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Running head: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Instructional Design for a unit of instruction

by
Nickesha Senior
308003276

A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment


Of the Requirements of
EDID 6505 Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials
Trimester II, 2015-2016

Email:

nickesha.seniorwhynn@open.uwi.edu

Student ID:

308003276

University:

University of the West Indies Open Campus

eTutor& Course

Dr. LeRoy Hill

Coordinator :

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

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Table of Contents

Needs Assessment 4
Goals .4
Objectives .4
Target Audience ...4
Purpose of the Needs Assessment.5
Optimals ...5
Actuals .5
Causes ..6
Feelings ....7
Solutions ..8
Hypothesis ...8
Source of Information .9
Methods ..9
Technique 1 9
Technique 2 9
Use of Information to Design Workshop9
Task Analysis .9
Performance Objectives .10
Assessments ...11
Learner/Contextual Analysis .11
Instructional Strategies ..12
Reflection ..12
References .15

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Appendix A Technique 1:Participant Observation.16


Appendix A1 Personal Interview Instrument .18
Appendix B Technique 2: Personal Interview.19
Appendix B1 Personal Interview Instrument ..22
Appendix C1 Task Selection Worksheet.23
Appendix C2 Procedural Analysis ..27
Appendix C3 Flowchart...31
Appendix C4 Prerequisite Analysis.....32
Appendix D Rubric .....33
Appendix E Assessment Items 36
Appendix F Learner/Contextual Analysis....39
Appendix G PowerPoint Lesson..42
Appendix H Advanced Organizer45
Appendix H1 Comparative Organizer..45
Appendix H2 Graphic Organizer..46
Appendix I Analogies ..47
Appendix I1 Analogy 1....47
Appendix I2 Analogy 248

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Needs Assessment

Goals
The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the need for skills training for a group of teachers
and to create a unit of instruction to provide the necessary training in the areas of need. The
various curriculums, the present skills of each teacher as well as the available resources for
training will be assessed to satisfy the requirements of the intended programme.
Objectives
At the end of this assessment the instructional designer should be able to identify:

any lack of skill the teachers at the Excellence Centre have in meeting the demands of the

K-12 syllabus, GCSE syllabus and the CSEC syllabus


any challenges faced by the teachers at the Excellence Centre as a result of those lack of

skills
if the desired learning outcomes are being achieved by the students for each curriculum

The assessment will also help in ascertaining which skills teachers already possess that need
sharpening.
Target Audience
The Institute is very small and thus employs only three teachers full-time and one teacher parttime. The part-time teacher is responsible for teaching English Language while the full-time
teachers focus on mathematics and science. There is also an intern who deals with the accounts
and billing as well as a part-time sales manager. The assessment will be done for the three fulltime teachers; two (2) undergraduate teachers and one (1) graduate teacher at the Excellence

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Centre Institute who are preparing students to meet the requirements of the K-12 Algebra I and II
specifications, GCSE O and A level examinations as well as the CSEC examinations.
Purpose of the needs assessment
Optimals

need to be flexible and open to new strategies and methods


quick on their feet to meet the needs of the student
knowledge of the K-12 syllabus, GCSE O and A level syllabus and the CSEC syllabus
assess and evaluate the syllabus to know what to pass on to the students
the effective use of a graphing calculator
using various methods to solve questions in matrices, trigonometry, logarithms,

exponents, functions and relations


be sensitive to quick changes in topic based on the limited time frame
Actuals
none of the teachers are fluent in using a graphing calculator
67% of the teachers are experts in the CXC syllabus to include CSEC and CAPE as
opposed to the K-12 syllabus, GCSE O and A-Level syllabi
there are areas in the Geometry and Algebra II K-12 syllabus that are new concepts to be
taught by the teacher, therefore it requires further preparation
teachers have to teach all three syllabi, with different topics relating to each syllabi within
the same class session
topics require teachers to apply varying techniques in different syllabi with 50% of the
teachers finding it difficult to transition
teachers have to teach to facilitate multiple intelligences
teachers have most of their experience in teaching only one syllabus in regular school
many of the children have learning disabilities such as ADHD, Dyslexia and Dyscalculia
which require lesson traditional chalk and talk techniques
Causes

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As adopted from Rossett (1995):


