jHjia:d iNdj
m;alrkafka foaYmd,lhskah' tho cd;sfNaoh wkqjh tys isxy,
ksfhdackhla ke;' fufia fyhska tlS 17jeks ixfYdaOkhg tfrysjQ
tlu uka;S% f,i wog;a ug wdvnrhla oefka' ud md,sfka;=f
ish isjQ ;j;a jeo.;a lreKla jQfha isxyrdch we;= jkdka;r
tlai;a ckmohg mejeug .sh .siqu mrdch lsug yels uh'
md,sfka;=j ;=< mlaI kdhlhd;a" tlu ksfhda;hd;aa ud u ksid
fndfyda foa bf.k .ekSug ug yelsh'
fYaIfhkau wdkkao ix. jeks fou< kdhlhska iu. md,sfka;=
mlaI kdhl yuqf woyia .eug ,eu f,dl= w;aoelSula h'
l:dkdhl f,i wkqr nKavdrkdhl uy;d iajdk fufyhla lf<ah'
fYaIfhka w.ksiqre ir;a is,ajdg tfrysj Tyq ,ndka ;Skaj b;d
ksNs; tlla h'

93

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

kuq;a wfma fomd hka f.fhka cd;sl n,f. l%shd;aul fjka


;sKs' fld ixOdkh lgqkdhl .=jkaf;dgqm<g myrka w;r ^2001&
rf wdlh m%:u j;djg >Dk wdl jOkhla fmkajQfhah'
udjke,af,a we;sjQ uqia,s - isxy, flda,dy,h mok lrf.k tia''
ylSj fpkh lf<ah' fndfyda fokd ta m%Yakfha isxy, uqjyug
;nd;a tys f.dia mdjd ;snq isxy,hskaf.a wNsudkh /lkafka wmh'
wka;sf ylS mlaIhg .sfhah' miqmiska tia''o wdfh' nka,
.=KjOk yd tia'' hk fofokd iu. u Tjqkaf.a ms,audrej .ek uu
l;d lf<' Tjqkg .e,fmkafka hQ'tka'mSh fkdj Y%S','ks'm
foaYmd,kh nj uu wjxlj Yajdi lrkd nj lSfj' tfy;a Tjqka
fjkia jQfha ke;' 't,a' weue;s;=ud ug fmkajd kafka pkasldf.a
wdldhIu md,kfha iajrEmhhs' we;e g Tjqka ishfokd is
iska fyn;a ishd h yelsh' kuq;a fldhd l=reudk w,a,kafka
fjk fohlg nj uf.a woyi h'
lgqkdhl m%Ndrh iu. ckn,fufyhqu wdfh' blauKska wdKavqj
fmr<sh hq;=njg mlaIfha u;hla h' kuq;a mlaI kdhl rks,a
.Kka nef wdKavqj 2001 fkdj fmr<sh hq;af;a 2005
ckdm;sjrKhg fmr njh' Tyq foaYmd,ksl jYfhka ksjer h'
kuq;a ;hlrefjda fld yd cd;sl i,a,s u iska l=,mamq lrkq
,j wdKavqj fmr<d .;af;dah' th fmr<d.;af;a th wfkla me;a;g
fmr<d .ekSu i`oyd bvlvla fmruqKg yd c''fmg ,nd foks' Tjqka
ta foa l<d muKla fkdj ckdm;sjrKfhka kej;;a hQ'tka'mShg
n,hg taug ;snQ bvlv wyqrd oeKs' ta wre;ska 2005 rks,a mrdch jQfha
2001 ckn, fufyhqu ksidh'
2001 ue;sjrKhg wms jvd;au ixOdkd;aulj bm;a jqfkuq' ;%
fj;aa;uqks jeks fyd`o kj uqyqKq tl;= lr.;af;uq' kuq;a udOH yryd
`o ouka ;snQ wfma m%;srEmh f.dvke`.S ;snqfKa ke;' tfukau
hQ'tka'mSfha m%pdrh tk wdlh f.dv.ekSu yd iduh .ek fndfyda
jD;a;slhka wdlIKh h' wmg ;snqKq wiqko wys .sfhah' wmg
,efnk jD;a;sl mdfjk Pkaoh wjia:dj yd f;audj u; ,efnkakla
nj kej; Tmamq h' ;j;a Ialr .ukla hEug jknj thska wjfndaO
lr .;suq'

94

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

miajeks .yereu

idu wr
ueo wreK
2001 ue;sjrK mdrdch wmg muKla fkdj iuia; cd;sl
jHdmdrhgu ;shqKq f,i n,mEfh' fld<U kd.l W.;a Pkao
odhlhd ish idu jHdmD;shg h muKlg kd.kakg hQ'tka'mSS fha
oejeka; m%pdrl udOHh iu;a h' kj udOH h:d:fha n,h ;jrg;a
meye,s h' tl w;lska th isy< Wreuh mrokakg;a isy< frdaka
ch.%yKh lrjkakg;a fhdodf.k ;sKs' miq lf,l ug
iaf%,shdf meje;s isxy, iuqjl yuq jQ Y%S,xlslfhl= wmQre
fy<sorjla lf<ah' ;uka tla;rd ngysr ;dkdm;s ldhd,hla iu.;a
hQ'tka'mS fha m%pdrl uOHia:dkh iu.;a tlg lghq;= l< w;r"
,xldf isxy, cd;sl n,f. mrdch lsu i|yd kef.kysr
hqfrdamfha me/Ks fldhqksia wdKavq mrdch lsug udOH fufyh jQ
%;dkH cd;slfhl=f.a Wmfoia ,enqKq wdldrh fyf;u meye,s
lf<ah' Tjqka oHQ;a yd uqs; udOHj, wkq.ukh lrkd Wml%u lSmhla
m%ldY l< Tyq tajdhska m%fY jk f,i lshd isfhah' ;j;a jrla
fmd,sia T;a;=fiajd wxYj, m%Odkshl= ish i.fhl= iu. ud
weue;sjrfhl= jQjdg miq yuqh' m%Odkshdf.a i.hd ug fydka oel

95

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

mqre uqyqKla h' miqj Tyq ug lSf ;uka ;%ia; frd cd;sl
jHdmdrh" isxy, r oyk yd isy< Wreuhg tla is njhs' tu
ixOdk we;=<;ska | oeu i|yd l=vd wnqo uyd wnqo njg Tjqka
fmr wdldrh Tyq meye,s lr kafkah' jrla r oyk ldhd,fha
fiajh l< wfhl=f.a u< f.org .shl, wmg oek.kakg ,enqfKa Tyq
cd;sl T;a;= fiajdf ks,Odfhl= njh ixOdk w;r" u;=jk l=vd
wnqo tajd isr hjk uyd wnqo njg m;ajk" m;alrk wdldrh wmg
jegyqfKa fndfyda foa isfuka miqjh'
ue;sjrK mrdcfhka miq wm w;r wnqo we;sh' fndfyda fofkl=g
f;are.; fkdyelsjQfha jir 2000 uyd ue;sjrKhg idfmalaIj b;d
fyd| mQK ld,Sk cd,hla" ixOdkd;aul ue;sjrK jHdmdrhla lemS
fmfkkd w;a uqyqKq wdh bm;a l< o wfma Pkao m%udKh wvlska
wvq jQfha flfia o hkakh' cd,hg jvd udOH u.ska we;sjk u;jdofha
n,j;alu kej; Tmamq h' jir 2006 .u cfmg igka mdGh
hgf;a c''fm ,nd.;a Pkao m%udKh jir 2009 wvlska fkdj
fndfyda ia:dkj, 1$5 olajd wvqjQfha o f ksiduh' u,a rjxY kkaok .=K;s,l uy;ajrekaf.a bj;afuka c''fm mQKld,Sk
cd,hg Yd, ydkshla fkdjqj o u;jd ;,fha udOH h:d:fha we;s jQ
lvdjeu w;s Yd, h' b ld,j, lem lrkd cd,.;
foaYmd,kh fjkqjg udOH u.ska iy fjk;a wdldrj,ska is lrk
n,h m%oYkh lsf m%oYlhska ch.%yKh lsf bvlv fndfyda
rg je nj f;are.; hq;= lreKls' f h:dj f;are.ekSu fjkqjg
wm mlaIh ;=< is jQfha wfma fojeks fm< lemjqKq kdhlhska w;r"
u;hla we;sjQfha m<uq fm< is kdhlhska ^udo we;=j& ksjer Wmdhka
yd lem is fkdlrk ksid f mrdchka w;ajk njgh' Tjqka
fndfyda fofkla fjk fjk;a ixOdk we;s lr.ekSu i|yd fhduq jQy'
uq,a ld,fha wm fjkqfjka fndfyda lem l< iq;a wlalrj;a;
thska tla wfhla h' Tyq wfmka fjka .sfhah' ;j;a fndfyda fokd o ta
f,i fjka .sh w;r" ta fndfyda fofkla wjidkfha hQ'tka'mSfha
jHdmdlhka w;r k;r h'
f w;r" wm iu. tlajQ jeys jHdmdlhka" jD;a;Shfka wdka o
wlukH jQjd fyda fjk;a mlaIj,g tlau ish' NslaIQka jykafia,d
o fjk fjk;a ixOdk iu. l%shdlrkakg jQy'
96

;%ia;jdohg;a tys iyhlhkag;a tfrysj wms ieuod ke.S isfhuq' ^2002&

fmdx.= ;,a Wf<, keje;ah

ckdm;sjrK igk" kqf.af.dv /<sh ^2005&

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

f b;du;a Ialr iuh ;=< p; lsysmhla cd;sl jHdmdrh i|yd


lemfuka tlajQy' thg kdhl;ajh ug ksrdhdifhkau u;= wdy'
tys l,l isg O ugfuka wm iu. is Woh .ukams," ksYdka; Y%S
jKisxy yd t't''' fldglfoKsh uy;ajre lemS fmkqky' Tjqka
isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrhg lemug ;SrKh lf<a th tys Ialru
wjhg je wkd.;hla fkdfmfkk ;;a;ajhg m;a me/Ks
kdhlhska fndfyda fofkla th w;ayer .sh wjia:dfh' miqj Tjqka
ishfokdu cd;sl kdhlhska njg m;ajQy'
w;afkdyer wfma wr.,h fmrg f.khd hq;= njg wm w;r" wd;ah
tl`.;djhla we;sh' thg fya;+ folla h' tlla k ish mjq,a ;"
wdl ih" iudc ;;a;ajhka f ish,a, cd;sfha ksoyi fjkqfjka
leml< oyia .Kkla ksiqka yd .eyekqkaf.a ;j, j.lSu wm u;
/ ;suh' fojekak jvd jeo.;a h' wm igka lf<a h wruqKla
i|yd o ta wruqK wkaljrodg;a jvd wjYH jd;djrKhla rf
f.dvke`.S ;suh' m%Ndlrka uyd msula bhg mKska isfhah' th
wdmiq yerh fkdyels > b msula u je<elau wfma wNsfhda.h
h'
m%Ndlrka Bkshd idu .siqulg 2002 .uka lf<a Th w;rh' Tyq
tjekaklg wdf lreKq lSmhla ksidh' tlla k hqouh fya;+kah' 1995
isg /i" chisl=re wd fufyhqj,g uqyqK fuka fld
ixOdkfha 12"000la muK hf.dia ;sKs' f ksid kj msia
n|jd.ekSu;a Tjqkg ukd mqyqKqjla ,ndu;a" Tjqkf.a hqo
wjYH;djhla h' tfukau .,a,d jHdmdrhl isg hqo" .=jka" kdl
im%odhsl yuqodjla njg m;af hqo wjYH;djh o Tyqg h' ta i|yd
wjYH hqo WmlrK iy ixOdk jHqyh f.dvke`.Su fojeks b,lalh
h' ta w;r" h fkl ,xldju w,a,d .ekSu i|yd mqoa.,hska"
WmlrK rgmqrd ia:dk.; lsu o W;=re yd kef.kysr fom<d;
iyuq,ska hg;alr .ekSu i|yd jQ hqo uQf,damdhka ieliSuo" bkahdj
wd rgj,a mjd h.ekau i|yd ridhksl fyda yelsk kHIal w
mjd ,nd.ekSu o Tyqf.a b,lalh h' m%Ndlrkag foaYmd,ksl
wjYH;djhka o h' uQ,slu lreK jQfha 1999-2000 jirj, jkaks w,suxlv hqo fmruqfKa Tyq ,enQ ch.%yKhka foaYmd,k ch.%yKhka
lr.ekSuh' BY%dh,fha hqo rhd jQ fudfIa ohdka iska" r; iajhx
97

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

p;dmodkh lshfuka ud ,o uQ,slu oekqu jQfha hqo ch.%yK


foaYmd,k ch.%yK lsug fl;r wmyiq o hkakh' iskdhs ^1959& k
yfha hqoaOh ^1967&" fhd lsmq igk ^1973& wd igkaj, BY%dhf,a
yuqod ,nd.;a" f,dj u; lrjQ hqo ch.%yK foaYmd,k ch.%yK
lrf.k cd;sl yd cd;Hka;r f,i w,a,d.;a m%foaY BY%dfh,a rdcHfha
fldgia f,i ms<s.ekSug ,lalr .ekSug we;s jQ wmyiq;djh thska
fudfIa ohdka ukdj meye,s lr we;' kuq;a m%Ndlrka ish fkdf
WmfoaYlhskaf.a Wmfoia u; jir 03la hkakg u;af;ka ish hqo
ch.%yK foaYmd,k ch.%yK lr.;af;ah' 1995 pkasld iu.
we;slr.;a igka rduhg jvd bhg f.dia ish n,y;ald m%foaY
ffk;sl m%foaY njg cd;sl yd cd;Hka;rj ms<s.ekSulg ,lalr
.;af;ah' ta w;r" ks, jYfhkau foaY rgj,g Tyqg Wmldr lr.;
yels wdldrhka ;kd .;af;ah' jrla ;s,la lreKdr;ak uy;d yd uu
cmdk ksfhda;hka yuq jQ g Tjqka iska" fldkaf.a Bkshd idu uy
f,al ldhd,h f.dvke.Sug wruqo,a ,ndu .ek m%Yak lr th hqo
wmrdOhla f,i fmkajd ksuq' cmkqka ta ms<sn|j lSf Y%S,xld rcfha
wkq oekqu we;sj th l< nj;a" ;j;a fndfyda rgj,a tf,i l%shdlrkd
nj;ah' miqj fy<s jQ whqre uqyq Wux" iuek" fgdamsfvda" .=jka hdkd"
.=jka m:" ihs, wd WmlrKj, isg Wux ud,s.d olajd fndfyda foa
foaY rgj,a ta kj, f.dvk`.d ka tajd nj fy<s h' foaYfm%a f.=
ks,Odfhl= ud yg ,ndka T;a;=jla ksid Tref.dvj;af;a
lkafkrhl r|jd ;snQ ieye,a .=jkahdkd folla w;awvx.=jg
.kakg o wdKavqjg yelshdj ,eKs' iqkdhg uqjd o ie,lsh hq;=
foaY iydhla fldkag .,d wdfh' uq,a ld,fha fmardfoKsh yd
fudrgq Yaj oHd,j, bxfkarE mSGj, is fou< uydpdhjreka yd
bxfkarejka lSmfofkl= l< h h ksudK fjkqjg cd;Hka;r
fYaI{hskaf.a iydh ,xld wdKavqj yrydu fldkag ,efnkakg h'
wfkla w;ska w,alhsod 9$11 m%ydrh ksid f,dj mqrd we;sj ;snQ ;%ia;
frda f.da,Sh ix.%dufhka .e, .kakg o f .siqu ksid fldkag
yels h' kef.kysr wdishdf w,alhsod cd,h tlai;a ckmo
T;a;=fiajdj,g mdjdfuka fld ngysr iu. fyd| ys; ;kd.;af;dah'
fld yd w,alhsod cd,h w;r" we;sjQ ;dlaIKsl yd fjk;a .kqfokq
ms<sn| ia;rd;aul igykla uq,skau isxy, mdGlhdg bm;a lf<a
w,alhsod w,aydoa lD;sfhka ud isks' miqj fld tlai;a ckmo

98

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

T;a;=fiajdj kso hkakg o kef.kysr wdishdj yd W;=re wm%sldj


w;r" flreKq kHIal cd,hg x.kakg o W;aidy l< w;r" wkak
t;ek tlai;a ckmoh hg m;a Y%S ,xld rchg fldkaf.a kdl
cd,h ms<sn| jeo.;a f;dr;=re ,ndkafkah' tlai;a ckmoh fldkag
tf,i fmd mdvula b.ekafuka miq wjika fudfydf;a th
.,jd.kakg o l%shd lf<ah' l=udrka m;aukdoka w;awvx.=jg m;ajk
g Tyq ngysr T;a;=fiajdj, /ljrKh hgf;a is njg we;e ngysr
ckudOHkau jd;d lr ;sfuka f in|;djhka jvd;a meye,s h'
m%Ndlrka lrkak hk foh meye,s jQj;a rks,a lrkakg hk foh uq,
wmg jegyqfKa ke;' wka; cd;sl idu iu iNdm;sjrekaf.a tl;=jla
we;sl< w;r tys bkahdj isfha ke;' th wka;cd;sl wdrlaIl
oe,la f,i rks,a m%ldY l< w;r" m%Ndlrka idu l%shdodufhka
bj;afuka miq ^2003 wm%sfh,a& tlS wdrlaIl oe, m%Ndlrka h<s iduhg
f.k tkakg lsisjla islf<a o ke;' wfkla w;ska bkahdjg .sh
rks,a ,xldj bkahdf ol=Kq ksoyia fjf<| l,dmfha wLKav
fldgila tk fjf<| m%dka;hla lr.kakd f,i b,a,d isfhah' 1999
jif bkahdf ysgmq ckdm;s w,a l,d iska" r; bkahdf
wkd.;h .ek jQ lu lD;shla lsh' tys mlsia;dkq yd k ihs,
moaO;sj,ska wdrlaId jQ ,sg w.kqjrla ^nex.f,darh& yd bx.%Sis ni
fydka o;a" yska ixialD;sh o ia:dms; fkdjQ ol=fKa m%dka; tlu
fjf<| l,dmhla lsula .ek;a ^kh Iexyhs ysl<d fia& l;dlr
;sKs' fia;+ iuq we< bkahdf ngysr yd kef.kysr kdl l,dm
tlalrkd hqouh udj;la jQ w;r" ukakdrf isg ;%Su,h yd ud;r
hdfjk wdishdkq wf.S ud. cd,h bkahdkq fjf<| fmd< ,xldjg
jHdma; lsf u.la h' rks,a tljr bkahdf jdKsc mrud: yd
ngysr f,dalfha foaYmd,k mrud: bgqlrkafka flfiao lshd
u;shla ud yg my< h' bia,d uQ,Oujdoh yd kfha wdl
jHdma;jdoh md,kh lsug bkahdj ngysrg w;HjYH foaYmd,khqouh mokula jqj;a wdl w;ska jefvkd bkahdj ;jrg;a ;ukag
re f,i md,kh l< fkdyels nj ngysr fydka oek isfhah'
kfha yd bkahdf .=jka" id.r jHdma;sh md,kh lsu yd f;dr;=re
,nd.ekSu i|yd ,xldj ngysr f,dalhg fYaIfhka tlai;a ckmohg
w;HjYH jqj;a bkahdj thg leu;sjkq we;ehs ug ms<s.; fkdyels

99

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

h' ,a,sfha mkekaviaf.a wdrlaIl wud;HdxYh yd iardf.a w.ue;s


ldhd,h w;r" rks,ag l=uk in|;d ;snqK o bkah iajdm;Hh
m%Yak flfrkd ;ekg ,xldf idu l%shdoduh m;ajQ odg rks,af.a f
cd oelau wjika jk nj wms jgyd .;suq' bkah kdjql yuqodm;s
IaKq N.jdka m<uq fj,a, m;a;= lf<ah' fcda mkekavia bkah
wdrlaIl weue;s bkah kdl yuqodj w,a,d.;a fld kej ksoyia
lrk f,i l< ksfhda.h IaKq N.jdka fkd;ld yefhah' jrla wms
bkah uy flduidia ksrEm fika ^2003& yuq jQ g Tyq lSfo
m%Ndlrka im%odhsl yuqodjla yd l,am rdcHhla iduhg uqjd
f.dvke.Su .ek bkahdj iSrefjka iskd njh' bkah uyd
flduidia ldhd,fha rej,ska ,xldf ngysr uqyq ;Srh fmkajQ
fika uqyq m%ydrhlska ;u ;dkdm;s ldhd,h mjd kdY lsug
Tjqkg yelshdj ,e we;ehs h m<lf<ah'
rks,ag jel,la lUfha hkakg nenj wm ish,a,kag meye,s h'
ksrEm fika yuqjkakg bkah uyflduidia ldhd,hg .sh wfma
ksfhda; msfia fndfyda fofkla jD;a;Sh bxfkare fyda oHd{fhda
jQy' wfma jD;a;Sh miqu uiSfuka miq Tyq wmQre fohla lSfh' tk
Tyq ,xldjg meKs wjia:df uy flduidia ldhd,h ks;r
f;dr;= r e ,nd.ka k d fld<U Ya j oHd,fha l= m % l g
uydpdhjrfhl=f.ka isy< Wreuh .ek uiq g tys iskafka kQ.;a
ria;shdldrhska msila nj;a" bkahdkqjka yd fouka ueu Tjqkf.a
tlu mrud:h nj;a m%ldY l< njhs' bkah uyflduidia ldhd,h
ish fldlaf,a idoj,g wdrdOkd lrkd iSud iys; msi u;ska ,xldj
oelSf nrm;,lu ;udg oeka wjfndaO jQ nj o fyf;u lSfh'
,xldf isxy, cd;sl jHdmdrh bkahdf Ndr;Sh ck;d mlaIh jeks
udOHl W.;=kaf.a jHdmdrhla f,i Tyq ykdf.k ;sKs' bkahdj
ks;ru fou< yd iq cd;Skaf.a wdrlaIlhd f,i fmkS fkdisg
isxy,hska o ;u ;=rka f,i i,lk f,i wms b,a,d isfhuq' 1989 isg
bkahdj cfm iu`. lsgq in|;d f.dvk`.df.k ;snqfKah' ljqre;a
fkdokakjd jqjo jOrdcdf.a wdKavqjg ,enqKq we;e bkah w
f;d. c''fmg o 1989 w.Nd.fha ,eKs' ta jkg c''fm isfha
is hks' c''fm b;=re ;=re jQ kdhlhska mK frd.;af;a

100

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

bkahdf /ljrK u; bkahdjg mek .ekSfuks' ta bkahdkq


fmdf<df isg bkahdkq jHdma;jdoh mrdch lrkakg k fkdf'
2004 uyd ue;sjrKhg ishrg meKs c''fm kdhl wurisxy uy;d
l;r l< m<uq l;df m<uqfjkau ia;+;s lf<a ;u mKfrd ka
bkahdjgh' bkahdjg mlaI f fpdaokdj u; Tjqka iska" urdoeuQ
jdudxYsl kdhlhska kSj<j,a isg jqj o;al+rE lkakg" bkahdjg
tfrysj igkg hjd >d;khg ,lajQ cfm idudlhkaf.a wd;auhka
folv lrkakg ta iajhx fpkh iu;a h' flfia fj;;a ksrEm
fika uy;d isxy, foaYmd,kh iu. o jD;j .kqfokq lrkakg
meKs m%:u bkah rdcH ;dka;%slhd h' th bkahdj ,xldj flf
;enQ ksjer mshjrla h' ish fldlaf,aj,g tk iSud iys; msi
iska" ,xldj ms<sn| ;% ujd.kakd ngysr ;dkdm;s wxYj,g mjd fuh
lu wdoYhls'
m%Ndlrkaf.a rm%isoaO 2002 wm%sfh,a k u,a,d udOH idlPdj
jkg Woh .ukams,;a" uu;a" jjqkshdf isfhuq' kdl yuqod
T;a;=fiajd ks,Odfhl= iu. jd wdydr .kska tys we;s ;;a;ajh
.%y lr.;af;uq' miqk ;%Su,hg .sh wmg hqo yuqod by< ks,Odfhl=
lSf fld fmrk ld,;=jlal= lSmhla idmQ fjre.,a foig
;U,.uqj yryd f.k.sh njh' oeka b;ska ;S%u, jrdh /l.ekSu b;du
wmyiq lghq;a;la nj Tyq m%ldY lr isfhah' rks,ag f ms<sn|j ta
kj, tlai;a ckmo hqo ks,Odka msila o ;%Su,fha ixpdrhlska miq
m%ldY l< nj Tyq ;jrg;a m%ldY lf<ah' wms ;s.eiaiqfkuq' fou<
B<u w;ayefhd;a ;ukg fj ;nkd f,i ish i.hskag m%Ndlrka
udOH idlPdf m%ldY lf<a kslugu fkdf hehs wms f;are .;suq'
;%Su, jrdh yd k.rh fldgqjk fia fld l|jqre cd,hlao" kej;
mx ls hgf;a ch,;a chjOkf.a wdOdrj,ska ksjdi cd,hla o
^miqj iqkdh hgf;a ksjdi ixlSK cd,hla o& nr w i:dk.;
lsula o isfjka ;sKs' ft;sydisl ,a.fjfyr ckhdg wjqre
kE. ^2003 wm%sfh,a& /f.k .sh wms gqf thg kqka f.dvkef.kd
fldkaf.a oejeka; l|jqre cd,hhs' ;%Su,h jglr ynrK-;%Su,h
f.dv m%Odk iemhq ud.h;a" ;%Su,h- lkalika;=f kdl
iemhq cd,h;a tljr w,a,d.ekSf fld Wmdh uekka fmksKs'
tu.ska hdmkh fldgqlr hg;alr wjika hg;af .siqu we;slr

