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1 -

1-1

2-1

3-1

22

25

1-2

25

2-2

26

66

1-3

66

2-3

66

3-3

66

5-3

61

6-3

62

6-3

66

8-3

66

6-3

66

11-3

81

11-3

81


1-5

83
83

1-1-5 -

83

2-1-5

85

2-5

82

1-2-5

82

2-2-5

82

3-2-5

86

5-5

88

2-5

88

6-5

88

6-5

61

8-5

61

6-5

61

11-5

62

11-5

65

12-5

66

13-5

66

15-5

68

12-5 -

66

16-5

66

16-5

111

1-16-5

111

2-16-5

112

18-5

113

1-18-5

113

2-18-5

113

3-18-5 ( )

112

5-18-5 ( )

116

16-5 ( ) RCHO ( ) RCOR

116

21-5

116

21-5

116

22-5

118

23-5

116

25-5

116

22-5

111

26-5 ()

111

28-5

112

1-28-5

113

2-28-5 ( ) HPLC

112

3-28-5

116

26-5

118

.1-26-5

118

. 2-26-5

121

. 31-5
1-31-5

123
126
153

1-1
1

A
.

.

.
.
2
.
3 90%
.

1. Pyrex
2. Pyrex Plus
3. Vycor

08/6
31
4
2/1
8/3

SiO2
B2O3
Na2O
Al2O3
Miscellaneous Traces

4664
1
8/5
8/3

SiO2
B2O3
Al2O3
Miscellaneous Traces


.

. ) ) B2O3
.
ExaxTM PyrexTM . KimaxTM

CorexTM .


.


.
.
.

08/6
31
4
2/1
8/3

SiO2

B2O3
Na2O
Al2O3
Miscellaneous Traces

73%

SiO2

14%

Na2O

7%

CaO

4%

MgO

2%

Na2O

46/4
B2O3
1
Al2O3
8/5
Miscellaneous Traces
8/3
.
SiO2


. %46
.
.
.
A 300 500 nm
.


.

.
.
.

.
. 2
. .
.
.

.

.
pH... .


.
. :
...
.

2-1
3-2-3


( .)3

3 -2

3 -3

3 -1

3 3 -3 . 3 -2
3 -1 .

2-2-3

3063
.
. pH
.

1. Glassware Joints
2. Erlenmeyer flask

1-2-3


10ml 1lit .

.
.

4-2-3





.
.

.

1. Graduated cylinder
2. Bchner flask

5-2-3



5ml 5lit .

. ( ) .
( ) .
.
. .

... .
.

1. Round-bottom flask

6-2-3


.

.
.
.


.

1. Volumetric flask

7-2-3



.
0-2-3

( ) (
) .

.
. .
1.4 3
4 .
4-2-3

( )50ml .
.

1. Florence flask
2. Beaker
1. Griffin
2. Berzelius
3. Burette

(
)
3-4-2-3


.


.

.
.

.
.


/ .

.
.
.

( )
.
38-2-3

.

.
.
. 1 200 l
.
.
( ) -
.
3-38-2-3

1. pipette
1. Graduated pipet

( ) Mohr
.
. ( ) 1,

2, 10, 25 ml 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50 ml

2-38-2-3


.
.

.

. 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25,

50,100 .
1-38-2-3


.



.

1. volumetric pipet
1. Pasteur & Disposable pipet

4-38-2-3


.
5-38-2-3



. (
) ( )
.
0 32
. .
2. Ostwald Folin pipet
1. Semi automated pipet

.
. 0.2 l

10 ml .
.
6-11-2-1

.
4 34
( )
.
.
( 48 )
. .

2. Electronic pipet

7-11-2-1

(
) .

8-11-2-1

.
.

.
11-2-1


.
. A
. S
E .
E
. S E

1. Beral pipet
2. Zeptoliter pipet

.
.
32-2-3

:

.

.
3 5mm .
(
)
.
.

1. Disposable pipet tips




.
( )
.
:

:



.

.

. .
.
.
.

31-2-3

.


34-2-3


.

PTFE . 50ml
3 lit .
:
.MTBE .
35-2-3

1. Condenser
2. Separatory funnel
1. Filter funnel

( )
36-2-3


.