Lack of skill/knowledge
The teachers are required to teach varying syllabi within a limited space of time,
at times they are not fully prepared for the lesson
There is lack of training in the use of many technological items such as a graphing
calculator
A lack of training in teaching topics in geometry and Algebra II in the K-12
syllabi
Flawed environment
At the centre where most of the teaching takes place there is a small space with
two teachers teaching at the same time which can be distracting to the students
and the teachers
The is need for teaching aids and tools such as computers
The teacher-student ratio is very high for the purpose of the institution. (Most
students are expecting to get individual attention)
Improper Incentives
Teachers are warned if mistakes are made in delivery or if tasks are not done
Very little time is given to get tasks done
Gratitude expressed verbally is the only incentive
Unmotivated Employees
The teachers are self motivated, they complete tasks according to their job
description
Teachers at times are not confident in their delivery as they are not confident in
the area being taught
The teachers are trained however they need to do professional developments to
improve their knowledge base and skills
Feelings
The teachers feel overworked and underpaid

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Teachers are of the opinion that they need to get more time to familiarize themselves with
the syllabi
The hours of work are too much for the teachers to get time to focus on developing their
skills
The teachers are of the opinion that one day off (Sunday) is not sufficient for them to be
fully prepared for all lessons. Preparation time takes away from family time.
Considering that students are entitled to individual attention the teachers feel
overwhelmed when one teacher is faced with five students within the same session
expecting individual attention.
Solutions
Training of staff on using instructional tools such as the graphing calculator
Get more instructional materials such as computers, graphing calculator as well as a
better arrangement of the facility
Training and discussions to allow staff to become familiar with each syllabi
Considering the student-teacher ratio more specialists need to be hired
The working hours need to be revised given more time for teachers to prepare for their
lessons
Teachers should be offered other incentives for getting tasks done on time, well and they
go above and beyond the call of duty.
Monthly professional development days will be instituted to enhance the teachers
understanding and presentation of various topics in the different syllabi
Hypotheses
Based on observation it is seen that:
There is a lack of training in various situations and with specifically the American based
syllabus
There is a need for the familiarity of the syllabi especially the American syllabus

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

There is a need for specialists in that area


More teachers need to be employed to meet the varied needs of the students

Source of information
The information needed will be gathered from the teachers themselves as they are the ones
directly affected by the situation. They would have first-hand knowledge as to all the processes
that take place and what areas need improvement. They are aware of the areas of each syllabus
that are most difficult for them to handle and why.
Methods
Technique 1: Participant observation (See Appendix A for details on participant observation)
Example of Observation Instrument(See Appendix A1 for the example of the instrument)
Technique 2: Personal interview (See Appendix B for details on personal interview)
Example of Personal Interview Instrument(See Appendix B1 for the example of the instrument)
Use of Information to design workshop
The information gathered will help in identifying the challenges of the company and thus give an
idea as to what issues need to be addressed by the workshop. It will also aid in giving ideas as to
possible ways of addressing the issues and the best way of structuring the workshop. It will help
in identifying the skills of the workers that can be utilized in the workshops.

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Task Analysis

According to Jonassen, Tessmer and Hannum (1998)task analysis is used extensively in


designing different forms of instruction, including performance support, direct instruction, and
open-ended learning environments(pg. 6). This unit seeks to design a face-to-face
instructionalworkshop for the target audience. After the needs assessment a task selection was
done which determined that the top three tasks that needed to be addressed were teaching aspects
of trigonometry in the Algebra II syllabus, presenting the topic directed numbers to students with
varying learning styles and using a graphing calculator. The latter was selected for this unit of
instruction. (See Appendix C1 for the Task Selection Worksheet)
The two methods of analysis used for this unit were the Procedural Analysis and the
Prerequisite Analysis. The procedural analysis outlines the procedures for completing the unit,
(See Appendix C2 and C3 forthe Procedural Analysis and Flowchart). The Prerequisite Analysis
however gives the sequence of how to acquire the skills offered in the unit, (See Appendix C4 for
the Prerequisite Analysis).
Performance Objectives
Terminal/General Objective:

After engaging in a two day training workshop the participants will demonstrate the use
of the graphing calculator to do operations and calculations in the K-12 syllabus without
assistance and with at least 90% accuracy.

