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You are on page 1of 47

by

Nickesha Senior

308003276

Of the Requirements of

EDID 6505 Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials

Trimester II, 2015-2016

Email:

nickesha.seniorwhynn@open.uwi.edu

Student ID:

308003276

University:

eTutor& Course

Coordinator :

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

2

Table of Contents

Needs Assessment 4

Goals .4

Objectives .4

Target Audience ...4

Purpose of the Needs Assessment.5

Optimals ...5

Actuals .5

Causes ..6

Feelings ....7

Solutions ..8

Hypothesis ...8

Source of Information .9

Methods ..9

Technique 1 9

Technique 2 9

Use of Information to Design Workshop9

Task Analysis .9

Performance Objectives .10

Assessments ...11

Learner/Contextual Analysis .11

Instructional Strategies ..12

Reflection ..12

References .15

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Appendix A1 Personal Interview Instrument .18

Appendix B Technique 2: Personal Interview.19

Appendix B1 Personal Interview Instrument ..22

Appendix C1 Task Selection Worksheet.23

Appendix C2 Procedural Analysis ..27

Appendix C3 Flowchart...31

Appendix C4 Prerequisite Analysis.....32

Appendix D Rubric .....33

Appendix E Assessment Items 36

Appendix F Learner/Contextual Analysis....39

Appendix G PowerPoint Lesson..42

Appendix H Advanced Organizer45

Appendix H1 Comparative Organizer..45

Appendix H2 Graphic Organizer..46

Appendix I Analogies ..47

Appendix I1 Analogy 1....47

Appendix I2 Analogy 248

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

4

Needs Assessment

Goals

The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the need for skills training for a group of teachers

and to create a unit of instruction to provide the necessary training in the areas of need. The

various curriculums, the present skills of each teacher as well as the available resources for

training will be assessed to satisfy the requirements of the intended programme.

Objectives

At the end of this assessment the instructional designer should be able to identify:

any lack of skill the teachers at the Excellence Centre have in meeting the demands of the

any challenges faced by the teachers at the Excellence Centre as a result of those lack of

skills

if the desired learning outcomes are being achieved by the students for each curriculum

The assessment will also help in ascertaining which skills teachers already possess that need

sharpening.

Target Audience

The Institute is very small and thus employs only three teachers full-time and one teacher parttime. The part-time teacher is responsible for teaching English Language while the full-time

teachers focus on mathematics and science. There is also an intern who deals with the accounts

and billing as well as a part-time sales manager. The assessment will be done for the three fulltime teachers; two (2) undergraduate teachers and one (1) graduate teacher at the Excellence

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Centre Institute who are preparing students to meet the requirements of the K-12 Algebra I and II

specifications, GCSE O and A level examinations as well as the CSEC examinations.

Purpose of the needs assessment

Optimals

quick on their feet to meet the needs of the student

knowledge of the K-12 syllabus, GCSE O and A level syllabus and the CSEC syllabus

assess and evaluate the syllabus to know what to pass on to the students

the effective use of a graphing calculator

using various methods to solve questions in matrices, trigonometry, logarithms,

be sensitive to quick changes in topic based on the limited time frame

Actuals

none of the teachers are fluent in using a graphing calculator

67% of the teachers are experts in the CXC syllabus to include CSEC and CAPE as

opposed to the K-12 syllabus, GCSE O and A-Level syllabi

there are areas in the Geometry and Algebra II K-12 syllabus that are new concepts to be

taught by the teacher, therefore it requires further preparation

teachers have to teach all three syllabi, with different topics relating to each syllabi within

the same class session

topics require teachers to apply varying techniques in different syllabi with 50% of the

teachers finding it difficult to transition

teachers have to teach to facilitate multiple intelligences

teachers have most of their experience in teaching only one syllabus in regular school

many of the children have learning disabilities such as ADHD, Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

which require lesson traditional chalk and talk techniques

Causes

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Lack of skill/knowledge

The teachers are required to teach varying syllabi within a limited space of time,

at times they are not fully prepared for the lesson

There is lack of training in the use of many technological items such as a graphing

calculator

A lack of training in teaching topics in geometry and Algebra II in the K-12

syllabi

Flawed environment

At the centre where most of the teaching takes place there is a small space with

two teachers teaching at the same time which can be distracting to the students

and the teachers

The is need for teaching aids and tools such as computers

The teacher-student ratio is very high for the purpose of the institution. (Most

students are expecting to get individual attention)

