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tUm. kph¿Æ \me∏m´v

MBBS, MD (Pathology)

1946 sabv 6 \v P\\w. 1998 ¬ saUn°¬ tImtfPv k¿Δokn¬ \n∂p dn´b¿ sNbvX tijw AarX C≥Ãn‰yq´v Hm^v saUn°¬ kb≥kv & dnk¿®v sk‚dn¬ s{]m^kdpw slUv Hm^v Zn Un∏m¿´psa‚pw Bbncp∂p. Ct∏mƒ tImgnt°mSv k¿ΔIemimebn¬ cmKNnIn’ ^m°¬´n s{Sbn\nßv sNøp∂Xn\p≈ Icn°pew kne_kv IΩn‰nbpsS D]tZi Ibmbn {]h¿Øn°p∂p. {][m\ IrXnIƒ: kp[mkn‘p (D]\njXv `mjyw), ]flkn‘p (kuμcyelcn), {_lvakn‘p ({_lvakq{Xw `mjyw), kuh¿Æw (`KhZvKoXm `mjyw), \mZebkn‘p, ]mtYbw, C¥ysb Is≠ج- hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nIbneqsS, \me ∏m´ns‚ N{Ihmfs®ºpcpfn, Hcp ImeL´Øns‚ Hm¿Ωbv°v, ap{Z, km{μm\μw, a[pcebw, C∂sØ AΩ, AarXtPymXn, ]pgbpsS IY,

Without a stumble- A book on the spirituality of Music, Music therapy in Administration Management and Education, Ragachikilsa, Education in ancient India- Nalanda & Valabhi University.

Website:

http://drsuvarnanalapattrust.org

www.nalapat.com

e-mail:

snalapat@gmail.com

snalapat@yahoo.com

{]Imikn‘p

tUm. kph¿Æ \me∏m´v

Un.kn.

_pIvkv

Book details

Typeset: K.S. Sunil Kumar, Edappally

Cover design: S.S. Likesh Babu, Ernakulam

{]km[I°pdn∏v

ap≥Ipdn∏v

23.10.1993 alm\han. A©paWn. AIse Im°Iƒ Icbp∂Xp tIƒ°mw. inht£{XØn¬ \n∂p {]`mXIo¿Ø\߃. PmeIØn\p ]pdØv almtZhnbpsS Agn®n´ apSnt]mse IcntaL߃. Ing°p sXfn™ HcpIjvWw BImi°odn¬ Xnfßp∂ ip{I≥. tZhnbpsS eemSØnse IkvXqcnXneIw t]mse! t\m°nt\m°nbncns° Hcp hmIyw, AXns‚ A¿Yw, a\ n¬ sXfnbp∂p. hcnhcnbmbn apdbmbn kw`hn°p∂, Bh¿Ø\mflIamb (ssk¢n°¬) N{Icq]amb H∂v. Ima߃ shdpsX BflImaw hn≤n ho¨ hn≤n Imamw. hnZybmIp∂ cYw AwKnIsf°qSmsX A\wKambn tJNcnbmbn BImiam¿t§ k©cn°p∂p. D]m[nIfn√msX k©cn°p∂ B hccpNncamb hc cpNncYsØ Rm≥ [ym\n°p∂p. hnhccpNnhmIy_≤amb B cYw, AwKnhmNnItfmSpIqSn hmIy\n_≤am°n Dc°phm≥ A[ymb߃ cNn°p∂p. Aam\pjcmb ]q¿hP¿°v (a¨ad™ ]q¿hnI¿°v) cpNn Icamb, AhccpNnIcamb B hccpNnhmIyw hmKvtZhnbmb ]d®n bmbn I¨ap∂n¬ AhXcn°p∂p. Cu alm\hanbn¬!

cmaw ZicYw hn≤n

25352244

amw hn≤n P\ImflPmw

54435103

Atbm[ymaShow hn≤n

11451444

KO

XmX bYmbpJw

32111272

BsI kwJy

123350063

Xncn®n´m¬

360053321

CXv 360000000 + 50000 + 3300 + 21 Fs∂gpXmw. F√mw tPymXnj,

tPymXnimkv{X]cambn {][m\kwJyIƒ. KO XmX KO XmX F∂v Fs∂ kZm apt∂m´v \bn® CØcw kz]v\Z¿i\߃ At\Iw!!! kz]v\Z¿i\ßsf°pdn®v ]mtYbØn¬ FgpXnbt∏mƒ ]e¿°pw kwibw. kz]v\w at\mtcmKnIfpsS k¶¬]temIat√ F∂v! AXv imkv{XkΩXamb bYm¿YtemIamtWm F∂v! kXyhpw k¶¬]hpw XΩn¬ FhnsS th¿Xncn°Ww? sPmlm\kv sIπ¿ kz¿§LSnImcw kz]v\w I≠p; Xm≥ N{μ\nte°v AXn¬ k©cn®p F∂pw! AXv sIπ¿ at\mtcmKnbmbXpsImt≠m imkv{X_p≤n GdnbXpsImt≠m?

Imew, tZiw, Du¿÷w, {Zhyw Chsbms° H∂mIp∂ Hc]q¿h\nanj Ønse [ym\^eamWv Z¿i\w. AXn¬ kz]v\kam\amb H∂p≠v. ]s£ AXv kXyamWv. at\mtcmKa√. temIØn¬ C∂phsc D≠mbn ´p≈ F√m NcmNcßfpsSbpw, k¿h `mjIfpsSbpw, imkv{XßfpsS bpw kwkvImcßfpsSbpw Fs ≥kv AYhm ckw Bb ckm\p`hw (kuμcyelcn) ImetZißfpsS _‘\ap≈ hymhlmcnItemIØn s‚ ]cnanXm\p`hßfpsS ]cn[n°∏pdw BbXpsIm≠mWv Ah \sΩ kpjp]vXnbnepw, kpjp]vXnk{Zpiamb [ym\kam[nbnepw tXSnhcp ∂Xv. CXn\v Ct∏mƒ akvXnjvIKthjWw sIm≠v sXfnhpIƒ D≠v. am\hNcnXw Im¿ kmKs‚ tImkvanIv Imem¥cØn¬ (Ie≥U¿) Ahkm\sØ GXm\pw sk°≥UpIƒ am{XamWv. AXmbXv \Ω sfms° bYm¿Yw F∂p sX‰n≤cn®ncn°p∂ Cu sIm®pPohnXa√ kXyw. t_m[imkv{Xw, kwKoXw, kmlnXyw, XXzNn¥, imkv{Xw Chsbms° \ΩpsS akvXnjvIØnep≠v. Chsb√mw hnIkzcamhm \p≈ Hcp A¥co£hpw, AXn\p]‰nb Np‰p]mSpIfpw In´nbm¬ GXp a\pjy°p´nbpsS {]Xn`bpw hnIkzcamhpw. AXmXp kabØv {]]© in¬∏nbpsS Iym≥hmkn¬ \n¿Æbn® t]mse \sΩ tXSn Z¿i\ßfpw, {ipXnIfpw hs∂ØpI Xs∂ sNøpw. Aßs\ hs∂Ønb {KŸß fpw, AdnhpIfpw am{XamWv \sΩ \mam°p∂Xv. C¥ybnse G‰hpw ]g°ap≈ imJbmb KWnXw, AtXmS\p_ ‘n®p Xs∂ hf¿∂ph∂ kwKoXw, tPymXnjw, `mjmimkv{Xw Chbp sS ka\zbamWv Fs‚ ]e IrXnIfpw. Hcp]t£ C∂p \ap°v e`n®n ´p≈ G‰hpw ]gb hymIcW, KWnX, IYm, `mjmimkv{XßfpsS sb√mw cNbnXmhmb hccpNnsb kw_‘n®v D≠mb Z¿i\w Cu ka\zbØn\p≈ Hcp apt∂mSnbmbncp∂ncn°Ww. hccpNnbpsS tIcf _‘w t\m°ptºmƒ tIcfØn\v Cu hnjbßfn¬ D≠mbncp∂ Ah Kmlw hfsc ]gbXmsW∂p ImWmw. ]ctaizc≥ ]m¿hXn°v ]d™p sImSpØ _rlZvIY ]pjv]Z¥≥ Hfn™p\n∂p tI´Xns‚ ^eambn hccpNn F∂ t]tcmsS Iuimw_nbn¬ ImXymb\tKm{XØn¬ AKv\ninJ≥ F∂ {_mlvaW\v hkpZØ F∂ ]Xv\nbn¬ P\n®p. Ip´n°meØv hymUnbpw C{μZØ\pw ho´n¬ h∂v apcPw sIm´n∏mSp ∂Xp I≠ hccpNn Ah¿s°m∏w BSpIbpw ]mSpIbpw sNbvXp. AΩ bpsS A\phmZtØmsS AhcpsS IqsS hnZy A`ykn°m≥ ]mSeo ]pcØv h¿j≥ F∂ Kpcphns\ kao]n®p. Hcp {]mhiyw sIm≠v hc cpNnbpw, c≠p{]mhiyw sIm≠v hymUnbpw aq∂p{]mhiyw sIm≠v C{μ ZØ\pw k¿h imkv{Xhpw lrZnkvYam°n. hccpNn D]h¿js‚ ]p{Xn

D]tImisb hnhmlw Ign®p. h¿js‚ injy∑mcn¬ aμ_p≤nbm bncp∂ ]mWn\ntbmSp tXm‰v sF{μhymIcWw hccpNn°v \jvSamb t∏mƒ At±lw lnamebØn¬ sN∂p X] v sNbvXp hymIcW

⁄m\w ho≠pw t\Sn h¿j≥ F∂ Kpcphn\p Kpcphmbn. C{μZØ≥ IqSphn´p IqSpamdn tbmK\μ\mbn cmPyw `cn°p∂Xpw hccpNn a{¥n bmbXpw hccpNn NmWIys\ I≠Xpw, ]q¿h\μ]p{X≥ N{μKp]vXs\ NmWIy≥ cmPmhm°nbXpw _rlXvIYbnep≠v. hccpNn hn‘yhmkn \nsb Z¿in®Xpw AhfpsS Acpf∏mSm¬ hn‘yhmknbmb ImW`qXn

sb ImWp∂Xpw At±lØn\p IYIƒ apgph≥ tIƒ∏n®v im]ap‡

\mbXpw _Zcym{iaØn¬ sh®v tbmKmKv\nbn¬ tZlw \in∏n®v inh temIw ]qInbXpamWv KpWmUys‚ hccpNnIY. AXn¬ tIcftam ]d®n s]‰ ]¥ncpIpetam C√. F∂m¬ hccpNn kckzXnsb kz]v\w

ImWp∂ Hcp cwKap≠v. \ns‚ icochmkn\nbmb kckzXnbmWp Rm≥; D]tImi \ns‚ ]q¿hP∑Ønse ]Xv\nbmWvF∂p ]dbp∂

XmWv Zriyw. \ΩpsS F√mhcptSbpw AIØncn°p∂ hmKvtZhnbmb

B ]d®n (]dbp∂hƒ) Xs∂ kckzXn. A¥¿hmln\nbmbn, t_m[

cq]Øn¬, {]Pv\m]mcanXbmbn HgpIp∂ PetZhX.