Enabling/Specific Objectives:

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By the end of this unit of instruction participants will:


identify the keys on the graphing calculator used for graphing, solving matrices and
trigonometric questions 90% accurately without assistance (Recall, comprehension)
independently perform various calculations in matrices, trigonometry and functions using
the graphing calculator with 90% accuracy
(Psychomotor)
solve given questions using the graphing calculator with 90% accuracy without assistance
(Cognitive, Analysis,
interpretation)
validate answers produced by the graphing calculator without assistance with 100%
accuracy
(Cognitive, Evaluation, Problem solving)
attempt plotting graphs on the graphing calculator with minimal assistance (Affective)
help other participants by demonstrating the use of the graphing calculator to add,
subtract and multiply matrices with 100% accuracy (Affective)
Assessments
In seeking to assess the learning of the participants the varying learning styles and
abilities were considered. However the aim was to go beyond the norm to allow participants to
be engaged in the lesson. Thus participants will construct their responses while the assessments
and rubric will assess directly what the participants are engaged in within the lesson. (See
Appendix D and Appendix E for the Rubric and Assessment items for this unit of instruction)
The Rubric will be used throughout the lesson at the beginning, during and after the
lesson to check the participants progress and changes on understanding. Assessment item
number 1 will be assessed directly after the students have been exposed to the keys on the
calculator to see if they have understood the process and the keys necessary. All the other
assessment items will be used at the end of the lesson.

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Learner/Contextual Analysis

This section comes before instruction and the main purposes are to motivate and prepare
participants to learn cognitively, (Tessmer& Richey, 1997). (See Appendix F for the
Learner/Contextual analysis for this unit of instruction).
Instructional Strategies
The First Principles of instruction from David Merrill were very significant in the
completion of this section of the unit. It sought to bring about the activation of the participants
prior knowledge, allowing them to demonstrate what is being learned, also to apply what is
learned and integrate it into their everyday lives. Various methods were used in this section to
include a PowerPoint lesson (See Appendix G), Advanced Organizers (See Appendix H) and
Analogies (See Appendix I). The PowerPoint presentation gives the details of the lesson and
shows how each instructional strategy will be incorporated in the lesson. These strategies such as
organizers and analogies help in tying the pieces of the lesson together as well as enhancing the
presentation.
Reflection
The target audience of this unit of instruction comprised of three trained, degreed
teachers of the Excellence Centre. These teachers have a mandate of preparing students to meet
the requirements of the K-12 Algebra I and II specifications, GCSE O and A level examinations
as well as the CSEC examinations. These teachers are old school and thus are not proficient in
using a graphing calculator to meet the demands of especially the K-12 Algebra I and II
specifications. For this reason,the aim was to engage these teachers in hands-on learning where

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they would get a firsthand experience in constructing their general understanding. The lesson
included games, advanced organizers and analogies. It incorporated various analyses such as task
analyses and learner/contextual analysis.
At the beginning participants were allowed to express themselves thus helping to activate
their prior knowledge. They were engaged in a lucky dip whilst a comparative organizer was
used to link their prior knowledge to what is to be learnt. Then some analogies were made to give
them an understanding of what matrices really are and how they can apply to real life. From
there they watched a video as well as viewed demonstrations from the instructor.A graphic
organizer was used to help in summarizing the concepts learnt on the importance of the order of
matrices in adding, subtracting and multiplying. They were then assessed on the use of the
calculator. They were allowed to demonstrate their understanding of the topic by instructing their
peers. After which a general assessment was done.
For the most part it was an effective lesson. Participants were able to effectively use the
calculator at the end of the workshop. The objectives were attainable and the participants were
fully engaged. One of the areas I would have improved is to have more technological tools
readily available. Using the groups to provide feedback was a welcomed idea however I believe
with more time we would have made it even more meaningful. Through the help of my peer
group I now have a better understanding of the elements of a needs assessment and the
significance of items such as the optimals, actuals, causes, feelings and solutions. These are areas
that were used in guiding the designer in choosing the task that is of utmost importance in being
addressed. I gained an appreciation in being systematic in designing units. It allows for clarity
not only for the designer but the members of the team who might refer to the document.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
The introduction to task analysis was clear, interesting and turned out to be fun. I have
always been writing objectives a certain way, but now I see the significance of sections such as
the criteria. It adds clarity to the objective and makes it easier when writing a rubric and
developing assessment items.The learner/contextual analysis were relatively straight forward
however the instructional strategies took a lot more investigation. All these are things that I
would have done in teacher training however under different contexts and sometimes in less
detail. Overall this course was relevant, interesting and worth the experience.