Improper Incentives

Teachers are warned if mistakes are made in delivery or if tasks are not done

Very little time is given to get tasks done

Gratitude expressed verbally is the only incentive

Unmotivated Employees

The teachers are self motivated, they complete tasks according to their job

description

Teachers at times are not confident in their delivery as they are not confident in

the area being taught

The teachers are trained however they need to do professional developments to

improve their knowledge base and skills

Feelings

The teachers feel overworked and underpaid

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Teachers are of the opinion that they need to get more time to familiarize themselves with

the syllabi

The hours of work are too much for the teachers to get time to focus on developing their

skills

The teachers are of the opinion that one day off (Sunday) is not sufficient for them to be

fully prepared for all lessons. Preparation time takes away from family time.

Considering that students are entitled to individual attention the teachers feel

overwhelmed when one teacher is faced with five students within the same session

expecting individual attention.

Solutions

Training of staff on using instructional tools such as the graphing calculator

Get more instructional materials such as computers, graphing calculator as well as a

better arrangement of the facility

Training and discussions to allow staff to become familiar with each syllabi

Considering the student-teacher ratio more specialists need to be hired

The working hours need to be revised given more time for teachers to prepare for their

lessons

Teachers should be offered other incentives for getting tasks done on time, well and they

go above and beyond the call of duty.

Monthly professional development days will be instituted to enhance the teachers

understanding and presentation of various topics in the different syllabi

Hypotheses

Based on observation it is seen that:

There is a lack of training in various situations and with specifically the American based

syllabus

There is a need for the familiarity of the syllabi especially the American syllabus

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

More teachers need to be employed to meet the varied needs of the students

Source of information

The information needed will be gathered from the teachers themselves as they are the ones

directly affected by the situation. They would have first-hand knowledge as to all the processes

that take place and what areas need improvement. They are aware of the areas of each syllabus

that are most difficult for them to handle and why.

Methods

Technique 1: Participant observation (See Appendix A for details on participant observation)

Example of Observation Instrument(See Appendix A1 for the example of the instrument)

Technique 2: Personal interview (See Appendix B for details on personal interview)

Example of Personal Interview Instrument(See Appendix B1 for the example of the instrument)

Use of Information to design workshop

The information gathered will help in identifying the challenges of the company and thus give an

idea as to what issues need to be addressed by the workshop. It will also aid in giving ideas as to

possible ways of addressing the issues and the best way of structuring the workshop. It will help

in identifying the skills of the workers that can be utilized in the workshops.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

9

Task Analysis

designing different forms of instruction, including performance support, direct instruction, and

open-ended learning environments(pg. 6). This unit seeks to design a face-to-face

instructionalworkshop for the target audience. After the needs assessment a task selection was

done which determined that the top three tasks that needed to be addressed were teaching aspects

of trigonometry in the Algebra II syllabus, presenting the topic directed numbers to students with

varying learning styles and using a graphing calculator. The latter was selected for this unit of

instruction. (See Appendix C1 for the Task Selection Worksheet)

The two methods of analysis used for this unit were the Procedural Analysis and the

Prerequisite Analysis. The procedural analysis outlines the procedures for completing the unit,

(See Appendix C2 and C3 forthe Procedural Analysis and Flowchart). The Prerequisite Analysis

however gives the sequence of how to acquire the skills offered in the unit, (See Appendix C4 for

the Prerequisite Analysis).

Performance Objectives

Terminal/General Objective:

After engaging in a two day training workshop the participants will demonstrate the use

of the graphing calculator to do operations and calculations in the K-12 syllabus without

assistance and with at least 90% accuracy.