.
() .
17-2-1



.
160
.
18-2-1

(
)
. .

1. Petri Dish
2. Vial

.
. vial phial
.
11-2-1


.
21-2-1

.

21-2-1


.
. .
.

. ( (Ash .
...

3. Spatula
1. Crucible


.
22-2-1

22-2-1

.
.

24-2-3



.
.
.
4
.
2. Wire Gauze
1. Clay Triangle
2. Magnetic stirring bar

22-2-1

.
.
. .
.
.
. .
3052 .

3. Bunsen burners

26-2-1

:

27-2-1

3-1

1. Mortar & Pestle

3-1-3 :
3-3-1-3

100oc .
.
.

.
( ) .
2 1 :

.

1. water bath

2-1-2-1

388
258 . -N- 348
358 . 258 " "
48 68 .
. .
.

.
1-3-1-3 :

woods metal
Rose's metal

3 Cu 2 Pb 5Bi
3 Pb 3 Sn 2Bi
61 Sn 17Pb


73
44
301

158
.
.
(

1. oil bath

) .
.
258 :
4 3 %05 . 268
.
. 148 2 - %05 3
- 28 .
4-1-2-1
. .
.
.
2-1-2-1
.
08 ( ) .
( )
2 1
...

. . :

()
.
6-1-2-1
( 8 5)
.
3 1 -28
-5 -35 .
5 CaCl2,6H2O 165 4 -48 -58
.
. 3 NH4Cl NaNO3 3 2
-38 -28-35 1 NH4Cl 38
31 -35 33 Na2S2O3,5H2O 5
33 -0 1 NH4NO3 5 31
-31 .

-58 .
-72 -77
.-77

2-2-1


.
( 3488 )


.
.
:
.

.
2-2-1

(
) .

.

1. OVEN

4-2-1

.

.
.

.

.
2-2-1


. . 2
.

3-5-1-3 :FABRIC


2-5-1-3 :RIGID .
6-1-3

1. FURANCE
2. MANTLES


. 1 .
:
:Roller mixer 3-6-1-3
.

:Vortex mixer 2-6-1-3

:High shear mixer 1-6-1-3


1. stirrer

7-2-1

... .
.

.

:Orbital shaker 3-7-1-3
.
:Rocking shaker 2-7-1-3 .

.
:Reciprocating 1-7-1-3
. .
8-2-1

1. shaker
2. Magnetic stirrer


.
1-2-1

.
.

:Ostwald viscometer 3-4-1-3
" "U-tube .

:Ubbelohde viscometer 2-4-1-3 suspended-level


. ( )capillary .
:Rotational viscometer 1-4-1-3
.
:Rheometer 4-4-1-3
.
1. Viscometer

11-2-1

3-38-1-3 :
. 488 .
2-38-1-3 :
-58 .
1-38-1-3 : .

:Digital hygro thermometer .
:Digital clinical thermometer
.
4-38-1-3 :
.
.

5-38-1-3 :1
. .
.
1. Thermometer

11-2-1


.
1 :()rotor( )motor . drive shaft
. .
.
. : ...
.
):Relative centrifugal force(RCF


RCF . :
RCF=1.12*10-5*R*rpm2
:r

(.

)
: rpm .
RCF ( )nomogram
( .)1-9
2. Pyrometer
1. centrifuge

:
1 .
-3 -2 -1
:

. .rpm4000 RCF3200Xg :
:
( 25 58 ) .
:
. RCF5600Xg , rpm7000
:
( ) ... .

.
. RCF175000Xg , rpm100000

12-2-1


.

.
. .
:




.
pH 31-1-3
PH : PH PH
. ] [H+
.
PH (. PH .)123
1. ROTAVAPOR

PH .

. ] [H+
. .
( )
. ] [H+
. pH

.
.
pH .7 7 pH
. ""Zero Point .
] [H+ pH .
] [H+ :
E=E+RT/n FLn(Unknown [H+]/reference [H+]);or
)]E=E+2.3RT/n Flog(Unknown [H+]/reference [H+

=E ( )
=E .
=R ()8.3145JK-1mol-1
=T

= n .
=F ( )96,485JV-1mol-1 :
]=[H+ .
( )Zero Point . -30m V +30m V

.
.
:
) (E. pH
pH E pH .
pH
. . 25
pH 25
. .

pH
pH
pH pH .