Cu ]pkvXIw aq∂v `mKßfmbn´mWv cNn®ncn°p∂Xv.

BZy`mKw B[p\nI tPymXnimkv{XØns‚ hf¿®bpsS Ncn{X amWv C∂v \Ωƒ FØn\n¬°p∂ imkv{XcwKsØ AdnbmsXtbm, XmcXayw sNømsXtbm D≈ ]ucmWnI imkv{X]T\߃°v {]k‡n IpdhmWv. XmcXay]T\w sIm≠v `mjbpw, imkv{Xhpw imkv{X kmln Xyhpw hf¿® {]m]nt°≠Xv C∂p aebmf`mjbv°v BhiyamWv. `mjsb kº∂am°m\p≈ Fs‚ bXv\Øns‚ Hcp XpS¿®bmWnXpw. c≠mw `mKw hcmlanlncs‚ _rlZzmcmlokwlnXbpsS BZysØ 51 A[ymbßfpsS `mjyamWv. CXn¬ ]e `mKßfpw B[p\nIimkv{X kw_‘amb AdnhpItfmSv (AXmXp `mKØv) XmcXayw sNøm≥ Fs‚ Ignh\pkcn®v {ian®n´p≠v. aq∂mw `mKw Zr§WnX]ctaizcs‚ {Kl\ymbZo]nIbpsS Hcp kw£n]vXcq]amWv. ]ucmWnI `mcXob¿ D]tbmKn®ncp∂ ]e b{¥ßƒ- ]gb sSekvtIm]v AS°w- CXns‚ Ahkm\`mKØv Nn{XßtfmSpIqSn, tN¿Øn´p≠v. tZmfhoc F∂ C≥Ukv hm√n \KcØn¬ I≠ tKmfb{¥Øns‚ amXrIbmWv C∂pw \Ωƒ hm\\nco£WØn\p]tbmKn°p∂Xv.

AXmXp `mKØn\p ap≥]n¬ AXmXp `mKsØ°pdn®v sNdnsbmcp apJhpc°pdn∏pw IqSn tN¿Øn´p≠v.

Cu h¿jw `mcXk¿°m¿ {io\nhmk cmam\pPs‚ _lpam\m¿Yw C‚¿\mjW¬ Cb¿ Zm^v amØam‰nIvkv Bbn {]Jym]n®ncn°bmWv. GXm\pw h¿j߃°papºv Rm≥ cNn® Cu IrXn, AXn{][m\amb Cu h¿jØn¬ ]pdØnd°phm≥ klmbn® {io Un.kn. chntbmSv \μn. CXns‚ Un.Sn.]n NpaXe Gs‰SpØ s{]m^. hn.]n.F≥. \ºqXncntbm Spw, kztZin imkv{X {]ÿm\t ØmSpw {]tXyIw \μn. kph¿Æ \me∏m´v {SÃn\pth≠n,

1 Unkw_¿, 2012

kvt\lmZc]q¿hw,

tUm. kph¿Æ \me∏m´v

`mKw H∂v

C¥y-bqtdm∏v BZm\ {]Zm\߃

D≈S°w

I. imkv{XNcn{Xw (C¥y-bqtdm∏v BZm\ {]Zm\߃

1.⁄m\w ]gbXpw ]pXnbXpw

15

2. {KlKXn, k¿§w

31

3. ¢mkn°¬ imkv{Xw

52

4.Um¿hn\nkw

76

5. {]Imiw, AWpkn≤m¥w

84

6. h≥IcIfpsS ÿewam‰w

95

7. sF≥ssÃ≥, sF≥ssÃ\ptijw

128

8. PKZoiv N{μt_mkv

146

II. anlntcm]tZiw. hmcmlo_rlZvkwlnXm (51 A≤ymb߃)

155

III. ]ctaizchncNnXm {KlW\ymbZo]nIm

541

BapJw

CXv imkv{XØns‚ am{Xw almAssZzXa√; ]uckvXy ]mivNm Xyimkv{XßfpsS almssZzXw IqSnbmWv

Izm≠w

kn≤m¥w sshZypXn Im¥i‡n {]Imiw sshZypX Im¥nI i‡n (^mcsU 1830) {]Imi Im¥nI i‡n (amIvkvsh¬ 1870) sshZypX
kn≤m¥w
sshZypXn
Im¥i‡n
{]Imiw
sshZypX Im¥nI
i‡n (^mcsU 1830)
{]Imi Im¥nI
i‡n (amIvkvsh¬ 1870)
sshZypX Zp¿∫e i‡n
GIoIcWw
1970 shbv≥ s_¿§vkemw
Zp¿∫e i‡n
(W,Z IW߃) 1900
{]_ei‡n (1930)
Zp¿∫e {]_e i‡n
Bt]£nIXm
GIoIcWw (Unification)
kn≤m¥w
Imew, tZiw
Bt]£nIXm
{KlNe\w
KpcpXzmI¿jWw
kn≤m¥w (1905-1915
`qNe\w
1600 (\yq´¨)
sF≥ssÃ≥)
ssPthm¿÷w
(\yqtdm^nkntbmfPn)

alm AssZzXw

(Super unification theory)

ssPhhpw AssPhhpw Aßs\ H∂mbnØocp∂p. CXv ]pXnbXv. IWmZs‚ ]camWpkn≤m¥hpw, I]nes‚ kmwJyhpw ]XRvPenbp sS tbmKZ¿i\hpw, `mcXob tPymXnimkv{Xhpw IqSnbmWv C¥ybn¬ GIwkZvhn{]m _lp[m hZ¥n F∂ AssZzX imkv{Xw D≠m°nbXv. ]pXnbXpw ]gbXpw IqSn Rm≥ Cßs\ ka\zbn°mw.

{]Imikn‘p

{]Imiw, \mZw

i‡n, Ne\w

ssPthm¿÷w

{_lvaw

PKØv Bt]£nI kXyw (an∞y)

Poh≥ kXyw (Pohmflm) ssPthm¿÷w (Bioenergy)

kXyw

E

MC 2

.

O

1

+1+1+1

n+1

Izm≠w | ]camWp kn≤m¥w {_lvax kXyw

{]]©w-AXns‚ Bt] £nIX-tPymXnimkv{Xw

\yqtdm^nkntbmfPn

tbmKimkv{Xw

PK∑nYym

Pothm{_lvssah\m]cx

1977-78 ¬ AarXtPymXnF∂ ]pkvXIØn¬ Bcw`n®XmWv Cu AssZzX eoesb A\mhcWw sNøm\p≈ {ia߃. 1) AssPh {]]©Ønse F√m hkvXp°sfbpw [mXp°sfbpw, AhbpsS AWp°sfbpw Ahsb°mƒ sNdnb ]camWp°sfbpw BZyw {Kln°pI. ssPh{]]©Øn¬ sshdkv apX¬ a\pjy≥ hsc F√m Pohmflm°fpw. 2) [mXp°ƒ, AWp°ƒ, ]camWp°ƒ F∂nhXs∂ F∂dnbpI. 3) ssPhhpw AssPhhpamb Du¿÷w, ]nfiw, KXobX F∂nh

sb a\

4) Du¿÷Øns‚ (i‡nbpsS) hnfbm´a√msX C°mWp∂ alm {]]©ßfpw {_lvamfißfpw as‰m∂pa√ F∂ hnZymX{¥w Adn ™pIgn™m¬ XqWnepw Xpcpºnepw arK]£nIfnepw a\pjy\nepw F√mw Cuizci‡nbpsS hnfbm´w ImWmw. CXmWv C¥ybpsS AssZzXw.

5) CXns\ icn°dn™m¬ C¥ybn¬ C∂p≈ F√m hnLS\ hmZßfpw Ahkm\nt°≠XmWv. F√m t`Zhmk\Ifpw Dt]£n®v a\pjy¿ kvt\l]q¿Δw kt¥mj]q¿Δw Cu sNdnb PohnXsØ al \obam°n Pohn°m≥ CX√msXmcp hgnbn√. kvt\lamWv G‰hpw henb aXw. ⁄m\amWv G‰hpw henb [\w. kvt\lhpw ⁄m\hpap≈ Hcp temIP\Xsb hm¿sØSp°m≥, Fs‚ cmPyØnse P\߃°v Cu {]Imikn‘p klmbIamhs´. arXyphn¬ \n∂v AarXXzØnte°v Ccp´n¬ \n∂v {]ImiØnte°v AkXyØn¬ \n∂v kXyØnte°v A[¿ΩØn¬ \n∂v [¿ΩØnte°v D≤tc≤camflm\w!!