Enabling/Specific Objectives:

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

10

identify the keys on the graphing calculator used for graphing, solving matrices and

trigonometric questions 90% accurately without assistance (Recall, comprehension)

independently perform various calculations in matrices, trigonometry and functions using

the graphing calculator with 90% accuracy

(Psychomotor)

solve given questions using the graphing calculator with 90% accuracy without assistance

(Cognitive, Analysis,

interpretation)

validate answers produced by the graphing calculator without assistance with 100%

accuracy

(Cognitive, Evaluation, Problem solving)

attempt plotting graphs on the graphing calculator with minimal assistance (Affective)

help other participants by demonstrating the use of the graphing calculator to add,

subtract and multiply matrices with 100% accuracy (Affective)

Assessments

In seeking to assess the learning of the participants the varying learning styles and

abilities were considered. However the aim was to go beyond the norm to allow participants to

be engaged in the lesson. Thus participants will construct their responses while the assessments

and rubric will assess directly what the participants are engaged in within the lesson. (See

Appendix D and Appendix E for the Rubric and Assessment items for this unit of instruction)

The Rubric will be used throughout the lesson at the beginning, during and after the

lesson to check the participants progress and changes on understanding. Assessment item

number 1 will be assessed directly after the students have been exposed to the keys on the

calculator to see if they have understood the process and the keys necessary. All the other

assessment items will be used at the end of the lesson.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

11

Learner/Contextual Analysis

This section comes before instruction and the main purposes are to motivate and prepare

participants to learn cognitively, (Tessmer& Richey, 1997). (See Appendix F for the

Learner/Contextual analysis for this unit of instruction).

Instructional Strategies

The First Principles of instruction from David Merrill were very significant in the

completion of this section of the unit. It sought to bring about the activation of the participants

prior knowledge, allowing them to demonstrate what is being learned, also to apply what is

learned and integrate it into their everyday lives. Various methods were used in this section to

include a PowerPoint lesson (See Appendix G), Advanced Organizers (See Appendix H) and

Analogies (See Appendix I). The PowerPoint presentation gives the details of the lesson and

shows how each instructional strategy will be incorporated in the lesson. These strategies such as

organizers and analogies help in tying the pieces of the lesson together as well as enhancing the

presentation.

Reflection

The target audience of this unit of instruction comprised of three trained, degreed

teachers of the Excellence Centre. These teachers have a mandate of preparing students to meet

the requirements of the K-12 Algebra I and II specifications, GCSE O and A level examinations

as well as the CSEC examinations. These teachers are old school and thus are not proficient in

using a graphing calculator to meet the demands of especially the K-12 Algebra I and II

specifications. For this reason,the aim was to engage these teachers in hands-on learning where

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

12

they would get a firsthand experience in constructing their general understanding. The lesson

included games, advanced organizers and analogies. It incorporated various analyses such as task

analyses and learner/contextual analysis.

At the beginning participants were allowed to express themselves thus helping to activate

their prior knowledge. They were engaged in a lucky dip whilst a comparative organizer was

used to link their prior knowledge to what is to be learnt. Then some analogies were made to give

them an understanding of what matrices really are and how they can apply to real life. From

there they watched a video as well as viewed demonstrations from the instructor.A graphic

organizer was used to help in summarizing the concepts learnt on the importance of the order of

matrices in adding, subtracting and multiplying. They were then assessed on the use of the

calculator. They were allowed to demonstrate their understanding of the topic by instructing their

peers. After which a general assessment was done.

For the most part it was an effective lesson. Participants were able to effectively use the

calculator at the end of the workshop. The objectives were attainable and the participants were

fully engaged. One of the areas I would have improved is to have more technological tools

readily available. Using the groups to provide feedback was a welcomed idea however I believe

with more time we would have made it even more meaningful. Through the help of my peer

group I now have a better understanding of the elements of a needs assessment and the

significance of items such as the optimals, actuals, causes, feelings and solutions. These are areas

that were used in guiding the designer in choosing the task that is of utmost importance in being

addressed. I gained an appreciation in being systematic in designing units. It allows for clarity

not only for the designer but the members of the team who might refer to the document.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

The introduction to task analysis was clear, interesting and turned out to be fun. I have

always been writing objectives a certain way, but now I see the significance of sections such as

the criteria. It adds clarity to the objective and makes it easier when writing a rubric and

developing assessment items.The learner/contextual analysis were relatively straight forward

however the instructional strategies took a lot more investigation. All these are things that I

would have done in teacher training however under different contexts and sometimes in less

detail. Overall this course was relevant, interesting and worth the experience.