.
122
. .
pH
: Fermentation electrodes
.

: Ion-selective electrodes
. .
pH .
:
. 3 :
.
. 2 : /
.
.1 :
.
.4 : .
. 5 :
.

:
pH .

.
. pH .
.

pH
. pH
. " " .

/ :
Ag/AgCl .
08 . ""general-purpose
%5
) (Tris .
:
Hg/Hg2Cl2
Tris junction
. SCE .
:
3M
. Jonction

.
:

14-2-1
.

.
323
. Triple-beam
.
. .


.


0.00001 g .
.

.
:
3 : .
.
. 2 :
.
. 1 : 0.005 g
. 0.001 g 0.05 g
.
:
. 4 :
.
.5 : . .
.6 : .
.
.7 : .
.0 : .

.


. .

.
.

.
12-2-1
.
( )
. ()
.
.
.
. (
) ( )+ ( )- .
.
... .
:
[]=/Ld

g /mL) / (dm () =

=d .

16-2-1
c.g.s
. .
28 .


.
.
.
.
. .

3-36-1-3


.
.
.
.
37-1-3

.
. .
. 48
.
.

1. Densitometer
2. Pyknometer

30-1-3

.
.
:

.
.

( )
. ( )
( ) ( )
. ( )
.

1. Calorimetr

11-2-1
.
1

2 . .
3 .

4
.
.

628 -678

548 -628

578 -548

588 -578

458-588

488 -458

108 -488

)(nm

<678

)(visible

)(unvisible

)(unvisible

.
888 .
1. Colorimetry
2. Spectrometry
3. Absorptiometry
4. Monochromatic
5. Visible Range
6. Beer

-3
.
168 -458 .
228 168 .
-2

.
-1
. Grating
. Grating
.
Grating Filter

Photometer .
.
-4

.
(
) . 458
128 . 128
1. Cuvette

. / ...
.

.

.
. .
8683 . 3 .
-5

.
.

1. Detector or Photomultiplier



.
.

1-2
.
2 .
.

.
.
1 (
) .
2
.

2
.
pH . CO2
.
.
.... .

)(Megaohm.cm-1

38

268

863

ml

38

38

---

588

---

---


pH

---

---

---

---

---

.
. 3 38 2
.
.
1-1-2 :
.
388 :
385

3 ( 86883
388 ).

2-2

. .
.
.
.
.
.
:
-
-
:
-
-
.
1-2-2

: - 1 2 - 3
.4 .
.TC(To contain -2 TD (To deliver) -3
TD :
- .
.
- .
TD Ex Exit.
TC
.
TC In Inter.

.

1. Volumetric
2. Transfering
3. Graduated
4. Measuring

1-1-2-2
. 5
( 5 = 5) . 38 (
) . .
5 :
586044 456785 486612 156540 186406 256101 28618 356212 38 5
5560.
%866 %862 .
:
=Bias

2-2-2
.
.
%863 .

.
2-2-2
.
.

.
.
.
mg/l28
.
4-2-2
.
.
2 388
17 . .
.
.

.
2-2-2
24
.
.

.
4-0 .

6-2-2
. TD 3
3888 .

.


.
%3 ( ) %861 %866 .
38 .
1 4 .

. 358 388
( 864 628 -618) .
38 38
.

. .
.
.

. 588 288 388 58 28 38 3888
.
:
388 . 38 388
( 358 ) 38
( ) . 621
OD .
388 :
86161

86154

86152

86153

86161

86168

86154

86151

86165

86143

OD

= 0.357

SD = 0.0073

.
:

.

7-2-2
.
.
.
RPM1 RCF2 RCF .
g .:

RCF = 1.11810-5r(rpm)2

r ( ).

.

-
.
-
5 . 2 5 .
5
3 .
1. Rate Per Minute
2. Relative Centrifugal Force
3. Rotator

.
( 2 1 ) 1
.
3-7-2-2

.

