You are on page 1of 101

....

:
: .

, 2010



,
,
.
.
.
,
.
,

, .

ABSTRACT


1.

1.1

1.2

1.3

12

1.4

16

1.5

22

1.6

24

2.

(Lycopersicon esculentum L., . Solanaceae)

26

2.1

26

2.2

30

2.3

31

2.4

32

2.4.1

32

2.4.2

35

2.4.3

36

2.4.4

(CO2)

37

2.5

37

2.6

38

2.7

39

2.8

40

.
3.

(
)

41

3.1

41

3.2

41

3.3

43

3.4

44

3.4.1

44

3.4.2

55

3.5

59

4.


( )

63

4.1

63

4.2

63

4.3

66

4.4

67

4.5

69

4.6

82

5.

85


6.

88

7.

92

7.1

92

7.2

24

95




.
( , , )
,
, .

, ,

() (). ,
() ()
: - (70-30 ), -- (60-20-20), -- (60-20-20), -
(90-10, 70-30, 50-50), - (90-10, 70-30, 50-50), - (90-10, 70-30, 50-50), -
(90-10, 70-30, 50-50)
.
, , (10%
30%) , .

,
( 70%) .
.
,
.

, pH

EC .
/ .


(.. 10%),

,
. (.. )
.

ABSTRACT
Many areas of Greece, including Crete, are distinguished for their intense activity in the
sector of oliviculture and olive oil production, thus with important negative effects.
Several by-products (olive-leaves, oil-stone, and olive-mill waste water) produced
which constitute, without disposal, in soil and environment pollution. The objectives of
present study was firstly to examine the possible incorporation of these by-products into
the soil, without environmental risks while a second objective was the evaluation of
several mixtures of organic (including by-products) and inorganic material, as substrate
medium for tomato culture.

Thus, two experiments conducted using by-products, olive-leaves (OL) and olive-stones
(OS). In the first experiment, it was used peat (P) or perlite (Per) in mixture with OL
and OS resulting in the following cases: P: Per (70:30 control), P: Per: OL (60:20:20),
P: Per: OS (60:20:20), P: OL (90:10, 70:30, 50:50), P: OS (90:10, 70:30, 50:50), Per:
OL (90:10, 70:30, 50:50), Per: OS (90:10, 70:30, 50:50) and were studied the effect of
different substrates on seed germination/emergence in nurseries as well as plant growth.
In the second experiment, it was studied the growth, yield and fruit quality parameter of
tomato, in various mixtures of soil (10% or 30%) with OL and OS, in pot culture under
greenhouse conditions.

According to the results during nurseries studies, increasing the OL content in peat
substrate resulted in seed germination reduction (up to 70%) while the relevant OS
addition, did not have major differences comparing to the control. Mixture of Per with
OL or OS improved seed germination. However, mixtures of P or Per with OL or OS
reduced seedling growth. In tomato pot-experiment, mainly OS affected plant growth
rather than OL, being concentration depended. The increase of waste content decreased
leaf number, fresh weight as well as the yield of tomato. The incorporation of olive
wastes into soil in different ratios increased of fruit firmness but reduced total soluble
solid, pH and EC of tomato juice. No major changes observed on upper and root
biomass as well as on plant growth parameter.

As a consequence, the successful use of plant wastes is possible in low content in the
soil (i.e. 10%), it is possible to use as seed priming while an intermediate stage of
transplanting is necessary in nurseries and/or the complete composting of organic
material, in order to avoid the inhibitory effects of substances (i.e. polyphenols) on plant
growth.


1.
1.1
, , .
(, 2009g). , , ,
(Oleaceae).
(Olea) (30) , Olea europaea (L.)
- ,
, (Olea europaea var. Sativa)
(lea europaea var. Oleaster).
lea
.

, .
.
(, 2009d).
, ,
. 3500
.. .
.

. ,

,
. , ,

.
,
.

19 .



(.. ).
. ' ,
.
. , ,
.
'
.
.
.

1.1. .


(, 2009c).
. .
,

10

, (
).
: ' (10%
) ' ,
(25-30% ).
, ,
.

(, 2009a).
.
238.500 (, 2009b).

.
16 .
30

.
120.000 (,
2009f).
.
, .
.

1.2

100 22 , 45 33
.
(, 2004).

11

.

.
( ),

().
().
, .

:
. , ,
( 1.2) (, 2004a).
. (),

. ,

1.2.
.