22.12.2008

14

nem°pI.

tUm. kph¿W \me∏m´v

{]Imikn‘p

1. ⁄m\w- ]gbXpw ]pXnbXpw

tPm¨ {Kn-∫ns‚ Science a history (1543-2001) bn¬ apJhpc Bcw`n °p∂ hmNIw, imkv{Xw \sΩ ]Tn∏n® G‰hpw {][m\]mTw {]]© Øn¬ \mw a‰p≈hbn¬ \n∂v special A√ F∂msW∂pw CXv bqtdm ∏n¬ XpSßnbXv 16 -mw \q‰m≠n¬ tIm∏¿ \n° v, kqcy tI{μoIrX {]]©sØ°pdn®v ]dbpIbpw Keoentbm 17 -mw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZy Øn¬ `qan Hcp {KlamsW∂v sXfnbn°m≥ sSekvtIm∏v D]tbmKn° bpw sNbvXXp apXemsW∂pamWv. ]n∂oSv kqcy≥ At\Iw \£{Xß fn¬ H∂p am{XamsW∂pw a\ nembn. 20 -mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm\ Øn¬ \ΩpsS bqWnthgvkv IqSmsX At\Iw bqWnthgvkpIƒ Ds≠ ∂v a\ nembn. icoc imkv{XsØ°pdn®v 1543 ¬ B≥{Unbkv shtkenbkv FgpXnb De humani Corporis Fabrica, AtX h¿jw {]kn≤oIcn®

tIm∏¿ \n°

߃ sshZyhpw tPymXnimkv{Xhpw Htc h¿jamWv bqtdm∏n¬ B[p \nI imkv{X Ncn{XØn¬ A`nhr≤n {]m]n®sX∂p ImWmw. CXv C¥ybn¬ t]m¿®pKokpImcpw U®pImcpw F√mw FØnb tijamsW ∂pw {i≤n°pI. bqtdm∏nse \thm∞m\sØ Xp¿°nIƒ tIm¨Ãm‚n t\m∏nƒ ]nSn® (sabv 29-1453) Zn\w apXemWv IW°m°p∂Xv. 1687 ¬

\yq´≥ Philsophical naturalis principia mathematica {]kn≤oIcn®Xp

hscbmWv \thm∞m\ Imew. 1453-1687 hsc 234 h¿jw. AD 400-900 (500 h¿jw) Ah¿ XßfpsS Ccp≠ ImeL´hpw AD 900-1400 (500 h¿jw) XßfpsS a≤yImeL´hpambn IW°m°p∂p. Xp¿°nIƒ tIm¨Ãm‚nt\m∏nƒ ]nSn®t∏mƒ Hcp kwLw {Ko°p `mjm ]finX¿ C‰enbnte°v XßfpsS {KŸßfpambn t]mbn. Ahn sS B {KŸßfpsS ]T\w \S∂t∏mgmWv IdpØ (Ccp≠) ImeL´ Øn\p apºp≈ ImeL´sØ ]p\cp≤cn°m≥ ]≤XnIƒ D≠mbXv.

ns‚ De revolutionilus orbinus Colestium F∂o {KŸ

15

{]Imikn‘p

imkv{XØn\p tdmam°m¿ henb kw`mh\sbm∂pw sNbvXncp∂n√. 14 -mw \q‰m≠nse tπKv, sXmgnemfnIfpsS Zu¿√`yØn¬ Iemin® t∏mƒ IqSpX¬ ASnaIsf In´pI, a\pjym≤zm\Øn\p ]Icw \n¬ °p∂ b{¥ßƒ (technology) I≠p]nSn°pI, ]gb hym]mc am¿§ ߃ ({]tXyIn®pw IS¬ am¿§w) I≠p]nSn°pI apXemb e£yßtfm sSbmWv bqtdm∏v imkv{XsØ t]mjn∏n®Xv. tIm∏¿ \n° v ]gb {Ko°p XØzimkv{X⁄sct∏msebmbncp∂p. ]co£W߃ \SØp Itbm, kz¥ambn BImi \nco£Ww sNbvIsbm, Xs‚ Is≠Øep Iƒ as‰mcmƒ°v ]co£Ww \SØmhp∂hbmsW∂v [cn°pItbm sNbvXncp∂n√. Cu A¿∞Øn¬ At±lw Hcp ‘Scientist’ A√. tSmfan bpsS ]gb k¶o¿Æamb hnhcWsØ IqSpX¬ efnXam°n hnhcn °p∂ Hcp Nn¥m]co£Ww(thought experiment) BWv sNbvXXv.

CuPn]vXn¬ P\n-®p hf¿∂ Ptolemy of Alexandria (2 nd century AD) {Ko

kns‚ Adnhv Dƒs°m≠mWv imkv{XPvR\mbXv. AeIvkm{finbbn se {Ko°phn⁄m\w AeIvkm≠¿°ptijap≈ (C¥ybn¬ \n∂v IS¬ ISs∂Ønb) hnPvRm\tiJcamWv. 300 BC apX¬ 200 AD hscbp≈ {Ko°v Bkvt{SmWanbpsS Ncn{XamWv tSmfanbpsS {KŸw. Ad_n `mjbn¬ Almagist (The greatest). {Ko°p `mjbnsegpXnb

aqeØn\v The mathematical compilation Ft∂ A¿∞ap≈q. tSmfan

{Kl\nco£Ww \SØpIbpw Xs‚ ap≥KmanIsf t]mse Nn{X߃ (\£{X `q]Sw AS°w) hc°pIbpw sNbvXncp∂p. AXn\m¬ tIm∏¿ \n° nt\°mƒ imkv{Xob am¿§w D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. ]s£, tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ Intuition BWv, tSmfanbpsS imkv{X am¿§Øns‚ I≠p ]nSpØambncp∂n√ icn F∂Xv {it≤bamWv.

1. {Kl{`aW I£y ]q¿Æ hrØamWv.

2. _p[≥, ip{I≥, sNmΔ, i\n, hymgsa∂ {Kl߃, kqcy≥,

N{μ≥, \£{X߃ ChbpsS Ne\amWv ]Tn®ncp∂Xv.

3. CXn\p≈ {]mtbmKnI am¿§w `qanbnse \nco£I\v Xm≥ \n¬

°p∂ `qansb tI{μam°n a‰p≈hsb ]Tn°emWv.

4. Hcp {Klw Xs‚ tI{μ _nμphn\p Np‰pw Hcp sNdnb hrØØn

epw, `qan°p Np‰pw Hcp henb hrØØnepw Idßp∂p. sNdnb hrØ

sØ (N{IØn\p≈nse N{IsØ) Epicycle F∂p ]dbp∂p.

5. ImWm\mhmØ henb kv^SnI hrØ߃ BImi

tKmfßsf hrØØn¬ Nen∏n°p∂p. Ah `qan°p Np‰pw Nen°p∂n√.

16

{]Imikn‘p

`qanbn¬ \n∂Ise Hcp _nμphns\ (Equant point- Hmtcm {KlØn\pw thsd) Np‰nbmWv Nen°p∂Xv.

6. `qan tI{μ_nμp. as‰√m hkvXp°fpw Equant Point s\ Np‰n°d

ßp∂p. henb N{Iw Equant Point s\ tI{μam°nbXmWv. Cu N{IØn \v deferent F∂v t]cv. CXv (tSmfan) kvYnc XmcßfpsS ]cnÿnXnbn¬ `qanbnse \nco £I≥ ImWp∂ {]Xn`mkßfpsS Hcp h¿Æ\bmWv. C¥ybn¬ CXv tPymXnimkv{XØns‚ {]mYanI \nco£W]mTamWv. BZyambn I∏¬ bm{X sNbvXhcpw, KncnapIfnepw IStemc kaXeßfnepw \n∂v \nco £n®hcpamb BZnah¿§Øns‚ {]mtbmKnI A\p`h⁄m\w. CXm Wv AeIvkm≠dpsS ImeØv {Koknte°pw AeIvkm{finbbnte °pw k©cn®v tSmfanbpsS {KŸØn¬ ImWp∂ imkv{Xw. C¥ybn¬ kqcy\mWv kucbqYtI{μw. `qanbn¬ \n∂p≈ `qtI{μ hyhkvY \nco£WØns‚ data bmWv. AXv ]n∂oSv _oPKWnXw sh®v ]©mwKKWnXw accurate B°m\mWv. BC 3 -mw \q‰m≠n¬ Xs∂ kqcy\mImw tI{μsa∂v AcnÃm¿°kv kwibw {]ISn∏n®ncp∂p. tSm fanbpsS hnhcWw k¶o¿ÆamWv. F¶nepw \nco£Ww sIm≠v test sNøm\pw {]hNn°m\pw Ignbp∂ {KlÿnXnsb AXn\dnbmw. 19 s^ {_phcn 1473 ¬ P\n® (t]mfnjv) ans°memPv tIm∏¿\n°v Xs‚ \maw em‰n≥ `mjbnem°n, \ns°mfmkv tIm∏¿ \n°kv Bbn. A—≥ hym ]mcn. AΩmh≥ _nj∏v. 1496 ¬ C‰enbn¬ h∂v \oXnimkv{Xhpw sa Unkn\pw ¢mkn°pIfpw KWnXhpw ]Tn®p. 1519 ¬ 7 -mw \q‰m≠nse ss_km‚nb≥ Xntbm^nekv kntamI‰bpsS IhnXm kamlmcw {Ko °n¬ \n∂v em‰n\nte°v X¿÷a sNbvXv {]kn≤oIcn®p. 1506 ¬ t]mf ≠n¬ Xncns®Øn. 1512 ¬ AΩmh≥ eq°mkv acn°pwhsc At±lØn s‚ ^nknjy\pw sk{I´dnbpambncp∂p. Xs‚ ]≈n tPmenIƒ (canon), saUn°¬ tPmenIƒ, A\h[n sNdnb knhn¬ Hm^okp Imcy߃ F∂nhbv°nSbnepw Bkv{SmWanbn¬ Xmev]cyw \ne\n¿Øn. 1510 ¬ Is≠Ønb Xs‚ tIm∏¿\n°kv tamU¬ 1543 emWv At±lw {]kn ≤oIcn®Xv. 33 h¿jsØ Xmakw F¥n\v?