.
.
% 5
.
8-2-2
:
-
.

.
.
4. Tochometer


.
888 .
.

()

)257(158
485

)(50 mg/L in 0.01 N H2SO4


)(0.04 mmol/L in 0.01 N NaOH

532

)(0.0735 mol/L in 0.18 H2SO4

.
485
532 .

.

.

1. Linearity

3 338
:
388 8683
. 158
UV . .
OD
. .... OD
.
OD

OD

( )

( )

86803
86241
86485
86567
8671
---

86842
8620
8645
8662
8677
8603

48
78
58
18
38
---

38
18
58
78
48
388

.
38 3/38 .
. ....867 860 864 .:
/ ( ) = Slope

3 . 8685.
Slope 3/38 = 86803/86842 = 8600

Slope 1/38 = 86241 /8620 = 8606

.
-
.
.
.
58 8683
. 158 86516 86885 86513
.86543

.

1-3

.

.

.
.


.

2-3

.
.
( ) .
.

.

.
.

.
: .

. :
( )...

1 ...
.
.
.

.

1. Biohazard

.
.

3-3
.
:
1-2-2 : 3265PH2
H2SO4 HCl ...NaOH
2-2-2 : .
.
2-2-2 : . :
( )-N -2-N ()2-AAF--
-4 -3 -2 -4 -
- .
4-2-2 : :.
2-2-2 : :
348 .
348 .

.

.

.
.

.

.
6-2-2 : :
.
( )
( ) ( )

.

. .....
.

4-3 :
.... .

( ) :: .

( ) : .
/ ( -388 )
: .

( ) :: .
.

( =) :
: .

( - ):
: .


( ) : : .

( ) : :
.

( )( : )

( ):
: ....

( ) :
.
... .
( ) ( )NFPA

- . 8 4
.
( )

4
1
2
3
8

.
.


( 8 4 )

( )
4
1
2
3
8


388
388 288

( 8 4 )

()
4
1

2
3
8



.
.
( ).

( 8 4 )

()
W

OX

:
-3 ( )
-2
-1
-4
.......

.

6-3
1

MSDS
MSDS
.

MSDS .

MSDS
www.msdsonline.com
.

MSDS
. ....... MSDS .

1-6-2
)1. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS

MSDS
.


MSDS
.
.

MSDS
.

7-3
:

8-3
3-0-1


0
.

2-8-2

2-8-2

.
.

4-8-2



.3
.3
.2 .2


.1 ( ) .1

.4 .4

.5
.5
.6 .6

.7
.7

.0
.0
.4 ( )
.38

9-3
N2,CO2,H2,He,N2O

.

.
.
.

.
.


. .
.
. .
. .

.
. .

.
.
.

11-3


.
.

. .
.

11-3




.
. .....
.
. .... .

6666 .
( )...

4
1-4

. : (
) .
.
1-1-4 -

18 58 ( 4 5
) 2 . .
( ) 2 1
. 25 c %3 (
) 1 .
. .
.
. )3 )2 )1
)4 .


.
388
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
2-1-4
%3 ( )3 )2( ( )1 ( )4 .
. .

.

2-4
1-2-4
: .
OH NH
.

2 % 28 3

.
. ( )3 ( )2 ( )1 ( )4
.
2-2-4
2
8/3 . .
.
. 8/5
2 .
.
.

.

.
.
3-2-4

2 8/3 ( 8/3)
. " .
8/5 3
.
. .

. :

"
.
.

ArCHCI ArCHCI
:
ArCHCI+AICIArCH+AICI


:
ArCH+ArCHArC+ArCH

3-4
)
35 7 2 1
38 .
. :
.
2 . 25
. 28
%5 .
25 . 28
% 5 .
25 %38 . .
.

)
08 4 .
%38
( %5 1) .
. .
.
.

4-4

"

.
" .

.
.

5-4
( )R-N
H .

6-4
)

RC-CI+HORC-OH+HCI

3 ml
. .