12

,
:
1. :
.

2. :
,
.
(, , ).
. 100 - 120
1000 kg .
.

3. - :
.
, .

4. : ,
.

. 28-30C.

5. :
-
() ().
(batch type process)
. ( /)
.
1000 kg 350 kg (
~25%) 450 kg (). ,
, ,
. 3-
(continuous process) .
3- (decanter),

13

(, , )
.

. 1000 kg ,
500 kg ( ~50%) 1200 kg .
, 2-
( " ").
.
(
). 1000 Kg 800 kg
.
.

6. : ( , ,
, ) ,
0,5-1%
, (
).

( 1.3).

1.3. .
,
: , 3- 2-.

14


. 1.1. .

1.1.
(, 2004a).

(Kg/

330

500

800

(L/ )

600

1200

250

94

90

99

100

80

10

203

164

200

1,4

0,5

(%)
BOD5 (g/L)
( O2)

(mg/L)

2-
,
BOD5.

. ,
.


( 1.2).

15

1.2.
(, 2004a).

NaOH

pH

9-13

NaOH (g/L)

1,1-1,5

NaCl (g/L)

6-10

6-15

4,1-6,3

5-7

23-28

10-20

15-25

9-15

(g / L)

(g tannic acid/L
COD (g O2/L)
( O2)
BOD (g O2/L)

30-40

10-20

(g/L)

1.3



, ,
,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
(, 2004b). :
) ,
( ) (
1.4).

16

1.4.
. .
) T ( 1.5).

1.5.
. .
) T (
),
) () ,
) ,
) ,
, ( 1.6).

17

1.6. .

1.3.
, ,
, , (pH 4,5-5,5)
(, 2004).
, , , ,
, , , , , ,
...
,

25 , , ...

,

(, , ).
,
( 12-14%
).

18

1.3.
(, 2005).

(mmhos/cm)

8-16

8-16

pH

4,7-5,2

COD (Kg/m3)

120-130

45-60

BOD (Kg/m3)

90-100

35-48

(%)

0,1

0,9

(%)

12,0

6,0

10,5

5,5

1,5

0,5

2,0-8,0

0,5-2,6

0,5-2,0

1,7-0,4

0,5-1,0

0,2-0,4

1,0-1,5

0,3-0,5

, ...

1,0-1,5

0,2-0,5

2,0-2,4

0,3-0,8

0,03-1,0

0,5-2,3

0,11

0,03

0,72

0,27

Ca

0,07

0,02

Mg

0,04

0,01

Ca

0,09

0,03

Co3

0,37

0,10

So3

0,04

0,015

Cl2

0,03

0,01

SiO2

0,005

0,002

(%)

(%)

19

1.4
,
,

.
,
, BOD5
COD, .

(.. ). (live
ill Waste - OMW)
-,
, ..
.

.

.

.
, ,
.


(.. BOD/COD < 1 g/L)
(, 2004a),
( BOD/COD > 1 g/L).

.

. ,
.

20

,
.
.
( )
,
.

,
(, 2004a).
:

(,

).

( , ,
, ).

(,

/, , , ).

1.4 ,
NaOH,

, 1.5

.

21

1.4. ,
NaOH,
(, 2004a).

...

80%



,

.

NaOH

22

NaOH

1.5.
, (, 2004a).

98%

1-2%.

95%

99%


~ 100/t

10% 3%

5/t .

~
-

20-30%

,
(), () (),

23


- -
.
(),
,
-.
,

() (, ),

. ()
(),
, . ,
(),
. ,
(),

.

,
(, 2009b).


, .
, ,
( , , , ),


. ()

, COD (100-200) g/l
. , 5
6,7 m3 YA
. ,
,

24

(..
). ,
,
( 1.7).

1.7. (
) . .


.
. ,

. ,

(, , ).
(20-120) g/l,
(3-20) g/l (0.5-5) g/l,
,
, ,

(, 2004).

25

1.5

, , , ,
(, 2009).
, ,
. ,
,
,
.
3,4-
.

, .

1854 ( Hanbury Pharmaceutical Journal)
.
20
.
, in vitro.
in vitro
, ,
. , in vivo.

. ,
.
,
1950. ,

.
in
vivo,
. ,

26



.
.


, ,
. , ,

.

(
, 2003).
(4,3% 1,5% ),
.


(, 2004).
25-29%
.

,
(secoiridoids), 1-3% (..).
, 19% (..) 1,8% .
,
. (
, ), ,
.