1. At±lw Xs‚ Canon, saUn°¬ tPmenIfm¬ Ft∏mgpw Xnc t°dnb hy‡nbmbncp∂p. ]≈n iºfØn\v \oXn ImWn°m≥ At± lw kZm AXn\mbn {]h¿Øn®p. t{^mw t_m¿°v IØo{Uense CS hI°m¿°pw km[p°ƒ°pw th≠n ]Ww hmßmsX saUn°¬ k¿ Δokv sNbvXp.

17

{]Imikn‘p

2. KWnX⁄s\∂ \nebv°v Id≥kn ]cnjv°cWØn\p≈ πm≥ D≠m°n®Xv At±lsØs°m≠mWv.

3. \nba⁄\mIbm¬ diocese s‚ \nba Imcyßfn¬ At±l tØmSmWv D]tZiw tXSnbncp∂Xv.

4. 1520 ¬ Ing°≥ _mƒ´nIv {]tZihpw {]jybpw \nb{¥n®ncp∂ Syqt´mWnIv ss\‰pIƒ F∂ {IqtkU¿am¿°v Xpeyamb aXkwLw t]mf≠v B{Ian®t∏mgpw A{]Xo£nXambn tkh\w sNtø≠nh∂p. A√≥Ão\nse Hcp tIm´ B{IanIƒs°Xnsc amkßtfmfw At±lw ImØp kq£n®p.

5. ]gb tNmZy߃-°v DØcw sImSp°p∂ Xs‚ Is≠ج

]pXnb tNmZy߃ D≠m°psa∂ Adnhv At±lØn\p≠mbncp∂p. N{μs\°pdn®v ‘equant’ F∂ [mcW kzoImcyambncp∂n√. GXmWv {]]©Øns‚ tI{μw? kqcy≥ tI{μamWv. F∂mepw N{μs‚ {]iv\w Xocp∂n√. {Kl߃ ]Xps°bmhp∂Xn\pw thKØnemhp∂Xn\pw Epicycles s\ B{ibnt°≠n hcp∂p. G‰hpw AIsebp≈ {KlØn\ ∏pdw \£{X߃ (ÿncXmcw) Hcp crystal sphere t\mSp _‘n®sX ¶n¬, `qan Nen°ptºmƒ Ahbnepw N\\ap≠mhWw (parallax). Imdn encn°ptºmƒ ]pdsØ sNSnIfmWv Nen°p∂sX∂v tXm∂pw t]mse. ]s£, Nen°p∂ `qanbnencp∂v t\m°ptºmƒ Aßs\ \£{Xw Nen °p∂Xv ImWp∂n√. \£{X߃ {Klßfn¬ \n∂v \qdp IW°n\v ssa¬ AIsebmbmte parallax effect ImWm\mhmØ hn[w sNdp Xmhq. ]s£ F¥n\mWv Cuizc≥ C{Xbpw hensbmcp iq\ykvYew {Kl߃°pw \£{X߃°panSbn¬ C´psh®Xv?

Cu tNmZyØn\pØcw tXSp∂Xns‚ Xmakw h∂p.

6. `qan Nen°p∂ps≠¶n¬, Xpd∂ hml\Øn¬ k©cn°p∂h

cpsS apSnsb ]d∏n°p∂ t]mse \nc¥cambn Hcp Im‰v C√mØsX¥v? F¥psIm≠v `qNe\w kap{ZØn¬ henb thentb‰ØncIƒ D≠m°p

∂n√ (kp\manØnc). `qan Nen°p∂ps≠¶n¬ F¥psIm≠Xv `qansb Ipep°n IjvWam°p∂n√? (16 -mw \q‰m≠nse bqtdm]y¿°v Ne\sa ∂m¬ IpXnc∏pdØp≈ bm{X, h≠nbnep≈ bm{X F∂mbncp∂p BsI k¶ev]w. kp\mantbm `qanIpep°w sIm≠v `qanta¬ D≠mIp∂ am‰ßtfm t{Sm∏n°¬ cmPyßfnep≈h¿°v \nc¥cm\p`hamWv. AXn \memWv Ah¿°v `qNe\sØ°pdn®v hy‡amb [mcW t\csØ

18

{]Imikn‘p

D≠mbXv). CsXms° tIm∏¿ \n°

bmemWv {]kn≤oIcWw sshInbXv. 7. kqcy≥ tI{μ_nμpsh¶n¬ F¥psIm≠v F√mw kqcy\nte°v hogp∂n√ F∂v 16 -mw \q‰m≠nse imkv{X⁄¿ tNmZn®p. ‘We don't know Ft∂ tIm∏¿ \n° n\v ]dbm≥ Ign™p≈p. HSphn¬ 1539 ¬ KWnX⁄\mb sd‰n° ns‚ \n¿_‘hpw, Xm\nt∏mƒ hr≤\msb ∂pw C\n Xs‚ {KŸw ]pdØphnSm™m¬ AXp \jvSamhpsa∂ t_m [hpw sIm≠mWv tIm∏¿ \n° v {]kn≤oIcn°m≥ Iq´m°nbXv. sd‰n °kv CXn\v `mctaev]n® B≥{Unbmkv Hmknbm≥Udns‚ BapJ tØmsS ]pkvXIw ]pdØph∂p. Hmknbm≥U¿ tIm∏¿ \n°kv tamU ens\ \ninXambn hna¿in® am¿´n≥ eqØdpsS A\pbmbn (Lutharan minister) BIbm¬ CXv Hcp efnXamb KWnX\nbaw sIm≠v {Kl Ne\w KWn°p∂ ]pkvXIamsW∂pw bqWnthgvkns‚ bYm¿∞ tam Ues√∂pw BapJØnsegpXn. am¿´n≥ eqX¿ (1483-1546) ss nfn¬ tPmjz `qantbmS√, kqcyt\mSmWv A\ßmsX \n¬°m≥ Iev]n®sX ∂pw AXn\m¬ `qan°pNp‰pw kqcy\mWv Nen°p∂sX∂pw hmZn®p. 1543 ¬ acW°nS°bn¬ sh®mWv tIm∏¿ \n° v Xs‚ ]pkvXIØn s‚ tIm∏n kzoIcn°p∂Xv. AXn\m¬ BapJsØ°pdns®m∂pw At± lw ]d™n´n√. i\n{KlØnte°p≈ Hcp spaceprobe s‚ flight KWn°ptºmƒ kqcys\ tI{μam°nbn´pw, N{μ\nte°p≈ tdm°‰ns‚ flight KWn°p tºmƒ `qtI{μambn´pamWv C∂pw NASA bnse imkv{X⁄¿ {]mIvSn °¬ tamUemsbSp°p∂Xv. CXv `qan kqcys\ Np‰nbpw, N{μ≥ `qansb Np‰nbpw, kqcy≥ {]]©Øns‚ tI{μ_nμpsh Np‰nbpw Nen°p∂p F∂v Adnbm™n´√. Cu tI{μ_nμpsh B[p\nI imkv{Xw Milky way (BImi KwK) F∂v hnfn°p∂p. C¥ybn¬ Cu BImi KwK ]memgnbnte°pw (sshIpWvTw) `qanbnse KwK ssIemkØnte°p ap≈ am¿§amWv. bqtdm]y≥ s{]m´Ã‚pIƒ tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ ]p kvXIsØ \nμn®p. tdma≥ ImØen°v N¿®v AhKWn®p. Cw•≠n¬ am{XamWv tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ ]pkvXIsØ kzmKXw sNbvXsX∂Xv AhcpsS imkv{X t_m[w ImWn°p∂p.

n\v D≠mb kwibßfmWv. Ah

a‰p{Kl߃:- _p[\pw ip{I\pw kqcyt\mSSpØv {]`mX, kmbm ”ßfn¬ am{Xw ImWp∂p. a‰p≈h Aßs\b√. BImiØns‚ GXp `mKØpw cm{XnbpsS GXp kabØpw ImWmw. tSmfan CXv kqcy

19

{]Imikn‘p

kmao]yw sIm≠msW∂v ]d™ncp∂p. tIm∏¿ \n° v Cu c≠p {KlßfpsS I£yIƒ `qanbpsS I£ybv°IØmIbm¬, Ah \sΩ °mƒ kqcys‚ ASpØmsW∂pw ]d™p. a‰p aq∂p {Kl߃°v `q{` aW]YØn\v ]pdØmWv I£yIƒ. ChbpsSsb√mw kqcys\ Np‰m

s\Sp°p∂ kabw t\m°n _p[s‚ sIm√w sNdpXpw i\nbpsS sIm√w G‰hpw Zo¿Lhpsa∂v tIm∏¿ \n° v ]d™p. {KlßfpsS Ne\ kz`mhw kqcy\pw `qanbpw XΩnep≈ ZqctØmSv Bt]£nIambn {Kl Øn\v kqcyt\mSp≈ Zqcw A\pkcn®mWv F∂v tIm∏¿ \n° v ]d ™p. bYm¿∞Zqcw AdnbmsXbpw, {Klßsf kqcy\n¬ \n∂p≈

