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Who is on the boat?

Who do they represent?
What historical event does this cartoon make reference to?
What was going on in Australia at the time of this cartoon?
What is a boat person/ an asylum seeker/ an illegal immigrant?
In what way is this statement correct?
How did the aboriginal people come to Australia?

Who is on the boat?

John Howard, 25th Prime Minister of Australia, from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007

The Pacific Solution is the name given to the Australian government policy of transporting
asylum seekers to detention centres on island nations in the Pacific Ocean, rather than
allowing them to land on the Australian mainland. The policy was developed by the Howard
government in response to the Tampa affair in August 2001, and was implemented by then
Australian Immigration Minister Philip Ruddock on 28 September before the 2001 federal
election of 24 November.
Implemented during 20012007, it had bipartisan support from the Liberal-National
government and Labor opposition at the time.
following the election of the Australian Labor Party; Chris Evans, the Minister for
Immigration and Citizenship described it as "a cynical, costly and ultimately unsuccessful
In August 2012, the succeeding Gillard Labor government introduced a similar policy,
reopening Nauru detention centre and Manus Island detention centre for offshore
processing,[ and on 19 July 2013, newly returned Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announced,
"asylum seekers who come here by boat without a visa will never be settled in Australia",
striking a Regional Resettlement Arrangement between Australia and Papua New Guinea,[4] to
divert all "unauthorised maritime arrivals" to mandatory detention on Manus Island with no
possibility of attaining Australian residency[

Phillip Ruddock

Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. In this role, he administered the
Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs and presided over the Howard
government's policies on asylum seekers. During his time in office, the previous Keating
Labor Government's practice of mandatory detention of asylum seekers was continued and
extended. In October 1999, the Australian government introduced Temporary Protection
Visas for persons who applied for refugee status after making an unauthorised arrival in
Australia, and was the main type of visa issued to refugees when released from Australian
immigration detention facilities. Many Afghan and Iraqi refugees who are not Australian
citizens were affected by this policy.
In 2001 Ruddock was also appointed to the role of Minister for Indigenous Affairs. By 2001
he had become a high-profile figure enjoying considerable support within the Liberal Party,
while being strongly opposed by left-wing activists and some human rights advocates. His
"Pacific Solution" which prevented asylum seekers receiving legal access was condemned
by Human Rights Watch as contravening international law, as being a human rights violation:
Oxfam and the UNHCR (United Nations refugee agency) agreed with this viewpoint. At one
point he was one of the few senior ministers (besides the prime minister) to have needed
personal security details.

Alexander Downer

Alexander John Gosse Downer, AC is a former Australian Liberal Party politician who was Foreign
Minister of Australia from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007, the longest-serving in Australian

Who do they represent?

An engraving from "Australia: the first hundred years", by Andrew Garran, showing natives of
the Gweagal tribe opposing the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook
charted the east coast of Australia for Great Britain and returned with accounts favouring
colonisation at Botany Bay (now in Sydney), New South Wales.

The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth
of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians are
believed to have first arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast
Asia between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. The artistic, musical and spiritual traditions they
established are among the longest surviving such traditions in human history.
The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in
1606. Twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the
17th century, and dubbed the continent New Holland. Macassan trepangers visited
Australia's northern coasts after 1720, possibly much earlier. Other European explorers
followed until, in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook charted the east coast of Australia for Great
Britain and returned with accounts favouring colonisation at Botany Bay (now in Sydney), New
South Wales.
A First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 [1] to establish a penal
colony. In the century that followed, the British established other colonies on the continent,
and European explorers ventured into its interior. Indigenous Australians were greatly
weakened and their numbers diminished by introduced diseases and conflict with the
colonists during this period.
Gold rushes and agricultural industries brought prosperity. Autonomous Parliamentary
democracies began to be established throughout the six British colonies from the mid-19th
century. The colonies voted by referendum to unite in a federation in 1901, and modern
Australia came into being. Australia fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars and
became a long-standing ally of the United States when threatened by Imperial Japan during
World War II. Trade with Asia increased and a post-war immigration program received more
than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. Supported by immigration of people from
more than 200 countries since the end of World War II, the population increased to more
than 23 million by 2014, and sustains the world's 12th largest national economy

What historical event does this cartoon make reference to?

2010, Labor Government under Julia Gillard.
Julia Eileen Gillard is a former Australian politician who served as the 27th Prime Minister of
Australia, and the Australian Labor Party leader from 2010 to 2013. She was the first woman to hold
either position.
Since 2007 when the Rudd government dismantled the Pacific solution 100 boats had arrived. 4386
Asylum seekers and 223 crew had arrived. The 100th boat had arrived on the 29th March with 44
people on board.

The ALP reinstate the Pacific Solution, sending refugees to offshore detention centres, to be
processed there. This has bipartisan support. That is both the ALP and the liberal party agree with
the policy.

Boat person
A term used in the media and elsewhere to describe asylum seekers who arrive by boat or attempt to
arrive by boat without authority to enter Australia. DIAC uses the term unauthorised boat arrivals
or unlawful boat arrivals
Illegal Immigrant
Any person arriving or attempting to arrive without authorisation or a valid visa. A person from
another country who does not have the right to be in Australia; that is they do not hold a valid visa.
They have either overstayed the visa issued to them or are people who have had their visa cancelled.
Or they will have entered Australia without a visa.

Refugees: individuals recognized under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of
Refugees; its 1967 Protocol; the 1969 Organisation of African Unity Convention Governing
the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa ; those recognized in accordance with
the UNHCR Statute; individuals granted complementary forms of protection; or, those
enjoying temporary protection. The refugee population includes people in a refugee-like

Asylum-seekers: individuals who have sought international protection and whose claims for
refugee status have not yet been determined. Those covered [by the UNHCR] refer to
claimants whose individual applications are pending, irrespective of when they may have been

In what way is this statement correct?

Timeline of Boat People
40,000-70,000 years ago
Before 1600 AD firm proof
From 1600 AD

1945s and 50s



Aboriginal people either arrive by boat or land bridge

from South East Asia
Macassan Trepangers (Indonesians)
At least29 voyages from the Dutch along the West
and South Coast
Lieutenant James Cook charted the east coast of
Australia for Great Britain
First Fleet arrive under Captain Arthur Phillip
Australia's total population more than tripled from
430,000 in 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871.[3] Prospectors
came from the British Isles, other European
countries, the United States and China
Post-war immigration program received more than 6.5
million migrants from every continent.
Vietnamese boat people
Over 5 years 2059 Vietnamese boat arrivals with the
last arriving in August 1981.
The arrival of 27 Indochinese asylum seekers in
November 1989 heralded the beginning of the second
wave. Over the following nine years, boats arrived at
the rate of about 300 people per annummostly from
Cambodia, Vietnam and southern China.
A third wave of asylum seekers, predominantly from
the Middle East, began to arriveoften in larger
numbers than previous arrivals and usually with the
assistance of people smugglers