, (

).

27

1.6 ,

H composts ,
,

. , ,
-, EC, pH, ..


(Papafotiou et al.,
2004).
75%, . ,
50% 75%
.
,

,
.
25% ,

50% .
75% .

25% 50%, 75%

. 50% 75%
,
, 25%
,
.

28

,
()
. Chatjipavlidis et al. (1996)
-
, .
, (3, 18, 36
,

m3 str1),

, ,

(Sierra et al., 2007).


,
.

(Ntoulas et al., 2004).

29

2. (Lycopersicon esculentum L., . Solanaceae)


2.1.
:
: , , , .

: ,
,
. , ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
,
.
. .
,
, ..
,
, ..
( O2) , , ..
:

, ( ). O
,
.
. ,
, ,
.
, .
.

30

,
.
.
, , , , ,
, , ,
, . ,
,
(indeterminate) (determinate).
,
( ), ,
10 (, 1994).

: .
, .
,
. 3, 4 5
. ,
.
(-), ,
. ,
,
.

. .

.

( , 2004; , 2004).

31

2.1. .

-: , ,
, ,
, .
6-8
.
, .
. ,
5 , 5 5 ,
,
, ,
. (2-7 )
.

32

2.2. .

: , .
() , 3, 4, 5
.

,
(, 2002). ,
() .
- ( ).

, . ,
, .

.
, , ,
. 3-6%
,
, .

33

2.3. .

: , , -

( ). ,
3-5 mm. () ,
.
.
4
,
,
10 . 450 .

2.2.


. ,
, , , . pH
5,8-6,7. pH

. pH
. pH
Ca, Mg K. pH
.
.

34

, ,
pH
.

. 2-3 ,

.
.
.

.
.

2.3.


.
. , .
,


, , .
.

, .
, ,
,
,
,
.

35

2.4.
,

, : , , o
(CO2).
,
.
,
, . ,
,
.
,

. ,
, ,
, .

2.4.1.
,
.
.
.
 : 0 2C. 48C.
,

.
 : 8C. 30-35C.
, ,
.

36

(, ...),
, .
 : 9C. 35C. 20C.
,
, .
 : 20-28C. 13-18C.
.

, .
,

. o
, ,
, .
31-32C 35C
, .


.
, , , ,
( ).
, . ()
.


. ,
. ,
.
.
10C - 11C 75%.
().
,
.

37

,

,
.
 : 13-14C. 18-22C.
,
, , ...
.

. ,
( ) 10-15
, 10-13C,
, ,
,
.
, , .

.
,
.
,
20C 15C.

. , ,
.
, ( ...)
,
, ,
.

.
.
, , .

38

,
.
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
().
, ,
.
5C.
. ,
.

2.4.2.


. ,
, .
,
,
, , , , ,
. , ,
(, , , ),
. , ,
, ..

, , .
12-13 10.00040.000 Lux 2000 Lux .
,
. ,

39

, .
.
, (.. ).
.
10 2, .
. ,
() 10%
. .
, ,
.

2.4.3.
, .
, .
. (55-70%)
.
, ,
... ,
.
, ,
,

, ...
,
. ..
25-30% 1%, 95100% 75%, .

.
,
. .

40

.
.
,

.

2.4.4. (CO2)
.
(1000-1200 ppm) ,
, .
.
,
.
300 ppm,
150 ppm .

CO2, 10
. ,
, .
,
,
, .

2.5.
,
. ,
C, (, - ..)
, , , , , .
.
,
.

41

. ,
( ), .

2.6.
, ,
, .
P
K .
. N K .
,
().
( . ..
), , CO2.
CO2 1000 ppm,
( ,
, ..)
75%.

, .
.
,
.
,
.


, (
) .

, .
,
, ,

42

. ,
,
. ,
6 ,
.
, ,
.
40-50 x 100. 40 x 80-100 x
120. 2500-3000/ .

,

, .. KNVF,
, , .
(.. )
.

2.7.

, 3-5 .

.
, ,
, .
,
,
99% .

10-12C 26-28C.
15-20C,
, 8-15 .
, ,

43

.
, .


10C. ,
85 90%.

2.8.



: Angella, Dombo, Sonato, Money Market,
Marmande (T-82) Early Pack, GC-204, Carmello, Vermouda, Boa, Cherry Corbus,
Cherry Rubino Top, Despoina, Belladonna, Formula, Elpida, Dafni, Felina F1 Clause,
Don Jose F1Clause, Titanom, Leonora, Aprillia ().