13

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

14

References

Glynn, S. (1995). Conceptual Bridges: Using Analogies to Explain Scientific Concepts. Science

Teacher, 62(9), 24-27.

Jonassen, D. H., Tessmer, M., &Hannum, W. H. (1998). Task analysis methods for instructional

design.Routledge.

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational technology research and

development, 50(3), 43-59.

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., &Kalman, H. (2010). Designing effective

instruction.John Wiley & Sons.

Rossett, A. (1995). Needs Assessment.In Anglin, G. J. (Ed). Instructional technology: Past,

present, and future, p.183-196. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.

Tessmer, M., & Richey, R. C. (1997).The role of context in learning and instructional

design. Educational technology research and development, 45(2), 85-115.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

15

Appendix

Statement of Purpose: Observations will be done to see how comfortable the teachers are with

each syllabus and the areas that might need improvements or the use of different methods for

clarity. The nature of the available resources will also be assessed to see if the instructional

materials present are sufficient and meets the needs of the students. The overall operation of the

institute will also be assessed to see if the student-teacher ratio is feasible.

Information Sought:See optimals, actual, causes, feelings and solutions

Anonymity/ Confidentiality:This is not likely in this situation as all participants are known.

Procedure:It will be clearly communicated that the assessment is not a way of critiquing the

business but to aid in improving its processes. The observer will try not to make it obvious

especially to the students that an observation is taking place. Observations will be done over a

period of time of each syllabus.

Development Cost/ Ease:There is no development cost as the observations will be done within

the workplace and will be easy to develop. Research will be done as to the timetables in terms of

when each syllabus is being presented and the best times to observe each individual.

Administration cost/ Ease:It is a very small institute therefore it will not take a lot of time to do

the observations however to make it less biased more than three lessons of each syllabus will be

observed. This will not incur any cost.

Scoring/ Analysis Cost/ Ease:The observations will take about one month to be completed.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

16

Probable Response Rate; Risks:The response will be immediate upon observation. After the

month is finished then the final result of each observation will be compiled into a final

document. The possible risks could be observer bias and many assumptions made based on what

occurs during observation. Also considering that the participants will not be aware that an

observation is taking place the observer will not be making notes, therefore details might not be

completely reliable at times.

Buy In/ Persuasion Potential:This is not very necessary in this situation as the participants are

open to improving their skills and the processes of the institute.

Diversity of Opinions Sought:Not applicable in this situation.

Product/Results:A report will be generated at the end of the observation period.

Problem/Situation Complexity:The ratio of teachers to students is a concern, therefore

observation might overlap. Varying syllabi are done on the same days at the same time by the

same teachers.

Objectivity of Data:This is going to vary based on the workload that the teacher under

observation might have during the time of observation.Availability of instructional material will

also affect how much a teacher might be able to achieve in a given lesson.

Advantages:This method will allow the observer to get firsthand knowledge of the processes that

take place in the institute as well as the skills and challenges the teachers face. This method is

non-threatening to the normal processes of the business and will not affect teachers

performance.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

17

Disadvantages:The teacher to student ratio might affect how much can be observed in one lesson

as well as it might limit the amount that a teacher can get covered. A lot of the observation will

be based on the observers opinion and therefore it might not be very reliable.

Appendix A1: Observation Instrument

Curriculum :

Date:

Observer:

Instructor:

Instructions: Evaluate the overall performance of a teacher in the delivery of each curriculum

by rating each of the behaviours below. Use these results to determine the needs for skills

training, curriculum development and/or increase in instructional material.

Rating Scale:

C Consistency and competency in an area under observation. As well

as the necessary resources are available. Very Good performance.