101

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

.ekSu fldkaf.a hqo uQf,damdhsl ie,eiaf uq,a whr h' rks,a


lsisjla lrlshd.; fkdyelsj l%shdlrka isfha thg ;j;j;a
bvfok f,ih' hQ'tka'mShu we;slrf.k ;snQ idu f>daIdfjka Tjqka
jeiS hka isfhdah'
m%Ndlrka yis m%ydrhlg iQodk jk nj bj jefuka miq rks,a lf<a
tlai;a cd;Skaf.a yuqodjla f.kajd .ekSf yelshdj fidhd ne,Suh'
tlai;a ckmoh we*a.ksia;dkfhka k;r fkd Y%S ,xldjg o
f.dvneiSug hk nj bkahdjg m%:ujrg jegyqfKa tgh'
rks,a .siqu w;aika l< fmnrjd 22 od thg tfrysj msgfldgqf
meje;ajQ isy< Wreuh fm<md<shg isfha wms lSm fofkl= muKs'
jeys ysjrekaf.ka jevu lr isfha rkam;a, u,r;k kdhl
yduqrejka muKs' wdmiq isy< Wreuh ldhd,hg meKs g w.ue;s
ldhd,fhka *elaia mKsjqvhla f,i rks,a - m%Nd .siqu ,e ;sKs'
th rks,af.a ldhd,fha is foaYudulfhl=f.a jevls' miqj w.ue;s
rks,au th ks, jYfhkau wmsg tfh' ta ms<sn|j wr,sh .y
ukarfha idlPdjlg o bvlv ,ndkafkah' miqj ud weu;+ w.ue;s
ldhd,fha ys;j;d lSf fcdaka fjian.a ,xld wdKavqj fkdu. hejQ
njh' 1995 pkasldf.a .siqug iudk o< .siqul msgm;la (Draft)
jkakshg /f.k .sh fjian.a thg m%Ndlrkaf.a w;aik f.k we;s
w;r" oeka w.ue;s rks,ag;a th w;aika flug n,fl we;s njh'
fuys we;a; ke;a; fkdoks' kuq;a fjian.a miqj fldkag
ikaksfok WmlrK ,ndf yd igka rdu kslaIKfha ,ndka
ks.uk foi n,kdg Tyq tjeks fohla fkdl<dk mquh' jkaksfha
fld uQ, l|jqre i|yd bkahdkq fou< ckhd mxlsug uq,ajQfha;a
fjian.a yd frndkd jHdmdrhuh' ^1978-80&
.siqu;a iu. W;=rg" kef.kysrg hEug isxy, ckhd ;=< ixpdrl
Wu;=jla we;slrkd ,o uq;a th wdKavqjg udrdka;sl tlla h' fld
b;d ie,iq iy.; f,i id yd fjk;a .dia;= whlsfuka o ;u n,h
m%oYkh lsfka o isxy,hskaf.a yo mdrjkq ,enQ ksidh' fuh ;ukg
l< uy;a kskaodjla nj blauKskau isxy, iudch f;are .;af;ah'
wfkla w;ska wdrlaIl yuqod m;aj we;s kskaod iy.; iajNdjh;a"

102

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

fkka k ks,;j igka rduh lvjk wdldrh;a" wdKavqj m;aj


we;s ksjg iajNdjh;a b;d fydka meye,s jkakg h' rks,af.a ,ecd
iy.; l%shdld;ajh hQ'tka'mSfha kdhlhska mjd fldamhg m;alr
;snqfKah' ksodYS,S isxyhd idu ls;sfhka wjh' W! ke.sgqjd .ekSu
wfma B<`. jEhu h'
wms ksNS; ;SrK folla .;af;uq' m<uq isu jQfha mQcH t,a,dj,
fuOdkkao kdysfhda wmdr j,;dmsh nqoaOx.,g wh;a .,ajehl
fi,a,smshla msgm;a lrkakg .sh wjia:df kef.kysr fld th
kj;d,Sf isuh' fojekak uqia,s .ula h joaod n,fhka rcfha
m%foaYhl bl< uksrdil=, l|jqr ms<sn| isuh'
wfma Wmdh ud.h meye,s tlla h' fjkg;a .siq frdaj
fmdoslka is c''fm yd fmd fmruqK w.ue;s rks,aj
md,sfka;=fjka m<jdyeu olajd ;,a lsu wfma b,lalh h' ta
i|yd ck;dj ;=< fldkaf.a iduhg uqjd islrkd hqo l%shdoduh
fy<s or lsu u.ska ck;d frdaOh W;aikak lru wfma Wmdhsl
l%shdoduh h'
t,a,dj, kdyshka iu. wms j,;dmshg .sfhuq' kef.kysr fld
kdhlhskaf.a frdaO;d ueo wms fi,a,sms msgm;a lr.;af;uq' thska wms
kef.kysr isxy, Wreuh iy;sl lr.;af;uq' wfkla w;ska c''fm yd
Y%S','ks'mh .d,af,a isg fld<Ug meKs foaYfm%a md .ukg;a jvd
oejeka; udOH lS;shla ,nd.;af;uq' f yd iu.u isy< Wreuhg ;snQ
udOH wkaOldrh reh' md,sfka;= wiqkg .= fl<.;a;d lshd wmg
;snQ fpdaokdj ksfIaO h' n,h ;snqK;a" ke;;a" wms cd;sh fjkqfjka
igka lrkd msila nj Tmamq h' wms is;+ mu wfma m%ydrfhka l,n,
jQ c''fm ish foaYmd,k m%ydr f.j;a lf<ah' wms vhskfudaj
lrljk g m%Odk tkau;a" mqx oe;s frdaofhka f,dl= oe;s frdao;a
lrlefjkakg h'
wfma uksrdil=, .uk thg;a jvd Woaf.lr tlla h' uq rgu ta
.ek u;shlska n,d isfhah' cd;sfha f.!rjh m;d ; fyda mQcd
lsug wms ue,sfkdjk nj wdKavqj oek isfhah' tfyhska f .uk
je<elaug Tjqka .;yels iEu mshjrlau .;ay' wfma W;aidyh jQfha

103

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

yels Wmu f,i fld iy wdKavqj fy<sor lsuh' uu wfma yuqodj,


ys;j;=kf.ka Wo b,a,d isfh' is,a weka ieriqKq Tjqka o
fm<md<shg tlah' ;U,.uqf fld wdOdrlrefjda wmg m%ydrhla
t,a, l<y' wfma msia o Tjqkg >Dcq m%;spdr oelajQy' wfma msiaj, ;snQ
f,dl=u j,;djhla jQfha fmdvla m%fldam lrjQ g m%fldamfhkau
ms<s;=re iemhSuhs' wmj uokh lsug bgd iskd n,f. fndfyda g
f fkdbjiSf .=Kh wmg tfrysj fhdod .;ay' flfia fyda
fm<md<sh u;alrf.k mdrg .kakg wmg yelsh' h<s;a tjeks
isulska ish yels ydksh j<lajd .ekSug wms wfma fYaI wdrlaIl
msila fhdojd fm<md<sh mlaId lr wuq;a;ka ;sfokl= w,a,d
.;af;uq Tjqka ;sfokdu fld fkdj wfma f;dr;=re fiug
fm<md<shg wdKavqf T;a;= fiajd tjkq ,enQ msils miq lf,l
yuqodf nqoa wxY ks,Odfhl= ud yg lSf" ;U,.uqf wmg m%ydrh
ixOdkh flrefKa lka;,fhka wm msg;a jk g ckudOH yd tys
/iaj is msi wu;d ud l< l;dj tys is udOHffhl= cx.u
rl;kh u.ska m%dfoaYSh fld kdhlfhl=g wikakg ie,eiafuka
miq njh ta udOH ksoyi ;%ia;jdoh i|yd fhdod.;a wdldrhhs
iqrxl,a ykafha wmg wkfmalaIs; l%shdoduhlg uqyqK fokakg
ish' y;r w;ska fj,ahdh ueka wfma fm<md<sh fuka lSm .=Khl
ckhd fm<md<sh foig tlajkakg jf.k wdy' wms uq,ska is;=f Tjqka
wmg myrug tk msila f,ih' kuq;a Tjqka fldkaf.ka negld is
uqia,s ckhd nj jefj,d fkdf.dia wmg f;are .sfhah' Tjqka
meKSu;a iu. fm<md<sh wmg md,kh lr.; fkdyels ;;a;ajhlg
m;ah' wdf. mqmqrdhEug ;r f.j;a ;sKs' yuqodj ish uqjer
fhdod wmj k;r lf<ah' i;H.%yhlska miq neflavhla Wvg ke..;a
uu Wia y`ka ck;dj wu;d fldka yd fld rlskd ksjg wdKavqjg
tfrysj ke`.S iskd f,i b,a,d isfh'
w f;dfmah u wfmah f,i jQ wfma wysxid frdaOh rf udOH
fj;ska uq iudchgu .,d .sfhah' wms n,dfmdfrd;a;= jQ f,iu
wdKavqj kskaodjg;a" wjudkhg;a" ,lajQ w;r" mlaIfha l%shdoduhka
;j;a W;aikak w;g yeKs'

104

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

Woaf>daIKfhka miq uksrdil=, m%foaYfha uqia,s jeishka


lSmfofkl= >d;kh flKs' wirKjQjkg iyk o /f.k uu tys
.sfh' .sks .yk wf rglcq jjka w;sYh Ialr ; f.jkd
uqia,s ckhd yuqjqfk' h.shjqkaf.a | kEishka yuqug ;,a
jeglg hka ud x.d hk PdhdrEmhla udOHj, m,lr ;sKs' Tjqkf.a
.f m,a,sfha uu Tjqkf.a ms jeyshka yuqjqfk' fndfyda
fofkla lSf uqia,s fldxka.%ih Tjqkf.ka Pkaoh .;a;uq;a f
me;a; m<d;l fkdwdnjh' wmdf >jdmS bvj,ska ud jk
ixrlaIK weue;s f,i uqia,sjreka m,jd yefha hehs wi;H
fpdaokdjla lr wdKavqfjka bj;a jQ uqia,s fldx.%ia kdhlhska ^2007&
tod uksrdil=,ug .sfha ke;' ngysr ;dkdm;s ldhd,j,ska uqo,af.k
uqia,s Wreuh .ek l;d lrkd ud,s.dj;af;a uqia,s wka;jdka wmg
tfrysj fm<md<s .sh o ^2008& tod jpkhlaj;a fldkag tfrysj
l;dlrkakg h jQy' rjq*a ylS" m%Ndlrka iu. w;aika l< .siqu
^2002 wm%sfh,a 13& ;ka fpkh l< uu uqia,sjre ksjg fkd ke`.S
ish hq;= nj kej; wjOdrKh lf<'
ta wjia:df ud wi,g wd uqia,s ;reKhka fldkag tfrysj igka
lrkakg ;uka leu;s nj lS w;r" rl;k wxlhla ,ndkafkah' ta
jkg fldkag tfrysj ksjg wdKavqf ksfhda. fkd;ld l%shd lrkd
wdrlaIl wxY msila fj; Tjqka inkaO lr ks' miqj uQ;+j, we;s
jQ igkaj, fld ;%ia;jdka ^2006& f foaYfm%a uqia,sjrekaj
fidhd kdY l< nj miqj ug wfma yuqod ks,Odfhla m%ldY lf<ah'
uq;+j, >d;kh jQ m%xY iyk fiajdf fou< 17 fokdf.a ; .ek
;rj;a wvq;rka uqia,s fldx.%ih fyda urd oeuqKq uqia,sjre 116
fokd .ek l;d fkdlsu we;af;kau rf fojdplhls'
fuhg wu;rj kqjr t<sfha we;s jQ cd;sjd .egqf o" fld<U meje;ajq
fmdx.=;,a Wf<f,a we;s jQ is ksido wms ;j ;j;a isxy, iudch
;=< ia:dms; uq'
nKavdrfj, fld iellrejkaf.a l|jqrla yd wjg .jdiSka w;r"
we;s jQ .egqula mdol lrf.k pkafialrka uy;d ;,jdlef,a
m%foaYfha isxy,hskag myrfok ,' fYaIfhka hQ'tka'mSfha m%dfoaYSh
kdhlhska jQ fyaupka wdh;khg mjd myrkak o m%foaYfha uka;%S
105

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

tia'' fyda wdKavqj pkafialrkag kS;sh l%shd;aul lf<a ke;'


;,jdlef,a mxif,a wkd:j is isxy,hska n,dlshd .kska Tjqkf.a
l fld<U j,g f.kdf wm h'
W;=re yd kef.kysr fld md,kfha isfha ;=ka ,laIhla muK
ckldhls' kuq;a tfuka i;r .=Khlg wdikak msila W;=re yd
kef.kysr rcfha md,k m%foaYj, fou< ckhd jdih l<y' w.ue;s
rks,a l< Nhdklu jro jQfha f ckldh fmdx.= ;,a yryd yd miqj
>Dcq fld md,kh hgf;a fldkag mdjduhs' fuh miqj isjQ Pkao
jckfha ^2005& rks,agu mdrdj<,a,la h' fmdx.= ;,a W;=ka
kef.kyska k;r fkd kqjrt<shg;a t;ekska fld<Ug;a" wdfh'
fldkaf.a ol=fKa ksfhda;fhda tys ixOdhlfhda jQy' th
meje;ajQfha l,d Wf<,l uqjdfjks' tys llfhl=f.ka m%Yakhla
weiSug .sh wfma idudlfhl= yg ixOdhlfhda myrkay' miqj th
.egqula h' ;=jd, jQ wfma msia n,kakg frday,g .sh ksYdka; Y%S
jKisxy" frdIdka .=K;s,l jeks wh;a" ;=jd, ,enQ fiiq whj;a"
w;awvx.=jg .eKsks' rf fmd,Sish kfikaf.a fmd,Sish njg m;a
we;s nj fmKsks' miqod wms fmd,Sishg tfrysj oejeka; frdaO;djhla
oelauq' fmd,Sisfha is ;udf.a wd wdkkah ;=rka mjd ;ukaj
mdjdka nj ;s,la lreKdr;ak uy;d miqj ud yg m%ldY lf<ah' miqj
uf.ka m%Yak lsug meKs fYaI uIKfha ks,Odhdg ud lSf
uq,ska Tyqf.a uiaiskd fnd/,af,a mj;ajdf.k hk fldkaf.a
PdhdrEmd.drh mlaId lrk f,ih' Tyq kej; uf.ka m%Yak lsug
meKsfha ke;' fmd,Sisfha by< ;k;=rej, isfha tjekakkah'
f f,i isy< Wreuh kej; ish wys l< u kd.;af;ah'
fldkaf.a YS>% b .uk j<lajd,Sug k blauKska rdcH hka;%h
Tjqkg tfrysj fhdod.; hq;= nj wmg jegysKs' ta i|yd mQj
fldkafoaish jQfha yuqodj yd fmd,Sishg wKfok w.ue;s rks,a yd
weue;s udrmk bj;alr,Suh'
f w;r" iudcfha ;j;a l%shdj,shla wdrN ;sKs' thk jD;
f,iu tjekac,sl m,a,sh iska" islrkd ,o ck;dj n,fhka
ls;=Kqjka lsf jHdmD;shhs'

106

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

f ms<sn|j mk;la md,sfka;=jg f.ktau i|yd ' ufyaIajrka yska


lghq;= weue;sjrhd l%shdl< w;r" Tyq yuq jQ wms thg wfma iyfhda.h
m< lf<uq' ufyaIajrka t;eka mgka wfma ;=frl= h' yska-fn!oaO
iu.sh i|yd yska kdhlhska iu. Tyq idlPdjla o ixOdkh
lf<ah' Tyq lSf hqoaOhg uqjd jkaksfha;a" hdmkfha;a" uvl<mqf;a
mqudldr f,i ckhd l%sia;shdkshg .kakd njh' miqj fld
l|jqrej,ska Tmamq jQfha o f i;Hhhs' 2003 ud uvl<mqjg .shl< tys
yska kdhlhska lSf o 1983-2003 uvl<mqf w;ska bjQfha m,a,s
muKla lshdh' m,a,shg jHdma; ug bv ngysr fyd|ys; kd.ekSf
m%Ndlrkaf.a Wmdh yska iudch hlryer ;sKs' uq,ska j;=lrfhka
werUqKq f jHdmdrh blauKskau Ialr .udkj,g;a" fld<Ug;a
jHdma; h' fld<U is`.kakka" isrf.or isrlrejka" udjf;a .Ksldjka
wdka .s,f.k fudkafida <|rejka" m%lg .dhl .dhsldjka" k
ks<shka jHdmdlhka" lS%vlhka yd foaYmd,lhska olajd th jHdma; h'
jrla lvqfj, tjeks m,a,shla iska .s,.;a ksjilg ud .shg tys is
;a;Ksh lSf .,ajevmf<a jev ke;sj we;s ksid ish iehd wys
hKshg lEug hula ,enqfKa *diag;=ud,df.ka njh' ta yer ;uka nq
oyu w;yer ke;s nj weh lSjdh' kuq;a wehf.a hKshf.a" l=vd
orejdf.ka f,dl= jqKdu mq;d ljqre fjkako bkafka lshd weiQ g
fohkag fiajh lsug lemfjk nj iqr;,a uqka msgKs' f,dl=jqkag
*diagf.a tjekac,sl ;E.s nv.skakg f.dre jqj;a" l=vdjqkaf.a
wd;auhu Tjqkg f.dre ;sKs'
f widOdrKhg tfrysj igkal< hq;= nj uu wjOdrKh lr.;af;'
,;ska weueldf yd fldhdf Tjqka ,nd.;a id:l;ajh ol=Kq
wdishdf ,ndfkdh hq;=h hk wgk bkahdf yd ,xldf yskafn!oaO ishfokd ;=< we;sl< hq;= nj bgd .;s'
f w;r" wdKavqj ;j;a fudav jevla lf<ah' thk foienrfha mqrd
udihla k.r wdf,dallrKhg fhduqlruh' f i|yd ls;=Kq
weue;sjrfhl= jQ fcdaka wur;=x. fmd,Sishg ksfhda.hla kafkah'
fndfyda fn!oaO yska-uqia,s jHdmdlfhda f k;a;,a wdf,dal mQcdjg
leue;s jQfha ke;' Tjqka wmj fidhdf.k wdfjdah' rcfha
weue;sjrekg muKla fkdj rch miqmi isg fufyhjk ,,s;a
107

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

fld;,dj," frdais fiakdkdhl" ,dxc,S fm%auodi jeks uQ,Oujdka


flf iudcfha uy;a ffjrhla le .efikd nj tlS yuqj,ska wmg
jegysKs'
fn!oaO jD;a;Shfka iska" ixOdkh flreKq ch.%yKh k
jHdmdrhla b;d lemfuka f wd.lrKhg tfrysj l%shdlrka
ish o th foaYmd,kSlrKhla ;snqfKa ke;' f jkg cd;sl ix>
iNdj ;snqfKa o wlukH ;;a;ajhlh' th 1999 ckdm;sjrKfha
cd;sl ix> iNdj hQ'tka'mShg weof.k hEu ksid we;s jQ ;;a;ajhla nj
l,ska lSfj' w;a ;;a;ajhg uqyqKu i|yd w;a ix> iNdjla wjYH
h' thg h<s;a uQ,sl jQfha w;=r,sfha r;k yshkah' ye.,af,a
u,idr ys" iail lu,is ys" .,f.dvw;af;a {dKidr ys jeks
;reK ysjre tys uQ,sl jQy' jeys m%{dimkak ysjreka f,i
t,a,dj, fOdkkao kdys" wdpdh u,afma fidaNs; ys" fldgfmd<
wurls;a;s ys jeks m%p,s; ysjreka tys kdhl;ajhg m;ajQy' cd;sl
ix> if,kh ysh' ;ek ;ek m,a,s l,a,sj,g tfrysj
wjfjka ;snQ fn!oaO ke.su ukd ixOdkd;aul ke.sula h'
cd;sl ix> if,kh u.ska rgjgd mj;ajkq ,enQ" fnd iuq
mqudldr f,i id:l h' fudk;r mSvkhla fn!oaOhska ;=<
meijka ;sfnkjdo hkak tlS uyd ck.`.ska fy<s h' wfkla w;ska
>Dcq foaYmd,k jd.d,dmj,g jvd Odl ksjqK wdhdpkdj,g
w;sYd, ckldhla ms|h yels nj meye,s h' th meye,sju
fuf;la lsisfjla w;ayod fkdn,d ;snQ kj foaYmd,ksl wd.l
m%fYhla h' tys we;s oejeka; wysxidjd Njh gq wms thg Wmu
iydh foka th je hkakg we;s ndOd bj;a lrka l< yels Wmu
foa bgqlr ksuq'
isxy, fn!oaO iudcfha tla .=Kdx.hla jkafka ka g lemS fmfkkd
fn!oaO NslaIQka ysuhs' we;e wh olaI Ou llhska h' we;euqka
fnda mQcd wd Nla;sh jvjk iq j;djka i|yd mqudldr f,i
iu;al oelajQy' we;euqka cd;sl yd cd;Hka;r f,i me;s.sh
odYksl oekqu we;a;jqka jQy' we;e wh w;solaI ixOdhlhska yd
iudc fiajlhska jQy'

108

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

bx.%Siska hgf;a md.douk isxy, uqla;s wr.,h kej; u;=jkafka


fudfydj;af;a .=Kdkkao" yslalvqf YS% iqux., wd fujeks .=K
iys; iajdka jykafia,d ksidh' h<s;a oHd,xldrh fj;ska ys jQ
hlalvqf ys" je,a,j;af;a ys yd fYaIfhka j,afmd, rdyq, yshka
lemS fmksKs' NslaIqjg foaYmd,kh lem o wlem o hk m%Yakh u;
oHd,xldrh yd 'tia' fiakdkdhl wd m%N+jreka w;r" we;s jQ u;
.egqu fl<jr jQfha ft;sydisl oHd,xldr m%ldYh u.sks' tu.ska
kQ;k NslaIqjf.a foaYmd,k iudc ldhNdrh uekka" OudkQl+,j
meye,s lr.kq ,eh' wfma we;e m%N+jrekag wjYH jQfha ,xldf
yska flda,aj, jdih lrkd mQidjrekaf.a ;;a;ajhg fn!oaO NslaIqj
weo oud ;ukaf.a fiajlfhl= lr.ekSuh' we;e wh k foaYmd,k
l;d wdfhka NslaIqjf.a kh msyS hkq we;ehs ienEjgu hg m;ajQy'
f .ek jrla ojq,afok {dksiair uykdhl ys iu. lrkd ,o
idlPdjl Wkajykafia fmkakd kafka tl, ^40-50 oYlh&
ldka;djka l%Svd W;aij wdhg iyNd.s u ms<sn|j o NslaIQka jykafia
rcfha oHd,fha .=rejreka f,i fiajh lsu .ek o" NslaIQka
jykafia,d fiiq isiq isiqhka iu. Yaj oHd,fha tlg wOHdmkh
lsu .ek o uy;a ixjdohla ;snqKq njh' oeka Th yduqrejkag
uka;%S,d u wlemhs lshkjd jf.a ;ud ta ldf,a .Ekq <uhs l%Svd l< hq;=
keye" mdi,a heh hq;= keye lsh,;a we;eyq lSf hehs foaYkd l<
Wkajykafia
nd,sldjka l%Svdj, ksr; h hq;= ke;ehs lshka
rm%isoaO foaYmd,k kdhlfhla ta kj, mqj;am;lg ,shQ ,smshl
msgm;la ud w;g m;al< fial'
1940 .Kkaj, iudcjd jHdmdrfha ke.Sug NslaIQka jykafiaf.a
odhl;ajh ,enqKd fiau 1950 .Kkaj, isxy, cd;sl n,f.fha
ke.sug o Wkajykafia,d odhl h' n,kaf.dv wdkkao ffu;%sh ys"
ufya m[a[diSy ys" fyafkamsgf.or {dkiSy ys jeks wh tys lemS
fmkqKy' ksoyia wOHdmkh ksoyia fi!LHh" iajNdId wOHdmkh wdh
fn!oaO NslaIqj ksid we;s jQ l%shdoduhkah' wo wvq;rka lsisu
fldhqksia rgl fyda fujeks iudc fiajdjka rch mj;ajdf.k
hkafka ke;'wfma u. kka 1989 ud ,shkd ,o lD;sfhka NslaIqjf.a
f ft;sydisl ldhh we.hSug ,lalf<' l=vdl, ug u;l ckm%shu
ysku jQfha mdkf whOu yshkah' Wkajykafiaf.a u;a frda