44

3.


3.1.

(Lucopersicum esculentum L.
. Luana) (
)

22/05/2008 30/06/2008.

3.2.

.
15
.
(2-3 )
(). ,
70-30% ..,
/ .
:

1. - 70%-30%
2. - - 60%- 20%- 20%
3. - - 60%- 20%- 20%
4. - 90%- 10%

45

5. - 70%- 30%
6. - 50%- 50%
7. - 90%- 10%
8. - 70%-30%
9. - 50%- 50%
10. - 90%- 10%
11. - 70%- 30%
12. - 50%- 50%
13. - 90%- 10%
14. - 70%- 30%
15. - 50%- 50%


( 30 x 37 .) 20
3.1.

3.1. (- 60- 20-20% - 50-50% ).

Luana,
, ( )
.
(22 2008

46

24 ) .
,
, . ,
18-18-18 04/06/2008
.

3.3.
,
26/05/2008
13/06/2008.

().

, 28/06/2008, -
.
(- 90-10%)
( - 70-30% 90-10%) (- 50-50% )
( - 50-50%, 90-10%, - 70-30% - 50-50%)
(- 50-50%) (
-- 60-20-20%, - 60-20-20%, - 90-10%, - 70-30%,
- 50-50%, - 70-30%, - 90-10%,
- 70-30% - 50-50%).
,
,
,
20-25 , .
, , ,
( ) ()

47

, ( ) ( )
( ).
, .

. 48 80C.
.



. , ,


.


SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.) Microsoft EXCHEL .

3.4.

3.4.1.

3.1
(- 90-10%, 70-30%, 50-50% - 7030%) . Luana.
,
(- 70-30) 4
(100% ) 7 .
, 7
56% 90-10% 90% - 7030% - 50-50%. 14
,

48

- 90-10%, 70-30%, 50-50% 38-72%


.

100
80
60
40
20
0
4

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

- 70-30

- 90-10

- 70-30

- 50-50

.
3.1.
( 90-10%, 70-30%, 50-50%) - (70-30%-)
. Luana.
( ) Duncans
Multiple Range Test (MRT).

3.2

. , 16 ,

,
100%
30% 60%.

49

100
80
60
40
20
0
4

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

- 70-30
- 70-30

- 90-10
- 50-50

3.2. ( 90-10%, 70-30%, 50-50% - 70-30%)


. Luana. (
) Duncans Multiple
Test (MRT).

3.3
(- 70-30%) (6020-20%) (60-20-20%).
20% ..
76%

( 64%) 16% .

50


(%)

100
80
60
40
20
0
4

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

- 70-30
-- 60-20-20
-- 60-20-20

3.3. (- -
60-20-20%) (- - 60-20-20%) (70-30%) . Luana.
( )
Duncans Multiple Test (MRT).

(- 90-10%, 70-30%, 50-50%)
3.4. 90-10% 7030% 79%
. 50-50%
78%. 9

50-50% 90-10% 7030% 7 .

51

100
90
80
70
60
50
40

30
20

10

0
4

10 11

12

13

14

15

16

- 70-30

- 90-10

- 70-30

- 50-50

3.4. ( 90-10%, 70-30%, 50-50%) - 70-30%)


. Luana. (
) Duncans Multiple
Test (MRT).
3.5
(90-10%, 70-30%,
50-50%). 50-50%
69% .
70-30%
76% 90-10% 71%
.

100
90
80
70
60
50

40

30

20
10
0
4

- 70-30
- 70-30

9 10 11

12

13

14

15

16

- 90-10
- 50-50

3.5. ( 90-10%, 70-30%, 50-50% - 70-30%)


. Luana. (
) Duncans Multiple
Test (MRT).

52


3.6, 3.2- 3.6.

3.6.
. Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Test (MRT).

53

- 70%-30%

- 90%- 10%

- 70%- 30%

- 50%- 50%

3.2. ( )
. Luana.

54

- 70%-30%

- 90%- 10%

- 70%- 30%

- 50%- 50%

3.3. ( )
. Luana.

55

- 70%-30%

- 90%- 10%

- 70%- 30%

- 50%- 50%

3.4. ( )
. Luana.

56

- 70%-30%

- 90%- 10%

- 70%- 30%

- 50%- 50%

3.5. ( )
. Luana.