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References

Glynn, S. (1995). Conceptual Bridges: Using Analogies to Explain Scientific Concepts. Science
Teacher, 62(9), 24-27.
Jonassen, D. H., Tessmer, M., &Hannum, W. H. (1998). Task analysis methods for instructional
design.Routledge.
Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational technology research and
development, 50(3), 43-59.
Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., &Kalman, H. (2010). Designing effective
instruction.John Wiley & Sons.
Rossett, A. (1995). Needs Assessment.In Anglin, G. J. (Ed). Instructional technology: Past,
present, and future, p.183-196. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
Tessmer, M., & Richey, R. C. (1997).The role of context in learning and instructional
design. Educational technology research and development, 45(2), 85-115.

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Appendix

Appendix A: Technique 1: Participant observation


Statement of Purpose: Observations will be done to see how comfortable the teachers are with
each syllabus and the areas that might need improvements or the use of different methods for
clarity. The nature of the available resources will also be assessed to see if the instructional
materials present are sufficient and meets the needs of the students. The overall operation of the
institute will also be assessed to see if the student-teacher ratio is feasible.
Information Sought:See optimals, actual, causes, feelings and solutions
Anonymity/ Confidentiality:This is not likely in this situation as all participants are known.
Procedure:It will be clearly communicated that the assessment is not a way of critiquing the
business but to aid in improving its processes. The observer will try not to make it obvious
especially to the students that an observation is taking place. Observations will be done over a
period of time of each syllabus.
Development Cost/ Ease:There is no development cost as the observations will be done within
the workplace and will be easy to develop. Research will be done as to the timetables in terms of
when each syllabus is being presented and the best times to observe each individual.
Administration cost/ Ease:It is a very small institute therefore it will not take a lot of time to do
the observations however to make it less biased more than three lessons of each syllabus will be
observed. This will not incur any cost.
Scoring/ Analysis Cost/ Ease:The observations will take about one month to be completed.

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Probable Response Rate; Risks:The response will be immediate upon observation. After the
month is finished then the final result of each observation will be compiled into a final
document. The possible risks could be observer bias and many assumptions made based on what
occurs during observation. Also considering that the participants will not be aware that an
observation is taking place the observer will not be making notes, therefore details might not be
completely reliable at times.
Buy In/ Persuasion Potential:This is not very necessary in this situation as the participants are
open to improving their skills and the processes of the institute.
Diversity of Opinions Sought:Not applicable in this situation.
Product/Results:A report will be generated at the end of the observation period.
Problem/Situation Complexity:The ratio of teachers to students is a concern, therefore
observation might overlap. Varying syllabi are done on the same days at the same time by the
same teachers.
Objectivity of Data:This is going to vary based on the workload that the teacher under
observation might have during the time of observation.Availability of instructional material will
also affect how much a teacher might be able to achieve in a given lesson.
Advantages:This method will allow the observer to get firsthand knowledge of the processes that
take place in the institute as well as the skills and challenges the teachers face. This method is
non-threatening to the normal processes of the business and will not affect teachers
performance.

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Disadvantages:The teacher to student ratio might affect how much can be observed in one lesson
as well as it might limit the amount that a teacher can get covered. A lot of the observation will
be based on the observers opinion and therefore it might not be very reliable.
Appendix A1: Observation Instrument
Curriculum :
Date:
Observer:
Instructor:
Instructions: Evaluate the overall performance of a teacher in the delivery of each curriculum
by rating each of the behaviours below. Use these results to determine the needs for skills
training, curriculum development and/or increase in instructional material.
Rating Scale:
C Consistency and competency in an area under observation. As well
as the necessary resources are available. Very Good performance.
I improvement needed in the stated areas or instructional materials
needed. Poor performance.
G Generally well done there is room for improvement. Average
performance.
Work Behaviours/ Skills/ Curriculum Knowledge
Demonstrates confidence in presenting the topic being taught
Teacher is adequately prepared for the lesson
Teacher has all the instructional material needed for demonstrations
The teacher refers to books, handouts, YouTube, general internet
The teacher has knowledge of the curriculum being used, is able to do