I improvement needed in the stated areas or instructional materials

needed. Poor performance.

G Generally well done there is room for improvement. Average

performance.

Work Behaviours/ Skills/ Curriculum Knowledge

Demonstrates confidence in presenting the topic being taught

Teacher is adequately prepared for the lesson

Teacher has all the instructional material needed for demonstrations

The teacher refers to books, handouts, YouTube, general internet

The teacher has knowledge of the curriculum being used, is able to do

C

C

C

C

C

I

I

I

I

I

G

G

G

G

G

Requested the assistance of other teachers

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

18

Statement of Purpose:Questions will be asked to ascertain what lack of skills, challenges and the

needed instructional material for the Excellence Centre. These interviews will provide

information on the feelings of the teachers and for them to provide personal solutions based on

their concerns. This method will allow them to be more open to conversation and thus share their

ideas on solving any problems identified.

Information sought:See optimals, actuals, causes, feelings and solutions

Group size: This will comprise of one interviewer and one interviewee.

Procedure:The interviewer in preparation for the interview will refer to the purpose of the needs

assessment and prepare questions that are directly related to the information needed. The

teachers will be the ones who will be interviewed.It will be clearly communicated that the

interview is not a way of critiquing the business but to ascertain their opinion on the processes of

the institute. The interviewer will try to ask questions that will not undermine or be too

suggestive to the interviewee. These questions will be asked based on the actuals and optimals.

Anonymity/ Confidentiality:This is not likely in this situation as all participants are known and

will be aware of the interview beforehand.

Development Cost/ Ease:There is no interview cost as the interviews will be done during the

lunch break for three days. The interview instrument will be easy to develop. Research will be

done to find out the days that are most appropriate for each teacher. Since the interviewer is

familiar with the setting it should make both parties feel more at ease.

Administration cost/ Ease:It is a very small institute therefore it will not take a lot of time to do

the interviews. This will not incur any cost.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

19

Scoring/ Analysis Cost/ Ease:The interviews will be completed within one week.

Probable Response Rate; Risks:The response will be immediate upon the interviewee answering

the questions. After all the interviews are finished the final result will be compiled into a final

document. The possible risks could be some participants might be afraid to state certain

challenges within the institute as they might be fearful of the director hearing their opinions. This

will be eliminated however as any challenges or concerns given will be recorded anonymously.

As well as room has to be made for any diversions from the questions or topic at hand.

Buy In/ Persuasion Potential:A polite and courteous personality will help in making the

interviewer more persuasive and thus make the interviewee more open to discussion. The

director will also be interviewed therefore he will be able to make decisions based on any

challenges or lack of skills noted.

Diversity of Opinions Sought:Opinions will be sought from the three persons directly involved

in the institute. Each person has his or her own challenges and concerns and will be able to give

their ideas of how to minimize those challenges.

Problem/Situation Complexity:Questions will be stated in a way to prevent misunderstanding

and to allow the interviewees to share their views. Since it is a face to face setting there will be

very little room for misunderstanding as any such occurrence can be dealt with immediately.

Product/Results:At the end of each interview we will do a recap of the main points. Also at that

point the interviewee will be directly asked if there is any other thing that he or she would like to

share or clarify. The use of the information will be shared so they are clear about the anonymity

of their responses and that further action will be taken to address the issues or challenges.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

20

Objectivity of Data:The data will be very objective as there will be no prejudice and all party

will be treated with respect and fairly.

Advantages:This method allows the interviewer to get firsthand knowledge as to the processes of

the institute and the feelings of the workers. Solutions can also be deduced from these

interviews.

Disadvantages:Interviews might take longer than anticipated. The interviews can take various

turns not in keeping with the plan outlined.

Date: ______________________

Interviewer: ________________________

Position of Interviewee: ____________________

General information/ Challenges/Suggestions

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

How did you hear about the institute?

What are your roles in the institute?

What qualifications do you have to perform those roles?

What aspects of your job do you find easy to perform? What makes those aspects easy?