_p[≥, ip{I≥, `qan, sNmΔ, hym

gw, i\n F∂ {Iaw C¥y≥ cmin N{IØnep≈Xp Xs∂bmWv. 1520 ¬ P\n® KWnX⁄\pw k¿tΔbdpw XnsbmsUmsse‰v I≠p ]nSn® hy‡nbpw, BZyambn Hcp ÿncw ]©mwKw (Imemhÿ, Bkv{SmWan, tSmfanIv tamU¬ AS°w) cNn® hy‡nbpamb entbm Wm¿Uv UnKvkns‚ ]p{X≥ tXmakv UnKvkv (Cw•ojv Bkvt{SmWa¿) tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ ]pkvXIsØ t]m∏pessdkv sNbvXp. A—s‚ sSekvtIm∏v sh®v At±lw BImiw \nco£n®ncp∂p. 1572 ¬ At±lw I≠ kq∏¿ t\mhsb ssSt°m{_mln Xs‚ A\men nkn¬ D]tbm Kn®n´p≠v. BImi KwKbnse At\Iw \£{X߃ At\Iw kqcy∑m cmsW∂v At±lw I≠p. 1595 ¬ UnKvkv acn°ptºmƒ Keoentbm Keoen ]mZzbnse s{]m^kdmWv. ImØen°v k` tIm∏¿ \n°kv tamU¬ kzoIcn® Knbm¿Umt\m {_ptWmsb 1600 ¬ Np´pIcn®p. sl¿ a‰nksa∂ hnπhmflIamb kao]\Øn\mWv (aX kao]\w) ]≈n At±lsØ Np´sX∂pw imkv{XØn\v FXncmb√ F∂pw hmZn°p∂ h¿ c≠mbmepw A`n{]mb kzm{X{¥yØn\v FXncmbmsW∂pw A[¿ ΩamsW∂pw ad°p∂p. sl¿a‰nkw:- tamk ns‚ ImeØv CuPn]vXy≥ hnZybpsS ssZh amb tXmØns‚ Iƒ´mbncp∂p CXv. tXmØns‚ {Ko°p]Zw sl¿ankv (_p[{Klw). AXn\m¬ sl¿a‰nkw. amkntUmWnbbn¬ \n∂mWv sl¿a‰nksØ C‰enbn¬ sIm≠ph∂Xv. ItØmen°≥ N¿®v icn bmb aXamb CuPn]vXy≥ imkv{XØnte°v Xncn®pt]mIWsa∂v {_qtWm hmZn®Xn\mWv 1591 ¬ sh\nkn¬ sh®v At±lsØ Inquisition \v ssIamdnbXpw Np´pIcn®Xpw. 1616 ¬ sIπdpsS ]pkvXIw hØn°m≥ \ntcm[n®p. 1835 emWv B \ntcm[\w \o°nbXv. {_lvamfihpw

Zqca\pkcn®v {IaØn¬

\nivNbn®p.

20

{]Imikn‘p

]nfimfihpw Htc kabw ]T\hnt[bambn- t¢mUnbkv Kmse\kv F∂ Kmes‚ {KŸßƒ B≥{Unbkv shtkenbkv ho≠pw Is≠ØnbXv ss_km‚nb≥, Ad_n kwkvImcßfn¬ \n∂mWv. tIm∏¿ \n° pw shtkenbkpw XßfpsS Is≠ج Hcp ]p\¿ Z¿i\hpw ]gbXns‚ evolution Dw F∂√msX, Revolution F∂v hnNmcn ®ncp∂n√. tSmfantbbpw Kmet\bpw ho≠pw Is≠ØpIbmbncp∂p, Ah¿. Kme≥ AD 130 ¬ Gjymssa\dn¬ (Xp¿°n) P\n® {Ko°v ^nkn jy\mWv. [\nI\mb B¿°nsSIv‰pw Irjn°mc\pamb Abmƒ Kme\v 16 hb p≈t∏mƒ Cu Ip´n saUnkn\n¬ t]scSp°psa∂v kz]v\w I≠p. sImdn¥nepw AeIvkm≥{Unbbnepw ]Tn®v P∑\mSmb s]¿Kma Ønse t•Untb‰¿amcpsS tUmIvSdmbn, ]n∂oSv C‰enbn¬ t]mbn am¿ °kv Hmdnenbkns‚ kplrØpw sshZy\pamWv. AD 180 ¬ N{Ih¿Øn bmb ItΩmU n\pw (Hmdnenbkns‚ ]p{X≥) At±lambncp∂p tUmIvS¿. lnt∏m{Im‰kns\ sshZyØns‚ ]nXmhv F∂v At±lam Wv hnfn®Xv. \mb, ]∂n, Ipcß≥ F∂nhsb UnkIvSv sNbvXmWv At±lw a\pjyicocsØ°pdns®gpXnbXv. (hfsc Ipd®v a\pjy ico cßsf UnkIvSv sNbvXn´p≈p) F∂mepw 12-13 \q‰m≠v (1200-1300 sIm √w)- AXmbXv 16 -mw \q‰m≠phsc- Kmes‚ hm°mbncp∂p a\pjys‚ Anatomy °v Ahkm\ hm°v. 1525 ¬ Kmes‚ aqe{KŸw ({Ko°v) {]kn ≤s∏SpØn. A∂v B¿°pw {Ko°v AdnbmØXn\m¬ AXns‚ em‰n≥ X¿÷abmWv tUmIvS¿am¿ ]Tn®ncp∂Xv. 1514 Unkw_¿ 31 \v sshZy ∑mcpsS IpSpw_Øn¬ shtkenbkv P\n®p.1537 -¬ tUmIvSdmbn. A\m ‰an ]Tn°m≥ Hcp ih°√dbnse icocw 1536 ¬ At±lw tamjvSn®n´p ≠v. ]mZzbn¬ s{]m^kdmbt∏mƒ PUvPv am¿°mt‚mWntbm sIm≠ cn\n h[in£°p hn[n® {Inan\epIfpsS icocw hn´psImSpØXn\m¬ tamjWw sNbvXn√. A°meØv ^nknjy≥ k¿÷t\°mƒ Db¿∂ h\mbncp∂p. Ip´nIƒ°v Dissection ImWn®psImSp°p∂Xp sIm≠pw Iøn¬ tNmc ]pcfp∂XpsIm≠pw Cu \ne shtkenbkv am‰n. kzbw Unsk£≥ sNbvXv Nn{XklnXw ]Tn∏n°pIbpw ]pkvXIw cNn°pI bpw sNbvXp. Xs‚ {]kn≤amb 2 ]pkvXI߃ cNn®v, 30 hb mIpw apºv At±lw Xs‚ tPmen Dt]£n®p. ]Tn∏n°p∂Xn\p ]Icw saUn kn≥ {]mIvSokv sNøm≥ BZyw Nm¿ekv 5 -mas‚bpw ]ns∂ At±l Øns‚ ]p{X≥ kvs]bn\nse ^nen]vkv c≠mat‚bpw BkvYm\ sshZy\mbn. 1564 ¬ At±lØns‚ kΩXtØmsS Pdpktean¬ Xo¿∞bm{X t]mbn. aSßptºmƒ I∏¬ IS¬t£m`Øn¬ s]´p. `£

21

{]Imikn‘p

Wan√mXmbn. F√mh¿°pw IS¬s®mcp°p≠mbn. {Ko°v Zzo]amb km s‚bn¬ sh®v acn®p (50 -mw hb n¬). shtkenb n\pw lm¿hnbv°pw CSbn¬ Km{_ntb¬ ^tem∏nbkv (Fallopean tube) ssltdm\nakv ^m{_njykv (Fw{_ntbmfPn- tImgnap´ta¬) F∂p c≠pt]sc ]mZz bn¬ ]Tn∏n®n´p≈p.

1553 ¬ ssat°¬ sk¿sh‰kv (Servetus) lesser circulation Ip

]nSn®p. {_ptWmsbt∏mse tbip CuizcmhXmctam Cuizc]p{Xt\m A√, Cuizc krjvSn am{XamWv F∂p hnizkn®Xn\m¬, tPm¨ Im¬hns‚ Im¬hn\nÃpIfm¬ 27 HIvtSm_¿ 1553 ¬ Np´pIcn°s∏´p At±lw. hneyw lm¿hnbmWv lrZbhpw c‡Nw{IaWhpw Is≠ØnbXv.

India

Astronomy

Medicine

kp{ipX kwlnX

ss]ØtKmdkv

lnt∏m{Im‰kv

hcmlanlncs‚

AcntÃm´n¬/tSmfan

Kme≥

]©kn≤m¥nI

tIm∏¿ \n°kv

tIm∏¿ \n°kv

shtkenbkv

hneyw lm¿hn

Rm≥ ]Tn®Xv Botany, Zoology, Medicine F∂nhbmWv (Pohim kv{Xw). Astronomy bn¬ Xmev]cyw D≠v F∂pam{Xw (tIm∏¿ \n°kn s\ t]mse!), kp{ipX kwlnX (BC 500) hcmlanlncs‚ IrXn (AD 427) F∂nhbmWv C¥y≥ saUn°¬/k¿Pn°¬/tPymXn»mkv{XsØ ]q¿Æambn Dƒs°m≈m≥ BZyw Rm≥ ]Tn® {KŸßƒ. kp{ipX kwlnXbn¬ a\pjys‚ Anatomy, Dissection ]e C\w kkvX\nIƒ, D]IcW߃ F∂nh BC 500 ¬ Xs∂ D≠v. hccpNn, hknjvT≥, ss]Xmal≥ apX¬ hcmlanlnc≥, Bcy`S≥, ]ctaizc≥, kw{Kma am[h≥ hsc F√mhcpw Astronomy bn¬ F{X \q‰m≠papºv bqtdm∏n t\°mƒ ap∂nemWv F∂v AhcpsS D≤cWnIƒ, {KŸßƒ ]Tn®mWv Rm≥ a\ nem°nbXv. {Kokv, C‰en, bqtdm∏n¬ imkv{XØn\v 3 {]mh iyw hf¿® D≠mbXv.

22

{]Imikn‘p

1. tkmfa¨/^pWojy≥ ImeØn\ptijw

2. AeIvkvm≠¿/AcntÃm´n¬/tSmfan C¥y_‘Øn\p tijw

3. t]m¿®pKokv/U®v/{^©v/Cw•ojv kº¿°Øn\ptijw.