C
C
C
C
C

I
I
I
I
I

G
G
G
G
G

various transitions from one subtopic to another


Requested the assistance of other teachers

Appendix B:Technique 2: Personal interview

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Statement of Purpose:Questions will be asked to ascertain what lack of skills, challenges and the
needed instructional material for the Excellence Centre. These interviews will provide
information on the feelings of the teachers and for them to provide personal solutions based on
their concerns. This method will allow them to be more open to conversation and thus share their
ideas on solving any problems identified.
Information sought:See optimals, actuals, causes, feelings and solutions
Group size: This will comprise of one interviewer and one interviewee.
Procedure:The interviewer in preparation for the interview will refer to the purpose of the needs
assessment and prepare questions that are directly related to the information needed. The
teachers will be the ones who will be interviewed.It will be clearly communicated that the
interview is not a way of critiquing the business but to ascertain their opinion on the processes of
the institute. The interviewer will try to ask questions that will not undermine or be too
suggestive to the interviewee. These questions will be asked based on the actuals and optimals.
Anonymity/ Confidentiality:This is not likely in this situation as all participants are known and
will be aware of the interview beforehand.
Development Cost/ Ease:There is no interview cost as the interviews will be done during the
lunch break for three days. The interview instrument will be easy to develop. Research will be
done to find out the days that are most appropriate for each teacher. Since the interviewer is
familiar with the setting it should make both parties feel more at ease.
Administration cost/ Ease:It is a very small institute therefore it will not take a lot of time to do
the interviews. This will not incur any cost.

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Scoring/ Analysis Cost/ Ease:The interviews will be completed within one week.
Probable Response Rate; Risks:The response will be immediate upon the interviewee answering
the questions. After all the interviews are finished the final result will be compiled into a final
document. The possible risks could be some participants might be afraid to state certain
challenges within the institute as they might be fearful of the director hearing their opinions. This
will be eliminated however as any challenges or concerns given will be recorded anonymously.
As well as room has to be made for any diversions from the questions or topic at hand.
Buy In/ Persuasion Potential:A polite and courteous personality will help in making the
interviewer more persuasive and thus make the interviewee more open to discussion. The
director will also be interviewed therefore he will be able to make decisions based on any
challenges or lack of skills noted.
Diversity of Opinions Sought:Opinions will be sought from the three persons directly involved
in the institute. Each person has his or her own challenges and concerns and will be able to give
their ideas of how to minimize those challenges.
Problem/Situation Complexity:Questions will be stated in a way to prevent misunderstanding
and to allow the interviewees to share their views. Since it is a face to face setting there will be
very little room for misunderstanding as any such occurrence can be dealt with immediately.
Product/Results:At the end of each interview we will do a recap of the main points. Also at that
point the interviewee will be directly asked if there is any other thing that he or she would like to
share or clarify. The use of the information will be shared so they are clear about the anonymity
of their responses and that further action will be taken to address the issues or challenges.

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Objectivity of Data:The data will be very objective as there will be no prejudice and all party
will be treated with respect and fairly.
Advantages:This method allows the interviewer to get firsthand knowledge as to the processes of
the institute and the feelings of the workers. Solutions can also be deduced from these
interviews.
Disadvantages:Interviews might take longer than anticipated. The interviews can take various
turns not in keeping with the plan outlined.

Appendix B1: Personal Interview Instrument


Date: ______________________
Interviewer: ________________________
Position of Interviewee: ____________________
General information/ Challenges/Suggestions

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

How long have you been working at the Excellence Centre?


How did you hear about the institute?
What are your roles in the institute?
What qualifications do you have to perform those roles?
What aspects of your job do you find easy to perform? What makes those aspects easy?
What aspects of your job do you find difficult to perform? What makes those aspects

difficult?
7. How would you propose to make those difficult tasks easier?
8. What aspect of each curriculum do you find to be challenging? Why?
9. How do you suggest these challenges be minimized?
10. What instructional material do you think will aid in making the day to day processes
easier?

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Appendix C1: Task Selection Worksheet


Priorit
y

Criticality

Universality

Frequency

Standardization

Difficulty

Total

40 pts

10 pts

10 pts

10 pts

30 pts

100 pts

TASKS

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

Present the topic directed


numbers to students with varying
learning styles

30

10

10

10

25

85

This is an
important topic
especially in
algebra I and II.
Majority of the
topics involve
the use of
directed numbers
hence the points
awarded.

Use a graphing calculator

35

30

83

This is an
essential skill to
the K-12
syllabus
however the
processes that
these perform
can be done

Criteria for Task Selection


Worksheet

Notes

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effectively
without its use
hence the low
frequency
rating.

Demonstrate a knowledge of the


K-12 system

35

25

81

The K-12
syllabus is not
the most
commonly used
at the institution
however it is the
most
comprehensive.
Therefore it is
rated heavily
across the board.