57

- 70%-30%

-
60%- 20%-20%

-
60%- 20%-20%

3.6. (, ,

) . Luana.

58

3.4.2.


3.7.

( 75%)



(g r)


2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0


3.7.
. Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

3.8.

91% 89% .
.

59

H

(g r)


0,25
0,2
0,15
0,1
0,05
0

3.8.
. Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).


3.9.
.
.

(g r)


1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

3.9.
. Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

60

3.10
.
88% 89% .

(g r)


0,07
0,06
0,05
0,04
0,03
0,02
0,01
0

3.10. .
Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

3.11 .

5,5 . 10,1 . .

61


(cm )


20
15
10
5
0

3.11.
. Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).
,
3.12.
. ,
, 75% .

(cm )


20
15
10
5
0

3.12.
. Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

62


3.13.
. ,

.


5
4
3
2
1
0


3.13.
. Luana. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

3.5.


95%
- 50-50%
- 50-50% .

.
( 36% 19%)
, , .
68%

63

74% .
.

70-30% - 50-50%.
30% 35% .

.
, 1214%
.
, ,
,
,
()
.
pH
7,25 EC 2,6 dS/m
EC ( )

.
pH EC.


,
. ,
,
,

(Cantliffe, 2003).
(Demir and Mavi,
2004). ,

64

(Olouch and Welbaum, 1996).


-
( , , , ,
Ashraf and Foolad, 2005)


/ (Kattimani et al., 1999)

.

--
60-20-20% -- 60-20-20% 85%
60% .


o (Papafotiou et al.,
2004).
75%, . 50%
75%
.
,

,
.
25% ,

50% .
75% .


25% 50%, 75%
.
50% 75%
, ,

65

25%
, .



, pH
(Ribeiro et al., 2007).
.
, ,
,
.
. ,
,
(Ribeiro et al., 2007). Herrera et al. (2008)
30%
(.
Atletico), .



.
. (.. 10%)
.
,
.

66

4.

( )

4.1


( )
(. Luana)

, ( ).
15/04/2008 26/06/2008 .

4.2


. ,
( x 2 x 0,8 )

( ) .
50 ,
.
.
( , ),
:

) ()
)10% +10% +80%
)10% +90%
)30% +70%

67

)10% +90%
)30% +70% .

6
.
12 .
( , ),
4.1.
3 , 3-4
.
,
( ) ( )
.

60 12 ., 6 (5,50
.), .

4.1.
, .

68


1
1
1

2
2
2

5
5
5

6
6
6

3
3
3

4
4
4

3
3
3

4
4
4

1
1
1

2
2
2

5
5
5

6
6
6

5
5
5
5

6
6
6
6

3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2

4.1.
.

4.2.
.

,
( 4.3),

69

. (x 100 )
100 : NO3-N = 14.29, K = 10.23, 4-P = 0.97,
Ca = 3.74, Mg = 2.88, SO4-S = 1.56 Na = 1.30 mmolL-1, , =
18.52, Fe = 71.56, n = 18.21, Cu = 4.72, Zn = 1.53, = 0.52 molL-1, (
. . ).

4.3.
.

4.3
(
)
.

( + ), 1,5Lt 30ml
30 ml

70

. (
) 18-18-18 Nutrient express- Miller.

(
100ml)

pH EC, (
4/06/2008, 11/06/2008 26/06/2008). ,
( . .) (K, Na,
Ca, N/NO3), .


6/06/2008
.

4.4

.
( ), ( ),
,
.


, 7 .
02/06/2008, 04/06/2008, 06/06/2008, 13/06/2008, 16/06/2008, 20/06/2008
28/06/2008. ,
.

, ( kg) Chatillon.

71


, /
.
.
,
,
(), 20-25
.
( ) ( )
.
, .
,

. 24 , 24

.
, , Chatillon,
, .

, ,

.


SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill.) Microsoft EXCHEL .

72

4.5.
4.2
.
- 70-30%
-- 8010-10% . ,
( 24%) ,
.

(cm)

0,9

0,8

: :
(80:10:10)
: (90:10)

0,7
0,6

: (70:30)

0,5

: (90:10)

0,4

: (70:30)

11
/6
/2
00
8
18
/6
/2
00
8
25
/6
/2
00
8

4/
6/
20
08

14
/5
/2
00
8
21
/5
/2
00
8
28
/5
/2
00
8

7/
5/
20
08

0,3

4.2. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).
4.3
.
- 7030%,

--

80-10-10%.