Cu aq∂masØ kº¿°ØnemWv bqtdm∏n¬ Renaissance Imew. Imehpw ⁄m\ ]p\tcm≤mcWhpw C¥y≥ {KŸßtfmSpw C¥ytbm Spap≈ kº¿°hpamWv bqtdm]y≥ imkv{XØns‚ hf¿®°p ImcW ambXv.

hymks‚ Imet_m[w

{_lva

hknjvT≥

i‡n

]cmic≥

hymk≥

`mKhXØn¬,

(ss]Xmalkn≤m¥w)

(hknjvTkn≤m¥w)

(]cmickn≤m¥w)

BIrjvW\n¿§am¬ {XnwiZvh¿jm[nIKtX Iseu \haotXm\`tkyN IYmcw`w iptIItcmXv ]co£nØv {ihWmt¥N Iseuh¿jiXZztb ipt≤ ipsNu\haymw Nt[\ptPm f IYbXvIYmw XkvamZ]nIseu{]m]vtX {XnwiZvh¿jKtXKhXn DuNpcq¿tPkntX ]t£ \haymw{_ lvaWxkpXmx

F∂p]dbptºmƒ, Hcp kw`hw (event) GXp ImeØv, BcpsS PohnX thfbn¬ Bh¿Øn®p F∂v Imew, tZiw, t{ImtWmfPn, kw` hw F∂nhbpsS t_m[w IrXyambn ImWn°p∂Xv, tPymXn»mkv{X Øns‚ ]g°w ImWn°p∂p.

I. BC 3104 ¬ \n∂v 30 h¿jw Ign™v BC 3074 ¬ ipIal¿jn ]co £nØn\pth≠n I∂nbn¬ kqcy≥ \n¬s°, ip¢]£ \hanbn¬ N{μ≥ \n¬s° KwKmXocØv BZyambn `mKhX ]mcmbWw sNbvXp.

23

{]Imikn‘p

(kqcy N{μ∑m¿°v `qanbpambp≈ B {]tXyIZn\Ønse _‘w Hcp {]tXyI tZisØ \nco£I\v A\p`hs∏´ hn[w ImWpI).

II. 200 h¿jw Ign™v BC 2874 ¬ I¿°nSI amkØnse ip¢

\han°v (I¿°nSIw ]nXrbm\Imew. tKmI¿Æ≥ ktlmZcs‚ t{]X ap‡n°mWv sNbvXXv) tKmI¿ÆØpsh®v tKmI¿Æ≥. `rKp]macsc t∏mepw sIm≠ph∂v tIƒ∏n®p.

III. AXn∂v 30 h¿jw Ign™v 2844 BC bn¬ lcnZzmcØn¬ {_lva

]p{X≥ \mcZ\v aμmIn\oXocØnse B\μXSØn¬ ]cam\μ e_v[nbv°v. AXpw I¿°nSI ip¢ \han°mWv.

IV. 30 h¿jØn\ptijw 2814 BC bn¬ ss\animcWyØn¬ sh®v

tcmal¿jWkpX\mb kqX≥ `mKhXw k]vXmlw \SØn.

aq∂masØ bpKmh¿Ø\Øn¬, 3 -mw bpKmcw`Øn¬ kckzXo XocØpsh®v thZsØ A©m°n ]IpØv hymk≥ A©p injy∑m ¿°p sImSpØp. Ahsc thZw {]Ncn∏n°m≥ G¿∏mSm°n.

EtKzZw

- ss]e≥

bPq¿tΔZw

- sshiºmb\≥

kmathZw

- ssPan\n

AY¿Δw

- kpa¥p

hymk]p{X∑mcmbncp∂p ipI\pw, tcmal¿jW\pw (kqX Ipe Øn¬)- Cu {_mlvaWkpX/kqXhwiØnemWv. ss\animcWyØn¬ `mKhX k]vXmlw \SØnb kqXP\\w. ]©athZw hymk≥ D]tZ in®Xv tcmal¿jW\mWv. CXmWv `mKhXw.

{KlßfpsS Ne\ t`ZKXnbm¬ kw`hn°p∂ hyXykvXßfmb 5 kwh’c߃ (kwh’cw, ]cnh’cw, h’cw, CUmh’cw, A\p h’cw). {Kl߃ Ne\Øm¬ 60 h¿jØn¬ (LCM- F√m {Klßfp sSbpw {`aWkabØn¬) ]pds∏´ kvYesØØpw, {Kl߃ `qanbn se \nco£I\v H∂ns®mcnSØv ImWs∏Sp∂ {KltbmKkz`mhw, kqcy t‚bpw N{μt‚bpw AXn\∏pdsØ Hcp temIØnt‚bpw Adnhv F∂nh ss]Xmal≥, hknjvT≥, ]cmic≥, hymk≥ F∂nh¿°dnbmw. Cu AdnhmWv AD 427 ¬ hcmlanlnc≥ t{ImUoIcn®Xv. AXv C¥ybpsS Bkvt{SmWanbpsS renaissance Bbn IW°m°mw (sIπ¿°v 1200

24

{]Imikn‘p

h¿jw apºv). hymk≥ `mKhXØn¬ PeLSnImb{¥w D≠m°p∂Xv IrXyambn ]dbp∂p. kabw Af°m\pw Archimedis principle s‚

Sinking & floatation of a vessel IrXyambn Adn™v demonstrate sNøm

\pw AXnkq£vaamb \najw, £Ww apXemb am{X t]mepw Adnbm \pw AXns\ a\pjys‚ izmtkmOzmk/{]mWmbma am{Xbpambn Xmc Xays∏SpØm\pw km[n°p∂Xpw hfsc IrXyambn sa‰e¿Pn Adnbm hp∂ Hcmƒ°pam{Xw D≠m°m\mhp∂XpamWv PeLS-nI-mb{¥w. Bdv ]ew sNºpsIm≠p≈ Xm{a ]m{XØns‚ ASnbn¬ Hcp ]WanS kz¿ ÆØm¬ D≠m°nb 4 AwKpewiemIbm¬ Hcp Zzmcan´v sh≈Øn¬ CSpI. ZzmcØneqsS sh≈w IS∂v ]m{Xw apßp∂Xns\Sp°p∂ kabw Hcp \mgnI. CXmWv `mKhXØnse PeLSnImb{¥w. CXv hcmlanln c≥ ho≠pw hnhcn°p∂p AD 427 ¬ (a‰p ]e b{¥ßtfmsSm∏w). BC 3104 ¬ ZzmcI XpdapJØp\n∂pw BZna lmc∏≥ \Kcßfn¬ \n∂pw BtKmfk©mcw \SØnbncp∂, I∏¬\n¿ΩmWw, Afhv, Xq°°´n, sa‰e¿Pn AS°w ]eXpw BtKmfambn ]cnNbs∏SpØnb Hcp kwkvImcØn\pam{Xta Cu t_m[w D≠mhq F∂Xv A\pam\n°mhp ∂tXbp≈p.

`qan: hymk≥ k]vXZzo]hXnbmb `qan hnd®Xpw BZniq{Z cmPm °fmb lncWym£/lncWyIiy]p ImeØpw kXy{hX ImeØpw AS°w, BC 3104 ¬ ZzmcI apßptºmƒ hsc kp\manØncIƒ Db¿ ∂Xpw ]eh´w IrXyambn h¿Æn°p∂p. I¿±a≥ hnam\k©mcw sNøp tºmƒ t{]£bnXz`pthmtKmfw(`qansb tKmfmIrXnbn¬ I≠p) Fs∂gpXp∂p. km[mcW Hcp hnam\Øn¬ `qansb tKmfmIrXnbn¬ ImWn√. Hcp ‘spaceship’¬ am{Xsa CXp ImWp. Aßs\ `qanbpsS BI¿jWhebØn\p ]pdsØmcp temIsØ C¥y°m¿°v (ChnsS hymk\v Adnbpambncp∂pthm? `qh\tImiafieØn¬ `qan, kqcy≥, N{μ≥, tPymXnjKWw, k]vXkn‘p, k]vXZzo]w Chbp≠v. AfitImihnkvXrXn 50 tImSn tbmP\- H∂v H∂ns\Np‰n Hmtcm∂pw D≈nep≈Xnt\°mƒ 10 Cc´n hen∏Øn¬ `qan apXembn (`qanbnse \nco£I\v) 7 BhcWw D≠v. F∂m¬ CXv Hscm‰ Afia√, AkwJyw Afikaqlßfp≠v. (kucbqY߃) C{]Imcw At\Iw Afi kaqlap≈ {_lvamfiw (universe) Hcp ]camWp t]mse alm£c{_lvaØn¬ ebn®ncn°p∂ XmWv hymks‚ lcn[maw.

25

{]Imikn‘p

i\n

hymgw sNmΔ ip{I≥ _p[≥ N{μ≥ `qan
hymgw
sNmΔ
ip{I≥
_p[≥
N{μ≥
`qan

Nn{Xw 1.1: `qtI{μamb \nco£Ww

(Observation- Scientific experiment- in each age)

`qan N{μ≥ ip{I≥ _p[≥ sNmΔ hymgw i\n
`qan
N{μ≥
ip{I≥
_p[≥
sNmΔ
hymgw
i\n

Nn{Xw 1.2: kqcytI{μambm¬ `qan/ N{μ≥ F∂nh¿ H‰ bqWn‰mbn kucbqYØn\pw 7 BhcWw

AfitImiØns‚ Cu A\p]mXw, AXv H‰bv°√ At\Iw kucbqY߃ (\£{Xhyql߃) D≠v F∂ Adnhv hymk\p≠v. A≤ymbw 3, 57 -mw t«mIØn¬ XZm`mchXo`qan (`qan `mchXnbmWv) F∂p ]dbp∂p. `mcw (KpcpXzw) D≈hƒ Xmtgm´phogp∂, Xmtgm´p hogvØp∂p (BI¿jWw). Cßs\ X∂nte°v hogvØp∂ `qanbpsS kz`mhw ]dbp∂ hymk≥ BZnhcmlIev]Øn¬ `mchXnbmb `qan Xs‚ ]Yw hn´p Xmgv∂pt]mbXmbn (Xs‚ tI{μamb kqcy\nte°v) ]dbp∂p. tSmfanbpsSbpw sIπdpsSbpw \yq´s‚bpw ssF≥sÃs‚bpw ImesØ kn≤m¥ßƒ ]ebnSØpw `mKhXØnep≠v. Ah¿ Nn¥n °p∂Xn\pw \nco£n°p∂Xn\pw F{Xtbmapºv Cßs\ Nne¿ Nn¥n ®ncp∂p, Pohn®ncp∂p F∂Xn\¿∞w a\pjyakvXnjvIØn\v Racial Superiority C√ F∂p am{XamWv. ]cmics‚ tKmtemIw, (Sea Sudha- sindhu for description) inwipamch¿Æ\ F∂nhbpw hymk\dnbmw. `qtemIw a\pjycpsS

tkma (N{μ) temIw

kqcytemIw tZh∑mcpsS tKmtemIw hnjvWp]Zw b{X kqcyky tkmaky kn≤m¥w \ KXnx IZm Xw temIw lnKXmkvtXXp {ioaXv `mKhXm{ihmXv