Explain and demonstrate concepts


in the topic loci

20

20

53

This is a topic
that is of
importance in
the GCSE
syllabus. We do
not have a large
amount of
students doing
this programme
hence the low
rating. However
it is an important

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to the syllabus.

Teach all aspects of trigonometry


in the Algebra II syllabus

40

10

30

93

This is a very
important topic
in all syllabi at
the institute
hence the high
critical rating.
Algebra II
encompasses a
wider area of the
topic than the
other
programmes.

Use varying methods to solve


questions in matrices

10

25

50

This is a topic in
the CSEC and
K-12 syllabi
however not
having a good
grasp of it does
not affect the
other aspects of
the syllabus.

Effectively graph and transform


functions including logarithmic
and exponential functions

30

30

78

This is a topic
that is essential
to the GCSE and
K-12 syllabus.

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Appendix C2: Procedural Analysis
Procedural Analysis

Subject: Using a graphing calculator


Unit of Instruction/Task: Teaching a tutor to use a graphing calculator to deliver lessons to
students doing Algebra II Matrices.
LEVEL I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Turn on the calculator


Select the mode from the menu
Enter each matrix one at a time
Choose the operation needed
Use matrices on the graphing to solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method
or the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method

LEVEL II
1. Turn on the calculator
1.1 Identify the type of calculator
1.2 Check that it is functioning properly
2. Select the mode from the menu
2.1 Identify the mode key
3. Enter each matrix one at a time
3.1 Click the matrix button
3.2 Enter the dimensions of the matrix
4. Choose the operation needed
4.1 add and subtract matrices
4.2 multiply matrices
5. Use matrices on the graphing to solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method
or the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method
5.1 Solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method
5.2 Solve simultaneous equations using the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method
LEVEL III

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1. Turn on the calculator


1.1 Identify the type of calculator
1.1.1 Examine the calculator
1.2 Check that it is functioning properly
1.2.1 Perform basic operations using the calculator
1.2.2 Reset the calculator
2. Select the mode from the menu
2.1 Identify the mode key
2.1.1 locate the mode key
2.1.2 select the mode that best suits the operation
2.1.3 switch between the classic mode and math print mode
3. Enter each matrix one at a time
3.1 Click the matrix button
3.1.1 identify the matrix button
3.1.2 select 2nd function and click the x-1 button
3.2 Enter the dimensions of the matrix
3.2.1 clear any existing matrix dimensions
3.2.2 select the matrix letter
3.2.3 click the edit button
3.2.4 state the dimensions of any matrix
3.2.5 identify the dimensions of the matrices in the question
3.2.6 enter the dimensions
3.2.7 return to the home screen
4. Choose the operation needed
4.1 add and subtract matrices
4.1.1 explain when two matrices can be added or subtracted
4.1.2 go to matrix to get the names of the matrices entered
4.1.3 insert the necessary symbol
4.1.4 read the correct answer matrix from the screen
4.2 multiply matrices
4.2.1 explain what criteria has to be met for two matrices to be multiplied
4.2.2 go to matrix to get the names of the matrices entered
4.2.3 insert the necessary symbol
4.2.4 read the correct answer matrix from the screen
5. Use matrices on the graphing to solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method
or the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method
5.1 Solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method
5.1.1 define simultaneous equations
5.1.2 rearrange the equations to line up the coefficients
5.1.3 write simultaneous equations as equivalent matrices
5.1.4 find the inverse of a matrix on the calculator
5.1.5 multiply the inverse by the answers to the equations
5.1.6 read the answer from the screen correctly
5.2 Solve simultaneous equations using the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method
5.2.1 line up the coefficients

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7

define augmented matrix


check the RREF function from the home screen
go to the matrix button
move right to MATH, choose B: RREF
choose the name of the matrix and hit enter
read the last column which gives the answer

28

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Appendix C3: Flowchart

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Appendix C4: Prerequisite Analysis

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Appendix D: Rubric
Terminal/General Objective:

After engaging in a two day training workshop the participants will demonstrate the use of the graphing calculator to do operations and calculations in the K-12 syllabus
without assistance and with at least 90% accuracy.
Using a graphing calculator - Assessment Rubric (4 marks each)
Item

1. state the steps in


adding, subtracting and

Exceeds Expectations
4
The participant is able

Meets Expectations

state most of the steps

correctly, in the correct

correctly, with few

matrices with 100%

sequence. The

errors in the sequence.

accuracy without

explanation is

The explanation is

understandable and

mostly understandable

easily followed.

and can be followed.

assistance

2. Demonstrate
plottinggraphs using a

The participant is able


to produce the correct

Limited Expectations

Below Expectations

1
The participant is only able

0
The participant is not able

state some of the steps

to state one or two steps

to state any of the steps

correctly, with some errors

correctly, with more than

correctly, with no attempt

three errors in the

at giving a sequence. No

sequence. The explanation

explanation given.