.
) 8/5mi .
. 5 mI .
) 8/5mI .
.
() .
) 3 mI 8/5 3 mI .
5 mI .
.
)
RC-CI+ROH+NaOHRC-OR+NaCI+HO
RC-CI+RNH+NaOHRC-NHR+NaCI+HO

5 ml 38 ml 2 ml .
38 ml % 28 .
.
. "
.


.
.

7-4
)
3ml 1ml 5 ml
c 3 . 5 ml
.
.
2 . 1
.
)
2 ml 8/3 -B
2 ml %38 5 ml . - .
RNH+HONORNNO+HO

) 2 ml 5ml 5ml
. 3/5 5 ml
. .
) () . .
.

) 2 ml
8/3 . . 28 ml
.
. .

8-4
N
" .
.

9-4
.
: PH
. :
RNRNH

.

:
RN:+HONORN-NO+ROH


. .
-S .
( ) II spot-test
. ( Cu )II .
pasto gohnson .

11-4
( )
.
5 58 .

8/18 5 % 38 8/4
.
. .

( ) A . ( ) A
.
( ) A . ( ) A
.


. "
.
. N,N
. 35 288 c
. ( ) A .
( ) B .
.
.

.
. :
38 388 %25
. 24 16
38 32
.
%28 58 .
.

.

:
%40 .
.
.

11-4
.
.
( )3 )2( : ( ) 1 ) 4( : )5( :
) 6 ( : .

( 8/3 ) 35 )
5 . . 3 ml
%38 .
. 2 ml

8c

68 .

8c

68 )

" .
2 6 8 c .
% 38 .
35 . (

) .
: ( ) CHI ( 334-323 8 c )
" . 1 4
3ml % 38
. .
288 388 088ml
. ( ) I
.

CHICO-CHCO- CHICO-

.
.

.
:
CHCH0HR

CHCOR

RCH OH CHC OH HR

CHCHOH

CHCHO

RCOCHCOR

( =R )
R .
:
CHCOCHNO/CHCOCHCN/CHCOCHCOR .


.
.
3 4 6ml 58 ml .

.

.
:
RCHCOCHR, RCHCHOHCHR


.
. 2 .
.
CHCOCHOHCH

CHCHOHCHOHHCH
CHCOCHCHCOCH
CHCOCOCH

12-4
.


13-4 : CO
CHCOCHCOH CHCOCH+CO .

.
"
%5 (
):
H
RCOCHCOR+HO RCOCH+ROH+CO


8/5 B 388 58 ml
%5 .
. 6 0
. : 2 4
( ) ROH
.
.

.
.

CrO :
1 ."
RCHO+CrO+HSORCOH+HO+Cr(SO) :

"
C-H " .

14-4
RCHO+AG(NH) OHAG(s)+ RCOONH+HO+NH

:
( )3 ) 2 (: ) 1 (: ) 4( : ) 5( : ) 6 ( : - .
.
.

" 2 Mi %5
( ) % 38 .
( " ) %2 .
. "

.

15-4 -
2 mI - .
1 4 .
" ( )3 )2( : )1( : )4( : .
.
"
.

8/5 ( - ) 58 mI
588 ml .

"

. "
.

16-4
8/2 5 ml 5 ml
.
:
. ( n )3 ( )2 ( )1 ( )4
( )5 ( )6 ( -2 )7 ( )0 ( )4 .

8/2 5 ml
.
. .

.


( 37/1)
( 371/8)
( 388)

088ml 058 ml
. 388ml
. .

17-4

" C==N-NHR
.

.
. .
1-17-4
)
3 38 28
%38 . "

.

.
.
.
)
588 28 ml %5 18 ml
%1 . 65 78 8 c .
35 65 0c .
38 ml
congo red .

. 14 11 14
.
) ( ) I
58 1/4 38 ml .
%38
( ) 4 ml " ml

5 %38 ."
. 38 35

.
( ) % 28 .
.
3:3 - .

.
2-17-4
C= O+H NNHCONH C=NNHCONH+HO

)
3/5
38 .
.
.
25 %58 .
)
38 . "
. .
3/5 ( ) .

18-4

"
: ( ) 0H

.
1-18-4
"
"

:
)ROH+NaRONa + H (g


.