109

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

jevms<sfj< yd lfhka mejiQ nq.=K w;s oejeka; fn!oaO m%fndaOhla


we;s lf<ah' Wkajykafia wld,fha wmj;a lf<ah hk fndfyda
fn!oaOhska w;r" wo olajd ;sfnkd u;h fld<U frdufha ifnda
ydria:dkhg hk tkakg mgka.ekSfuka miq iarj oek.;af;'
l,la cd;sl ix> iNdf f,aLldld jQfha orKd.u l=i,Ou
yshka u tys hEug taug uQ,slu fya;=j h' ysgmq w.ksiqre ir;a
is,ajd uy;d ksid jvd;a wdf,dalu;a jQ ifndah .x`.drduhg fld<U
m%N+ mka;sh w;r ;snQ ia:dkhg wNsfhda.hla o t,a, lf<ah'
j;auka ld,h i,ldn,;a lemS fmfkkd ckm%sh NslaIq p;
.Kkdjla tlgu mdfya u;=h' thska" jvd;au u;= wdf uyr.u
Oudh;kfhka u;= jQ .xf.dv, fidau iajdka jykafiah'
Oudh;kh jr{dk kdys" ufya kdys fukau fld<U fn!oaO
odkm;skaf.a uQ,slu ixOdkd;aul wdh;khla h' th u.ska rgmqrd
ydria:dk fiau iudc jHdmdr .Kkdjla mj;ajdf.k hk ,' foaY
rgj,a fndfydauhl o tys YdLd meje;=Kq w;r" ta w;ska jvd;au
ixOdkd;aul fn!oaO wdh;kh h' ud uq,ajrg tys .sfha 1988 h
hq;=h' Oudh;khg ,,s;a we;=<;auqo,s uy;d W;aijhlg meKs is
w;r" Tyqf.a wruqK jQfha tys is cd;sljd NslaIQka jykafia,dj m<d;a
iNd l%uh .ek wjfndaOhla uh' thg yisfha meKs w;=r,sfha r;k
ys m%uqL Yaj oHd, NslaIQka jykafia,d msila we;=<;auqo,s
uy;df.ka" m%Yak lsug hEfuka uy;a jdohla we;sh' fuhg l,ska
1985 mqoa.,sl Yaj oHd, rgg ys;lrh hk ud;Dldj Tiafia Yaj
oHd, isiqka iu. m%isoaO jdohlg msfik nj m%ldY lr u.yer .sh
ksid we;=<;auqo,s uy;d iu. wms ldg;a" h .eula h' W;=rg f.dia
fj lkakg;a" ol=fKa n,a,ka fjkakg;a" fmd,Sishg ne nj moauis
wffialr >d;kfha cd;sl wdrlaIl weue;s f,i Tyq l<
m%ldYfhka ^1984& Tyq uyfmd< YsIH;ajfhka we;slrf.k ;snQ
m%;srEmh Tyqu | .;af;ah' flfia fj;;a Oudh;kfha iskafka
OuOr" khOr NslaIQka jykafia,d muKla fkdj cd;sljd
Ydik,e l%shdldka msila nj o ta isfuka f;are .;s' f ksid
fidau yshka ta wLKav b;sydifha wjYHu mqkrd.ukhla h' fidau
yshkaf.a Ou foaYkd ckm%sh jQfha Wkajykafia ld,Sk ud;Dld .;a
ksid;a" ks;ru tlS ud;Dld Ou .d:dj,g inkaO lr,Su;a ksidh' ud

110

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

miqj f;are .;af;a Oudh;kfha lS;su;a odYkslhd jQ je,s.u


{dkr;k kdyshka f Ou foaYkd im%odfha m%uqLhd njh'
{dkr;k yshka lsisu fgl ish u;jdo n,hg" Okhg fjkialr
.;af;a ke;' 2002-2004 ld,fha hQ'tka'mShg nr cd;sl u;fha
m%N+jrekaf.ka oe n,mEula t,a, jQ kuq;a fkdfi,ajqKq uyf;r ku
jQfha u,a,sldrdufha jevis je,s.u yduqrefjdah'
fidau yshka iska" rEmjdysksfhka ykajdka nK l,dj b;d
blauKska ckm%sh h' ta kj, ug u;l yehg chka; pkaisf.a
o`vqniakdudkh k fg,s kdgHh ne,Sug fik. rEmjdyskS ;srh
u;g frdlajQjd fia udOHl ck;dj fidau ysf.a nK weiSug frdla
jQy' fuys pkasld udrl jrola lr .;af;ah' tk iajdk
rEmjdysksfhka l< Wkajykafiaf.a Ou foaYkd k;r lsuh' th
we;e g foaYmd,kslj iq isula jqj;a ud is;kafka Y%S','ks'mfha
uOHl isxy, Pkao mokug th ;ka oekqKq njh' tfukau th wIar*a
uy;df.a o wroYS n,mEula h' uqia,s uQ,Oujd foaYmd,kh foi
ieluqiqj n,kakg isxy,hd fhduqjQfha wIar*a uy;d fidau ysg
tfrysj isl< f uey;au ksidh' >jdmsh ms<sn| m%Yakh lr,shg
wdf;a ta iu.h' jrla fidau yshka iu. l< fm!oa.,sl idlPdjl
,xldf uqia,s ck.yKfha jOkh .ek o idlPd h' thg
ks;a; jQfha urodk" foysj," fldf<dkakdj wd m%foaYj, nyq;rh
njg uqia,s ck;dj m;au;a je jefhka wka;jd foaYmd,khg
uqia,sjre keUqreu;ah' jrla urodk m%odk.r ydrhg ^th lS;su;a
jQfha ;%smsglh tys mj;kh l< ksidh& .shl, tys kdhl yshka
lSf 1988 isxy, odhl mjq,a 1350la muK is kuq;a oeka isjilg
miq ta .Kk ^2008& mjq,a 39lg iSud jQ we;s nj;ah' uqia,s ck.yKh
YS>%fhka jOkh u;a" Tjqka ixOdkd;aulj we;e k.rj, bv
, .ekSu islsu;a f jkg lemS fmKsk' ud fidau yshkag tod
lSf j;auka ck.yK jOk f.fhka ta f,iu ;snqfKd;a 2090
muK jkg Y%S ,xldf nyq;rh njg uqia,s ck;dj m;ajkq we;s
njh' jrla reishdkq rdcH ;dka;%slfhla o lSf reishdf o nyq;rh
njg f ishji wjika ug fmr uqia,sjreka m;af ;;a;ajhla we;s
njh' ,xldf fn!oaO .S; fndfyduhla lSf fudyska fn.ah' isxy,
fn!oaO nyq;rhla j;ajQ n,kaf.dv ^wnqid,s&" fnd/,a, ^fudfydu&"

111

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

frej, ^ndlsudl& wd wdikj, uqia,sjre uka;%Sjreka jQy' wm ;=<


mjd 1980 .Kkaj, muKla fkdj 90 .Kkaj,;a" uqia,sjre ish
wkkH;djh mj;ajd .ekSu i|yd ngysr f,dalh iu. lrkd wr.,h
.ek f.!rjhla h' ta ms<sn| uf.a f.!rjh ielhla njg m;aug mqx
mqx is lSmhla bjy,a h' m<uqfjkau 1988 wIar*a uy;d isxy,
fou< .egqu W;aikak u ;ukaf.a jdishg fya;+jk nj;a" wkd.;
ch.%dylhd ;SrKh lrkafka uqia,sjre nj;a ud yg l< m%ldYh uQ,sl
h' fld<U isxy, ksiqka uqia,s jHdma;sh .ek h jkjd fiau
kef.kysr fou< ksiqka o hg m;a we;s nj uvl<mq Yaj
oHd,fha wdpdhjre lSm fofkl= ta kj, ug mejiQy' fojkqj jrla
ud jD; Yaj oHd,fha .Ks; mdvu W.kajka ish uqia,s isiqka
msila ug ,smshla Ndr kay' tys ;snqfKa wfma mka;sfha uqia,s isiqhla
uqia,s fkdjk isiqfjl= yd fmne| we;s ksid wehj mka;sfhka
fkrmk f,ih' th uf.a fldamhg fya;+ h' wms Yaj oHd,fha iskd
ld,fha wfma <`.u i.hska jQfha w" rfIa jeks uqia,s isiqkah' Tjqka
w;r" ljodj;a fujeks u; fkdks' wka;sf tla isiqfjl= fj;ska
Tjqkaf.a .=re hehs lshd.;a" foysj, me;af;a wd.l .=rejrfhl=
f.kajdf.k idlPd lf<' Tyqg wkqj fohka Yajdi fkdlrk wms
ishfokd lmS,d fyj;a mldrhkah' ms<su jkaokdj lrk
fn!oaOhska jeks wh kdY h hq;=h' f l;dfjka uf.a l=yq,
weiaiqkd muKla fkdj l=rdkh lshjkakg;a uyu;a;=ud ms<sn|
lshjkakg;a fm<UqfK' miqj ud iska" ,shkd ,o w,a ydoa
w,alhsod k ia;rd;aul bia,d uQ,Oujdofha foaYSh yd foaYSh
ke`.Su ia;r lrk ,o uq,au ia;rd;aul isxy, lD;shg mdol jQfha
tod igyka lr.;a ia;rhkah' ;=kafjkqj jrla uqia,s fldx.%ifha
m%n, kdhlfhla m%ldY lr ;snqfKa isxy,hska k.rj, j, lsu
i|yd isxy, l;=ka jdy lr.ekSu;a" isxy, mska u;ajHj,g
weneysu islsu;a" ;uka f;kdka;j islrkd njh'f
ish,af,ka ug fmkS .sfha ;,sndka j.fha wka;jdohla uqia,s
fldxka.%ih" uqia,s tlai;a uqla;s fmruqK wd mlaI miqmi ;sfnkd
njh' 1947 uqia,sjre fjku rdcH fhdackdj,g lefkd.eiS
isxy,hska yd tla fmrg hkakg ;SrKh l< o ta iudc iyjkh oeka
| je we;s njh' fidau yshka yd royk l< tla ft;sydisl
ldhNdrhla jQfha uqia,s uQ,Oujd foaYmd,kh Pkao l=
foaYmd,khla f m%;smdlh fmkakd uh'
112

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

fidau yduqrefjda 2002 isy< Wreuh iska" fld<U kj k.r Yd,djg


le|jk ,o rks,a - m%Nd .siqug tfrys fnd iuqjg jevu l<y'
b;d fyd| foaYkdjla l<y' miqj jrla ud ;ksfhka o" jrla
fldglfoKsh uy;d iu. o f.dia Wkajykafia yuq' jrdrdufha
is jQ fojk yuqf Wkajykafia jD;ju ish foaYmd,k wNs,dIh
wmg m%ldY l<y' rks,af.a fn!oaO frda wdKavqf foaYmd,kh W;=re
yd kef.kysrg muKla fkdj Oudh;khg o je we;s nj
Wkajykafia fmkakd kay' we;e .sys msia Wkajykafiaj
Oudh;kfhka fkrmSug W;aidy oerE nj jd;d h' 2006
ckdm;sjrKh i|yd ixOdk;aul jev ms<sfj<la fhdod.; hq;= njg
wms l;sld lr.;suq'
fldf<dkakdf iqux., yshka ug uq,skau yuqjqfKa 1995 h' ta ud;r
r;k yshkaf.a ydria:dkfhah' Wkajykafia tl, isfha iafia
ydria:dkhlh' pkasldf.a f*vr,a meflach .ek ud l<
fpkd;aul idlPdjlg weyqlkau i|yd Wkajykafia tod jevu
lr ishy' miqj wms ud;r fmd ixOdk tl;=lr fldgqff.dv
/,shla meje;auq' /,sfha ksfolhd jQfha iqux., yshkah'
Wkajykafia ksfolfhl=g jvd fyd| llfhl= nj;a" lreKq
wkqfokSh f,i m<lsug mqudldr iu;alula ;snqKq nj;a" tod jgyd
.;suq' miqj Wkajykafia fld<Ug ixl%uKh h' wdfrday mkdy foay
im;a;sh;a" Nla;sh jvjk foaYkd ffY,sh;a" iska b;d blauKskau
Wkajykafia by<g .uka lf<ah' ud f;are.;a wdldrhg
Wkajykafiag ;snQ jeo.;au l=i,;djh k ixOdk Yla;shhs' nqu.
ixOdkh b;d iqfjka wrUd oejeka; jHdmdrhla njg m;ajQfha ta
ksidh' cd;sl fy< Wreuh ys jQ g tys ixOdhljrhd jQfha;a
Wkajykafiah' iqux., yshkag wem Wmldr l< fndfyda odhlhska
hQ'tka'mShg foaYmd,kslj ys;j;a wh jQy' f nj Wkajykafiaf.a nqu.
oy yuqj,g iyNd.S fuka ug jvd;a mila h' kuq;a 2002 meKs
rks,af.a wdKavqj fn!oaO frda nj blauKskau wjfndaO lr.;af;a
iqux., yshkah' w,a ydoa w,alhsod lD;sh ,shd th Wkajykafiag
ms<s.ekau i|yd for ydrhg .sh od ^2003& Wkajykafia fujeks
woyila bm;a l<y' f wdKavqj k fldkag rg fokakhs hkafka'
ol=fK;a uy m; fn!oaO frda msilafka oeka weue;sl orkafka'

113

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

fn!oaO NslaIQj fmrg we,a,d md,sfka;= .sys,a,d y f fomlaIfha


we;a;kaf.ka rg frd.kak fjkjd uy;a;fhda f,iska NslaIQka
jykafia >Dcqj foaYmd,khg msish hq;= njg uq,au woyi ud yg
tf,i bm;a lf<a fldf<dkakdf yshkah'
2004 yisfha md,sfka;=j iqrejd yeh g NslaIqj foaYmd,khg
msi rg hk w; fjkial< hq;= njg >Dcqju woyia oelajQfha iqux.,
yshkah' md,sfka;=jg f;a m;a mlaIh .;a u.g fjkia mqoa.,sl
woyila u; l%shdl< l;f r;k iSy yshka" iqux., yshkaf.a ,`.
ys;jf;l= h' f isu Wkajykafia ;=< m%lmkhla we;s lf<ah'
B<`.g Wkajykafiag md,sfka;=f Y%S','ks'm yd c''fm msia ysyer
l<y' wms l;r isg le,Kshg fmryerla mj;ajd thg oej frdaOh
m<lf<uq' mlaIh bhg hdhq;= wdldrh .ek Wkajykafiag fjku
woyila ;snqKq w;r" >Dcqj ta woyi m<l<y' wm iu. mjd
jdoimkak wjia:d mek ke.sKs' pkasldf.a wdKavqj wmsg ysyer
lrkafka tajd ord.; fkdyelsj wmsj foaYmd,kfhka bj;g weo
oeug nj wfma woyi h' kuq;a Wkajykafia ta ish isj,ska
l<lsreky' foaYmd,kfhka bj;a jQy' uy;aud .=Kh fmkajka fy<
Wreufha lsisjla" lsisfjla fpkh lf<a ke;' ljr mlaIhlg fyda
h<s inkaO jQfha o ke;' fndfyda wmyiqfjka h<s nqu.
f.dvk.d.kakg o iu;ah' miqj 2009 Wkajykafia yuq jQ gl
wmg m%ldY lf<a fndai;a l=ure W.=f isrjQ lgqj .ekSug fokd
fkd;ld l%shd l<dfia tod wm l< l%shd lf<a ;%ia;jdoh me/of
ldhhg kd wka lsisjlg fkdjk nj ;uka jykafia wjfndaO
lrf.k we;snjh' fy< Wreuh ksid ;%ia;jdoh reug mdr lemSu
.ek ;uka jykafiag wka;sf i;=gla oekS we;ehs o m%ldY flKs'
wka;sf wms iefjdu fjk fjkia mdrj, fgl tlafjka fgl
fjkafjka tlu wruqKla lrd hk msila nj wjfndaO lr .;s'
Wvqf Oudf,dal yshka oek yek .;af;a Wkajykafia le,Ksh oHd,xldr Yaj oHd,fha YsIHfhl=j iskd hq.fhah' YsIH iNd
i|yd ye.,af,a u,idr yshka bm;a jQ g Wkajykafia thg
wdYSjdo lrka ta in|;djhg uq,msrEy' fldaf kd. ydrfhka
Wkajykafia fld,amsh jdldrduhg .sfhah' ;%ia; frda

114

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

jHdmdrfha ,kavka iuqf ^2000& fldf jevulr isfha;a" isy<


Wreuhg wdYSjdo msKsi ydruyd foa WoHdkhg le|jk ,o NslaIq
uyd iuqfjka ^2000 wf.daia;=& nqoaO jkaokdj bm;a lf<a;a
Oudf,dal yshkah'
jir 2002ka miq Oudf,dal yshka f.fhka kd.l ;reK mrmqr
w;r" ckm%shjkakg h' u;=mska fmkqfKa Wkajykafiaf.a wdlIKSh
fmkqu thg odhl jQ njh' kuq;a uf.a ye`.Sf yehg ksia weiqrg
Wkajykafia i;=j ;snQ l=i,;djh jvd;au lemS fmfkkd .=Kh njh'
foaYmd,khg msis by< NslaIQka jykafia,d ihku w;=ka ksia
in|;d fydkau jOkh lr .;af;a Wkajykafia isks'
2003 jir wjidkfha jrla Wkajyiafka lSf ;ukaf.a rEmjdyskS nK
jevigyka k;r lsug we;e wfn!oaO jHdmdlhka W;aidy lrkd
njh' we;euqka ta kj, iel my< lf<a Oudf,dal yshka hQ'tka'mSh
iska iQlaIu f,i f.dvk`.kd njh' ta im%odhslj hQtkamShg /yeksj
NslaIq n,f.hla f.dvke`.Su isjk ksid thg l,amhla f,i nj;a
meye,s flKs' fuhg fya;+j Wkajykafiaf.a odhlhska hQtkamShg
ys;j;au h hq;=h' fuys tlla lsj hq;=h' idudkHfhka jdudxYslhka
fl,skau NslaIq foaYmd,kh yd .eug h;s' iuiudc fldhqksia
muKla fkdj cfm mjd ;ukaf.a NslaIq ixOdk ;kdf.k fuh
isl<y' pkasldf.a Y%S,ksmh o ta wkqj hka cd;sljd NslaIQka iu.
.egqky' kuq;a hQtkamSh wkq.ukh lrkafka jvd WmdhYS,S l%uhls'
Tjqka odhl iNdj,g we;= tajdfha il%Sh tu.ska NslaIqjykafia,d
md,kh lsug W;aidy lr;s' cd;sljd foaYmd,khg msiSu ksid ;u
;ukaf.a mkai,aj, fN!;sl hqKqj wekysgqjd .;a kdhl ugf
NslaIQka jykafia,d Yd, .Kkla .ek uu oks' ta iEu ;eklu
;snqfKa hQtkamS foaYmd,khhs'
NslaIqj foaYmd,khg msish hq;= njg >Dcq u;hla Oudf,dal yshkag
o h' fidau ysf.a wmj;af ld,fha o" 2004 fmnrjd
md,sfka;=j iqrejdyeh g o Wkajykafia f u;h >Dcq f,i
m<l<y' cd;sl fy< Wreufha m%Odk ldhd,h jQfha Wkajykafiaf.a
zwimqjZh' bfu jdf.a Wkajykafia tys m%Odk m%ldYlhd njg o
m;ah' c''fm Wkajykafiaf.a p;h >d;kh lrka ;a;sj,
115

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

,shkdg" Wmjdi lrkd g m%pKav ndOdjka lrkd g c''fm


mq;d,d krl jev lrkak tmd f,i isl< foaYkd c''fmg udrl h'
wmsk w;S;fha lf<a cfmg tlg tl lsuhs' Oudf,dal yshkaf.a
lreKdjka; m%;spdrh c''fmg jvd fokakg fya;+ jQ nj wmg oeksKs'
Wkajykafiaf.a imQK yeisuu kj foaYmd,k w;aoelSula h'
foaYmd,kfha wk;=r Ndr.kakg o Oudf,dal ysfhda ue,sfkdjQy'
jrla Wkajykafia pkasldg lSf md,sfka;= l:dkdhl moh fy<
Wreuhg Ndr md,sfka;=j kh .rel lrkd f,ih' jrla
Wkajykafia wfmka iajdk md,sfka;=f ;ksj wiqka .;ay' jrla
fl<skau rks,a l%uisxyg ckdm;sjrKfha Wmldr lsug bm;a
jQy' ;j;a jrla W;=rg f.dia m%Ndlrka yuqh hq;= hehs fhdackd l<y'
cd;sl n,f. frd| ne|f.k ckm;s uyskaof.a wdKavqj fmr<Sug
W;aidy l< wjia:df ^2007& wdKavqf cd;sudul jev ms<sfj<g
iydh m<l<y' fjd we;eg m%;sm;a;shla ke;s mriamr woyia f,i
fmkS .sh o thska fmkajQfha foaYmd,kfha w;HjYHfhkau oeh hq;=
wk;=r oeug we;s yelshdjhs'
cd;sl fy< Wreufha .ukg odhl jQ wfkla NslaIq p;h jQfha
fldgfmd< wurls;a;s ysfhdah' Wkajykafia o ckm%sh Oullfhla
jQy' kuq;a th wuq;= wdldrfha tlls' tys ;ekam;a lula o" ;sridr lula
o ;sKs' lsn;af.dv {dKdkkao yshka mjd ish .= Ydiksl .uk
werUqfha fldgfmd< yshka fijfKah' mqxhg werUQ mspu,a
jHdmdrh o<od fmryer" fmdfidka Wf<, hkdhg fkdfojeks
oejeka;u fn!oaO fm<yrla lrkakg Wkajykafiag yelsh'
fldgfmd< yduqrefjda i;= jeo.;au .=Kh f,i ud gqf .e
kqjKhs' wdpdh uydpdh mo,dNSkag jvd Ouh .ek ;h .ek
iudc in|;d .ek Wkajykafiag oekqula ;sKs' wfma fld<U ksji
udrejkf;lau mdfya wfma orejka oy mdi,g hef Ydka;s
mokugh' Ydka;s mokf idudlhka o yduqrejka fukau W.;a"
oekqj;a" ;ekam;a ;srir meje;= we;af;da jQy' foaYmd,k .uklg
fldgfmd< yshka ;=< t;r leue;a;la ;snqfKa ke;' kuq;a isy<
Wreuh ysl< g mjd Wkajykaf.a wdYSjdoh thg m<h'
fYaIfhka fiare, ydrh Wkajykafiaf.a mok N+h u ksid
116

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

kef.kysr isxy,hska kd l .ek mqudldr ixf.hlska ishy'


2003 jif ,xldmgqk ydrh fld ;%ia;hska kdY lr isjoaOk
fndah W.=jd oeuQg Wkajykafia wdf. imkak h' kdY l<
,xldmgqkg jrla uu .sfh' fld fld,a,kaf.a ;ckhg ,lajQ ug
fmkqfKa foaYslhkaf.a o iydfhka tys flda,la bfjk njh'
fyauud,S - oka; l=ure m%:u j;djg ,lajg f.dvng oka;Od;+ka
jykafiag fijk ka ia:dkh ;%ia; ula ;sKs' miqj wmg
oek.kakg ,enqfKa rm%isoaO isrjoaOk fndah o W.=jd we;s njh'
f ms<sn|j jrla rEmjdyskS jdohl hQ'tka'mS kdhlfhl=f.ka
weiQg Tyqf.a ms<s;=r jQfha ;%S%u,fha fndfyda fndaka we;s nj;a we;e
tajd ldl fndaka nj;ah' wka;sf ;%Su, k.rfha nq ms<suhla msysgqjd
;snQ ia:dkfha kj ms<suhla ;nkakg .shg thg fndan m%ydr t,a,
flKs' tjlg ;%Su,fha kdl wd{dm;sj is wm ys;j;a ir;a
rfialr uy;d th rlskakg fndfyda uykais h' wka;sf
kS;sm;sjrhd ,jd ms<suh bj;alr,Sug pkasld W;aidy l<dh' ta ish
W;aidyhka jH: lrkakg wms oe wIaGdkfhka lghq;= lf<uq'
kS;sm;s ldhd,h jglrkakg mjd wmg ish'
;%S$u,fha isjk f isj,ska fldgfmd< yshka buy;a lmdjg
m;ajQy' ishu ckm%sh ckmokula iys; ysjrekaf.a le|ula
Wkajykafia iska" islrkd ,' .xf.dv, fidau ys" lsn;af.dv
{dkdkkao ys" fldf<dkakdf Y%S iqux., ys" Wvqf Oudf,dal ys
jeks ysjreka o cd;sl ix> if,kfha t,a,dj, fOdkkao kdys"
u,afma fidaNs; ys" w;=r,sfha r;k ys wd ysjre o thg tlajQy'
we;af;kau cd;sl fy< Wreuhla ysug uq,a tluq;=j isjqfKa ta
NslaIq yuqfjks' fidau ys wmj;a lsu ksid thg kj Yla;su;a mokula
jeKs' cd;sl fy< Wreuh yslsu i|yd ckm%sh NslaIQka jykafia,d
yd l%shdld NslaIQka jykafia,d w;r md,u jQfha fldgfmd< kdhl
yduqrejkah' ud cd;sl fy< Wreufha f,al moh orkdg we;e
wh tfrys jQ g tlS f,al Oqrh Ndrf.k mlaIfha wnqoh ksud lf<ao
Wkajykafiah'
cd;sl fy< Wreufha kdhl;ajhg W;a;;r ix> iNdj iska"
talu;slj m;alr.;af;a mqrdoHd pl%j;s mQcH t,a,dj, fOdkkao
kdhl yduqrejkajh' cd;sl ix> if,kfha iNdm;s;ajhg
117

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

tkf;la Wkajykafia ud mqoa.,slj oek isfha ke;' Wkajykafiaf.a


Ydia;S%h lghq;= wid ;sKs' lshjd ;sKs' Wkajykafiag foaYmd,ksl
w;aoelS o h' ta ish,a, lu lD;shla f,i ksl=;aj we;s ksid ta
ms<sn|j jehula fkdlsh' Wkajykafia ms<sn| lreKq folla i|yka
l< hq;=h' tlla k Wkajykafia fudk iNdj, fudk wdldrhg
jecUqk;a ish .ug" kdmdj, iqux.,drduhg mqudldr f,i ne iskd
njhs' fndfyda jHdmdlhka mkai, klrKh lsug W;aidy l< o
Wkajykafia iudo Ndr fkd.;ay' iq<`.lg yiq me/Ks ydr
ukarh |jegqKq g thg odkm;sfhl=f.ka wdOdrhla ,ndug ud
oerE W;aidyhg leue;a; m<lf<a th uf.a m;Hd.hla f,i isl<
gh' ckdm;s f,al ,,s;a r;=x. uy;d iu. jrla ydria:dkfha
W;aijhlg .shg tys we;s pd .e nj oel m<uqj mqu h' miqj
mqudldr f,i i;=gq jQfha wyi Wig uy uere fuka mkai,a blsf
fudaia;rhla o we;e odhlhska f.khk nj m%ldY lrks'
Wkajykafiaf.a f ksy;udkS .elu Tmakexfjkafka foiq mj;ajk
gh' .e WmyrK r l;dh ish foaYkd i|yd Wkajykafia
fhdod.kakd w;r" iuyrg wms hjkafka kdhl yduqrejkaf.a
l;dfjka hlsis wjq,la Wkajykafiag isfhehs is;df.kh' kuq;a
tajd weiQjkaf.a m%;spdr n,kdg th b;d id:l foiqula nj miqj
wjfndaO lr.kafkuq' kdhl yduqrejkaf.a fojeks .=Kh b;sydih
ms<sn| Wkajykafiaf.a ukd oekquhs' uydpdh mrK;dk" lUqremsfha
jkr;k kdys wd oaj;=kaf.ka miq mqrdoHd lafIa;%fha fkdueflk
,l=K t,a,dj, kdyshkah' jeo.;au foa k Wkajykafia ;ksj
fidhd.;a fi,a,sms m%udKh mqrdoHd fomd;fka;=j tlaj fidhd.;a
m%udKhg jvd je uh' md,sfka;= uka;%S jYfhka Wkajykafiag
,enqKq jrm%ido ish,a, fhojqfKa fYaIfhka W;=re yd kef.kysr
mkai,a yd wfma Wreuh f,djg oyd olajkakgh' md;d, idudlfhl=
fhdodf.k rks,a l%uisxy yd r lreKkdhl Wkajykafiag
fnkaialdj,ska oud .ikakg l%shd l<g Wkajykafiaf.a muKla
fkdj mlaI mlaI fndfyda fn!oaOhskaf.a is;a ks' ukao cd;sl
ugfuka .;al< uyd isxyf,a jxYl;dfjka kdhl yduqrejkaj
idudkH ckhd mjd yek is ksidh' c''fm kHdfhka yduqrejkag
myrug .sh rks,a foaYmd,kslj ;j;a w;rux h' uq, t,a,dj,
kdyshka" NslaIqj >Dcq foaYmd,khg mefKkjdg leue;a;la