What aspects of your job do you find difficult to perform? What makes those aspects

difficult?

7. How would you propose to make those difficult tasks easier?

8. What aspect of each curriculum do you find to be challenging? Why?

9. How do you suggest these challenges be minimized?

10. What instructional material do you think will aid in making the day to day processes

easier?

21

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

22

Priorit

y

Criticality

Universality

Frequency

Standardization

Difficulty

Total

40 pts

10 pts

10 pts

10 pts

30 pts

100 pts

TASKS

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

numbers to students with varying

learning styles

30

10

10

10

25

85

This is an

important topic

especially in

algebra I and II.

Majority of the

topics involve

the use of

directed numbers

hence the points

awarded.

35

30

83

This is an

essential skill to

the K-12

syllabus

however the

processes that

these perform

can be done

Worksheet

Notes

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

23

effectively

without its use

hence the low

frequency

rating.

K-12 system

35

25

81

The K-12

syllabus is not

the most

commonly used

at the institution

however it is the

most

comprehensive.

Therefore it is

rated heavily

across the board.

in the topic loci

20

20

53

This is a topic

that is of

importance in

the GCSE

syllabus. We do

not have a large

amount of

students doing

this programme

hence the low

rating. However

it is an important

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

24

to the syllabus.

in the Algebra II syllabus

40

10

30

93

This is a very

important topic

in all syllabi at

the institute

hence the high

critical rating.

Algebra II

encompasses a

wider area of the

topic than the

other

programmes.

questions in matrices

10

25

50

This is a topic in

the CSEC and

K-12 syllabi

however not

having a good

grasp of it does

not affect the

other aspects of

the syllabus.

functions including logarithmic

and exponential functions

30

30

78

This is a topic

that is essential

to the GCSE and

K-12 syllabus.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

25

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

26

Appendix C2: Procedural Analysis

Procedural Analysis

Unit of Instruction/Task: Teaching a tutor to use a graphing calculator to deliver lessons to

students doing Algebra II Matrices.

LEVEL I

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Select the mode from the menu

Enter each matrix one at a time

Choose the operation needed

Use matrices on the graphing to solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method