]nXr°fpsS

26

{]Imikn‘p

F∂v tKmI¿ÆmZnIƒ tI´ kqcyhmIyØn¬ kqcykn≤m¥w, tZh∑mcpsS KXn, N{μkn≤m¥w ]nXr°fpsS KXn (KXn F∂m¬ Ne\ amWv) F∂dnbWw. kqcykn≤m¥hpw N{μkn≤m¥hpw `qanbn¬ \n∂v \nco£n°p∂ \nco£I≥ {Kln°p∂ `qtI{μhyhkvYnXnbpw, ]pd Øpt]mIp∂ \nco£I≥ {Kln°p∂ kqcytI{μÿnXn, tKmtemI ÿnXn F∂nhbpw ]q¿ΔoI¿ hnhcn°p∂p. kqcyhmIysa∂v `mKhX Øn¬ ]dbp∂p. hccpNnbpsS tPymXnj ]≤Xnbnse N{μhmIy߃ t]msebmWv Ah. I¿±a≥ t]mbXv spaceship emWv F∂Xn\v hymk `mKhXØn¬ I¿±a]p{X\pw {]Ya sshjvWhmhXmchpamb I]ne hmIyw DZmlcWw. (30 -mw A≤ymbw. `mKhXw). tbmP\m\mw kl{kmWn \hXnw \h Nm[z\ {Xn`n¿ aplq¿sØ¿Zym`ymwhm \oXx {]m]vtXm \nbmX\mx 99000 tbmP\ 2-3 aplq¿Øw sIm≠pXm≠p∂Xv km[mcW hnam \a√ F∂p Xo¿®. {]ImithKXsb°pdn®pw AXnt\mSSpØp k©cn °p∂ D]IcWßsf°pdn®pw D≈ Adnhv CXv ImWnbv°p∂p.

kpZ¿i\ ImeN{Iw {XtbmZimcw {XniXw jjvSn]¿Δ j¨t\ay\¥ OZnbZv {XnWm`n Icmft{kmtXm PKZm OnXy[mhmXv

13 Ac߃, 360 ]¿Δ߃ (Un{Kn), 6 t\an (EXp) A\¥w OZ߃

(N{I߃ N{I߃°p≈n¬) aq∂p\m`n. (3 x 4=12 cmin). C{]Imcw

PKØp apgph≥ IogS°p∂, krjvSn®v c£n®v kwlcn°p∂, Icmf

t{kmX

`qanbv°v e£w tbmP\ kah¿Øpfambn, \nbpXw tbmP\ hn imeambn Hcp B`y¥ctImiw (kqcyt\mSSpØv) D≠v. ImeN{IØn s‚ 13 Acw ZimwiKWnXtØmSpw Hcp {_lvambp nt\mSpw _‘s∏´ XmWv. 2 ]cm¿≤w = Hcp {_lvambp v. Hcp ]cm¿≤w = (10) 13 .

1000 NXpcypKw = 1 {_lvaZn\w (Hcp tImSn 20 e£w `qZn\w). 14 a\phns‚ Imew Hcp a\z¥cw x 14 = 2996000 h¿jw. Hc a\z¥cw = 214000 h¿jw

pw kpZ¿i\hpamb ImeN{Iw F∂¿∞w.

71 NXpcypKØn¬ (852000 h¿jØn¬) 14 a\p°ƒ `cn®p.

27

{]Imikn‘p

IrXw

4000

+

800 k‘y

t{XXm 3000

+

600 k‘y

Zzm]c

2000

+

400 k‘y

Ien

1000

+ 200 k‘y

 
 

10000

+

2000 = 12000 x 71 = 8,52,000

hymks‚ Cu IW°n¬ BC 10000 apX¬ AD 2000 hscbp≈ Hcp NXpcypK Imew BWv Ct∏mƒ Ign™Xv. Cu ImeKW\bn¬ 120 hb p≈ Hcp a\pjymbp v sNdnsbmcp IWamWv. Hcp]s£, sIπ¿, \yq´≥ F∂nhcpsS kn≤m¥ßƒ G‰hpw {]mtbmKnIambn, eLphmbn, F√m a\pjy¿°pw a\ nemhpw hn[w F√m ImetØ°pambn tcJs∏ SpØnsh® “stellar am∏pIƒC¥ybnse PmXIßfmWv. cmambW ImeØv {iocma≥ P\n®t∏mgpw Zzm]cbpKØn¬ {ioIrjvW≥ P\n® t∏mgpw PmXIwD≠v. kqcy≥, N{μ≥, eKv\w, XnYn\£{X߃, EXp, {KlßfpsS ÿnXn F√mw Cu PmXIßfnep≠v. Fßs\bmWv sIπ dpsSbpw \yq´s‚bpw \nbaßfdnbmsX PmXIw FgpXm\mhns√∂v ]d™Xv?

CXv Fs‚ PmXIw sh®v Rm≥ DZmlcn®p ImWnbv°mw:-

6.5.1946. ]I¬ 11.55. 1843482 IenZn\w. ]pW¿Xw \£{Xw (1121 taSw 23). Xn¶fmgvN DZn®v 14 \mgnI 25 hn\mgnI ]pe¿∂v, ip¢]£ jjvTn, kqIcIcWw, [rXn \nXytbmKw, [¿ΩI¿Øm F∂ N{μ{Inb, I¿°nSI cmin a≤yt{Z°mWØn¬ P\\w.

CXnent∏mƒ IenbpKw, {InkvXph¿jw, sIm√h¿jw F∂nhbpsS (3 Xcw ImeKW\) XmcXayw km[n°psa∂XpXs∂ imkv{Xobamb Hcp kao]\amWv. N{μ≥ ]pW¿Xw \£{XØn¬ F∂p ]d™m¬ anYp\sam I¿°nSsam Bhmw. kqcy≥ taSØnepw, `qan (eKv\w) I¿°n SIØnepw. AXmbXv lunisolar, geocentric ÿm\߃ CXn¬ \n∂p Xs∂ \ap°p {Kln°mw (tcmaIbpKØn¬ C{Xtb D≈p F∂v ]© kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ImWpI). ip¢]£ jjvTn F∂p ]dbp∂Xn\m¬ N{μs‚ ÿnXn, \£{Xhpw XnYnbpw XΩnep≈ hyXymkw apXemb hbpw \mw Adnbp∂p. C\n IrXyambn {Klkv^pSØn\v N{μhmIyw D]tbmKn°p∂p. A£cØn\v kwJy sImSp°p∂ coXnbmWXv.

28

{]Imikn‘p

 

cmin

Un{Kn an\p´v

1. kqcy≥

{ioIcwcXv\w

0.

22.

12

2. N{μ≥

a¿tØym hcnjvTx

2.

24.

15

3. sNmΔ

hotcm tKm]mex

3.

13.

24.

4. _p[≥

tbmKot{μm \q\w

0.

2.

31.

5. hymgw

{ioekvXcpWx

5.

26.

32

6. ⁄m\o XpjvtSmbw

ip{I≥

1.

16.

0.

7. i\n

Km\o kptc{μmx

2.

27.

3.

8. cmlp

_mtem [otcmbw

1.

29.

33

9. KpfnI≥

tbmKeo\mflm

5.

3.

31

10. eKv\w

Io¿Æw h¬°ew

3.

14.

51

11. XnYn

Km\o {]t⁄m{X.

15.

15.

12. \nXytbmKw

kqcn¿Øp Ipeo\x

59.

31

13. [qaw

{]]q¿sÆ \nan.

5.

5.

12.

14. hyXo]mXw

ssZhhnXv {]oXmx

6.

24.

48.

15. ]cnthjw

tZthm hotcm\p

0.

24.

48

16. {ioIrjvtWm \mbIx

C{μNm]w

11.

5.

12

17. {io]cm{]]qPyx

[qatIXp

11.

22.

12

ao\w

Ipw`w

aIcw

[\p

tajw CShw Im¿ØnI i\n (]pW¿Xw) (Im¿ØnI) ip{I≥ sNmΔ (Bbneyw) _p[ {`aW]Yw [qatIXp kqcy≥ C{μ sNmΔ
tajw
CShw
Im¿ØnI
i\n
(]pW¿Xw)
(Im¿ØnI)
ip{I≥
sNmΔ (Bbneyw)
_p[
{`aW]Yw
[qatIXp
kqcy≥
C{μ
sNmΔ
{`aW ]Yw
ip{I
{`aW]Yw
hymgw
hymg
{`aW]Yw
hy.[q. (lkvXw)
]©Iw
i\n
{`aW]Yw
hrivNnIw
Xpemw