118

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

oelajQfhau ke;' Wkajykafia th lSm jdrhla m%;slafIam lr uyd


fldkafoais .Kkdjlg hg;aj ms<s.;af;ah' kuq;a thg tl`.fuka
miq th w;afkdyer oej /l.;a;dy' tu.ska fndfyda NslaIQkag
wdoYhla jQy'
wdpdh u,afma fidaNs; yshka .ek ud oek.;af;a 1999
ckdm;sjrKh jckh lsug Wkajykafiaf.a o iydh ,eu
ksidfjks' bkamiq Wkajykafia cd;sl ix> if,kfha m%;dmj;a"
llhd h' wmf.a cd;sl jHdmdrfha is iudc fiajho" Ou {dkho"
foaYmd,k nqoah o" wjxllu o by<skau ;snQ h;sjrhdKka flfkla
jQy' wjia:d follu ish ;h mrjg ;enQy' m<uq wjia:dj jQfha
fidau ys wmj;a fuka miq 2003 foien 23 od n,y;aldrfhka
wd.j,g yerug tfrysj mk;la f.ktk f,i n,lrka wd.l
wud;HdxYh bmsg l< Wmjdihhs' lre chiQh yd cuq
f,dl=nKavdr weue;sjre ta i|yd fmdfrdkajla mk;la o flgqm;a
l<y' pkasld md,sfka;=j iqrejd,Su ksid th je<lS .sfhah'
fojeksjr Wkajykafia iqkd uKav,hla ;kd m%Ndlrkag fjr< ;Srh
Ndrug tfrysj o<od uer bmsg Wmjdihla wdrN l<y' ^2005& uy
oejeka; frdaOhla njg th m;ah' wjidkfha pkasld" uydkdhl
ysjre i;rkug tjekakla fkdlrk njg fmdfrdka h' cfmg
wdKavqfjka bj;aug isjQf;a" fidaNs; ys wkqlrKh lrkakg
f.dia uyd w;ruxula is jQfha;a ta iu.uh' iqmqre f,i pkasld
fmdfrdka lvl<;a Wkajykafia fY%aIaGdlrKhg f.dia hqla;sh
bgqlrjd .;ay' u;ajH" je mk;" W;=r yd kef.kysr
fjkalr,Sf kvqj" ckdm;sjrKh 2005g .ekSf kvqj wd
ft;sydisl is .Kkdjl l;D= Wkajykafia h' ysgmq w.ksiqre
ir;a kkao is,ajd yd Wkajykafia w;r ;snQ ys;j;alu f kvqj,g
n,mE njg fndre u;hla we;e wh m;=rjkakg W;aidy l< o"
widOdrKh gql< ir;a is,ajd uy;dg mjd Wkajykafiaf.ka iudjla
,enqfKa ke;' Yo IK fpdaokd u; yskula udka nkaOkd.dr
.;l< g Wkajykafia jD;ju ysgmq w.ksiqre;=ud fpkh
lrkakg miqng fkdjQy' ;ukg ,enqKq uka;%S Oqrfhka ,enQ ish,a,
mlaIhg mQcdl< Wkajykafia wka;sf tu uka;%S Oqrhu mjd mlaIhgu
iqiq hula lrkakehs lshd m;Hd. lrkakg ;r m;Hd.YS,S jQy'
m%;dmj;a nj Wkajykafiaf.a p; ,l=K jQ w;r" th kEu iNdjl
119

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

kEu wfhl=g m%ldY lsug ;r W;a;r iajdNjhla h' ug ks;ru


u,afma fidaNs; yshka fmfkkafka mS; isxy, .u kldrl
f,dalh iu. f.dvke.sh yels iudc fiajh fjkqfjka leml<
mrudoYS NslaIq p;hla f,ih' l%ufhka m%Odk ,dxlsl k.rhla f,i
f.dvkef.k we,smsfha m%:u fn!oaO cd;Hka;r mdi, we;slrka
Wkajykafia lf<a .e orejka iudcfha by<g Tfidjd ;ef hq;=lu
bgqlr,Su muKla fkdf' wkd.; Y%S ,xldf isug hk uyd
m%cd;dka;%sl ma,jh ixfla;j;a lsuh'
w;=r,sfha r;k yshka uq,skau ug yuqjQfha 1987 uq, le,Ksh Yaj
oHd,fha we;s jQ YsIH NslaIq wr.,hla ksidh' fm%auodi w.ue;s;=ud tlS
jir ^1987& cd;sl ksjdi jir f,i klr ;sKs' jrla ud khsfrda
kqjr tlai;a cd;Skaf.a uQ,ia:dkhg mir iuqjlg .shg ^2009& tys
me/Ks ks,Odfhla fm%auodi uy;d .ek uiSh' th ud u; lf<ah'
ukao fndfydafokd fuka udo is;d isfha tlai;a cd;Ska jeks
ixOdkj, fm%auodi jeks ksm%N+ foaYmd,lfhl= u;l igyka
;sfhkafka flfiao lshdh' fm%auodi uy;d f,dal ckdjdi kh
fhdackd lsfuka tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixOdkfha b;sydihg tla ;snQ
nj ud oek.;af;a todh' jrla t;=ud tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixOdkh
weu;Su lrkdg ld,h yudr nj mjik r;= ,s nqnq, m;a;=jQ g th
ish f,akaiqfjka jid l;dj .gu lrf.k .sh nj ksfhdala ys jik
udOHffhl= jQ ;e,smaka mejiQ nj o u;lh'
fm%auodi uy;dg bvla ,enqkdk Tyq cd;sl foaYmd,kfha fukau
wka;cd;sl foaYmd,kfha o lemS fmfkkd kdhlfhl= ug fndfyda
rg bvla ;sKs'
1987 fma%uodi w.ue;s kl< ksjdi jif le,Ksh Yaj odHd,fha
YsIH NslaIqka fm<md<s .sfha Wkajykafia,dg fkajdisld.dr ke;snj
lshks' th fmd YsIH wr.,hla h' th fufyug uu tys .sfh'
fmardfoKsh Yaj oHd,fha ffjoH mSGfha chY%S iu. w;=r,sfha r;k
yshkao tys jevu lr ishy' r;k yshka NslaIqka jykafia,d wu;d
l< l;dj uf.a is;a .;af;ah'wka NslaIq jykafia,d fuka fkdj l;df
lug oYkSl idrhla o fnd,a udlaiajd jd.d,dmhg tyd .sh ienE
cd;sljd Woaf.hla o h' r;k yshka fmardfoKsfha oYk wxYfha
120

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

Wmdh iu;a jQfha thg fmr jeu ,l=Kq .;a jika; rdcdf.a
jd;djo `o ouks' r;k ysg lldpdh mohla ,nd fkdug
Yaj oHd, mmd,kh iQlaIu f,i l%shdlf<ah' le,Ksh NslaIq igk
wdKavqj uokh lf<ah' wmj Yaj oHd,h ;=< isrlr fmd,sia jeglaa
ne|" c,h yd ,sh lmd ykd ,' l klg uu Wml=m;s ldhd,fha
mx ' wdydr yd c,h ke;=j jel,la igk we`of.k hd
fkdyelsnj wms wjfndaO lr .;af;uq' fmd,Sish yd .egqula
we;slrf.k igk iqrejd yk f,i c''fm kdhlfhda n,lrka
ishy' wms thg leue;s fkdjQfjuq'
f wjia:df le,Ksfha frdkS bm;a h' Tyq .ek o fuys hula
i|yka l< hq;=uh' frdkS cfm oe l%shdldlfhl= jQ w;r ukd
je.sh isrerla iys; l%Svd Y=rfhlao h' tfukau <hdor ksfila h'
lEu m%Yakh yd c, m%Yakh Tyq i`fh' Yaj oHd,fha <s`o jD;lr
oejeka; gexls follg c,h mqrjd kafkah' ;dmamfhka mek f.dia
mdka mqrjk ,o f.daks lSmhla f.k wdfh' igk jefgk f;la n,d
is fmd,Sishg f;are .sfha wms hg;a fkd .ug w,a,df.k iskd
njh' ryi frdkSf.a wIaGdkhhs' YsIHhskaf.a wIaGdkh mj;ajd
.ekSu i`oyd r;k ys;a" ud;a n,yref ys;a" tl .ug l;d meje;ajq
nj u;lh' wka;sf wms igk ch.;suq' ta c''fm ksfhda.j,g
mgyeksj hks'
c''fm ;=< is t;r Wodr ksfila jQfha frdkSh' jrla wmg fld<U
Yaj oHd,fha ^1986 & ixOdkh jQ ohd m;srK"Ouis yd ;sirKS
.=Kfialr wdka fmd uq.=rej,ska m%ydrhla t,a, l<y' fndfyda cfm
iudlhka mek joa fkdfi,a isfha frdkS muKs' wo uu f;dmsg
.ykjd' fudlo ug yhsh ;sfhk ksid cfmg yhsh ;snqfKd;a Wka
ug .yk nj;a ux fyd`og okak ksid hehs tod ohd m;srK m%ldY
l<nj ug fyd`og u;lh' ta m%ldYh we;a;la h' ohd m;srK urd
oef c''fmg Tyqg uqyqKh fkdyels jQ ksidh' miqj lgqkdhl
l`ojqrg myrug f.dia frdkS o h .sfhah' ikaf ghsia mqj;amf;ka
Tyqf.a u< isrer wms y`kd.;af;a thg fmrod ? wfma fndafuka rd;%S
wdydr f.k tys ;snQ wre meye fldgq lihla o we|f.k Tyq msg;aj
f.dia ;snQ fyhska f,hska fm`.S .sh lifhks' frdkSf.a ;=frl= jQ

121

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wfYdal y`o.u miqj Tyqf.a fg,s kdgHhlg frdkSf.a m%sh;u .S;hla jQ


wdfh;a lshkafka kE jika;s .S;h uqiq lf<ah'
ud miqj ,sn, uKav,fha mqyqKqj i`oyd kqjr .shg r;k ys iu.
in`o;d ;rlr .;s' Wkajykafia O oYkhka ms<sn`o jeo.;a
yeoEula lr ;snq w;r Oufialr jeks c''fm fkdjk cd;sljd
foaYmd,k kdhlhkao weiqre lf<ah' fmardfoKsfha ksIa ug lSf
r;k ys wkd.;fha fdaysfhlaug we;s bvlv fndfyda jenjh'
jdudxYsl <ore j,smamqj yod fkdf.k bkakehs ksIag m%ldYl< nj
ug u;lh' ffjoH mSGfha iqo;a nKavdr k r;kys iu. iqyo h'
NsIK hq.fhka miq ^ 1987-89 & cfm by< uKav,j, b;=re jQ
w;f<diafika tla wfhl= jQ iqo;a nKavdr miqj c''fmg wdhqfndajka
lshd cd;sl ka;lfhla h' miqj iqo;a ;uka iska mj;kh l<
iamdglia lD;sh /f.k ud yuqug meKs w;r w;S;fha iS;,
fmardfoKsfha isjQ WKqiq odYksl jdojdo .ek u;lhka fndfyda
f,djla ri lrka uid is nj u;lh'
r;k yshkaf.a w;sfYaIh jQfha kEu l%shdoduhla mqoa.,sl
uey;afuka wjq,alr fjkia lsug Wkajykafiag ;snQ yelshdjh'
ljqre fudkjd lSj;a ud;ka fld<U meKs r;k yshka rcj;af;a
jmam yshkaf.a ldreKsl Ndjh irK fldgf.k mQKld,Sk f,i
cd;sl wruqKg lem fkdjqkd k cd;sl ix> iNdj ysjkafka ke;'
fjk;a ix> iNd ysjqK;a tajd myiqfjka foaYmd,k w;fld ug
bv ;sKs' cd;sl ix> if,kh;a tfiauh' pkasld yd c''fm tla
uykqjr wdOdr iuqjla mj;ajd rf m%;srEmh lD;s l<g jyd
ke.sg th ksjer lf<a nqrcdKka jykafia NslaIqkg foaYkd l<
je/oao gq;ek th ksjer lrkq hk foaYkdj u; isgf.kh' ud,a
wdre isuo tjekakls'
2006 cQ,s 23 od r;k yshka ug rl;kfhka l;dlr weiqf ud,a
wdrej jid we;s ksid fiare, ck;dj uy;aa Ialr;djhlg m;aj we;s
njh' wms jydu uey;a h hq;= nj Wkajykafia ;jrg;a m%ldY
l<y'th jydu islrkd f,i;a ksYdka; legqj tys hk f,i;a b,a,d
isfh' r;k yshka ud,a wdre n,d .sh w;r ksrdhqo ckhd
ixOdkh lr ;%ia;jdohg tfrysj igka lsu i`oyd wjYH oejeka;
udkisl miq;,h ksudKh lr kafkah' ;%ia;jdkaf.a udkisl

122

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

hqoaOfha f.dre is hQ'tka'mSh yd fjk;a n,f. Yajdi lf<a r;k


ysf.a nd, m%pdrl m%oYkh rg uy;a hqo jHikhlg f.khk
njh' c''fm oerefo fujeks u;hls' c''fm uka;%S ffialr"
uyskao mqrhg meKs ck;dj wffOh lsug ;e;al< w;r th
ck;djf.a fldamh jelsug fya;=jla h' m%foaYfha we;e ysjreka
mjd lSf t,S,ka iu. idlcd lr m%Yakh i|d.; hq;= njh'
wdKavqf we;euqka mjd is;=f .=ld,Sk hqo ie,eiaug fuh ndOdjla
njh'
Y%Sm;s iQhdr jrla m%ldYlr ;snqfKa fld ud,a wdre fidfrdj
jeiqfha uyskao - m%Ndlrka .siqug wkqj idmq c, fhdackd l%uhla
i`oyd wdKavqj uqo,a fkdka ksid njh' kuq;a we;a; jQfha m%Ndlrka ish
uQf,damdhsl hqo ie,iqu tk ;%Su,h jglr hdmkh we,a,Sf ie,iqu
l%shdf kexug fuh isl< njh'thg wdikak;u fya;=j jQfha
Y%S,xld yuqodjka kef.kysr .sh fld idudlhka ish .Kkska
ikakoaO lrkd nj ish T;a;=fiajdj,ska m%Ndlrka oek .ekSu h'
wms fuh oek isfhuq' n,d fkdisg m%;sm%ydrh t,a, fkdl<d k
;j;a m%N+ >d;k fm<la ^f jkg hqo yuqodm;s >d;khg W;aidy ord
;sKs& iu. hdmkh jglsu isug bv ;sKs' r;k yshkaf.a l%shdj
u.ska isjQfha fld Wmdh ud.h wjq,a ie,iql< l,g l,ska
fldkag tfrysj ck;d hqoaOh we/uh'
pkasld rks,af.a md,kfha wud;HdxYh mjrd .ekSu' isl< od ^ 2004
fmnrjd 03& wfma ckyuqjla uykqjr meje;aKs' pkasldf.a
ldhd,fha is wfma ys;jf;l= lSf .ei ksfokh uqKh
lr.ekSug rKrdcd uy;d iu;aa we;s njh' miqjQ fkl ;s,la
rKrdcd uy;d rks,af.a wdKavqf wud;HdxY mjrd .ekSf .ei
ksfokh ,nd.;a wdldrh;a fYa%IaGdlrKfhka wdrlaIl weue;s Oqrh
i`oyd lshu ,nd.;a wdldrh;a kdgHdhkqidrfhka ug meye,s
lrkafkah' rks,af.a mdjdu k;r lsug th ksNS; mshjrla jkq
we;ehs wfma Yajdih h' wfkla w;g lreKdf.a hEu iar ;snQ
ksid m%Ndlrka luqfha hqo jef wk;=rla o fkdh' tlai;a

123

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

cd;Skaf.a yuqod uey;alrf ;e; ksid ksrEmfika yd bkahdj


isfhao o;al+re lks' tlu lkiai,a, jQfha rks,a ck;d frdaaOh
mdrg f.k wdKavqjg wNsfhda. lrhso hkakh' kuq;a .=jkaf;dgqfmd<
udOH weue;= rks,a lSf ;u la.eke,a, fcd nqIag lsjQ njh'
uqyqKg uqyqK igka lsug isjQ g th fkdlr yels;dla igk u.yer
wka wh msg heu rks,af.a kdhl;ajfha j,u ,l=Khs' pkasld
yrshgu t;ekg .eiqfh' m%flda .Kkla foaYSh foaYSh wruqo,a
holr ;ekQ foakq ikaOdkh fnd| .sfhah'
wms isy< Wreufha /ia lSmhla ;enQfjuq' fidau yshka wmj;au
fldkag rg mdjdu wdh ksid mqudldr m%;spdrhla wmg ,e ;sKs'
B<`. ue;sjrKfha fld<U muKla fkdj .my" l;r " uykqjr" wd
m%foaYj,o wfma ;;a;ajh iqNodhs nj meye,s h'
f w;r NslaIqka jykafia fj;ska fhdackdjla bm;a h' tk
Wkajykafia,d Ydiksl jqjukdj fjkqfjka ue;sjrKhg bm;a h
hq;=h hkakh'
f ms < s n `o mQ j idlcd l= m a m s h dj;a ; chfia L rdrdufha
meje;aKs't,a,dj, fOdkkao kdys" fldf<dkakdf iqux., yss"
Wvqf Oudf,dal ys " fldgfmd< wurls;a;s ys" w;=r,sfha r;k ys"
m%uqL NslaIqka jykafia,d /ila o ;s,la lreKdr;ak uy;d yd ud o thg
iyNd.S jqfjuq' t;ek u; lSmhla bm;a h' t,a,dj, ys m%ldY
lf<a iDcqj ue;sjrKj,g bm;a u NslaIq;ajhg ydkslr ug bv
we;s neka iqiq .sys msilg iydh hhq;= njh' fldf<dkakf ys yd
Wvqf ys tajkg;a ie,lsh hq;= rla ixOdk lghq;= lr ;snqKy'
fld<U wjg iskd fndfyda jeo.;a ysjreka ;u woyi bm;a lr
;snQ w;r Pkaohg ;r. lsu i`oyd ,,s;a fmruqK mlaIho f;dardf.k
;sKs' fldgfmd< ys"r;k ys wdkaf.a u;h jQfha b kj, f
i`oyd idlcdjla lr ;SrKh l< hq;= njhs' Oudh;kfha uyr.u
Ouis ys" u,afma fidaNs; ys" ueo.u Oudkkao ys wdkao thg
inkaO lr.; hq;= nj fhdackd h' ueo.u Oudkkao ys NslaIqj
fjku Pkaohg tau .ek leue;a;la oelajQfha ke;' f.dvkef.k
YS%','ks'm - c''fm ikaOdkhg iydh hhq;= hk u;fha Wkajykafia

124

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ldrl iNdjgo we;=<;a h' uq,u Wkajykafia bm;ajqjdk W;a;r
ix> uKav,hg mjd tlalr .ekSf iQodkula h' uyr.u Ouis ys
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mqoa.,slj lemug we;s m%dfhda.sl .eg fmkakd kafkah' fjkiau
u`.la f.k yrj;a foaYmd,khla lsu i`oyd NslaIqj foaYmd,khg
bm;a h hq;=h hkak u,afma ysf.a woyi h'
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f woyi 2001 o bm;al< w;r thg mgyeksj wms ;ksfhka b,a,d
mrdch ms<s.;af;uq' wfma fndfyda fofkl=f.a woyi jqfha ch mrdch
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tlla wdKavqjg fyda hQ'tka'mShg ys;e;s lKavdhuhs' Tjqka fyd`ka oek
isfha wm jeks wh ish fyd;a wkd.; NslaIq n,h Tjqkg wjYH f,i
md,kh l< fkdyels njh' wfkla msi fkdfhla m%Yak ksid wfmka
fjkaj .sh msila h' Tjqkg wjYH jQfha yels;dla wmg ndOdlsuh'
wjidkfha > idlcd .Kkdjlska miq isy< Wreuh cd;sl fy<
Wreuh nj m;alr.kak;a tys ,l=K f,i iqN ,l=KlajQ chYxLh
fhdod .kakg;a wmg yelsh' 2004 fmnrjd 14 wud jeiai ;reK is,a
jevigyk ^fuh je,kaghska khg tfrysj fhdod.;a mqkqreo
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iuqf oyia .Kkl idldr ko ueoafoa wfYdal ueKslaf.dv
uy;df.a wdrdOkfhka cd;sl fy< Wreuh m%ldYhg m;aflKs'
im;a nexl=j" ye chjOk uy;df.a .%yKfhka frd.ekSu i`oyd
125

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kl Tyqj ug ykajdkafka ta igfkys fmruqfKysu is l;r
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fn!oaOfhla h'
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.ek leue;a;la oelajQf ke;' kuq;a mdkr fy< Wreuh /,sh
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hqoaOhla h'
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b;sydihla ksudKh lf<uq'
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126

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i`oyd T;a;= ne njg fpdaokd ,enQfjlao ta w;r h' Pkaofha c''fm


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l< ksid;a oyia .Kkla iafPdfjka thg odhl jQ ksid;a tys t;r
fjfyila oeug jQfha ke;' kuq;a wfkla ia;%slalj, wmsg Wmu
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127

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wdikakfhka i;r .=Khla fy< Wreuh ,ndf.k ;sKs' flfia


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Wreuh b,aj;a wvq;rka wdik ;=klaj;a ,efnkakg bv ;sKs'
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njh' th wi;Hhls' 2001 Y%S','ks'm" c''fm fjk fjku .;a Pkaoh
fujr Tjqka tla ,ndf.k ;sKs' hQtkamSfha Pkaoh k wvq
;snqfKah' ug miqj rks,a l%uisxy yd u,sla iurl%u hk fofokdu
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kd.;af;a mlaIj,g .e;s fkdjq uOHl Pkaohla njhs' 2005
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;sKs'

128

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ihjeks .yereu

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129

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130

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nj oek.;af;ah' t,a ldka;ka pkasldf.a WmfoaYlhska iu.