( 10-30%)
25%.

73

18

: :
(80:10:10)
: (90:10)

16
14

: (70:30)
12

: (90:10)

10

: (70:30)

18

8
20
0
/6
/
25

/6
/

/6
/

20
0

20
0

08
11

/5
/
28

20

8
20
0

20
0
21

/5
/

/5
/
14

4/
6/

8
20
0

20
7/
5/

08

20

4.3. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).


- 70-30%
35% ( 4.4).

9

: :
(80:10:10)
: (90:10)

7
6

: (70:30)
5

: (90:10)

: (70:30)

20
08
25
/6
/

18
/6
/

20
08

20
08
11
/6
/

4/
6/
20
08

20
08
28
/5
/

20
08
21
/5
/

20
08

14
/5
/


(cm)

4.4. ,
(. Luana) 72
. (
) Duncans Multiple Range
Test (MRT).

74


4.5,
.
,
.

4
3
2
1
0

: : : : :
:
(90:10)
(70:30)
(90:10)
(70:30)
(80:10:10)

4.5. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

4.6
.
,
.

75


(.)


50
40
30
20
10
0

: : : : :
:
(90:10)
(70:30)
(90:10)
(70:30)
(80:10:10)

4.6. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

.

70 .
60%.
,
( 43% 19%) ( 4.7).

/
(.)


100
80
60
40
20
0

: :: : :
:
(90:10)
(70:30)
(90:10)
(70:30)
(80:10:10)

4.7. ,
(. Luana) 72 .
( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

76

- 80-10-10% - 70-30%
,
( 4.8).

(.)


45
40
35
30
25
20
15

: : : : :
:
(90:10)
(70:30)
(90:10)
(70:30)
(80:10:10)

4.8. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).
(4,23 kg)
,
( 4.9).

(Kg)

4,5
4,0
3,5
3,0

: :: : :
:
(90:10)
(70:30)
(90:10)
(70:30)
(80:10:10)

4.9. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

77

- 70-30% - 9010%
(4,96 Brix ) ( 4.10).

4.10. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

4.11 pH
. pH 4,69
.
- 70-30% 4,21
-- 80-10-10% 4,47.

78

pH
5,0

pH

4,5

4,0

3,5

: : : : :
:
(90:10)
(70:30)
(90:10)
(70:30)
(80:10:10)

4.11. ,
pH (. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

( 4.12) EC
( 12%) EC
- 90-10% .
, EC.

EC

EC
5,0
4,5
4,0
3,5
3,0
2,5
2,0

: : : : :
:
(90:10)
(70:30)
(90:10)
(70:30)
(80:10:10)

4.12. ,
(EC) (. Luana) 72
. (
) Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

79

( )
4.13. o (41,76
.) - 80-10-10%
53% . - 90-10%
23% .

120

(.)

100
80
60
40

30% +
70%

10% +
90%

30% +
70%

10% +
90%

10%
+10%
+80%

20

4.13. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).
(10%) (%)
- 90-10% ( 4.14).
, - 80-10-10% - 90-10%.

80

60

50

30% +
70%

10% +
90%

30% +
70%

10% +
90%

10%
+10%
+80%

40

70

4.14. ,
(%) (. Luana)
72 . (
) Duncans Multiple
Range Test (MRT).

4.15-4.16 (%
) .
(10,03 .) - 70-30%
.
(48%) - 9010% ( 4.16).
- 70-30% - 90-10% 70-30%.

35

25

15

81

30% +
70%

10% +
90%

30% +
70%

10% +
90%

10%
+10%
+80%

(.)

45

4.15. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).
%

70%

30%+

10%+

90%

30%+

70%

10%+

90%

+80%

10%

40

+10%

50

60

4.16. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).


( 4.17). (30%)
.

140
120

(.)

100
80
60
40
30% +
70%

10% +
90%

30% +
70%

10% +
90%

10%
+10%
+80%

20

4.17. ,
(. Luana) 72

82

. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).


. 90-10% ( 4.18).
(%)

70

60

50

70%

30% +

90%

10% +

70%

30% +

90%

10% +

+10%
+80%

10%

40

4.18. ,
(. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

4.4
, .

83

::

() (80:10:10)

(90:10)

(70:30)

(90:10)

(70:30)

4.4.
/ .

4.19 4.20 pH EC
. pH
EC. ,
EC pH ,
(
).