or the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method

LEVEL II

1. Turn on the calculator

1.1 Identify the type of calculator

1.2 Check that it is functioning properly

2. Select the mode from the menu

2.1 Identify the mode key

3. Enter each matrix one at a time

3.1 Click the matrix button

3.2 Enter the dimensions of the matrix

4. Choose the operation needed

4.1 add and subtract matrices

4.2 multiply matrices

5. Use matrices on the graphing to solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method

or the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method

5.1 Solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method

5.2 Solve simultaneous equations using the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method

LEVEL III

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

27

1.1 Identify the type of calculator

1.1.1 Examine the calculator

1.2 Check that it is functioning properly

1.2.1 Perform basic operations using the calculator

1.2.2 Reset the calculator

2. Select the mode from the menu

2.1 Identify the mode key

2.1.1 locate the mode key

2.1.2 select the mode that best suits the operation

2.1.3 switch between the classic mode and math print mode

3. Enter each matrix one at a time

3.1 Click the matrix button

3.1.1 identify the matrix button

3.1.2 select 2nd function and click the x-1 button

3.2 Enter the dimensions of the matrix

3.2.1 clear any existing matrix dimensions

3.2.2 select the matrix letter

3.2.3 click the edit button

3.2.4 state the dimensions of any matrix

3.2.5 identify the dimensions of the matrices in the question

3.2.6 enter the dimensions

3.2.7 return to the home screen

4. Choose the operation needed

4.1 add and subtract matrices

4.1.1 explain when two matrices can be added or subtracted

4.1.2 go to matrix to get the names of the matrices entered

4.1.3 insert the necessary symbol

4.1.4 read the correct answer matrix from the screen

4.2 multiply matrices

4.2.1 explain what criteria has to be met for two matrices to be multiplied

4.2.2 go to matrix to get the names of the matrices entered

4.2.3 insert the necessary symbol

4.2.4 read the correct answer matrix from the screen

5. Use matrices on the graphing to solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method

or the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method

5.1 Solve simultaneous equations using the Inverse Method

5.1.1 define simultaneous equations

5.1.2 rearrange the equations to line up the coefficients

5.1.3 write simultaneous equations as equivalent matrices

5.1.4 find the inverse of a matrix on the calculator

5.1.5 multiply the inverse by the answers to the equations

5.1.6 read the answer from the screen correctly

5.2 Solve simultaneous equations using the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method

5.2.1 line up the coefficients

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

5.2.2

5.2.3

5.2.4

5.2.5

5.2.6

5.2.7

check the RREF function from the home screen

go to the matrix button

move right to MATH, choose B: RREF

choose the name of the matrix and hit enter

read the last column which gives the answer

28

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

29

Appendix C3: Flowchart

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

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Appendix C4: Prerequisite Analysis

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

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Appendix D: Rubric

Terminal/General Objective:

After engaging in a two day training workshop the participants will demonstrate the use of the graphing calculator to do operations and calculations in the K-12 syllabus

without assistance and with at least 90% accuracy.

Using a graphing calculator - Assessment Rubric (4 marks each)

Item

adding, subtracting and

Exceeds Expectations

4

The participant is able

Meets Expectations

sequence. The

accuracy without

explanation is

The explanation is

understandable and

mostly understandable

easily followed.

assistance

2. Demonstrate

plottinggraphs using a

to produce the correct

Limited Expectations

Below Expectations

1

The participant is only able

0

The participant is not able

at giving a sequence. No

explanation given.

3

2

The participant is able to The participant is able to

multiplying two

explanation is not clearly

followed.

plot three out of four

is difficult to understand

easily.

The participant is only able

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

graphing calculator

correctly without

assistance.

3. Solve systems of

The participant is able

effectively and

correctly.

with both methods with

32

for example linear.

graphing calculator.

one method.

use of graphing

calculator without

assistance.

4. Read answers produced

by the graphing

calculator correctly

information on

without assistance.

calculator such as

the necessary

necessary information on

information on

polynomials. The

Elimination method.

Guass-Jordan elimination

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

from the Gauss-Jordan

Jordan elimination

elimination method.

errors.

33

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

34

Assessment Items Scenario Items

Objective 1: To identify the keys on the graphing calculator used for graphing, solving matrices and trigonometric questions accurately without assistance

1. You need to solve a question using the Guass-Jordan Elimination method. With the use of the graphing calculator investigate which of the following steps will help you in

finding the RREF button in this method?

a. Go to Math, select the MATRX from the matrix menu, go right to select ALPHA B to select rref

b. Go to MATRX to access the matrix menu go right to access the math menu then ALPHA B to select rref

c. Go to Mode, select MATRX to select the matrix menu, go right select ALPHA B to select rref

d. Go to ALPHA select B to select rref

Objective 2: To perform various calculations in matrices, trigonometry and functions using the graphing calculator without errors independently

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

35

2. Your class is planning to make some wooden picture frames for fathers day. The frame will be cut out of a piece of wood; however the area of the frame should be 30cm2.

The inner part of the frame is 6 cm wide and 10cm long. What would be the width x of the actual wood frame? Use a graphing calculator to find your answer rounded off to

a. x = -1.08

b. x = 0.85

c. x = 0.34

d. x= -1.34

Objective 6: To demonstrate the use of the graphing calculator to add, subtract and multiply matrices with 100% accuracy

3. The totals of two brands of items from two companies are shown in the matrices below. Using a graphing calculator show the total overall production for both brands.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

36

a.

b.

c.

d.

Objective 3: To solve given questions using the graphing calculator with 90% accuracy without assistance.

4. You have decided to take a school trip. You inquire about the prices for teachers and students. You are told that 3 teachers and 20 students cost $150 while 12 teachers and

50 students cost $450. Using the inverse method on your graphing calculator find the cost for a teacher's ticket and a students ticket.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

a.

b.

c.

d.