3 n
. . .
n .

.
2-18-4
CH-OH+Ce(IV) - C=O+Ce(m) +H


31 488 384/6 )

) ) NH) Ce (NO .
588 . 28 8 c 25 8 c .
( 58 Ce(IV) ) 388 0 c .
.

) 3 4 5
8/3 8/2 . "
.
. . 35

. .
)3 )2 : )1 : )4 : )5 : ( ) %05
.
) 4 . 2
. .

6 . 1
. 1 4 5 8/3 8/2
. " ( )
.

. ( )3 ( )2 ( )+ -( )1 .
3-18-4 ( )

.

)RCHOH+CrO+HSO RCOH+HO+Cr (SO
)RCHOH+CrO+HSO RCO+HO+Cr (SO
)RCHO+Cro+HSO RCOH+HO+Cr (SO

3 38
.
2 .
.
. 2
. 2 .
25 25 ml
75 ml .
. .
28
.
.


4-18-4 ( )

.
:
( ) CH3CHOH .

ZnCL2
RCHOH+HCI RCHCI+HO
ZnCL2
RCOH+HCIRCCI+HO

) 38 ( -26
) 27 0c . . .
:
.
-3 )3( . ( -2 )2 ( -3 )1 ( )4
( )6 ( )7 .

316 ( 3) 385
( 3 ) 385 ( 3 )
.

) 6 .
. " ( :
)3 ( )2 ( )1 ( )4 .

19-4 ( ) RCHO ( ) RCOR

" : C-H ( CHO )


.
21-4 2 . 6 4
3 2 2 ml %45 1 ml
2 4 .
35 . 1 2
4 35 ml .
28 ml 78 ml . "
.

21-4

" ( ) RCOH A .
. :
. .
:

.

( )

PH

( ) neut.eq
.

( )mol. Wt
( )x :
)Molwt= x (neut eq

.
.
" .
.

22-4
:

.
.


(RCO) O .
." :

.
.
.

23-4

.

.
.
-
. ( )
.

24-4

MN . . "

%5 HCl %5 NaOH
.
.
.
.

25-4

"

( N ) S
.
( ) .
." ( )
.
" .
.
" .
" .
.
.
.
.

.
.

.

:
ArI+CIArICI

26-4 ()
:
( ) . ( C)HO
: CHO . ( )
( C)HO CHO .
. " :
" .

" :

.

( )
OH
( )
( C= O) 24
( )
b
( ) ( )CHO

( )
b
( ) ( )
( )

28-4
(
" ) ( " )
.
.
: ( ) gc ( (Ic .
" . (
) . "
. ( ) Ic
(
) (
).


1-28-4
.

.
.
{ 5 ( )} "
.

2 { 45 ( )}
.
. " ( )
.
" .
(

0c

)48-68 .

348 ( 4-7 )
. "
.
( " ) .
.
.


( ) 2
1 . .
.
.

( ) .
. 58 :
.
335 .




() AIO


"
.
" .
" .

-3 : .
:
.


. 18
.
. .

.
.
.
" .
" ( "
- ).
2-28-4 ( ) HPLC
(
)
.
-3 "
.
IC " gc

"

IC" .
IC " ( gc

) . HPLC
. .
.
3460 .
.
.
.
."
UV
. "
.
:

. HPLC
( ) .
:
. GC
. HPLC
.

3-28-4
GC
.
GC (
)
( ) . (
3/6) ." 5 38 .
( 5 38)
.

3/4 1/0 .
GC .

. .
.

GC Bell
.

29-4

.3 -
.2
.1-29-4
3 -3
.
3-3-3
. .
:
2 1-2 -
1-2

.

- : %45 .
2-3-3
.
:



.
.

1 : 6 388 .
38 :
.
1-3-3

.
.
:
5 0-38
2 -5 .
( )CuO2 .

388 : 371 088
. 388

3761 .
088 3 .
4-3-3

.
:
4
. 5 .
.
:
40 : 088 -488 . 58
%065 3 .
5-3-3
.

5 5
2 .

() .
.


.

288 :
866 3 -
3 .
6-3-3
. .

5 2
.
. .