84

11
10
9
8
7
6

4/6/2008
11/6/2008

:
(70:30)

:
(90:10)

:
(70:30)

:
(90:10)

:
:
(80:10:10)

30/6/2008

pH

pH

4.19. ,
pH (. Luana) 72
. ( )
Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

EC
1,6

4/6/2008

1,2

11/6/2008
30/6/2008

0,8
:
(70:30)

:
(90:10)

:
(70:30)

:
(90:10)

:
:
(80:10:10)

0,4

EC (dS/m)

2,0

4.20. ,
(EC) (. Luana)
72 .
( ) Duncans Multiple Range Test (MRT).

85

4.6.

,
,
.
, , pH
EC.
(90-10) %
. %
.

.

.
, pH EC.
(70-30) %
% .
% .

(., 30%)
/
,
(.. ).


o (Papafotiou et al.,
2004). (25% 50%)
,

86

. 75%
.

25% 50%, 75%

. 50% 75%
, ,
25%
, .


, pH
.
pH ( , ,
, ) , ,
(Siminis and Manios, 1990; Papafotiou et al., 2001, 2004).
, ,
,
.

.



.

,
.
(, , ) ,

,

, .

87

H ,
,

. , ,
-, EC, pH, ..
,

,
()
.

(Ntoulas et al., 2004).


(.. 10%)
.
(.. )
.

88

5.
1.

Ashraf, M., Foodlad, M.R., 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatment - A shotgun approach
to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non-saline
conditions. Advance of Agronomy 88:223-271.

2.

Cantliffe, D.J., 2003. Seed enhancements. Acta Horticulturae 607:53-59.

3.

Chatjipavlidis, ., Antonakou, M., Demou, D., Flouri, F., Balis, C., 1996. BioFertilization of Olive Oil Mills Liquid Wastes. The Pilot Plant in Messinia, Greece.
International Biodeteriorarion & Biodegradation 38: 183-187.

4.

Demir, I., Mavi, K., 2004. The effect of priming on seedling emergence of
differentially matured watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai)
seeds. Scientia Horticulturae 102:467-473.

5.

Herrera, F., Castillo, J.E., Chica, A.F., Lpez Bellido, L., 2008. Use of municipal
solid waste compost (MSWC) as a growing medium in the nursery production of
tomato plants. Bioresource Technology 99: 287-296.

6.

Kattimani, K.N., Reddy, Y.N., Rao, R.B., 1999. Effect of presoaking seed
treatment on germination, seedling emergence, seedling vigour and root yield of
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Daunal.). Seed of Science and Technology
27:483488.

7.

Ntoulas, N., Tsiotsiopoulou, P., Nektarios, P.A., Papafotiou, M., Chronopoulos, I.,
2004. Olive Mill Waste Compost Evaluation as a Soil Amendment for Turfgrass
Culture. Acta Horticulturae 661: 71-76.

8.

Olouch, M.O., Welbaum, G.E., 1996. Effect of postharvest washing and poststorage priming on viability and vigour of 6-year old muskmelon (Cucumis melo
L.) seeds from eight stages of development. Seed of Science and Technology
24:195-209.

9.

Papafotiou, M., Phsyhalou, M., Kargas, G., Chatzipavlidis, I., Chronopoulos, J.,
2004. Olive-mill wastes compost as growing medium component for the production
of poinsettia. Scientia Horticulturae 102:167-175.

10.

Papafotiou, M., Chronopoulos, J., Kargas, G., Voreakou, M., Leodaritis, N.,
Lagogiani, O., Gazi, S., 2001. Cotton gin trash compost and rice hulls as growing
medium components for ornamentals. Journal of Horticultural Science and
Biotechnology 76:431-435.

89

11.

Ribeiro, H.M., Romero, A.M., Pereira, H., Borges, P., Cabral, F., Vasconcelos, E.,
2007. Evaluation of a compost obtained from forestry wastes and solid phase of pig
slurry as a substrate for seedlings production. Bioresource Technology 98: 3294
3297.

12.

Sierra, J., Mart, E., Garau, M.A., Cruaas, R., 2007. Effects of the agronomic use
of olive oil mill wastewater: Field experiment. Science of the Total Environment
378: 9094.

13.

Siminis, H.I., Manios, V.I., 1990. Mixing peat with MSW compost. BioCycle
31:6061.

14.

.,

.,

2004.

. ,
, , . 65.
15.