3
2
The participant is able to The participant is able to

to state each step

multiplying two

Some Expectations met

in the sequence. The


explanation is not clearly
followed.

and cannot be followed

The participant is able to The participant is able to


plot three out of four

is difficult to understand

plot two out of four types

easily.
The participant is only able

The participant is unable to

to plot one type of graph

plot any graph on the

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graphing calculator

graphs of the functions

correctly without

from the equations in

assistance.
3. Solve systems of

all the questions given.


The participant is able

typesof graphs correctly. of graphs correctly.

The participant is able to The participant is able to

equations using the

to use both methods

solve some questions

inverse and Guass-

effectively and

with both methods with

correctly.

less than two errors.

Jordan Method with the

solve only a few questions


with both methods with

32
for example linear.

graphing calculator.

The participant is able to

The participant is not able

solve questions using only

to solve questions using

one method.

any of the methods.

three or four errors.

use of graphing
calculator without
assistance.
4. Read answers produced
by the graphing

The participant is able

The participant is able to The participant is able to

to find all the necessary

find four out of five of

calculator correctly

information on

without assistance.

polynomials from the


calculator such as

The participant is able to

The participant is not able

find three out of five of the

find only one or two of the

to read any information

the necessary

necessary information on

items from the graph of

from the graphs on the

information on

polynomials. The

polynomials and is able to

calculator or the answers

polynomials. They make participant is able to read

read less than two of the

from the Guass-Jordan

intercepts, domain and

one or two errors. They

the answers from the

answers from the Guass-

Elimination method.

range. They are able to

are able to read the

Guass-Jordan elimination

Jordan elimination method.

correctly read answers

answers from the Guass- method with about three

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from the Gauss-Jordan

Jordan elimination

elimination method.

method with one error.

errors.

33

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Appendix E: Assessment Items


Assessment Items Scenario Items

Objective 1: To identify the keys on the graphing calculator used for graphing, solving matrices and trigonometric questions accurately without assistance
1. You need to solve a question using the Guass-Jordan Elimination method. With the use of the graphing calculator investigate which of the following steps will help you in
finding the RREF button in this method?
a. Go to Math, select the MATRX from the matrix menu, go right to select ALPHA B to select rref
b. Go to MATRX to access the matrix menu go right to access the math menu then ALPHA B to select rref
c. Go to Mode, select MATRX to select the matrix menu, go right select ALPHA B to select rref
d. Go to ALPHA select B to select rref
Objective 2: To perform various calculations in matrices, trigonometry and functions using the graphing calculator without errors independently

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2. Your class is planning to make some wooden picture frames for fathers day. The frame will be cut out of a piece of wood; however the area of the frame should be 30cm2.
The inner part of the frame is 6 cm wide and 10cm long. What would be the width x of the actual wood frame? Use a graphing calculator to find your answer rounded off to

two decimal places.


a. x = -1.08
b. x = 0.85
c. x = 0.34
d. x= -1.34
Objective 6: To demonstrate the use of the graphing calculator to add, subtract and multiply matrices with 100% accuracy
3. The totals of two brands of items from two companies are shown in the matrices below. Using a graphing calculator show the total overall production for both brands.

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a.

b.

c.

d.
Objective 3: To solve given questions using the graphing calculator with 90% accuracy without assistance.
4. You have decided to take a school trip. You inquire about the prices for teachers and students. You are told that 3 teachers and 20 students cost $150 while 12 teachers and
50 students cost $450. Using the inverse method on your graphing calculator find the cost for a teacher's ticket and a students ticket.

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a.
b.
c.
d.

Teachers ticket = $10 , students ticket = $ 5


Teachers ticket = $5 , students ticket = $ 3
Teachers ticket = $11.67 , students ticket = $ 3.50
Teachers ticket = $16.67 , students ticket = $ 5

37

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38
Appendix F: Learner/Contextual Analysis Worksheet

-2

Greatly impedes

-1

Slightly impedes

+1 Slightly facilitates
+2 Greatly facilitates
The effects are in bold.