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131

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wdrlaIlfhl= jQ wd frdIdka keue;a;d >d;kh l<d hehs fpdaokdjla
132

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

ux., iurr wm fj; t,a, lf<ah' urd oeuqKq mqoa.,hdf.a {d;sfhl=


ud yuq Y%Sm;sg fpdaokd lr Y%Sm;sf.a md;d, in|;d .ek fndfyda
jkd f;dr;=re /ila ,ndkafkah' >d;kh ;ukag mdrdj<,a,la jk
nj oel Y%Sm;s wdmiq yerefKah'
mlaI iuqf ;s,la lreKdr;ak uy;df.a b,a,d wiau wmg is jQ
uy;a mdvqjla h' mlaIfha f,al ue;sjrK flduidia okakd tlu
mdlaIslhd ksid ;s,la ta mofha ;nkakg we;e ysjreka leu;s jQfha
ke;' th fndre hls' ;s,la ta mohg iqiq nj ;j;a ysjre msilf.a
yd wfma woyi h' mSvkh ueo Tyq bj;ah' B<`.g Tyq hQtkamShg .sfha
wm u; lrjks' rks,a yd lre" ;s,laf.a l,lsu m%fhdackhg
.;af;dah' kuq;a talSh Ndjh msgqoel hQtkamSfha f*vr,a l%uh jKkd
lrkd ;ekg B<`. ckdm;sjrKfha ;s,la lreKdr;ak uy;d m;ajQ
g t;=ud .ek ;snQ f.!rjh fndfyda fnd| .sfhah'
mlaI ixOdkh i|yd ish,a,ka fhduq lrjkakg wms fjfyi .;af;a
wdKavqfjka yd hQtkamSfhka t,a,jqKq mSvkh b;d nrm;, jQ ksidh' ta
;;a;ajh ;=< fldf<dkakdf iqux., yshka o b,a,d wiajQy'
Wkajykafiaf.a Ydiksl lghq;=j,g o foaYmd,kh uy;a krl
wdldrhg n,md ;sKs' B,.g Oudf,dal ysfhda o iajdk jQy' f
u.ska wmg we;s jQ miqnEu b;d Yd, h' udOHj, we;s jQ krl m%;spdr
fndfyda n,j;a h' f ish,a, hgm;a lr.;a wms 2000 isy< Wreufha
mdv o is;g f.k fndfyda iSrefjka bjid isfhuq' ish in|;d
tlg tlla ne we;s ksid ld,h we;e m%Yak i|k nj fn!oaOhska
f,i oek isu m%fhdackj;a h'
2004 foien fmdfydh k WoEik f.or mqj;am;a n,kdg
fooula ug oeksKs' wfma f,dl= jg o th oekS ;sKs' kd .Kklg
miq .d,af,ka ug rl;k weu;=ula ,eKs' .d,a, k.rh uqyqog hg
hk nj wfma ys;j;d lSfh' ug th kqyqre fohla h' B<`.g
;x.,af,ka" yslalvqfjka" frej,ska iEu ;ekskau weu;= wdfh' uu
f .ek r;k yshkag mjid B<`.g w.ue;s uyskaog oekajQfh' Tjqka
ug jvd ;;a;ajh .ek oekqj;a isfhdah' iqkdh k jHikhla
meK ;sKs' wfma ksji wi, we< ^je,a,j;a;& W;=rd hkakg iQodk
jQ w;r" fydaud.u ksjig hEu i|yd orejka iQodk lr.;af;' meh
133

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

lSmhlska isjQ jHikh ms<sn| ksjer f;dr;=re ,efuka miq wdydr yd


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iqkd jHikh kej; wm ish,a,ka tla lf<ah' Y%S ,xldf iudc
ixhq;sfha NslaIqjf.a Ydik ldh Ndrh fukau iudc ldh Ndrh o
kej; iy;sl h' NslaIqj iy fn!oaO odhlhskaf.a m;Hd.
fkdjkakg iqkd jHikfhka ish yelsj ;snQ fojdplh ;j;a"
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id.skafkka hhE" wdydr uxfld,a,lE" >d;k wd lsisjla isjQfha
ke;' rcfha hdka;%Khg l,ska fn!oaO hdka;%Kh l%shd;aul h'
mhd., msfjfka jQfha ls;=kqjkah' wmdr msfjfka jQfha o<hkah'
uqiq,audkqjkag mdku mkaif,a /ljrKh ,eKs' fn!oaO
lD;f;ajh tys f,djgu meye,s h'
iqkdfha cd;sl fy< Wreuhg uyd msgqn,hla jQfha u,afma fidaNs;
yshkah' Wkajykafiaf.a kef.kysr wdishdkq in|;dj,ska m<uq iar
ksjdi blsu uila we;=<; lrkakg ^mdkf& wmg yelsh' ta
ish,af,a wlaIK lghq;= m<uq udi y;r ;=< lf<a udh' f.dvke.s,s
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yshka ksjdi 650la muK rg jgdu b lf<ah' uq mlaI hdka;%Khu
kka whqka odhl fjka tlg tlah'
l.du uy;d >d;kh jQfha o ^2004& ta w;rh' fuh m%Ndlrkaf.a
w.aks mlaIdjla h' c''fm - Y%S','ks'm tlai;a ikaOdkh olajk
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ms<s.ekSu relsug yels Yla;su;a p; bj;a lsu >d;kfha wruqK
h' wdKavqj ;j;a ksjg h' lsisf,i isxy,hska ;ukg /yeksj ke`.S
fkdisk njg m%Ndlrka ks.ukhlg wdfh' oeka Tyqg b;=rej
;snqfKa cd;Hka;r ms<s.ekSu iy;sl lr.ekSu muKs'
f w;r" wdKavqj ;=< cfm b;d wmyiqjg m;aj isfhah' oejeka;
m%pdrl /,a,la u.ska jidf.k ;snqK o wud;HdxY md,kfha Tjqka
wid:l h' thg fya;+ jQfha pkasldf.a ks,Odka tla w;lska o
mlaIfha ks,Odka wfkla w;skao cfm weue;sjrekg iSud meku;a"
;ukau ;kd.;a fldgqj, isg l%shdlsug isu;ah' c''fm jeu

134

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

jqfKd;a wjqre folla wdKavqf ish hkak uq,isgu uf.a ia:djrh


h' th tfiau jk njg f;dr;=re cfm ;=<skau .,d wdfh'
iqkdh i|yd uykqjr meje;ajQ cd;Hka;r wdOdr lKavdhf
/iaf r;k yshka ckdm;sksh yd wdKavqf l%shdl,dmh
fpkh lsu;a thg iudcfhka ,enqKq wk.s m%;spdrh;a wfma
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mels,Sulska f;drj iqkd iyk uKav,h f.k wdjdh' tys wruqK
jQfha kef.kysr fjr< ;Srh fld ixOdkhg kS;HdkQl+,j ,ndu;a
Tjqkg >Dcq foaY wdOdr kS;HdkQl+,j ,eug ie,eiau;ah' 1776
,kafoais ma,ela yd isxyf,a rcq rdcisxy w;r fujeksu tl`.;djhla
fjr< ;Srh i|yd we;sh' ta fjr< ;Srh kej; wmg wdmiq ,enqfKa
ke;' 1654 fkajre iu. fkdahdkqjka o ,xldjg meKs w;r"
Tjqkf.a b,lalh jQfha o fjr< ;Srhhs' oeka f W;=re hqfrdamSh
fnda,ala cd;Ska fld ixOdkh ,jd wmf.a kef.kysr fjr<
w;am;alr.kakg hk nj;a" fuhg bvkfyd;a ioygu th Tjqka
ika;l jk nj;a" wmg meye,s h' f jkg fkdfhdkq TGS
fkdfmla iud.f f;,a .fIK o;a; ^ukakdr fdaKsh& ,e ;snQ
w;r" tys reishdkq Wm fldka;%d;a iud.f fiajh l< ,dxlSh
bxfkarefjla ud yg mqoa.,slj oekq kafka f;,a yd fYaIfhka
iajdNdl .Eia im;;a f;dah ksIaldikh i|yd;a wjYH o;a;
ryfia ielfik njh' fojeks f,dal ^hqfrdamd& hqoaOfha fldkaf.dajg
isjQjd fia wfma ,N im;a i|yd uyd mudK wr.,hla
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t,a,lrkakg wms ;SrKh lf<uq'
pkasldf.a tla .=Kdx.hla tk yoj;skau fou< cd;sjdkaf.a ;l
Yajdi lsu;a" ta wkqj l%shdlsu;a ksid weh hQtkamS kdhlhskag;a jvd
IaG p;hla f,i ykd.;suq' f'wd' fyda fm%auodi fld iu.
idlPd wdhg .sh o Tjqka fou< cd;sjd u;h ysig f.k ;snqfKa
ke;' tfukau f rf nyq;r isxy, u;hg lkaf wjYH;djh o
oek ishy'
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135

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

r;k ys iy wmf.a fiiq ysjre WoEiku o<od ud,s.hg f.dia Y%S


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cdufhah' ud<s.h olajd hk .ufka Y%S ,xlsl wdhfoaj NslaIqjf.a
;l ,dih .ek;a kd.cqkf.a Y=kHjdofha mok .ek;a idlPd
lrka .sfhuq' oka;Od;+ka jykafia je|mqod .ekSfuka miq md;% Od;+j
;ekam;a lr we;s ia:dkhg meK ldgj;a wjysr fkdjk f,i tys
trkshd f.d;d f.k ;ekam;a jQ u,afma ysfhda ish ;h o<od
ysg lemlr Wmjdih wdrN lf<a wm ieuf.a fk;aj, l
kxjks'
o<od ud,s.hg fuh wjudkhla hehs lshka we;euqka f Wmjdihg
wjuka lsug ;e;a l< o hjvk ks,f iu. idlPd lr o<od
ukarh bmsgg iajdka jykafia jevu lrk ,' rgu wj lsu
wfma mrud:h jQ w;r" oyia .Kka l%shdldka rgmqrd mkai,a yd fiajd
ia:dk lrd msg;a lruq' ;=kajk kh jkg c''fm wdKavqfjka
t<shg wd w;r" fjku Wmjdihla wdrN lf<ah' lm pkasld iqkd
iyk uKav, (PTOM) fhdackdj md,sfka;=jg f.kdf w.ue;s
uyskao yrydh' ta t;=ud fj;g cd;sl n,f.j, ffjrh ;,a lr
ykagh' Wmjdifha ;=kajeks k ;u me/Ks ;%hd jQ fidaNs; yshka
ne,Sug w.ue;s uyskao Wmjdi N+hg meKsfhah' u,afma yshka
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tjdh'
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w;ayf<uq' wm miqmi .ska .gu cd;sljdoh fldms lrka

136

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

meKs cfmys Wmjdih wka;sug wjika jQfha fmd,Sisfha meKs,a,la


lr ysjreka fmd,Sish ,jd Wmjdi fuka bj;alr,Sfuks' pmslf.a
oyx.eghg cfm h<s wiq we;ehs udOH jd;d lf<ah'
pkasld uykdysjrekag ka fmdfrdkaj lv l<dh' wms
fY%aIaGdlrKfha msysg me;+fhuq' w.ksiqre m%uqL ksiqre uvq,a,
iqkd iyk uKav,fha uQ,H moku bj;a l<y' th t;eKskau
b;sydihg tlah'
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olajd fjr< ;Srh w,a,d .;ag tod isug .sh foh meye,s h'
iuek" fgdamsfvda" uqyq hg Wux moaO;sj,ska iuka; kk uqyq
fld l|jqre ixlSKhla iqkdhg uqjd foaYSh fYaI{fhda
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kef.kysru isjkafka ta l%shdoduhh'
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tlla h' W;=r yd kef.kysr tlalf<a yis kS;sh hgf;a ksid;a th
yis kS;sh wjika jkg wjika h hq;=h f,i ;lhla h' kuq;a
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;%ia;jdka Ndrfuka miq tlS taldnoaO;djh j,x.= jk njh' kuq;a
miqj w Ndru ms<sn| fldkafoaish w Ndru i|yd fufyhq
islrkd njg ckdm;s iEySulg m;a we;sg f,i ishqj fjkialr
;snqKs' W;=r yd kef.kysr tlalr jir .Kkdjla .; we;s ksid
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whs;Ska ms<sn| fm;aiula isoah is uila we;=<; bm;a h hq;=hehs
kshuhla ;sfnkd nj;a" wfma kS;s{u;h h' wms f ksid fldgfmd<
wurls;a;s ys kka W;=r yd kef.kysr fjkalsu i|yd mk;a
flgqm;la f.k wdfjuq' thg fya;+ jQfha m<d;a iNd mk; hgf;a
kEu fudfyd;l kEu m<d;a follg iaj leue;af;ka tlaug
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uQ,sl whs;Ska ms<sn| rduqj mq,a flKs' wms iqkd iyk uKav,hg
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137

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

uka;%Sjrekaf.a fm;aiula lf<ah' tys uQ,sl frdaOhla f.dvke`.=fKa


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o m%;slafIam lf<ah' f fyhska t;=ud uQ,sl whs;Ska ms<sn| ixl,am
mq,a lf<ah' th we;euqkaf.a oe fpkhg ,lah' fYaIfhkau
t;=ud W;=re yd kef.kysr ;djld,sl tlau fjkalf<a Bkshd idu iu
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u;h' Tyq .;a ta mshjr folu ft;sydisl h'
ckdm;sjrKh 2005g fkd;nd jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhla u.ska th
wfydaislr w.ue;s Oqrhg m;au i|yd pkasld jHjia:d ixfYdaOkhla
fodi rdcmlaI yryd f.k wdjdh' ta w;r" hQtkamSh 1999 fuka
ckn, fufyhqula wdrN lf<ah' tys msgg fmkajQ wruqK jQfha 2005g
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m<uqj w.ue;s miqj ckm;s u ljo;a >Dcq igkg wlue;s rks,af.
Wml%l f;au h'
ckdm;sjrKh 2005g ,nd.; hq;=hehs wms ;SrKh lf<uq' iqkd
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cd;sl kHdh m;%hla hg;g ckdm;sjrKh .ekSu wfma Wmdh ud.h
h' wms kvqu.g .sfhuq' thg fmrd;=j md,sfka;=f mqia;ld,hg
f.dia 1982 is jirlg miq ckdm;sjrKhla le|ug ckdm;sg
n,h ka jHjia:d ixfYdaOk jdoh lshjd msgm;a lr .;s' kS;sf
ufkdaydr o is,ajd" Woh .ukams, yd ud w;r" idlPd jg lSmhla
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o" kj jqref isg we/fUkafka o" fojk jr jqreula wjYHh o

138

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

hk ;l f.dvke.sks' weh h hkq we;ehs fhka ;j;a


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;sKs'
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jirla muKla ksid ;j jevlr Pkaohg hd hq;= njh' ;j;a jirla
.shfyd;a ck;djg wdKavqj iyuq,ska tmd ljqreka bm;a jqj;a
ch.; fkdyels jkq we;s nj wfma ;lh h' thg tl`.jQfha neis,a
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;ukaf.a jHjia:d ixfYdaOk Wmdh ud.h wjq,a lrkakla f,i weh
gqjdh' wmg reoaOj Y%S,ksm f,al ffu;%Smd, isfiak Wid .sh
w;r" wkqr nKavdrkdhl o Widhg meKsfhah' rks,a f u.ska ish
m<uqj w.ue;s fojkqj ckm;s Wmdh je/ hk ksid wfmka wdhdpkh
lf<a kvqj bj;a lr.kakd f,ih' kvqj od ckdm;sjrKh 2005g
meKs g hQtkamS wdOdrlrejka oejeka; r;s[a[d ixoYkhla
meje;ajQ kuq;a rks,af.a uqyqfKa t<shla fkdh' th w.ksiqre ka
;j;a ft;sydisl ;Skajla h' pkasldf.a brKu ;SrKh jQ w;r"
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ckdm;sjrKh kd.ekSu;a iu. fudfyd;la mud fkdjQ wms
ckdm;sjrKhg iydh u i|yd mxp Ou m%;sm;a;shla ^2005
iema;en& kqf.af.dv mxp moau mQcdjl bom;a lf<uq' ;%ia;jdoh
uev,Su" rf talSh Ndjh iqrlaIs; lsu" cd;sl wdlh wdh tys
f;audj h' wms wfma fhdackd iu. uq,skau rks,a yuqjqfkuq' rks,a
iqmqre f,i lSf ;uka ngysr rgj,g f*vr,a l%uhla f.ktaug
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.ek wms tl w;lska i;=gq jQ w;r" rf cd;sl Ydiksl n,f. ms<sn|
Tyqg ;lafiarejla fkdu .ek lk.dgq uq' Tyq lshd isfha fldaf
m%N+ NslaIQka lSm fofkl= u.ska fn!oaOhska wkaojd .;yels njh'
B<`.g wms w.ue;s uyskao yuqjqfkuq' t;=ud wfma ;;a;ajh f;are
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ia:djrhla .ekSu .ek Wmdh ud.hla fhdackd lrkd f,i b,a,d
139

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

isfhah' rks,a iu. fldfydu;a iq cd;sl mlaI hk ksid cd;sl fy<


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tg bfu ch.%yKh iar jk nj;a" fmkakd fuka miq tl`.;djh
m<h'
w.ue;s uyskao uq,skau w;aika lf<a lreKq fod<ylska hq;= fy< Wreuh
- t,a,dj, fOdkkao kdyshka iu. tl`.;djhh' wms th ryila
f,i ;nd.;af;a th cfm iu. tl`.;djhg ndOdjla fhehs is;dh'
isudfjda iu. 1988 wid:l jQ idlPd ms<sn| fyd,auka uf.a isf;a
ksr;=re r`. oelaKs' tfukau cfm wNHka;r wdrx ud. lSf
;ksfhka Pkaoh b,a,sh hq;= njg lKavdhula ;rfha m%ldY lrkd njh'
fy< Wreufha o kdhl ugf m%n, msila fudku fya;+jla ksid fyda
Y%S,ksmhg" uyskao rdcmlaIg tlafkdh hq;= nj m%ldY lf<dah' wms
ydr uyd foa WoHdkhg idudlhka le|jd ish u;h i|yd Pkaohla
.;af;uq' jrla Yaj oHd,fha o jckh .a.eiaiSu i|yd Pkaohla .;a
w;r" > l;djlska miq uki fjkia lsf yelshdj ms<sn| ug f,dl=
wd;au Yajdihla tod isg we;sh' wms mdlaIsl nyq;r leue;a; o
kd.;af;uq' uq, cfm talShNdjh wjOdrKh fkdlf<ah' Tjqka 2004
ikaOdkfha o th wjOdrKh lf<a ke;' kuq;a wfma .siqf th
;sfnkq nj oel th we;= lr.;ay' ta .ek uq ,l=Kq Tjqka oud.ekSu
.ek wfma frdaOhla ;snqfKa ke;' ukao cd;sl i,a,sj,ska f.k hk
rks,af.a ckdm;sjrKh kkakg cfm ldvrh w;HjYH nj wm oek
is ksid;a" ta Y%S,ksmh Pkaoh u.ykd nj wmg fydkau meye,s
;snQ ksid;ah' uq, Y%S,ksm kdhlhskaf.ka >Dcqj bhg wdf ux.,"
fchrd" Y%Sm;s muKs' rEmjdyskS jdo jdoj,g hkakg isfha Y%Sm;s
muKs' miqj tld fokakd m%jdyhg tlah' ugf ckhd k
mels,Sulska f;drj tlah'
ckdm;sjrKh fufyhu i|yd cd;sl ugf lgqjla msysgqKs'
ux., iurr uy;d tys ks, fufyhqlre jQ w;r" neis,a rdmlaI tys
fkdks, fufyhqlre h' v,ia w,ymafmreu tys idudlfhl= jQ
w;r" pkasld .ek wYajdifhka hq;=j foaY .; is Tyq wdmiq
meKsfha uyskao rdcmlaI uy;d iarj Pkaoh i|yd fhdackd fuka
miqjh' u,a rjxY yd wkqr idkdhl uy;ajreka udrefjka udrejg
th ksfhdackh lf<ah' ckdm;sjrKhla fufyhjk cd;sl lgqjl
140

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

ud isfha m<uqjrgh' kuq;a uy ue;sjrK ;=kla cd;sl ugfuka


fufyhu iska" ug ,e ;snqKq w;aoelS fndfyda m%fhdackj;a h'
O idOl kd.ekSu" ue;sjrKfha ;Srl fudfyd;j,a ;SrKh lsu
Wmdh ud. yd Wml%u ksudKh" cd;sl m%pdrl jHdmdrhla ie,iq
lsu fYaIfhka udOH m%pdrKh ms<sn| kj Wmdux ieliSu ish'
wmg uy;a m%fhdackhla jQfha jka jr ,enqKq ilaIK jd;djka yd
wr,sh.y ukarhg j.lshkd ks,Odkaf.ka ,enqKq f;dr;=reh' ta
wkqj Wmdhsl l%shd ie,iqlrkd ,'
fy< Wreufhka cd;sl m%pdrl /,sj,g odhl jQfha ud muKh' uf.a
odhl;ajh o niakdysr m<d;g iSud h' kuq;a wms cd;sl fy< Wreuh
f,i uyskao rdcmlaI fjkqfjka fjku fnd yuq meje;auq' meje;ajQ
oejeka; NslaIq yuqjl talSh rdcHh ku msKsi fhdackdjla o iu;
lr.;suq' miqj we;e kdhl ysjre ;uka tys fkdis nj lshkakg
jqj o tu.ska id;sYh nyq;rhla NslaIq mrmqf wkque;sh ckm;s uyskaog
,eKs' cd;sl fy< Wreuhg 2004 ,enqKq Pkaofhka 65]la uyskao
rdcmlaIg ,nd.ekSu wfma b,lalh h' ,laI 48 iSudj mek.;fyd;a
ch.%dylhd uyskao rdcmlaI nj wfma ia:djrh h' wms ta b,lalhg
jevlrkakg uq'
fuys we;e m%N+ NslaIQka jykafia,d rks,a l%uisxy uy;d iu. isxy,
frda" fn!oaO frda msia fmd.eiS iskd nj oek oeku Tyqg iydh
fokakg h' ta fndfyda fokd fld<U jev jdih l< ij wd.l iuq
wdh mj;ajka cd;sl kHdhm;%j,g jevl< thska hemqKq wh jQy'
we;e NslaIQka jykafia,df.a mqoa.,sl ;h fmkajd Wkajykafia,d
hjoaod ;sKs' oeka wr,sh.y ukarfha ks;r ks;r nKg jk m%lg
yskula foysj, ydria:dkhl meje;s fn!oaO W;aijhl m%isoafha
uf.ka m%Yak lf<a uyskao rdcmlaI ckdm;s jkafka rleh m%dfoaYSh
iNdjg o lshdh' Wkajykafiaf.a Wmydifha ;snqfKa uyskao rdcmlaI
uy;d foaY.; wOHdmkh fkd,enQ wfhla ksid Tyqg foaY rgj,a
l<ukdlrKh l< yels o hkakh' ckdm;s njg m;afuka miq
uyskao rdcmlaI ue;s;=ud ish m<uq foaYkh foaY ;dkdm;Ska wrNhd
lf<a isxy,fhks' t;=ud jrla isxy, NdIdfjka tlai;a cd;Ska ^2007&
weue;+ w;r" tys ;snQ we;e wvqmdvq wka;su fudfydf;a ilia lf<a
udh' B<`. wjia:df t;=ud fou< NdIdfjka o tlai;a cd;Ska
141

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

weue;=fhah' tlai;a cd;Skaf.a wdrlaIl uKav,fha udkj ysl


iNdj, wmg tfrysj n,.;= rgj,a fmkS ish tajdfha nyq;r n,h
ch.kakg wms iu;auq' .f ksiqka .ek k.rfha we;uqka fudk;r
yE,ajg is;kjdo lshd ug ta ckdm;sjrKfha ;ka oeksKs' thska
udf.a wIaGdkh ;j;a oe jQfhah'
uyskao rdcmlaI uy;dg iydh fok mlaI 26la h' ta w;r" t;=ud cd;sl
fy< Wreuh iu. yd cfm iu. fjk fjku cd;sl tl`.;d
we;slrf.k ;sKs' Y%S,ksmfha ;ju;a kdhsldj jQfha pkasldh' f
ksid talSh rdcHh jeks ixl,amhlg wehf.a wkque;sh .ekSu ckdm;s
wfmalaIl;ajh ,nd.ekSug;a jvd Ialr ldhhla h' 2004 uyd
ue;sjrKfha cfmg mjd Y%S,ksmh talShNdjhg .; fkdyels h' f
ishfokd tlalr tl cd;sl m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkhla ;ekSu w;sYh Ialr
ldhhla h' Y%S,ksmfha m%;sm;a;sh f,i talSh o - tlai;a o lshd
lsisjla i|yka fkdjk ,sh,a,la o jrla v,ia ud fj; fhduqlr
;sKs' fmd m%;sm;a;sh ;ekSu i|yd Y%S,ksmhg ys;j;a Yaj oHd,
werka lSmfofkl= m;alr ;snqKq w;r" m%dfhda.slj th ,su i|yd
,,s;is .=Krejka" w;a lrd,a yd c.;a je,a,j;a; hk uy;ajre
l%shd l<y' ish mlaI Tjqkaf.a fhdackd ,nd ;sKs' k i;s .;jqk o
m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkh bm;a jQfha ke;' ta w;f ikaOdkfha m%;sm;a;s
m%ldYkfha fldgia hQtkamSh w;g m;a th rks,af.a m%;sm;a;shg tla
we;s nj o jd;d h' wfma m%;sm;a;s Ndrug .shg ud gqf m%ldYk
lSmhlau ;kd we;s njh' tys ;snQ uq msgq .Kk 713la h' ^th ;ju ud
i;=j we;& f ms<sn|j w.ue;s uyskao rdcmlaI yd neis,a rdcmlaI
uy;ajreka iu. jrla idlPdjla we;s jQ w;r" fuf,i ishfokd
;Dma;su;a jk m%;sm;a;s m%ldYhka ;ekSu l< fkdyels ldhhla f,i
fmkakd ks' tg w.ue;s;=ud ug fhdackd lf<a iqiq m yels
blauKska ish,a,kag .e,fmk fohla msgm;a lrkd f,ih' ta wkqj tla
kla f.k ish fhdackd lsh' tys o< idrxYhla ,nd .;s' miqk
neis,a rdcmlaI uy;d iu. w.%dud;H ldhd,fha yuqjqfk' th lu
f.dvke.s,a,ls' th ud tys .sh m<uq j;djh' jrla ug kS;sf pQ,d o
is,ajdf.a {d;sjhl jQ fk* uefvdakaid lSf th Tjqkaf.a uy
f.or f,i l,la jecUqKq njhs' fl,ska jevlrkd .eyekshla f,i
fk* ckm%sh jQ w;r" jrla hqla;sh mqj;amf;a weh ;%ia; frda