, 2004a. ,
TDC-OLIVE, EE, 6
. ( ).

16.

, 2004b. .
TDC-OLIVE. EE 6
. ( ).

17.

, 2009a.

, . ( http://old.mfa.gr/greek/,

6/05/2009).
18.

, 2009b. ,
, M ,
. (http://www.kpezakyn.gr/diktio-elia-list.php,
18/06/2009).

19.

, 2009c. . (http://www.livepedia.gr/index.php,
6/05/2009).

20.

, 2009d. . (www.musioelias.gr, 8/08/2009).

21.

, 2009f. . (http://diadiktio.pblogs.gr/2009/02/elia-kaielaiolado.html, 6/07/2009).

22.
23.

,
2009g.

.
(http://www.lesvosonline.gr/lesvos_gr/Olives/olives.htm,6/05/2009).
, ., , ., 2003.

90

. 4
, , , .605-608.
24.

, .., 2004. .
,

43,

75.

(http://www.srcosmos.gr/srcosmos/showpub.aspx?aa=5093, 12/05/2009).
25.

, .., 2005. . , , , ,
. 439.

26.

, ., 2004.
.
, , , . 8-9.
(http://www.srcosmos.gr/srcosmos/showpub.aspx?aa=9367, 16/04/2009).

27.

, .., 2009. (OLEA


EUROPAEA). , ,
.
(http://www.eleaoliveoil.com/_uimages/MEDICAL%20FACTS%20ON%20OLIV
E%20OIL.htm, 25/2/2009).

28.

, .., 1994. .
, 290.

29.

, ., , ., 2004.
T. Cherry. ,
, , . 60.

30.

., 2002. II. A.T.E.I K.


. .

91


6.

, , Na, Ca,
N/NO3 ,
, pH (EC)
.

4.5.
.

92

4.21. .

93

(ppm)

300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25

:E: 80:10:10
:E 90:10
:E 70:30
:E 90:10
:E 70:30

4/6/2008

11/6/2008

26/6/2008

4.22.
.

a (ppm)

140
130

Na

120
110

:E: 80:10:10
:E 90:10
:E 70:30
:E 90:10
:E 70:30

100
90
80
70
60
50

4/6/2008

11/6/2008

26/6/2008

4.23. Na
.

94

Ca (ppm)

420

Ca

370
320
270

:E: 80:10:10
:E 90:10
:E 70:30
:E 90:10
:E 70:30

220
170
120
70
20
4/6/2008

11/6/2008

26/6/2008

4.24. Ca
.

NO3 (ppm)

2.0

NO3

1.5

:E: 80:10:10
:E 90:10
:E 70:30
:E 90:10
:E 70:30

1.0

0.5

0.0

4/6/2008

11/6/2008

26/6/2008

4.25. NO3
.
1
(4/6/2008). , , Na
.
Ca . 3
(
).

95

7.
7.1. 2

. 2
.
, 25-27 , , .

., ., 2008.
. 2
.
, 25-27 , , (poster).

(-E -)
/ ,
. ,
() ()
: : (70:30 ), :: (60: 20:20),
:: (60: 20:20), : (90:10, 70:30, 50:50), : (90:10, 70:30, 50:50), :
(90:10, 70:30, 50:50), : (90:10, 70:30, 50:50). ,
: 1) , 2) : : (80:10:10), 3) : (90:10),
4) : (70:30), 5) : (90:10), 6) : (70:30),
. ,
( 70%)
,
5 15%. ,
. (% ,
, ) : (90:10)
, ,
,
, /

96

. ,
.
(36%) ,
,
. 2 ,
,
(.. ) ,
.

,
.

97

98

7.2. 24

24
, 19-23
, , .

.,

.,

2008.

. 24

, 19-23 , , (poster).

(-E -)

. ,
() ()
: : (70:30 ), :: (60:20:20),
:: (60:20:20), : (90:10, 70:30, 50:50), : (90:10, 70:30, 50:50), :
(90:10, 70:30, 50:50), : (90:10, 70:30, 50:50). ,
: 1) , 2) :: (80:10:10), 3) : (90:10),
4) : (70:30), 5) : (90:10), 6) : (70:30),
. ,
( 70%)
,
5 15%. ,
. (% ,
, ) o : (90:10)
, ,
,
,
. ,
.

99

(36%) ,
, .
( ,
). 3 ,
,
(.. ) ,
.

,
.

: , , , , ,

100

101