Orienting Context
Learner Factors

All trained teachers with at least a first degree


A mixture of males and females between the ages of 30 45
All teachers having over 10 years of experience in teaching
Each person has at least intermediate computer skills

-2
-2
-2
-2

-1
-1
-1
-1

+1
+1
+1
+1

+2
+2
+2
+2

-2
-2
-2
-2

-1 +1 +2
-1 +1 +2
-1 +1 +2
-1 +1 +2

-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

Immediate Environment Factors

There are two locations of the business


Lack of resource materials such as projectors, calculators, books
There is a need for more teachers to lessen the teacher-student ratio
Environment facilitates one-on-one and small group tutoring
Organizational Factors

All persons are employees of the Excellence Centre


All have prior experience in teaching in a regular school system
The teachers are familiar with the operations of the business
Flexibility of work hours
Above average salary when compared to other similar organizations
Private sector organization

Instructional Context
Learner Factors

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2

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All trained teachers have training and experience
Increase skills of using graphing calculators
There is some familiarity with the content or prerequisites of it

39
-2 -1 +1 +2
-2 -1 +1 +2
-2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors

The area to conduct the workshop is well lit and ventilated


There is no particular equipment set up for projectors
All equipment will have to be sought external to the business
Graphing calculators will have to be sourced

-2
-2
-2
-2

-1
-1
-1
-1

+1
+1
+1
+1

+2
+2
+2
+2

Organizational Factors
The workshop is going to be a bit costly because of the lack of resources -2 -1 +1 +2

Transfer Context
Learner Factors
Participants will be able to better explain the processes to their students -2 -1 +1 +2
There information from the workshop will be applied in the administration of lessons on a
regular basis
Teachers confidence level will be increased in many concepts

-2 -1 +1 +2
-2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors


The resource materials from the workshop can now be used in the institute -2 -1 +1 +2
There will be an increase in the accessibility of resources -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
The workshop will help in improving the reputation of the institute in offering these areas
-2 -1 +1 +2

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This will be another area that can be advertised as being offered by the institution -2 -1
+1 +2
There will be more clients accepted who are studying under the K-12 system.
+1 +2
Revenue will be increased

-2 -1 +1 +2

-2 -1

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Appendix G: PowerPoint Lesson

Slide 1

Slide 2

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Slide 3

Slide 4

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Slide 5

Slide 6

43

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Appendix H: Advanced Organizers

Advanced Organizers

Appendix H1: Comparative Organizer

New Material
Matrix addition, subtraction
and multiplication using a
graphing calculator

Organizer Topic
Differences and similarities in
adding, subtracting and
multiplying matrices.

Type of Organizer
Comparative

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Discuss the importance of the order in manipulating matrices that is, adding, subtracting and multiplying. Wh

Appendix H2: Graphic Organizer

Manipulating
Matrices
Manipulating
Matrices

Multiplication

Subtraction

Addition

The columns in the first must match the rows in the second

The order of each matrix must be the same

The order of the matrix matters

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Appendix I: Analogies

Analogies
Appendix I1: Analogy 1
An analogy can be drawn between a scoring table of a sports tournament and a matrix.
Description of a matrix
Scoring table

compared with

(Analog)

Format of a Matrix
(Target)

Table

rectangular array

Rows and columns

rows and columns

Cells

elements

Team

Win

Barcelona
Real
Madrid

5
3

Los
e
4
4

Dra
w
3
5

Table
Matrix

Pictorial representation
Differences

Tables most often have lines separating each row and column. The elements of a matrix
are not bounded by lines.
Tables are enclosed in a box however matrices are surrounded by square brackets or
parentheses.
In tables the rows and the columns might not always be of the same length nor does the
number of rows on one side have to match the rows on the other. However these are
features of the matrix.

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Appendix I2: Analogy 2


An analogy can be drawn between a sky scraper building and a matrix.

Rows/
Width

Sky scraper
(Analog)

Columns/height
compared with

Matrix
(Target)

Differences

In a sky scraper the windows are of the same size and type however with a matrix each
element does not have to be the same size or type of number.
A sky scraper can start out with equal amount of windows at the bottom but can reduce as
it goes to the top. With a matrix it maintains a rectangular shape so the numbers of
elements in the rows and columns throughout are consistent.