142

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

jHdmdrfha m;%sld fnok oYkhla m<lr ,shd ;snqfKa fld<U fkdakd


yduq,df.a isxy, foaYmd,kh f,ihs' w.%dud;H ldhd,fha ud is;a
.;af;a tys weue;s uKav, ldhd,hhs' th uf.a m%sh;u is;a;rl= jk
chis fiauf.a f.a ;%j,ska w,xldr ;sKs' jrla wfma r;k
yshkaf.a .f ys;jf;l= jQ fudgdf.or jks.r;ak is;a;rd lSf
fiauf.a wkqlrKh lrkafka ish ffY,sh njh' tys we;a;la ;sKs'
kuq;a fiauf.a fudgdf.orf.a im%odh jvd;a iql=ud, ,sys,a ir,
fukau ;ekam;a rgdjla njg m;alf<ah' fm%auodi uy;df.a rel;ajh
.ek hlsis bjla ;snqKq ug Tyq fiauf.a f;dard.ekSu .ek mquhla
we;sh'
f jkg l=uk wdldrhl ieleiaula m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkhg ;sh hq;= o
hkak .ek woyila ug ;sKs' th im%odfhka " ud Wla; lr
kjl;djl iajrEmfhka ,sh hq;= nj;a" tg mlaIj,g lsisjla
lsjfkdyels nj;a" ishfokd jg we;af;a uyskao rdcmlaI k
mqoa.,hd jgd nj;a" uu neis,a rdcmlaI uy;dg meye,s lf<' tla
fldgila ,shd fmkajkakehs Tyq b,a,d isfhah' wudreu fldgi jk
;%ia;jdoh inkaO fldgi ,shkakg ;SrKh lf<' ta wkqj w.%dud;H
ldhd,fha jQ fYaI ldurhlg ^th ux., iurr uy;d myrKh
l< ldhd,hla h& f.dia mehla we;=<; ,sh,a, ,shd f.k wdfj'
fkdfnKq rgla" nyq;r iuq;shla" f.!rjkSh iduhla f;audj iys;
mfoh ,shejqfKa tf,ih' neis,a uy;d th /f.k f.dia miqj
w.ue;s;=ud iu. idlPdjla meje;ah' O m%Yak uf.ka wikq ,enQ
w;r" ishfoag ms<s;=re ks' tku th wkqr idkdhl uy;d yryd
cfmg heks' Tjqka fjkial folla lf<ah' tlla k ud W;=re yd
kef.kysr m%Yakh f,i klr ;snQ ixisoah Tjqka" cd;sl m%Yakh
f,i klsuhs' ckjd.sl wnqoh" cd;sl .egj jeks jokaj,g
ckj. foll fyda cd;Ska foll m%Yakhla ye`.fjk ksid tajd
Nd;fhka je<lS isu uf.a ia:djrh h' wekagka nd,isxy mjd
Y%S,xldf .egj cd;sl m%Yakhla (National Question) f,i .;af;a th
cd;Ska folla w;r m%Yakhla f,i" yqjd olajkakgh' wlue;af;ka jqj
th fhdokakg ish' fojeks lreK jQfha mqoa.,hdg n,h fnu hk
ixl,amh f.ktauhs' thg k lsis frdaO;djhla fkdh' >
idlPdjlska miq tlS ffY,sfhkau fiiq mfohka o ,sug ;SrKh
flKs' l=vd wkqud;Dld wx. o iys;j k follska msgq ishhlg

143

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

wdikak uq ,she,a,u ilia lf<' fuys .e m%fndaOh ms<sn|j jQ


.u ke.=u jev ms<sfj< .ek jrla rd;%sfha idlPdjla h' w.ue;s
uyskao yd neis,a rdcmlaI hk fofmd,u ish .u .ek l< l;djkaf.ka
ug ye`.S .sfha wms f;;a l,dmfha j;a jQjo" Tjqka lgql h<s l,dmfha
j;a jQj o" jhia ldKav follg wh;a jQj o w;aoelS fndfydag tlla
njhs' uf.a l=vdl, isyskh jQfha fidah mkakfha iduqysl .ula yd
fmd myiql iemhSu islsuhs' miqj uu ta woyi fjkialr .;af;'
.u f.dvke.Su islrkafka flfiao hkak wfma m%Odk f;audjla h'
c, ixrlaIKh" mdxY+ rlaIKh fmd myiql" mir ys;jdoh
we;=<;ajQ .u ke.=u yd cd;sl ih jevigyka ksudKh jQfha tfiah'
.u ke.=u hgf;a fYaI jHdmD;shla f,i miqj wfma .u o f.dvk`.d
th ck;djg mejug yelsu ud ,o uy;a Nd.Hhla h' .u ke.=u
fndfyda W;aijj, ug ks ke;s i;=gla we;sjkafka tod rd;%Sfha wms
l< iqyo l;dny h:d:hla jkq oelSfuks'
ta kj, kla uu ys;j;a kdjql bxfkarefjl=f.a f.or .sfha
m.Kl uDldx.hla b,a,d .ekSugh' lsre<mk mxj is Tyq yd
| ug lSf Tjqkg l=vqldrhskaf.ka fndfyda lror we;s njhs' je,l
froaola t<kak;a ne njh' wfka Th ckdm;sjrKfhaj;a f u;g
;s; ;shkakflda lshd ta fofmd< udf.ka b,a,d ishy' u;g ;s;
jevms<sfj<g ixl,amh wdf tf,ih' miqj wuoHm i;s tla
u,afma fidaNs; yshka yryd md,sfka;=jg mk;la f.ktk ,' th
miqj fi!LH weue;s;=ud iskau bm;a lrkd ,o w;r" w.ksiqre
ir;a is,ajd h uqo,d,s,df.a b,a,Su ;Uhlg fkdf.k mk; iu;
lsug bvyir ;kdkafkah' Y%S ,xldf h jHdma;shg jeu fiajh
flrefKa pkasldf.a wdKavqfjks' miqj u;ajH wldhla msysgqjd rg
mqrd u;g ;s; jev ms<sfj< h;a lf<a w;=r,sfha r;k yshkaf.a
m%odk;ajfhka wfma iajdka jykafia,d isks' ufya ys" fidau ys"
ud\qjdf ys wd ysjre isxyhd hj,g fhdod.ekSu .ek f.k.sh
igk ch.%yKfhka fl<jr lr.kakg wmg yelsh' ;reK mrmqr
u;ajHj,g weneyslr j, cd;shla we;slsu i|yd jevms<sfj<la
fn!oaO frdaka iQlaIuj f.khk nj o l,ska i|yka lf<' bx.%Siska
iska" we;sl< f .=Kh ksid iaf%,shdf kscu ys
wefndakajre kd l gqg isxy,-fou< ksiqkg Tjqka islr
we;af;a t;r wmrdOhla fkdjk nj ye`.S .sfhah' cd;sl ih"
144

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

kef.kysr kfjdaoh jeks jHdmD;sj, k wefikd ieugu ug


oefkkafka msgq ish .Kkl uyd m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkh ixialrKh lsug
ud oerE jEhuhs' m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkfha lghq;= isfoehs fiug miq
mr iNdjl wjYH;djh miqj u;= jQ w;r" th ilialrf.k wdf
Woh .ukams, isks' .=Krejka yd c.;a" wdpdh chiqkaor iu. jdo
fjka fndfyda wdl iykdOdrj, m%dfhda.sl me;a; .ek fidhdn,d
igyka lrkd ,' wdpdh chiqkaorg rf wdlfha b,lal .ek
;snqKd jQ wjfndaOh .ek i;=gq jqfk' jrla t;=ud wm wud;HdxYfha
Wvquy,la jD; lsug meKSf W;aijhl PdhdrEmhla oelSfuka miq
ysgmq w.ksiqre;=ud ud iu. wukdm jQ njla o jd;d h' m%;sM,h
jQfha wfma mir ixrlaIK n mk; fyf;u wlrK l%shdjlska
l,lg w;aysgquhs' th iu; lr.ekSu i|yd fndfyda lreKq
wlrKhg lSug wmg ish' W;aijhla yd mqoa.,sl wdrjq,la cd;sl
m%Yakhla jQfha tfiah'
rks,af.a m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkh wmg l,ska ksl=;a h' th j, tlla h'
tys we;s we;e lreKqj,g o ms<s;=re foka wx.imQK m%;sm;a;s
m%ldYkhla ieliQfjuq' w;a lrd,a uy;d iqiq f,i ixfYdaOkh
lrka th bx.%Sishg ke.=fhah' fuhg pkasldf.a wkque;sh .ekSu
Ialr h yels nj f ms<sn|j Wkkafjka lghq;= l< Y%Sm;sf.a woyi
h' fuh mlaIfha fkdj uyskao rdcmlaIf.a mqoa.,sl woyi nj udf.a
;lh h' ckdm;s wfmalaIl;ajh .;a;d fia fuh;a" f,dlalSf.ka
wkqu; lr.kakd nj iskduqiq uqyqKska w.ue;s;=ud lSfh' ish wdhdj
iu. tys f.dia iqyo f;a mdkhlska miq t;=ud ch.%dySj wdmiq wdfh'
wms m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkh uqKhg hefjuq' rd;%Sfha ljqfoda pkasldg
talSh Ndjh Y%S,ksmh ms<sf.k we;ehs okajd ;sf' tg weh ieuod
fukau mud je ishdh' uyskao ka;k m%;sm;a;s m%ldYkh ,shk
04la uqKh flKs' ta i|yd Wmld jQfha m%isoaO mqj;am;a iud.uls'
th fnodyef ;Srl ldhNdrh lf<a cfmhs' wfma cd,hka yryd o
,laI 03lg wdikak m%udKhla fnod yeuq;a w;sYd, nyq;rhla
m%;sm;a;s m%ldYk ck;dj w;rg .sfha c''fm ldvrh u.sks' pkasld
b;d olaI f,i Y%S,ksm hdka;%Kh wvmk lr ;snqKdh' we;e ue;s
weue;sjre foaY .;jQ w;r" ;j;a wh pkasld iu. idmamq ijd hk
oYk o m<h'

145

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

oHQ;a udOH lafIa;%fha isjQfha mqudldr miqnEuls' w.ue;s uyskao


fjkqfjka >Dcqj fmkS isfha iajdk rEmjdysksh muKs' jdKsc l,d
udOH u.ska ck;dj wdlYkh lr ;snQ mqoa.,sl rEmjdyskS fl,skau
l%uisxy uy;df.a m%pdrl udOH njg yerKs' wdKavqf cd;sl
rEmjdysksh mjd h rlg wl%Sh ;sKs' tfukau b;d ldhlaIu
f,i oHQ;a m.Kl cd,hka yd cx.u rl;k cd,hka o mlaIh
iska fhdod .eksKs' fYaIfhka kj ;reK mrmqr yd jD;a;Shfka
tys b,lalh h' fuys n,mEu wmg oekqfKa ue;sjrK m%;sM,fhah'
uf.a ;lafiarej jQfha ckjd.sl yd wd.l f,i fn .sh
ckdm;sjrKfha fn!oaOhskaf.ka 65]la tk ;=fkka folla uyskao
rdcmlaIg Pkaoh fokq we;s njhs' tfukau uqia,s" fou<" lf;da,sl
wd cd;sl" wd.l lKavdhj, id;sYh nyq;rh rks,a l%uisxyhkag
,efnkd njhs' fIdmajre" uQ,Oujd ls;=Kqjka" bia,d uQ,Oujd
n,f." fou< cd;sjd n,f. ishfokd b;d ;SrKd;aul f,i
l%shd;aul ;sKs' flfiafj;;a" wfma b,lalh ;snqfKa Pkao ,laI
04lska muK bhg tkakg;a Pkao ,laI 48 blauu;ah' ikaOdkfha
,laI 42 yd cd;sl fy< Wreufha ,laI 3 la o" kj Pkao ,laIhla
muK o wms n,dfmdfrd;a;= jQfha ix.Kk m%;sM, foi o n,ks' kuq;a
wl f,i fhojqKq mlaIfha oHQ;a udOH fm<yr iska" w;ska
Pkaofmd<g le|jqkq ,enQ 05]l muK msfika id;sYh nyq;rh ^70]la
muK& mlaI kdhljrhdg leue;a; m<lr ;sKs' idudkHfhka
ch.%dyS /,a,l 5-7] w;r o" Pkao odhl p,khka we;sjk nj wfma
cd;sl ue;sjrK m%;sM, .%yhl fmkS hhs' kuq;a" udOH ix.%duhlska
fujeks m%;sM, fjkila we;sfhehs wms is;d ;snqfKa ke;'
kef.kysr fou< m%foaYj, Pkaoh i|yd wms jevms<sfj<la fhfjuq'
kuq;a wms fkdis;+ f,i lreKdf.a ys;j;=ka f,i" ue;sjrKh
ch.%yKh l<jqka mjd mlaI kdhlhdf.a Pkao jHdmdrhg lem ;snQ
whqre oel.kakg ;sKs' kef.kysr uqia,s ckhdf.a n,mEu o fou<"
isxy, Pkao odhlhdg n,md ;sKs' fuh uOHu m<df;a o isjQ
wdikak m%foaYfha WKqiqu msg;g .,dhEf m%;sM,hhs' kef.kysr
lreKd iu. is msiaj, b;=re is msia fhdodf.k islr,Sug
W;aidy l< Pkao jHdmdrh o pkasldf.a wK m wdrlaIl wxY wjq,a
lrkd ,' wms hdmkfha o tjeks W;aidyhla oerefjuq' ukao jir 2000
fld hdmkfha fodrlv ish pkasld Pkao 52"000la f.k hdmkh
146

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

ch.%yKh lr ;uka >d;kh lsug ;e;al< fldkag mdvula lshdka


ksidh' v.a,iaf.a iydhfhka h;alsug .sh jevms<sfj<g pkasld
wdrlaIl wjirh fkdfuka imQKfhka wjq,a l<dh' jkaksfha yd
kef.kysr we;e fld m%foaYj, Pkao ,laI folla muK
n,y;aldrfhka Pkao fmj,g jeu je<elau msKsi Pkao fm
wdrlaIl yuqod n,m%foaYj, muKla ;eh hq;=hehs lshd wjidkfha
fY%aIaGdlrKfhka o ;Skajla .;af;uq' mlaIh n,fha ish ^200204& wdrlaIl yuqod m;alr ;snQ kska; ;;a;ajh ksid wdrlaIl yuqodj,
k h msula we;s ;sKs' f.daGdNh rdcmlaI uy;d ue;sjrK
l%shdoduhg tlau;a iu`. l,ls is yuqod msia fukau hqoaOh
fjkqfjka lemls l< wdnd; fid,aodjka o" h.sh finkaf.a
mjq,aj, o msula we;slsug ysgmq yuqod kdhlhska jQ t'' m%kdka"
Ydka; ch;s,l jeks wh iu;ajQy'
m%Ndlrka Pkaoh oeu je<elaug fujr o l%shdlrkd nj Pkaohg
fmrod yuqod nqoa wxY u.ska oek .;suq' 2004 Pkaofha nia r:
fhdojdf.k l< Pkao uxfld,a,h fjkqjg n,y;aldrh hdmkh jeks
m%foaYj, o fho ;sKs' fou< ckhdf.a f m%cd;dka;%sl whs;sh
Wrd.ekSu .ek imQK j.lSu 2002-04 wdKavqf ;%ia;jdohg
ksrdhqo ckhd ,ska fmdx.=;,a jevms<sfj< Ndr .;hq;=h' miqj
rks,a l%uisxyf.a m%Odk fpdaokdj jQfha uyskao rdcmlaI m%Ndlrka
iu. .siqula .id Pkao je<elajQfhah hk u;h m%pdrKh lsuh'
1982 isg mj;ajk ,o ish ckdm;sjrK ish Yla;s m%udKfha yehg
fms,af,a jckh lf<ah' thg fya;+j ;,a B<dufha ckdm;s
;udh hk ye`.Suh' 2005 ckdm;sjrKfha th hdmkh jeks yuqodj
i;=j ;snQ m%foaYj,g o jHdma; jQfha wdKavqf uq.ao iduh ksidfjks'
wfkla w;ska yuqod n,m%foaYj, mj;ajk ue;sjrKhl ;ukg is;+
yefha Pkao fm msrug fldkag yelsjkafka o ke;' fmr<d
ol=K" niakdysr" W;=re ueo" jhU" inr.uqj jeks isxy, m%foaY w;sYd,
je Pkaohlska kd ta m%;sM,h jkaksfha fou< Pkaoj,ska wdmiq
yereKd k rg ;=< we;sjkafka le/,a,ls' tfukau mlaIfha
fpdaokdj we;a; hehs .;a; o fms,af,a m%Ndlrka m%:uj;djg
/jf Y+rlu" uyskao rdcmlaIg ,efnkafkah' uka o thg fmr Tyq

147

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

.kqfokq l< ish,af,dau Tyq iska" /jug ,lalr urdoud fyda


urdoeug ;e;alr fyda ;snqKq fyhsks'
ckdm;sjrK m%;sM,h rd;%sfha ksjrd weiSug;a ug wjYH;djhla
fkdh' m%;sM,h t;ru iar ;sKs' Pkaoh Pkao uOHia:dk
lSmhlg f.dia Pkao .Kka lsu i|yd wm fmdfrdka jQ ksfhda;hka
hefuka miq f.or f.dia ksod .;s' WoEik ud wj l< wfma mlaIfha
i.fhl= lSf rks,a <`.gu we;a we;s nj;a" we;eg ch.%yKh
lsug mjd bv we;s nj;ah' rl;kh l%shd;aul l<g m<uq weu;=u
wdf r;akmqrfhks' w.ue;s;=ud mrdo nj we;a;oehs tys jHdmdlfhla
uf.ka weiSh' w.ue;s;=ud ch ,nkd nj lS g Tyq Yajdi fkdlf<ah'
Tyq iu. Pkao Tgqjla o oud wr,sh .y ukarhg .shg gqf
we;euqkaf.a uqyqK ue< we;s njh' oekg we;s we;s m%;sM, .ek
jydu ixLHdf,aLk .%yhla lr.;s' wmdr Pkao m%;sM,h ms<sn| o<
woyila v,ia m%ldY lf<ah' ta wkqj l< .Kkh lsfuka wms
wkQkjfhka 50] blaujd we;s nj oek .;s' w.ue;s uyskao ckm;s
uyskao we;s nj oek.ekSfuka miq t;=udg iqN Wmkakhla m;kakg
wr,sh .y ukarfha Wvquy,g .sfh'
w.ue;s moh yd weue;s mo fnf iqmqre f,i ys;a wukdml
we;sh' ux., - Y%Sm;s ckdm;sjrKhg w;sYhska lemjQj;a m<uq
mshjfu ys;a wukdml we;sh' b,a,d wiajQ Y%Sm;s wiajid Tyqg
weue;s Oqrhla ,ndug o w.ue;s Oqrh we;= ;j;a weue;s Oqr ;SrKh
lsug iydh ug o uey;a jkakg ug ish' c''fm weue;s Oqr ,nd
we;=<g oud .;hq;= jqj;a th o isjQfha ke;' ia:djr wdKavqjla msysgqjd
.ekSug c''fm tl`.;djh o f.k uyd ue;sjrKhla ;nkd f,i wm
b,a,d ish;a fkdfhla fya;+ u; th bgqjQfha o ke;' 2007 we;sjk
wdKavq frda l=uka;%Kh .ek ug l,skau f;are .sfhah'
ckdm;sjrKfhka miq meje;ajQ m<d;a md,k Pkaofha cd;sl fy<
Wreuh t;r id:l jQfha ke;' mKsjqvh fukau mKsjqvlre o jeo.;a
nj wfma fkdfhla fokd f;are fkd.ekSu thg fya;+ h' c''fm k
id:l h' Pkao ,shkhlg jvd Tjqka ,nd.;a kuq;a" m<d;a md,k
wdh;k 25la muK ch .ekSf Tjqkf.a wNHka;r b,lalh mrdch h'
ta iu.u wNHka;r m%Yak cfm ;=< we;s we;s nj oek .;af;'
148

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

iqNjd f,i fmkqKq tlu foh wdrlaIl wud;HdxYfha isjQ fmr<shhs'


wdrlaIl f,al f,i f.daGdNh rdcmlaI m;ah' tys WmfoaYlhska
f,i t''m%kdka yd t't'''fldglfoKsh uy;ajre m;ajQy'
yuqodm;s f,i ir;a f*dkafiald uy;d m;ah' f ishfokdu
m%;sm;a;s.rel foaYfm%aka jQy' wm n,dfmdfrd;a;=jk b,lalh lrd
yuqodj .uka lrkq we;ehs oe Yajdihla we;sh' B<`.g isjQ
l%shdoduhkaf.ka fmkS .sfha th isfjka mj;sk njh'
fld iu`. idlPd we/f W;aidyhla o oeKs' wfma ia:djrh jQfha
u;a f,i iQodk ug l,a.kakd w;r" idlPd idu idlPd
fkdj igka rdufha mj;sk j,;d u.yrjd .ekSu i|yd jQ idlPd
h hq;= njh' foaYfm kS;sfka jQ t't,a o is,ajd yd f.daka ohdis
tlS idlPdj,g iyNd.S jQy' kuq;a l=uk fya;=jla ksid fyda igka
rdu .siqu wdKavqj ms<s.kakd njg tl`.;djhla we;sh' wms fuhg
wmf.a reoaO;ajh m< lf<uq' foaY n,f. wdKavqj mrdch lsug
l<yels ish,a, lr oeka th hlr yeug ;e;a orkd nj fmkS .sfhah'
jg lSmhlska miq idlPd weKysks' Y%s ,xld yuqod ;uka iu. hqoaO
lsug ksNh fkdjkq we;ehs m%Ndlrka l,amkd l< o wfma foaYfm%a
hqo kdhlfhda ta i|yd iQodk fjka ishy'
ud iskau k ;nkd ,o cd;sl ih jevigyk i|yd inkaO jk
f,i neis,a rdcmlaI uy;d wdrdOkd l< o ta ms<sn| yeoEulska miq
fld W;=re yd kef.kysr wdm;Hh Wiq,k;dla ta jevms<sfj<
l%shd;aul l< fkdyels nj wjfndaO lr.;s' miqj m%Odk wdl
uuia:dk md,kh jk Wmdh ud.sl jHjidh l<ukdlrK wdh;kh
(SEMA) iu. tla' rcH nexl=" jrdh" .=jkaf;dg" f;,a yd ,sh"
je,s jeks lafIa;%j, mj;sk uQ,H ;;a;ajh ms<sn| lu wjfndaOhla
tys is fll, we;=<; ,nd.;s' idudkHfhka iudcfha isjk
w,a,ia .ekS" jxpd IK ms<n|j uyck ms<sl=,la ;snqK o rdcH
ie,iqlrKfha ks,Odka yd foaYmd,lhska .kakd ;Ska .ek
uyckhd fkdoek isu .ek ug wfma iudc foayh .ek ms<sl=,la
we;sh' iq iq w,a,ia ksid rg nxfldf<d;a jkafka ke;' kuq;a
ie,iqlrKfha isjk l%shdjka ksid rgla nxfldf<d;a h yelsnj
oek .;s' ys;j;a jHdmdlfhla iska" ug wdl m%ydrlhd

149

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

(Economic Hit Man) k lD;sh ,ndka w;r" tu.ska f,dalfha n,j;a


Okj;a rgj,a f.khk iQlaIu uQ,H W.=,a ms<sn| lu oekqula ,nd
.;s' ta wkqj B<`.g tlS uQ,Ouhka fhdodf.k ,xldf Wmdh
ud.sl jeo.;alula we;s rdcH wdh;kj, ;;a;ajh uikakg '
rf wdlfha idrh .ek lu w;aoelSula tu.ska ug ,eKs' jrla
,xldf lS;sOr bxfkarefjl= jQ ta'tka'tia' l=,isxy ^t;=udg ks,
Yaj oHd, wOHdmkhla fkdh' wkqNl oekqu mok jQ Y%S ,xldf
uE; ld,Sk YsIaG;u bxfkare ksudK Tyqf.a h&' jrla uyje,s
lk jHdmdrhg wh;a" c,dYhla ms<sn|j foaYSh bxfkarejka uid
hou ms<sn|j .Kkhla lr we;' th 1978 jIfha re' ,shk 750la
h' f weia;fka;=j uqo,a wdud;HdxYhg .shl, frdkS o ue,af.a
ks,Odka m%ldY lr we;af;a t;r uqo,la ,ndh fkdyels njh' ta
wkqj fhdackdj ckdm;s chjOkg .sfhah' l=,isxy" is,a ue;s
iu. 1977 ue;sjrK ch.%yKh i|yd lem jevl< cd;sljdfhl=
h' ta nj oek is chjOk ckdm;s wod< ks,Odka uid l=,isxy
uy;dg lshd we;af;a ta i|yd ngysr rgl iyk Khla ,ndfok w;r"
uq hou remsh,a ,shk 3000la muK h yels nj;a" thska ,shk
2150la wod< ngysr rg o" b;s 850 NdKavd.drh o fhdokd nj;a" thg
tl`.j l%shdlrkd f,i;ah' l=,isxy mquhg;a" l,lsug;a m;a we;'
ukao ,shk 750la ke;ehs lS uqo,a wud;HdxYh oeka foaYSh odhl;ajh
f,i ,shk 850lau fhoug hk ksidh' chjOk iu. ;l lsu
moh ke;sjk jevla nj oek.;a l=,isxy ish bxfkare f.da,hskag
;;a;ajh jd;d lr we;af;a b;ska" rf rcdg jvd wmsg foaYfm%a
fjkak neyefka lshks' uyje,s jHdmdrfha tjeks wl ho
iys;j lrjQ jHdmD;s .Kkdjla .ek ia;r tys fiajh l< .dKS
fifkr;ak uy;d miqj fy<slr ;sKs' Tyqg wkqj tla uyje,s
c,dYhla i|yd iyuq,skau jehjQ uqo,g iudk uqo,la ngysr rgl
WmfoaYlhska Tjqkf.a mjq,a" .=jka yd fydag,a .dia;= i|yd ,xldj
f.jd ;sf' .dKS fikr;ak iqkaor bx.%Sis lfhls' fmardfoKsh
irifha bx.%Sis udOHfhka l,d Ihka l< lvqfufvda kka"
m%p,s;j ish ykd.kakd ,o ud,skao Tyqf.a mq;%hdh' wmQrE bx.%Sis
,sf yelshdjla o ksoyia ka;khla yd yeisula o Tyqg h' Tyqf.a
whshd jQ wcqk o tfiauh' jrla ud,skaog fy< Wreufhka ,ndfok