Teachers ticket = $5 , students ticket = $ 3

Teachers ticket = $11.67 , students ticket = $ 3.50

Teachers ticket = $16.67 , students ticket = $ 5

37

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

38

Appendix F: Learner/Contextual Analysis Worksheet

-2

Greatly impedes

-1

Slightly impedes

+1 Slightly facilitates

+2 Greatly facilitates

The effects are in bold.

Orienting Context

Learner Factors

A mixture of males and females between the ages of 30 45

All teachers having over 10 years of experience in teaching

Each person has at least intermediate computer skills

-2

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+2

+2

+2

+2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-1 +1 +2

-1 +1 +2

-1 +1 +2

-1 +1 +2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Lack of resource materials such as projectors, calculators, books

There is a need for more teachers to lessen the teacher-student ratio

Environment facilitates one-on-one and small group tutoring

Organizational Factors

All have prior experience in teaching in a regular school system

The teachers are familiar with the operations of the business

Flexibility of work hours

Above average salary when compared to other similar organizations

Private sector organization

Instructional Context

Learner Factors

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

All trained teachers have training and experience

Increase skills of using graphing calculators

There is some familiarity with the content or prerequisites of it

39

-2 -1 +1 +2

-2 -1 +1 +2

-2 -1 +1 +2

There is no particular equipment set up for projectors

All equipment will have to be sought external to the business

Graphing calculators will have to be sourced

-2

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+2

+2

+2

+2

Organizational Factors

The workshop is going to be a bit costly because of the lack of resources -2 -1 +1 +2

Transfer Context

Learner Factors

Participants will be able to better explain the processes to their students -2 -1 +1 +2

There information from the workshop will be applied in the administration of lessons on a

regular basis

Teachers confidence level will be increased in many concepts

-2 -1 +1 +2

-2 -1 +1 +2

The resource materials from the workshop can now be used in the institute -2 -1 +1 +2

There will be an increase in the accessibility of resources -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors

The workshop will help in improving the reputation of the institute in offering these areas

-2 -1 +1 +2

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

40

This will be another area that can be advertised as being offered by the institution -2 -1

+1 +2

There will be more clients accepted who are studying under the K-12 system.

+1 +2

Revenue will be increased

-2 -1 +1 +2

-2 -1

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

41

Appendix G: PowerPoint Lesson

Slide 1

Slide 2

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Slide 3

Slide 4

42

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

Slide 5

Slide 6

43

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

44

Appendix H: Advanced Organizers

Advanced Organizers

New Material

Matrix addition, subtraction

and multiplication using a

graphing calculator

Organizer Topic

Differences and similarities in

adding, subtracting and

multiplying matrices.

Type of Organizer

Comparative

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

45

Discuss the importance of the order in manipulating matrices that is, adding, subtracting and multiplying. Wh

Manipulating

Matrices

Manipulating

Matrices

Multiplication

Subtraction

Addition

The columns in the first must match the rows in the second

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

46

Appendix I: Analogies

Analogies

Appendix I1: Analogy 1

An analogy can be drawn between a scoring table of a sports tournament and a matrix.

Description of a matrix

Scoring table

compared with

(Analog)

Format of a Matrix

(Target)

Table

rectangular array

Cells

elements

Team

Win

Barcelona

Real

Madrid

5

3

Los

e

4

4

Dra

w

3

5

Table

Matrix

Pictorial representation

Differences

Tables most often have lines separating each row and column. The elements of a matrix

are not bounded by lines.

Tables are enclosed in a box however matrices are surrounded by square brackets or

parentheses.

In tables the rows and the columns might not always be of the same length nor does the

number of rows on one side have to match the rows on the other. However these are

features of the matrix.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

47

An analogy can be drawn between a sky scraper building and a matrix.

Rows/

Width

Sky scraper

(Analog)

Columns/height

compared with

Matrix

(Target)

Differences

In a sky scraper the windows are of the same size and type however with a matrix each

element does not have to be the same size or type of number.

A sky scraper can start out with equal amount of windows at the bottom but can reduce as

it goes to the top. With a matrix it maintains a rectangular shape so the numbers of

elements in the rows and columns throughout are consistent.

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