1 : 2
%38 3 .
. 2-29-4
( )
.
.

8682
.
.
. 3 2
.
Rf .

-
1 3 3
3
.
-

2
.
-
3 :3 3 388 .
:2
38 3 3 2 .

. 31-4
1-3

.
. .

. .

2 %863
(/) 5 -38 .
.

3 : ( ).
1-2

.

1 1
1 -5

1. Millon

. .
.

: . 388
348
.
1-1


.

1 1
2-1
.
.

58 : 388
%3 ( ).
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4-3

1. Hopkins-Cole

.

.

2 2 %38
3 %3

. .
4-2
.
4-2-3


1 3 -2

.

.
4-2-2 %35

2. Biurret
1. Heller


5 2
% 35 .
.
4-2-1 %28

2 5 -38
%28 .
1-31-4

( )86875
( )86875 758 .
STOCK 4 .


( - )HELENA -
. 28 18
.

388
.

28 18
.
( - )HELENA -
.

28
258 .

862 1S 1 S 1
388 .

28 258 S
1 .

1. Ponceau S

1
%5
.

4 .


38 .

28 08 .

28 78 08
.




3-2-
.


.

.

II
.



-



-




VI

()




. ()

()











( )






{}...

( )

( )

( )
()


( )

( )

LUMINOL

C8H7N3O2

7-6:pH

-)6( :pH )7(

:
.
/ :
.

MALACHITE GREEN

C23H25N2Cl 2-8:pH-3366
34

-)8(:pH)2(-)3366(-)34(

: -
.
/ : .

C8H8O2
464-163 :pH -)163(:pH -)464(

: .

/:

2-METHOXYBENZALDEHYDE

:METHYL GREEN

C26H33N3Cl2:
261-863 :pH -)3( :pH)261(
: .
/ : .

:Methyl Orange

C14H14N3O3SNa
-)1(:pH-)464(
464-1:pH
:
/
/ : .

:Methyl Red

C15H15N3O2
-464 :pH -)464( :pH-)662(
662
: LED -
.

/ : .

Methyl Violet


-8635 :pH -)8635( :pH-)162(
162
- .

:
.
/ : .
-Naphthol

C10H8O
-065 :pH -)065( :pH-)465(
465
:
.
/ :
.

-Naphtholphthalein

C28H18O4
-)761( :pH-)067(
067-761:pH
.
:
.

:Nile Blue

C20H20N3OCl
-464 :pH -)464( :pH-)33(
33
:
DNA .
/ : .

:Nitramine

-3860:pH -)3860pH-)31( .

C7H5N5O8

31
: .
/ : .

Phenolphthalein

C20H14O4
38-0:pH -)0) :pH-)38(.
:

.
/ : .

:Phenol Red
C19H14O5S
064-660:pH -)660( :pH-)064(.
:

.
/ : .

:Picric Acid
C6H3N3O7:

361-8:pH

)868( :pH-)361(.

:
.

/ : .

:Salicylic Acid

C7H6O3
4-265 :pH -)265( :pH-)4(
UV
/ : .

:Thymol Blue

C27H30O5S
-)362( :pH-)260(
260-362:pH
.
:
. .

Web Site Resources


Federal Government
Department of Health and Human ServicesCenters for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC)www.cdc.gov
Department of Health and Human ServicesCenters for Disease Control and
PreventionNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH)www.cdc.gov/niosh/homepage.html
Department of Health and Human ServicesNational Toxicology Program
(NTP)http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov
Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign
(SC3)www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/conserve/clusters/schools/index.htm
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)www.cpsc.gov
U.S. Department of LaborOccupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA)www.osha.gov
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)www.dot.gov
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)www.epa.gov

Other
American Chemical Society (ACS)www.acs.org
Council of State Science Supervisors (CSSS)www.csssscience.org/safety.htm
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)www.iarc.fr

Laboratory Safety Institute (LSI)


www.labsafety.org
MSDS Online
www.msdsonline.com
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
www.nfpa.org
National Safety Council (NSC)
www.nsc.org
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
www.nsta.org
Safety Information Resources Inc (SIRI) MSDS Collection
www.hazard.com