150

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

mj;k f;d.h .ek meKs,s lrka Tyq lSf l%sia;shdks


uQ,Oujdohg y .sys,a,d f nka ksoyia h hq;= njh'
lk uyje,sh wdl m%ydrlhskaf.a jevls' ;ju;a tys Kh wms
f.juq' th wdl w;ska M,odhl jHdmD;shla fkdjkafka wl
jHdmD;s , .Kka ksidh' ;sia wjqre jevms<sfj< ;snqKd k th rgg
Wlyd .;yels jev ms<sfj<la jkakg bv ;sKs' iqks,a neiahka iska"
rpkd lr we;s foaY wdOdrj, foaYmd,kh k lD;sh yd Yaf,aIKh
f ms<sn|j lu jrKhla lr we;' uf.a .Kka ne,Sj,g wkqj
1978-2000 ld,h ;=< tlai;a ckmofhka wmg fvd, ,shk 68la ,e
we;s w;r" 2000ka miq i;hla ,e ke;' kuq;a" 2000-2008 w;r" muKla
wms wdmiq f.jd we;s Kh m%udKh ,shk 314ls' ;j;a ,shk 560l
m%udKhla f.ug we;' iyk Khj, Kh W.=, thhs' iqidka fcda
iska" r; brKu Kh nrg jvd fYdapkShs' (Fate is worse than debt)
lD;sh f,dj mqrd fYaIfhka wm%sldf f fojdplh fmkakd we;'
foaYSh bxfkarejka ;ekQ uwdr" f,sTh" fjfyr.," rUlekaTh wd
c,dY fmkakd kafka wvq hoka wmgu wfma jd ludka; lr.;
yels njh' fjfyr., ;ekQ .=KjOk f,al;=ud yd .=Kodi ^wfma
Yaj oHd, ;=frls& bxfkare uy;d iu. k .Kkla Kq.
fjfyr WoHdkfha isg rf jd ludka;h .ek jeo.;a l;djka /ila
lf<uq' h<s f.dia ;snQ ueKsla .`. km;du f;; n; lr
Kq.fjfyr wx.imQK WoHdkhla lf<a Tjqkah' .e is;a okakd
pu,a weue;s;=ud ks;ru wmg wem Wmldr lf<ah' b ld,.=K
mhdij,g uqyqKug k rf .x`.d 103 wrNhdu c, ixrlaIK
l%ufohla b oYlfha rgg w;HjYH nj jgyd .;s' ke;ak
w;S;fha fuka rcrg YsIagdpdrh kej; |jeug bv we;af;ah'
jd lafIa;%j, muKla fkdj wl ho fmkajd (Inflated Costs)
ixLHd cdjkaf.ka uqo,a bmhSu ish lafIa;%j, isf' jrla fld<U
rm%isoaO iqfLdamfNda.S ;gq ksjdi jHdmD;shla i|yd kef.kysr
wdishdkq rgl wdfhdaclfhla bm;a h' Tyqf.a wdfhdackh remsh,a
,shk 900la jQ w;r" ;j;a ,shk 960la Tyq foaYSh nexl=jlska
,nd.;af;ah' tlS jHdmD;sfha ho ia;rh tys jevl< wm ys;j;a
bxfkarefjla ud w; ;enqfh' tys O ho hgf;a muKla
hofuka ywvla ,shk 930la oud ;sKs' uf.a bxfkare ;=rdf.a
151

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

woyi k th fndrejla njh' wdfhdaclhd uqo,a fmkakd foaYSh nexl=


u.skau jHdmD;sh ksulr ;j;a lShla y foaY .sKqulg oudf.k we;s
njh' O rdcH wdh;kj,ska f jHdmD;s wkqu; jkafka tajdfha
ks,Odkaf.a wkqyisks' IKh .ek foaYmd,lhdgu fodia lSfuka m,la
ke;'
,xldf ,sn, ie,eiau 1991 isg l%shdrys; fldg f;,aj,ska ,sh
ksmojk rgla njg m;a f,dalfha wl;u ,sh , .Kka we;slr
.ekSu;a" fyka .kqfokqfjka rg f;,a f,ys isrlrefjl= lsu;a"
,xldf wdl m%ydrlhkaf.a jev f,i i,l' we;e ks,Odka f
ksid WrK mir weue;s ksid rg wf f,i jQ udOH jd;d mjd
ilia l< nj oks'
f.da,ShlrKh yd foaY Kh l%shd;aul jk wdldrh .ek lu lD;Ska
folla fkdfn,a ;Hd.,dNS f,dal nexl=f ysgmq iNdm;sjrfhla o jk
fcdaYma ia.a,sia (Joseph E Stiglitz) ,shd we;' (GLOBALIZATION
AND ITS DISCONTENTS MAKING GLOBALIZATIOION
WORK) f lD;s lshfuka f,dal uQ,H l%uh yeisfrk wdldrh yd wms
tys l%shd l< hq;= wdldrh .ek lu oekqula kEu wfhl=g ,nd.;
yel' ia.a,sia wfma ysgmq foaY f,al md,s; fldfydkf.a
ys;jf;ls' mdil Kh yd f.da,Sh WKqiqu md,kh lsu i|yd
fjf<|fmd< l%uh iska fhdod.; hq;= Wml%u .ek md,s; yryd
Tyqf.ka lu Wmfoidj,shla o ,nd.;s' l=,isxy uy;d lsjdfia rcd
muKla fkdj ish weue;sjre foaYfm%a jk w;f cd;Hka;r
l%shdoduhka ms<sn| wjfndaOhla o ,nd ish hq;=h' ke;ak rg wdl
fndanj,g yd laf,afuda m%ydrj,g myiqfjka f.dre h yelsh'

152

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

y;ajeks .yereu

wms kq
uyskao

rdcmlaI uy;d ckdm;s fuka miq wdrlaIl


wxYj, is jQ kdhl;aj fjkial u.ska blauKskau ishfokd
oek.;af;a wdKavqj fldkaf.ka t,a,jk kEu wNsfhda.hla i|yd
iQodk jk njhs' fYaIfhkau fldkaf.ka .sh fldgia yd fld
frda fldgia wkql%ufhka wm yd inkaO jkakg h' meish"
,kavkh yd *%ekala* iy ;j;a k.r .Kkdjl O wjia:dj,
foaY .; fld frdaka wm iu. idlPdj,g t<eUqky' jrla
*%ekala* k.rfha yuq jQ ;rula jhil fou< ;dlaIK Ys,amsfhl=
ud yg lSf 1984 ;r wE; ld,hl ;uka maf,d ixOdkfha I,s
yd cd;sl wdrlaIl weue;s ,,s;a we;=<;auqo,s w;r" idlPdjlg o
inkaO jQ njh' ug laIKhlska lreKq folla u;la h' tlla k
ol=fKa jdudxYslhkaf.a fldj,g ke;=ju ne fou< llfhla
njg 1980 oYlfha fojk Nd.fha m;ajQ" Igh" fvks l,siu" g%ela
im;a;= me<| is maf,d ixOdkfha I,sh' B<`.g 1988 jIfha
mlaI ikaOdkhla i|yd idlPd meje;afj;a kla uola hm;a
uqyqKska l=ud fmdkakn, uy;d wjg is kdhlhskag lS ryilah'
wekagka nd,isxy ;ukg Bfha rd;%sfha rl;kfhka l;dl< nj;a"
153

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

"Is Muhandan ( alias Uma Maheshawaran) there, Beware of these


buggers, they are Athulathmudalis fellows", lshd lsjQ nj;ah' ta kj,
m%p,s; ryila jQfha fld y`v kka m%p,s; jQ maf,d .=jka ,sh
m%pdrKh lrk ,oafoa fld<U urodfka tla;rd fn!oaO fkdjk wd.l
uOHia:dkhl isg nj;a" th msgqmi o we;=<;auqo,sf.a fijKe,a, je
;snQ nj;ah' jrla 1983 cQ,s isrlrejka w;r" .egqj, l=gukS yd
f.ka h.sh mqj; wid f'wd' chjOk ixldjg m;ajQ nj;a" thg
fya;=j ta jkg Tjqka Y%s ,xld wdKavqj iu. idlPd wdrN lr ;snQ
ksid nj;a" isxy r;ak;=x. f.a lD;shl (Politics of Terrorism) ;snqKd o
u;lh' wfma wdKavq tl w;lska ;%ia;jdoh iu. .efgkd w;f
wfkla w;ska O l,a,s iu. .kqfokqj o f.k hka ;s we;'
hqoaOhl i;=rd j, lsu w;HjYH fohls" m%Odk i;=rdg /yeksj
j, i;=rka fhdod.ekSu krl Wmdhla fkdf' f fld frda
fou< ixOdk yd mqoa.,hska iu. woyia yqjudre lr.ksoa ug ye`.S
.sfha Tjqka fndfyda rg Y%S ,xldf ol=fKa jdudxYsl jHdmdrhg iudk
woyia yd l%shdld;ajfhka hq;= njh' c''fm iska h joaod 1987 - 1989
fulS n,f. ;ukg /yeksj Wis.kajd .;a wdldrhgu fldka o
Tjqka >d;kh lsfuka yd h jeoaoug ;e;a lsfuka ;ukg tfrysj
Wis.kajd f.k ;sKs' tfukau Tjqkf.ka we;eful=f.a is; we;=f<a
fld f.k hkakd jQ igk .ek f.!rjhla ;snqKq nj o ug ye`.S
.sfhah' ixjdo meje;afjk g l;d fkdl< yd iuyrg f.fhka
woyia oelajQ we;eyq fldkaf.a T;a;=lrejka o ug bv ;sKs'
2006 w;a wjqreoafoka miq fkl fujeks msila fld<U fydag,hl
yuqjQ miqj fjk;a lreKla i|yd neis,a rdcmlaI uy;d yuqug
.sfh' tk wfma udOH idlPdjla o iQodk ;snQ fyhska" wdmiq
hEug ierfi;a ckdm;s ldhd,fha lmkhla o" cfka,fhka ta
foi n,;a oyia .Kkla lmqgka .scq,sysKshka fuka yuqod
uQ,ia:dkfha oejeka; wre jDlaIhka fj;ska" b`.s,S hk whqre o
oel.;s' fndanhla msms .sh nj uu neis,a rdcmlaI uy;dg lSfj'
fndan ksIal%Sh ula yer yuqod uQ,ia:dkfha tjekakla ish fkdyels
nj Tyqf.a woyi h' kuq;a iq fudfyd;lska wdrxh ldhd,hg
wdfh' ludkavg .y,d yuqodf NdIdfjka lshjqfKa yuqodm;s
ir;a f*dkafiald uy;dg fndan m%ydrhla t,a, we;s njhs' jydu
wr,sh.y uerg huqhehs neis,a uy;d fhdackd l< w;r" uu tl`.'
154

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wfma m<uq m%Yakh jqfKa yuqodm;s;=ud j;=ka w;r o hkakhs' yuqod nqoa
wxYfha uf.a ys;jf;l=f.ka uiQ g Tyq lSf frday,g f.khk g
fydka l;d l< nj;a" fydka isysh ;snQ nj;ah' kuq;a oeka ;;a;ajh
nrm;, nj;ah' wr,sh.y ukarh lrd hk w;r" uu l,amkd lf<a
m%Ndlrka f fudfydf;a fujekakla lf<a wehs lshdh' 2004 Y%S','ks'm c''fm ikaOdkh n,hg meKsg Tjqka ;ukg reoaOj hqo m%ldY
lrkq we;ehs fld n,dfmdfrd;a;= jQ w;r" l.du >d;khg oelajQ
ksjg m%;spdrfhka w;sYh je/ ;lafiarejlg tk isxy,hska h<s
;ukg tfrysj ke`.S fkdiskd njg jQ ks.ukhlg t<eKs' kuq;a
f.daGdNh - f*dkafiald iqixfhda.h YS>%fhka jevlrf.k hk nj;a"
kef.kysr ;u i;=rka n,uq .kajka ;ek ;ek m%ydr wdrN lr
we;s nj;a" Tyq fkdfnda klska oek.;af;ah' B<`. uyd m%ydrhg fmr
f iqixfhda.h ksIal%Sh lsu Tyqf.a ksYa; wruqK h' tfiak B<`.
m%ydrh f.daGdNhg t,a,jk nj meye,s h' oeka m%Yakh ;snqfKa wms
fuhg flfia m%;spdr oelah hq;=o lshdh' tod wr,sh .y ukarhg
tlajQ fndfyda fofkl=f.a woyia O h' we;euqka lSf igka
rdufhka bj;ah hq;= njhs' ;j;a wh lSf th cd;Hka;r jYfhka
wjdis h yels njhs' uf.a woyi jQfha igka rdu .siqu Tfya
;ndf.k fld n,dfmdfrd;a ; = fkdjkd YS > % ; djhls k a "
n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdjkd ia:dkj,g myr h hq;= njhs' ta w;f fl
l,la ;=< wjika igkg iQodk h hq;= njhs' we;eyq fldkag
myrug h jQy' wms m%udKj;a f,i iQodk ke;ehs hkak o lshKs'
t;ek f.daGdNhf.a wIaGdkh lemS fmKsk' fld<U;a" jkaksfha;a
tlg fldkag fkdis;+ m%ydr jghla t,a, h' t;eka isg
m%Ndlrkaf.a lkaKd m%;snh Tyqg yuqh' ;ek iSud ke;s .,a,d
hqoaOh tys m%ldYlhdg tfrysj we/Ks'
B<g m%Ndlrka ud,a wdrejg .sfha;a" f.daGdNh rdcmlaI uy;d
>d;kh i|yd W;aidy lf<a;a ish Wmdh ;jrg;a l%shdf kxjks'
ud,awdre ch.%yKfhka miq idmQ" lgmpdka yd fjre.,a olajd
uq ol=Kq ;%sl=Kdu,hu uqod.;a g wdrlaId yuqod muKla fkdj
foaYmd,kfha kshe,S is fndfyda fofkl=g o wd;au Yla;sh ,eKs'
2006 cQ,s 26 isg wf.daia;= uq, ol=Kq ;%Su,fha yd W;=re hdmk uqyuf,a
tlg fldkaf.a oa;aj m%ydrh mrdch lsf uq,a i;sfol w;sYh
;SrKd;aul h' ckdm;s;=ud mlaI kdhl /iaula le| jQ w;r"
155

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

hQ'tka'mSh yd fYaIfhka uqia,s fldx.%ih wre ;%hla rgg ujd


fmkah' iqmqre m c''fm lSf y iQodkula ke;sj wdKavqj igkg
f.dia we;s njhs' f ms<sn|j Tjqka yd ckdm;s;=ud w;r" jpk
yqjudrejla o we;s jQ nj miqj fy<s or h' ta Ialr k lSmh ;=<
wIaGdkh by<u ;;a;ajfha ;nd.; hq;= nj wfma woyi h' ish,a,
jer .shd k fpdaokdj tkafka r;k yshkag yd fy< Wreuhg nj
wms fydkau jgydf.k isfhuq'
hqoaOh wjidkh olajd f pxp, Ndjhka ka g meje;sKs' ch.%yK
,nkg udOH bhg f.dia rKre lS;sfhka m%Ndu;a jk wh
mrdcfha yels;dla ie`. ishy' jrla wkqrdOqmr .=jka l|jqrg
m%ydrhla t,a, wms uola miqnE g ish kd,sldj,g f.dia th uyd
miqneiSula fkdjkd nj meye,s lrkakg jQfha ugh' fndfyda finka
yd ks,Odka ug rl;kfhka l;dlr hqoaOfha Wmdh ud.h .ek ud
l< .%yh .ek ug ia;=;s l<y' mquh k ud mir weue;s f,i
cmdkfha hiqIs wldIs yuqjQ g wfma ;%sudk Wmdh ud.h .ek
(Demilitarization, Democratization, Development 3D) mejiQ g Tyq
th b;d by<ska we.ehSug ,lal< njh' ia%hdf uydpdh .=rka
wd idudkHfhka fld ys;jd oaj;=ka ixOdkh l< ixjdohl ud
m<l< woyia weiQ fndfyda fokd ^2007& lSf tajd b;d wdlYkSh
ixOdkd;aul woyia yd tajd ;uka m<uqjrg wikd foa nj;ah' fld
mrdch l< fkdyelsh hk u;fha is fndfyda ngysr ;dkdm;sjre
^fnd f,ala we;=& yd oaj;=ka /ilg th wms lrkd nj ta;a;=
.ekaug wmg yelsh' fuhska fYaI jQfha lSm gla bkahdf yuq jQ
Tjqkf.a oaj;a m%N+ msia iu. we;s jQ ixjdohkah' wmj fudav *eisia
/<la f,i yxjvq .eiSug ;e;al< fndfyda fofkl=g ffioaOdka;slj o"
m%dfhda.slj o wms ms<s;=re iemhSuQ' wfma ixOdkd;aul ixl,am yd
ie,iq .ek Tjqka meye ish o tajd m%dfhda.slj l%shd;aul l< yels o
hkak .ek Tjqka ish fokdg lsPdjka ;sKs'
2007 jir uq,u meye,s jQfha fld iy cd;sl n,f. wdKavqj
wia:djr lsug foaYmd,k m%ydrhla foka iskd njh' wfma iajdka
jykafia,d yd .syshka w;r" we;sjQ fYaI idlPdjlska miq >Dcq f,i
wdKavqjg tla fld frda igk Yla;su;a l<hq;= njg ;SrKh
lf<uq' u,afma yshka ish wiqk m;Hd. lf<a;a ix> wd{dj
156

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

l%shd;aul lsu i|yd ud md,sfka;= .sfha;a ta wkqjh' u,afma


yshkaf.a b,a,d wiau yd ud uka;%Sjrfhl= f,i m;af .ei
ksfokh ksl=;a ug .sfha tla kls' md,sfka;=f jqre ug;a
fmr mir yd iajdNdl im;a weue;s f,i ckdm;s;=ud bfha
jqre kafk' uka;%S f,i md,sfka;=f jqre kafka bkamiqjh'
^2007 fmnrjd 01-02& md,sfka;=f ug fmkS .sfha wkqr - ux., Y%Sm;s yd ;j;a lsysm fofkla hQ'tka'mSfhka meKs msi bfm< wiqka
.ekSu .ek uy;a ydyQjla we;slrkd whqreh' jydu mshjr fkd.;fyd;a
;;a;ajh ;j;a W.%h yels nj meye,s h'
ux., iurr uy;d iu. idlPd i|yd wka;sug .sh lKavdhug
uu;a wh;a' rdka w,ia yd Woh .ukams, uy;ajreka o tys h'
Tyqf.a ;SrKh wdmiq yrjd .ekSug h bvlvla fkd;snqKdu fkdf'
ielhl wdldrfhka m%Yakhla u;= jQ g th m<uq fudfydf;a u i|d
fkd.;fyd;a ielfha ne,au ish l%shdjkag fhduq ielh ffjrh
njg;a" th m<s.ekSu njg;a m;af' ux., - Y%Sm;s m;ajQfha;a ta
;;a;ajhgh'
ud weue;s Oqrfha jqre fl,skau .sfha ckdm;s f,al ldhd,gh'
ta iqiq mqoa.,fhl= wud;HdxY f,al moh i|yd f;dard .ekSuggh'
neis,a rdcmlaI yd Woh .ukams, uy;ajre iydhg ishy' f;dard.;a
f,al;=ud m;alr .ekSfuka miq mir wud;HdxYhg wh;a ish wK
mk;a" wdh;k" jHdmD;s wdh ms<sn| k folla wOHhkh lsfuka
miqj uu jevNdr .ekSu msKsi ldhd,hg .sfh'
ug ldhd,hla fkdh' l=vd ldhd,hl ;djld,slj ,e`.= .;af;'
ks, r: fkdh' ks, r: f,i jdyk 23la l,ska is weue;sjre /f.k
f.dia ;sKs' jqre ka kfha by< ud,hg hoa fmd jeisls<sj,
.kaOfhka ldhd, msf.dia ;sKs' uf.a m<uq ldhh jQfha fmd
jeisls<s moaO;sh klrKh lsuh' thg ,shk .Kkla jeh h'
kuq;a t<eUqKq wjqre ksjdvqjg f.or hk .uka fndfyda jeisls<s"
leisls<s Wmdx. fiajlhska iu. f.or .sfha ud fldamhg;a" lmdjg;a
m;alrjks' ta w;f wms lKavdhula f,i ldh uKav,hu WoEik
yuq jev fnod.ekSu;a" miqk jev miqmru;a lrf.k .sfhuq' iqN
m;kakka we;= oyia .Kkla m<uq k lSmh ;=< je, fkdle wdy'
157

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

fmardfoKsh Yaj oHd,fha N+ oHd W;aijhlg m%Odk wuq;a;d f,i


f.dia l< l;dj wid is uydpdh Ydka; fykakdhl lSf fuh
ySkhla jeks njhs' fuf,i ;=gq mygq jQ oyia .Kkla rg mqrdu ishy'
i;s lSmhlg miq cfm mqj;am;la jd;d lf<a mir weue;sf.a lEu
, remsh,a 20"000hs f,ih uila mqrd meKs oyia .Kklg f;a meka
ix.%y lsf iy Wfoa 7 isg rd;%S 10 olajd O wdh;k le|jka ish
wdh;kj, ;;a;ajh .%y lrka ldhd,fhau j;a fjka .;l<"
leml< ld,hg ,enqKq m<uq ms<s.ekSu th h'
m<uq i;s lsysmh fuf,i f. .sfha fndrej<j,a" lgl;d" wekqmo"
jHdc udOH m%pdr w;fh' ldhd,hla yd thg wjYH myiql
,nd.ekSug ks, jdyk myiqlu u;a lr.ekSu l=,S ksjila
fidhd.ekSu wd ldhhkag udi .Kkla .;h' kuq;a ta w;f
rfgka 1$3l ^30]& N+ Nd.h yd im;a md,kh lrkd f oejeka;
wud;HdxYh u;a ;,hlg f.ktkakg;a" rgmqrd ish ia:dkj,g
f.dia ;;a;ajh isheiska oel.kakg;a" ta w;f ish idjkaj, mlaIh
iyuq,skau m%;s ixOdkh lr.kakg;a wms iu;ajQfhuq' 2006 m<d;a
md,k Pkao ;r. lsfuka yd fjk;a lreKq ksid l,ls is msia yd
kj msia kdf.k mlaIh Yla;su;a lr.ekSu fYaIfhka .syshka w;r"
ixOdkd;aul lr.ekSug wms iu;a jQfhuq'
fm!oa.,slju ug m%Yak .Kkdjlg uqyqK fokakg ish' ug wh;a
ksjila ;snqfKa fydaud.ug;a tyd udj;.uh' tys isg ldhd,hg taug
mehlg;a jvd .;f' WoEik ud. ;onoh ysirohls' fmd,sia ihsrka
.idf.k bvlv ,nd.ekSu uy;a wm%shld tlla jQ w;r" wdrlaIdjg o
udrl h' wdrlaIdj i|yd ud wkq.ukh lf<a yels;dla idudkH f,i
.uka uka hEu;a" W;aij u.yeu;a wkfmalaIs; f,i l%shdlsu;ah'
ug wfma wdrlaIl nqoa wxYj, iydh o thg ,eKs' ish,a,kaf.a
WmfoaYh jQfha mdr l=,;=x.g" o'uQ' oikdhlg jQjdfuka .= rla tlu
wdldrhg .uka lsu ksid urKh wm le|jd .kakd njh' ta wkqj wms
kdj,ska ksjila l=,shg .;af;uq' th wud;HdxYhg hEug;a orejka
mdi,a heug;a myiq h' ta i|yd wdKavqfjka ,enqKq remsh,a ,laIhl
udisl l=,sh ,nd.;s' tu.ska we;a;gu isjQfha uilg ldhd,hg
hEug yd taug jehjk remsh,a 60"000l muK bkaOk b;=re uh'

158

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

uilg remsh,a ,laIh ne.ska" f.j,a l=,S .kakd weue;sjrfhl= f,i


uf.a ku tla;rd mqj;am;la uq,a msgqf m<lf<ah' ta jkg remsh,a
,laIfha ukdj remsh,a 50"000g;a" weue;s mm; re'42"000g;a lmd
oud ;sKs' uilg ,s" c, ,am;a iys;j remsh,a ,laIhla ,ef hehs
is;d l=,shg .;a ksjig ,efnkafka remsh,a 50"000ls' ta w;r uf.a
jegqm uu mlaIhg m;Hd. lf<' weue;s Oqr jehs" Tjqkg iem
jehs wd f,i fpk lrkd fndfyda md,sfka;= uka;S%jrekaf.a
jegqm remsh,a ,laIh blaujd ke;s nj jrla c''fm uka;S% u,a
r;akdhlu ms<s.;af;ah' Tjqkg b;d wvq l=,shg rcfha ksjdi
udfj,ska ,nd we;s w;r" thg iudk ksjila lsisfia;a re'50"000lg
l=,shg .;yels fkdf' weu;s Oqrfhka isjQfha ud Khu muKs' uf.a
Ialr ;;a;ajh wjfndaO lr.;a ys;j;=ka ;sfofkla uf.a ho
fkduiqrej oerej kuq;a" Kh nr Wiq,d.; fkdyelsj uu uf.a fudag
r:h l=Kd oefu' weka'we'g .sKsor fuda, fmkajd uv.id wirK
l< f,i foaYmd,kfhka yn fkdl< we;a;kag lrkd widOdrK
fpkh .ek uq, lmd jqK;a" miqj th ord.ekSug bgd.;s'
we;a;gu weue;s fyda ue;sjrekaf.a mk fyda bkaOk ukdj, fkdj
m%Yakh we;af;a Tjqka fkdfhla wdldrfhka ,nd.kakd w,a,iaj, yd
fkdukd f,i rdcH wruqo,a fhdod.ekSu ;=<h' ldgqka wkd uv m%ydr
.ikd fndfyda udOHfkg ue;s weue;Skg jvd m jeh'
weue;s Oqrfha B<`. kSri w;aoelSu jQfha udOH fpkhkah' wfma
uOHu mir wldfha ks,Odkau f.dia fnd,af.dv m%foaYfha
kS;sfrda bls i|yd kvq mjrkq ,enQ w;r" tla;rd mqj;am;a
ysfhla" rEmjdyskS fiajd whs;slrefjla" .=jka ,s fiajhl Odhl
ks,Odfhla tajdfha ;a;s lrejka jQy' Tjqka fuhska" l=ms; jQ w;r"
.gu rgmqrd .ia lefmkd nj;a" w,s uefrkd nj;a w`.jk jd;d .g
yryg m<l<y' 1997 w,s we;=ka ^W;=r yd kef.kysr yer& 197
fofkl= h.sh w;r" 2007 ^kef.kysr o we;=j& h.sfha 189ls'
kuq;a udOH jd;d fmkajQfha ys yefha w,s hhk wdldrhlah'
tla;rd mqj;am;la km;du w,s hhk oYk m<lf<a ish
foaYmd,ksl ffjrh msuid .ekSu i|ydh'
w,s we;=ka frd.ekSu i|yd wm h;a l< .c ;=frda jHdmdrh u.ska
1982-2007 ld,fha bl< ls'' 620l ,s jeg m%udKhg je m%udKhla
159

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

2007-2009 ld,fha ^ls'' 680& bl< nj fulS udOH ljodj;a jd;d


lf<a ke;' jxpd IK lr w;ayer oud ;snQ Wvj,j WoHdkh
klrKh lr m%;sIaGdmkh lf<a;a" j;=r ke;sj w,s uefrkjd hehs
lshQ Kq.fjfyr wka;su fudfydf;a fjfyr., jHdmdrh hgf;a
klrKh lf<a;a wm hgf;ah' fldkau jir 60la l=,shg isg jir
08la ldhd,hlg bvula ke;s j j,a u ;a is jk
fomd;fka;=jg kK;u ldhd,hla ,ndkafka udh' fjkod jk
WoHdkj," ksjdij, i;s .Kka ,e`.= f.k iem .kakd weue;s
ks,Od im%odh fjkia lsug ug fndfyda wr., lrkakg ish'
iqNodhS m%jD;a;s M, fkdlsf mqu im%odhla wmg ;sf' ysgmq
weue;sjre fuka ;ukag fYaI ie,ls,a,la fkdolajdhs hehs WrK jQ
udOHffhl= wuQ,sl wi;Hhka bod mqj;am;l msgqmqrd w;ykakg
h' fld<U by< .Kfha m%N+ka ;ukg is f,i WoHdkj, kej;Sug
fkd,eu .ek ud iu. WrK jQy' Tjqk o lf<a mir m%Yak ms<sn|j
oHQ;a ;emE, yd bx.%Sis mqj;am;a u.ska ud yg m%ydr t,a, lsuh'
fldkau ueKsla .eu .ek fpdaokd ,;a wfma fiajl uyf;la o
WoHkj, uy;a mir ydkshla fj;ehs m%pdrhla f.k .sfhah' jk
fomd;fka;=jg me< imhd tajdg uqo,a fkd,eu ksid o" je,s
.ekSug bv fkdka ksid o l=ms; jQ fofofkla jrla ., ug
reoaOj Woaf>daIKhla ixOdkh lrkd ,' miqj udOHfka
bfhau Tjqka ;ukaf.a we;a; frdaOh mdfmdpdrKh lrkd ,'
kuq;a udOH m<lf<a frdaOh muKls' tfukau jrla ., lkao
.,afldhlg we;s njg o jd;d m<h' fidhdne,Sf fmkS .sfha
thska ie;mq 12la wE; jir 05la me/Ks .,a j<la .ek m%jD;a;shla
njhs' ,xldf nyq;rhla udOH idOdrK fkdjk fpk f.k t;s'
;ukg jdis we;s whg hyka m%pdrh fo;s' ks;ru krl Wmamd
olaj;s' we;e g wuQ,sl wi;Hh m;=rej;s' fuh udOH meisiajdohhs'
wud;HdxYh u;a lsu i|yd mshjr lSmhla .;s' mir wud;HdxYh
fndfydarg fiiq wud;HdxY fukau ks,Odkaf.a rc oykla ;sKs'
th fjkialsu uf.a m%Odk ldhh h' thg ndOl lSmhla ;sKs'
tlla k mirh i|yd O foaY wdOdr" jHdmD;s yd YsIH;aj wdh
,e ;snQ ksid th fndfydarg f wdOdr wdh;kj, ;=re iudchla
;suh' uq wud;HdxYfhau jHqyhka ieliS ;snqfKa ta wkqjh' m;,a

160

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

leKS ldhdxYh jeks wdh;k jHdmdlhkaf.a;a" oej ixia:dj jeks


wdh;k foaYmd,k fldka;%d;alrejkaf.a;a" jk fomd;fka;=j
fld<U jk f,da,Skaf.a;a .%yKfha meje;sKs' fojeks ndOlh jQfha
foaYmd,khhs' hQ'tka'mShg ys;e;s fldgia fldhs fudfydf;a fyda
wdKavqj jegu i|yd fya;= ilika ishy' c''fm msia jev jck
lsug fyda cd;sl fy< Wreuhg fyda ug mqoa.,sl m%ydrhla t,a,
lsug fyda iE meye ishy' Y%S','ks'mfha wh ;ukaf.a ksfyla
weue;s fkdu ksid fm;ai heug hqyqiq h' fldfydu;a" jD;a;Sh
i;sj, m%;spdrh mj;akd l%uhg /yeks tlla h' my< fY%aKsj,
whf.a idOdrK b,a,Sula mjd l,a ouka hg .ikd ks,Odjd
;;a;ajhla ;sKs' m<d;a md,k Pkaoh b,a,Su ksid fiajfhka fkrmk
,o c''fm idudlhka msilg /lshd ,ndug ug jir tlyudrla
ks,Odka yd .efgkakg ish' wfma jHdmD;shl jir 05la is fiajl
msila Wlyd.kakg jirla l%shd l<;a" fkdyels h' ta w;r"
oHd;aul fiajh" wud;HdxY fiajh" oHd wOHdmkh ,enQjka yd
fkd,enQjka mska meKs wh we;=<ska meKs wh f,i" fNaohla
meje;sKs'
uu m<uqj fcHIaG;ajh fjkqjg l=i,;djh ykajd ks' th
fcHIaGhskaf.a fpkhg ,lajqj o l=i,;djh we;s ;reK msiaj,g
je j.lSula ,nd ks' B<`.g l=i,;djh we.hSf l%ufohla we;s
lf<' th by< isg my<g o" my< isg by<g o f,i l%u follg
islf<' wdh;k w;r" ;% ;r.hla njg th m;alf<' ksjdvq
,nd" foia .; iSud lsu ksid Yd, frdaO;d we;s jqj o je
jefhka w;a wjia:d ,ndfuka frdaO;d iukh flKs' jrla
300lg wl jk fomd;fka;=f msila foaY mqyqKqjg heug
wOHlaIl ckrd,a l< b,a,Sug lkakafka Tjqkg th lsisod
fkd,efnk nj oek is ksidh' foaY ixpdr" ks;ru wdh;k yd
wdh;k m%OdkSka w;r fnod.ekSf im%odh | oeuqfj'
uf.a fojeks b,lalh jQfha wruqo,aj,ska iajhx fmdaIs; uhs' 2007
jif ug jev lrkakg jqfKa ta jkg;a whjefhka fjkajQ wruqo,a
hgf;ah' wfma wdh;kj, wdodh jelsfuka o" fiajd ldhlaIu
lsfuka o" kj wdodh fidhd .ekSfuka o 2008 wfma wud;HdxYfha
ish wdh;kj, ish ho wmsu fidhd .kak;a" 2009 wud;HdxYh
161

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,dNodhS lrkakg;a iu;a jqfk' N+f;,aj,ska" lsmsj,ska" mdkams


mmamqj,ska ,efnkd nj,ska hefmkd wud;HdxYhla fkdjk nj
wdvnrfhka lSfj'
jev jck i|yd uu oe m%;sm;a;shla wkq.ukh lf<' wud;HdxYh
;=< cfm jD;a;Sh i;s m%n,j ;snqK o 2007 yd 2008 tl jev
jckhla j;a id:l fkdh' 2008 iuia; uyd jev jckh od
meKSu fjkodg;a jvd fyd| 99] blaujd ;sKs'
uyck m%;spdr i|yd o blauka l%shdoduhla we/' 1991 yis
rl;kh ykajd ka w;rweue;s .ug hgf;a ish ia;%slalj,g
.sfh' wjidkfha wmg ord.; fkdyels ;r meKs,s .,d wd w;r"
wfma wud;HdxYhg wh;a ke;s meKs,s mjd wmg fhduqj ;sKs' f
ksid fl,skau ck;dj w;rg hd hq;=hehs is;d mdi,a" rcfha wdh;k"
mqoa.,sl wdh;k" frday,a" jev" .udk wdh fj;g >Dcqj f.dia
O jevigyka h;a lf<' wms fkdoek is w;a ckldhla wmg
yuqKs' w;a m%Yak o ta iu.u u;= wdfh'
fYaI jHdmD;s .Kkdjla o h;a lf<' thska uQ,slu wx.h jQfha
ms<sire cd;sl li< l<ukdlrK jHdmD;shhs' li< l<ukdlrKh
wmg wh;a Ihla fkdh' wfma j.lSu jQfha m<d;a md,k wdh;k tlS
j.lSu bgqfkdlrk g kvq mejuh' uu thg Tfnka f.dia m<d;a
md,k wud;HdxYh yd m<d;a iNd iu. tla ms<sire f.k wdfj'
ueKav,a we;= l=Kq l .Kkla kslaIKh l< ug fmkS .sfha
frday,a wmjH" ridhksl wmjH" oHQ;a wmjH idudkH li< iu.
l=Kq lj,g tk njh' uu jydu frday,a wmjH inkaOfhka kj
kS;s f.k wdfj' jydu ug tfrysj Tjqka ke`.S ishy' kuq;a"
wjidkfha Tjqka ish,af,da wfma ;Skaj,g tl`. jQy' fld<U k.rfha
2008 foienrfhka miq frday,a wmjH l=Kq f.dvg hkafka ke;' l=Kq
f.dka fjf<|fmd<g myrKh l< iskacr wdh tkafka o ke;'
ridhksl wmjH i|yd o >Dcqj l%shd lf<' jHdmdr i|yd mdil
n,m;%h wksjdh lf<' ,ehsia;= ;=klg tajd .ei lr ridhksl fyda
fjk;a wmjH mirhg tlau je<elaug mshjr .;s' fuh b;d
wudrefjka jHdmdr lrf.k .sh whg krlg n,mEfh' tfukau
we;eg mqoa.,sl ;ry i|yd o fhdod.kakd ,' ta wjia:dj, m%Yakh
162

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wjfndaO lr.kakd f,i;a" wl IKh iy wl ,dN iys; wdh;k


i|yd oej kS;sh l%shd;aul lrkd f,i;a" ksfhda. ,ndks' f ksid
we;e m%fldam;shka ud iu. WrK h'
oHQ;a wmjH m%;spl%ShlrKh i|yd kj mir ixrlaIK n l%uhla
ykajd ks' ,xldf uq,ajrg oHQ;a wmjH tla lsu i|y
l%ufohla ilia lsug o wmg yelsh' bj;,k cx.u rl;k neg"
,s ,dmq" m.Kl" iS'' ;e wd fndfyda foa i|yd w;a m%;sm;a;s
ilia lf<' we;e n,j;=ka wlrKfha n,fhka o wfma kj ;s
md,kh lrkakg wdjo wm fkdie,S isu ksid wlrKhg o fjkia
jkakg ish'
uq, ug ye`.S .sfha ,xldf li< m%Yakh iug fkdyels" uqo,a yd
;dlaIKh fkdue;s ksid njh' wms uqo,a yd ;dlaIKh fidhd.;a g
fmkS .sfha bv yd foaYmd,k w.;sh m%Odk fya;+ka njh' kd.l
ixjOkfha li< i|yd bv ykdf.k fjka fkdlsu;a" kd.l
ie,iq l%shd;aul fkdlsu;a" j.=re l=Kq oud f.dv lsu rcfha o
mqoa.,sl wxYfha o fmd m%;sm;a;sh u;a fuhg fya;+ f,i ykd .;s'
lek uKav,fha .;a ;SrK mjd O wdh;kj, lU we ksid udi
.Kka l,a .sfhah' ckdm;s ksfhda. mjd fkd;ld yeKs' kuq;a" uu
W;aidyh w;a fkdyefh' .ska .gu fmdr neu ksid ueKav,a"
lrhdk" fmdfydrj;a;" fldf<dkakdj jeks oejeka; l=Kq l i|yd
l<ukdlrK jevigyka ykajdug yelsh' fndfyda m<d;a md,k
wdh;kj,g bv ,ndug" tajd ykd.ekSug yelsh' ug bjish
fkdyels jQfha u;a li< l<ukdlrKhla ykajd ug hkg
u;=lrkd mgq foaYmd,k frdaOhhs' ueKav,a l=Kq lkao we;sjqfKa
1991 isgh' tys h wruqK jQfha f;;au f.dvlr l=Kd .ekSuhs' 1997
mdlal m%foaYfha li< r|jkhla .ek fhdackdjla h' le,Ks .`.
li<j,ska /l.ekSu i|yd ish,a,ka tla tlS fhdackdj mrdch lrkd
,' bkal .=KjOk yd lre chiQh uy;ajre B<`. Pkaoh i|yd
li< wmyrK fhdackdj w;aykq ,eh' m%;sM,h jQfha ueKav,a ys
li< lkaola we;s tys wmc,h le,Ks .`. f.a lS'' 30-40la o
mdlal olajd .uka lsuh uu k ks;ru lSf B<`. Pkaoh fkdj
B<`. mrmqr fjkqfjka ud l%shdlrkd njhs'

163

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

jk w,ska iqrlaIs; lsu i|yd ia:dms; l< .c ;=frda foaY YdL


bj;a lr foaYSh YdL m%p,s; lsug f.k wd fy< ;=re hk
c,fmdaIl llr m%foaY jkdka;r lsu i|yd f.k wd .s ;=re hk"
oej ixia:djg ykajd ka kj oej cjh jdKsc ie,eiau" m;,a leKSu
ldhdxYh msu i|yd f.k wd rka forK jev igyk" y;
.udk" mshlre mqrjr wd jHdmD;s 10la h;a lf<' fYaIfhka
m;,a leKS ldhdxYh m%:ujrg ^1992 tys msysgqfuka miq&
NdKavd.drhg uqo,a hjkd wdh;khla lsu;a ^2008 ,shk 500& wuq
jH f,i Lksc msgrg fkdhjd furg ludka; we;s lsf
m%;sm;a;sh;a" remsh,a 15"000g .sh je,s lshq tl remsh,a 6"000 f.k wd
ukmsh je,s jHdmD;sh;a kj m%fYhla h' Lksc yd je,s l.,a
ksid ;dkdm;sjrekaf.a isg .f f.df pkaka yd Is; foaYmd,lhska
fmd,sia ks,Odka iu. ksrka;rfhka .efgkakg ug ish' m;,a yd
Lksc ldhdxYh ud Ndrhg tkg tys fiajlfhda folg fn ishy'
IKh yeu w;u h' uu jD;a;Sh ugf iNdm;sjrfhla yd wOHlaI
ckrd,ajrfhla m;a lf<' wdh;kh khdkql+, lf<' wdodh je
lf<' 2006 ud Ndr.kakg fmr ,shk 246la jQ tys wdodhu 2008
,shk 491la olajd je lf<' wdl wnqoh ksid 2009 b,lal
,nd.; fkdyels jqj;a wms ,shk 625la rchg hefjuq' ukmsfha
.S ckhdg muKla ,shk 250la muK ,ndkafkuq' l=,shg ;snQ
uQ,ia:dkh , .ekSug lghq;= lf<' oHd;aul mfhaIK i|yd
fjku wdh;khla hlal, msysgqjQfj' hdmkh yd uvl<mqf isg
m%dfoaYSh ldhd, cd,hla we;s lf<' oej ixia:dj o imQKfhka
m%;sksudKh lf<uq' oej ixia:df wdodhu 2006 ,shk 2155lajQ w;r"
th 2008 3141 lrkakg wms iu;auq' fYaIfhka oej ixia:df
ksIamdok jQ ,s lKq m%udKh xf isg 50"000 olajd o" is,amr
m%udKh xf isg 100"000 olajd o" w,sjeg lKq m%udKh xf isg
27"000 olajd o by< oeuQfj' oej ixia:df .nvd yd WmlrK
iyuq,ska klrKh lrkakg o iu;a' wms ,sn, uKav,hg ,s
lKq imhk g Tjqka tajd f.kajka isfha fkdaf rks' is,amr o"
wm%sldfjka yd fjk;a rgj,ska wdkhkh flfrka ;sKs' f ksid f
jHdmdrj,ska ,dN ,nd.kakjqka yd ks;r .e we;slr.kakgo ish'
wod< weue;sjre fofmd< fl,ska fkdiskakg we;e ks,Odka
ish,a, wjq,a lrkakg o bv ;sKs'

164

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

wud;HdxYhla IKj,ska f;drj mj;ajd .ekSu .ek o" rcfha jdKsc


wdh;k nxfldf,d;a jk hq.hl tajd ,dN ,nk ;r.ld wdh;k
lsug yelsu .ek o kj wdlhla .ek is;kd f hq.fha wfma
wdoYh ldg;a wdoYhls'
mir wud;HdxYfha ;snQ jeo.;au wx.h tys cd;Hka;r udkhhs' wfma
fidaka tallfha wOHlaI iqu;smd, uy;df.a olaIlu ksid tlS
udkhg <`.djQfha cd;sl fidaka tallh muKs' fidaka hk /lSu
i|yd fyd|u l%shdldl;ajh fjkqfjka iudkh 2007 ,xldjg
,enqKq w;r" lekvd ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha iq j.jdka yd fou<
cd;sjdka th ,nd .ekSf W;aijhg hEug ug wjia:dj kafka ke;'
uu udf.a frdaOh lekvd w.ue;sg tlai;a cd;Skaf.a iuqjl yuq
oelajQfj' miqj uu talPkaofhka fidaka hk /l.ekSu i|yd jQ
hdkd iuq;sfha iNdm;s njg m;a' foaY.=K mhdih f,df
m%Odk f;audj jknj oekf.k ta i|yd cd;sl f,al ldhd,hla
msysgq' ldnka fjf<|du m%p,s; lsu i|yd cd;sl ldnka wruqo,
msysgq' fjd ish,a,u fndfyda mud isl< foa jqj;a" wmf.a
wkd.;h fjkqfjka isl< foa fjhs' ud iska" f.fkkd ,o mdil
Kh ngysr cd;Ska f.h hq;=h hk oelau;a" ;srir ixjOkh ueKSf
kj oYlh;a oaj;=ka w;r" yd .S rgj, pdrhg yiqh' wmg y`vla
ke;s nj ykdf.k idla iuqf fmd y`vla we;s lrkakg;a" f;;a
jkdka;r ikaOdkhg we;= jkakg;a" l=vd jhska ikaOdkfha
kslaIlfhl= jkakg;a l%shd lf<' lk.dgqjg fuka wfma foaY
wud;HdxYfha we;e ks,Odka wmg ksis iydh kafka ke;' Tjqkg
mir m%Yakfha cd;Hka;r udkh fmkqfKa ke;' tfy;a" tla;rd bod
mqj;am;lg fldamkafya.ka iuqj ^2009& i|yd ksfhda;hka m;alr
ke;s njg jQ m%jD;a;sh k kafka foaY wud;HdxYfha f,dl=
ks,Odfhls fndfyda .S rgj,a fmdai;a rgj, wdOdr m;df.k Tjqka
fpkh fkdlr fvd, ys`.ufka h;a uu iEu gu i;Hh
fjkqfjka" idOdrKh fjkqfjka fmkS isfh' f ksidu ngysr
rgj, ys;jdka Tjqkf.a we;e iuqj,g ug wdrdOkd lsfuka
je<lS isug miai jQy' ta w;r" ;j;a rgj,a ud wk kdhlfhl=
f,i ms<s.;af;dah' tlai;a cd;Skaf.a mir iuqj wu;d uu 2008
fmnrjd 18 l< l;dj iu. wm oYl .Kkla ,xldf isl< ixjdoh

165

mdG,S pmsl rKjl

cd;Hka;r ;,hg f.k .sfhuq' ta ish,a, w;f hqKq rgj, foaYmd,k


jxpdfjka uq f,dalhu wk;=f jefgkd wdldrh;a" wms cd;Hka;r
;,hg hEug oYlhlska muK mud u;a" .ek we;sjk lk.dgqj
yeugu ud is; fj,d .;af;ah' udOH m%pdrfhka miqmig .sh;a we;a;
hqKqj me;af;ka mir wud;HdxYh wdoY wud;HdxYhla lrkakg
yelsu ch.%yKhlg je fohla f,i i,l'
2009 jIh werUqfKau iqN wdrx iu.h' ckjd 01 od isg 09 jeksod
olajd jQ ld,h ;=< udkal=,f isg w,suxlvg fldkaf.a ks, w.kqjr
jQ ls,sfkdh" Wmdh ud.sl jYfhka b;du jeo.;a jQ mrka;ka o
iu. jQ m%foaY w;alr.kakg wfma yuqod iu;a h' 2000 w,suxlv
jeu;a iu. wm we;sl< cd;sljd foaYmd,kfha WP iajrh 2009
w,suxlv h<s fkdjefgkakg w,a,d .ekSu h' fomiska meK m%ikak
yd Yfka yuqod kdhlhka w,suxlv tlajk oYkh |.;af;a l
ms fofk;sks' wkqrdOmqrfha ryfia j<ouk ,o w,suxlv
fojdplfhka h.sh orejkag hqla;sh bgqjqfKa todh'
2009 ud;= 08 od rf m%p,s; fcH;sI{fhla odk f.orl yuqjqfk'
Tyq lSf wo ;shqKq .%y udrejla we;sjk njh' we;e wh m%Ndlrka wo
h hk nj lSj o th miqj isjk nj fyf;u lSfh' miqk hqo f
iskd wfma ;=frl=g l;d lr ;;a;ajh uiqfj' fcH;sIfhdf.a
.%yudre l;dj o lSfj' Tyq fokdfjka lSf Bfha yd fmfod wmg
oreKq m%ydr t,a, jQ njh' wms wdmiaig .sh nj o lshKs' uu r;a
jqfK' fld h<s;a mrK fi,a,u oud wmj | ouhs o hk ielh
we;sh' jydu Wv hg O wxYj,g l;d lf<' ;;a;ajh md,kh lr
we;s nj oek.ekSfuka miqjh tk ug kskao .sfha'
wfm%a,a 05 od wdkkaomqr igkska ;Smka h.sh nj;a" fiiq kdhlhska
mq;=ud;,ka n,d m,d.sh nj;a" jd;d h' ;Smka fldkaf.a hqo
kdhlhdh' oeka b;ska fld wjidkh lrd meK we;s nj ug yhgu
yoj;g jegysKs' kQ;k ;r mqr igk f,i wdkkao mqr igk fmkajd
mqj;am;lg ,smshla ,Sfj'
uehs 11 od .gu uu isfha hqo uqla; l,dmfha isjk foa .ek
Wkkafjks' tl .g rl;k u.ska wfma ys;j;=kaf.ka rKf
f;dr;=re .ksks' m%ikakf.a fiakdxl jvqjd,a h mekakqu mek
166

mfida;.dj ;sia jila

W;=rg f.dia Ifkaf.a fiakdxl iu. tlajQjdh hkak ys;u


mqj;la h' wm okakd b;sydifha m%:u jrg uqyq fjrf<a yeu w`.,lu
whs;sh wmg ,eKs' todu ^uehs 14& wdpdh md,s; fldydk yd wdpdh
chdkkao tlai;a cd;Skag wfma uqyq iSudf kj whs;sh ms<sn| o;a;
igyka Ndr kafkah' oYl .Kkla mud jQ f ldhhg wfma N+ oHd
ldhdxYfha N+ oHd{hska inkaO u;a" ksrka;rfhka Tjqka iu.
f;dr;=re yqjudre lsu;a islr .;af;' wfma orejkag ;j l,lska
fyda ,efnkd kj uqyq im;a whs;sh .ek m%fndaOhg m;ajqfk' TGS
fkdafmla wdh;kh wmg ukakdr fdaKsfha o;a; fkd isug W;aidy
l< wjia:df tajd ,nd .ekSug wm l< wr.,h o isysh' rf f;,a
im; fkdaf cd;slhkag mjrd ka rks,af.a 2002 fmnrjd 12 orK
f;,a im;a .siqu fy<slr" th k;r lsug mqfrda.d jQfhao wmh' th
wmg fmkajd ka ls%ia OulS;sjo isyslrkafka lD;{mQjljh'
tfukau" wfma rg fuka 23 .=Khla Yd, id.r N+ m%foaYhl wfkal
im;a u;= mrmqrg fkdfoehs is;d rKre ch.%yKh orejkaf.a
ch.%yKhla nj oek i;=gq jqfKuq'
uehs 15 jeksod wms neis,a rdcmlaIhkaf.a ldhd,fha yuq ch.%yKh
ieuf wdldrh .ek idlPdjla meje;ajQfhuq' mshjr lSmhlska th
islsug bgd .;af;uq' md,sfka;=j wu;d lrk m%ldYh" ck;d
iurej" yuqod ixoYkh wd f,i th ukdj ixOdkh flKs' tk
ijiajref uf.a cx.u rl;khg fou< ikaOdk uka;%S flfkla
mKsjqvhla tjd ;sKs' ta fld kdhlhska hg;aug iQodk njh' uu
th neis,a rdcmlaI uy;dg oekajQfh' ta jkg Tyqj ;j;a lSm
fofkla inkaO lrf.k ;sKs' fuh Wmdhla h yels njg ielhla
o mej;sKs' miqj jd;d jqfKa kkalvd,a l,mqj yryd m,dhkakg orE
W;aidyh jH: jQ njh' tlai;a ckmo yuqodj,g cd;Hka;r r;=
l=reih yryd Ndr ug fld kdhlhska oerE W;aidyh o jHh:
flKs'
ckdm;s;=ud ch.%dySj uug iem;a jQ uehs 17 jeksod uu o
.=jkaf;dgqm<g .sfh' uu idudkHfhka fujeks W;aij mqjka ;r
u. ykafk' kuq;a" yoj;a m%S;sfhka To je ;sKs' uu ism bhg
tk t;=udg bhg f.dia wdpdr lf<' t;=ud jydu ud je<| f.k
b;d WKqiq f,i zwms kqZ hehs lSfh'
167