29

anYp\w

]pW¿Xw

I¿°nSIw

Nnßw

I∂n

{]Imikn‘p

]pdsØ NXpcw \£{Xafiew; AIsØ hyqlw `qanbnencp∂v a\pjy≥ ImWp∂ {KlÿnXnsb¶n¬ CXv Cßs\ hcbv°mw. kqcy ÿm\w tajØnemIbm¬ `qa≤ytcJ°v (e¶) ASpØmWv. hnjphXv tcJbv°SpØv AizXn Ign™v `cWnbn¬. N{μ≥ anYp\Øn¬ 24°15' ]pW¿XØn¬. `qanbpsS DZbeKv\w I¿°nSIØn¬ 4°.51' bn¬ ]pjy \£{XØn¬. (••••• F∂ knw_¬ AXmXp {`aW ]YØn¬ ImWpI). _p[≥ kqcy\SpØv 2°.31' (AizXnbn¬) AXv Nn{XØn¬ ASbmf Øn¬ kqcy{`aW ]YØn¬ ImWn®ncn°p∂p (kqcys\ Cu Nn{X Øn¬ ImWn®n´n√). hymgw 5 cmin Ign™v (I∂nbn¬) 26°.32'; ip{I≥ CShØn¬ 16°. i\n anYp\Øn¬ 27 °.3'. C\n ChbpsS ]ckv]c tIm WnI AIew t\m°n bYm¿∞ Zqcw I≠p]nSnbv°mw. cmlp `qÿm\ amWv. XnYnbpw \£{Xhpw Adn™m¬ kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS ew_\w KWn°mw. (AXns‚ hyXymkØn¬ \n∂v). CXp IqSmsX hymgØn\pw sNmΔbv°pw CSbnep≈ [qamZn]©IØns‚ kv^pShpw ([qaw, hyXo ]mXw, ]cnthjw, C{μNm]w, [qatIXp) F∂nhbpw IrXyambn X∂n cn°pw PmXIØn¬. Hcp P\\w Hcp kw`hw (event) BWv. B kw` hw \S°p∂ tZiØv (A£mwi, tcJmwiØn¬) B {]tXyI kabØv ÿncXmc afieØns‚ \nivNnX Xmc kaqlßsf B[mcam°n D≠m°nbncn°p∂ Hcp \£{X]Sw (stellar map) AXnse {KlÿnXn, Ch IrXyambn ImWn°p∂p PmXIw. CXv {iocma≥, {ioIrjvW≥ apXemb alm]pcpj∑m¿s°∂ t]mse Rm\pw \nßfpw Dƒs∏´ s]mXpP\Øn\pw Ds≠∂Xv ⁄m\w F{X am{Xw P\Iobh¬°cn° s∏´ncp∂p, AXpw F{X Imew apºv F∂v sXfnbn°p∂p. Bkvt{Sm sIan°¬ XØz߃ sh®mWv PmXIw FgpXp∂Xv (KWnXhpw, \nco £Whpw sh®v). AXn\m¬ AXp imkv{XamWv. ÿncXmc afieØn te°pw AXn\∏pdtØbv°pw ]Sn™md≥ cmPyßfnse a\pjyakvXn jv°w HscSpØpNm´w \SØnbXv hmkvt°mUn KmabpsS hchn\p tijamsW∂Xv {i≤n°Ww. ⁄m\w Hcmfn¬ \n∂p as‰mcmƒ, Hcp kwkv°mcØn¬ \n∂v as‰mcp kwkv°mcw t\Sn F∂p ]dbp∂Xv Hc ]am\a√. Hcmƒ ]Tn∏n®p. as‰mcmƒ ]Tn®p. injy≥ Kpcphns‚ hnZysb t]mjn∏n®p. CXt√ imkv{XØns‚ coXn! bqtdm∏nt‚bpw C¥ybptS bpw BZm\{]Zm\ Ncn{XØn¬ imkv{XßfpsS F√mw Kpcp C¥ybm Wv. B[p\nI sSIvt\mfPnbpsS Kpcp ]mivNmXy temIamWv. 21 -mw \q‰m≠n¬ Pohn°p∂ \mw AXp a\ nem°mXncn°p∂XmWv G‰hpw henb Zpc¥w.

30

{]Imikn‘p

2. {KlKXn, k¿§w

ssSt°m{_mln, sIπ¿, Keoentbm, sFkIv \yq´¨ F∂XmWv {KlKXn ]Tn® bqtdm]y≥ Bkvt{SmWa¿amcpsS t{ImtWmfPn. CXn¬ {_mlnbpw sIπdpw Ahkm\sØ anÃn°pIƒ F∂pw, Keoen tbm BZysØ imkv{X⁄s\∂pw Adnbs∏Sp∂p.

14 Unkw_¿ 1546 ¬ kzoU\n¬ {_mln P\n®p. 21 BKÃv 1560

\v t]m¿®pKen¬ ]q¿Æhpw tIm∏≥lmK\n¬ `mKnIhpambp≠mb Hcp {KlWw {_mlnsb (13 hb v) BI¿jn®p. CXv ]gb ]©mwKw sh®v Ad_v Bkvt{SmWa¿am¿ {]hNn®ncp∂p F∂Xpw. tSmfanbpsS em‰n≥ X¿PvPa AS°w Bkvt{SmWan ]pkvXI߃ hmbn°m≥ CXv ImcW ambn. 1563 ¬ i\nbpw hymghpw IqSnbp≈ tbmKw BImiØn¬ Zriy ambn. CXv t\csØ {]hNn®ncp∂p. ]s£ Hcp amkw Ign™v 24 BKÃn\mWp≠mbXv. {]hN\hpw Zriyhpw IqSnh∂ Cu hyXymkw N¿®mhnjbambn. 16 -mw hb n¬ CXv Is≠Øembn {_mlnbpsS e£yw. Hcp \£{Xhpw Hcp {Klhpw XΩnep≈ tImWnI AIew Hcp tPmSn Compass IÆnt\mSp tN¿Øpsh®mWv ssSt°m Af∂ncp ∂Xv. 1564 ¬ 2 hSn tN¿Øpsh®v Ipcnip cq]Øn¬ ]ckv]cw slide sNøp∂Xpw, AfhpIƒ tcJs∏SpØnbXpamb Hcp Cross-staff of Radium I∏¬ bm{X°m¿ {Kl\£{XßfpsS tImWnI AIew Im Wm≥ D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. ssSt°mbv°v In´nb b{¥Øn¬ Afhv IrXy amb√ tcJs∏SpØnbncp∂Xv. AXn\m¬ data sX‰mbn In´n.

19 -mw hb n¬ Rostock University bn¬ tN¿∂v Bkvt{SmfPn, sa Unkn≥, sIankv{Sn F∂nhbmWv At±lw ]Tn®Xv. BImiØpw `qan bnepw a\pjy icocØnepw \S°p∂Xn¬ H∂n®v {i≤ sh®p. 28 HIvtSm _¿ 1566 ¬ Hcp N{μ{KlWap≠mbn. CXv 80 hb mb Ht´ma≥ kp¬ Øms‚ acWw (kpsseam≥) D≠m°psa∂v {_mln {]hNn®p. At±l sØ {InkvXy≥ bqtdm∏n\p `bambncp∂p. AXn\m¬ kp¬Øm≥

31

{]Imikn‘p

acn®p F∂p tI´t∏mƒ Ah¿ {_mlnbpsS {]hN\sØ ]pIgvØn. {KlWØn\v F{Xtbm Zn\w apsº kp¬Øm≥ acn®ncp∂p F∂v hm¿Ø In´nbt∏mƒ Io¿Øn aßpIbpw sNbvXp.

1569 ¬ \nco£Ww \SØm≥ Hcp Quadrant D≠m°n®p. 6 ao‰¿ A¿≤hymkw. Np‰pap≈ hrØmIrXnbmb Arc ¬ an\p´pIƒ tcJs∏Sp Ønbncp∂p. AXns\ Hcp kplrØns‚ tXm´Øns‚ \Sphnse Ip ∂n¬ ÿm]n®v 5 sIm√w \nco£Ww \SØn. Unkw_¿ 1574 se sIm Sp¶m‰n¬ AXv tISph∂p. 11 \hw_¿ 1572. et_md´dnbn¬ \n∂v ho´n te°p \S°p∂ hgn BImiØp t\m°nb ssSt°m Imkntbm∏nb kaqlØn¬ (hS°p `mKØv W cq]Øn¬ ImWmw) Hcp ]pXnb \£ {Xw I≠p. IqSpX¬ {]Imiap≈ H∂v. A°meØv AXv Hcp [qatIXp BImtam F∂v kwibap≠mbn. bqtdm∏n¬ A∂v `uam¥co£Ønse [qatIXp°sf (upto N{μ≥) am{Xsa Adnbq. AXv ]Tn°m≥ Imkntbm ∏nbbpsS a‰p \£{Xßfpambn Bt]£nIZqcw \nco£n°Ww. tIm a‰v, ao‰ntbm¿ F∂nh ÿm\w amdpw. \£{Xsa¶n¬ amdn√. Hcp sextant sh®v Cu ]pXnb \£{XsØ \nco£n®p (18 amkw). BZyw ip{It\m fw {]Imiap≠mbncp∂ AXv Htc ÿm\Øv 18 amkw \n∂v Unkw_¿ 1572 ¬ am™pt]mbn. De nova stella (1573) F∂ ]pkvXIw CXns\°pdn s®gpXn. 125 BC bn¬ ln∏m¿°kv I≠ CXp t]msemcp {]Xn`mksØ XmcXays∏SpØn. ssSt°m {_mln I≠Xv Hcp kq∏¿ t\mhbmbn cp∂p. ]s£ CXpsh®v, `qan kqcy\p Np‰pw k©cn°bmsW¶n¬ D≠mtI≠ parallax shift Af°m≥ {ian® ssSt°m{_mln parallax I≠n√. AXn\m¬ `qan ANebpw, \£{X߃ Np‰p∂hbpsa∂v IcpXn (Hcp hntcm[m`mkambn AXv). tIm∏≥lmK\pw F¬knt\mdn\pw CSbnse lzo≥ Zzo]n¬ 22 s^ {_phcn 1576 ¬ sNmΔbpw N{μ\pw (iinawKetbmKw) XΩnep≈ Conju- ction \nco£n°m≥ s{^Udn°v cmPmhv Ab®p. ChnsS Ddm\nt_m¿Kv H_vk¿th‰dn (Ddm\nb= Bkvt{SmWanbpsS Muse.) sse{_dnbpw {]n‚nßv {] pw D≠m°n. 20 h¿jw AhnsS ]T\w \SØn. 4 h¿jw XmcafieØn¬ kqcys‚ KXn ]Tn°m≥

12

h¿jw sNmΔ, hymgw ChbpsS KXn ]Tn°m≥

30

h¿jw i\nbpsS KXn ]Tn°m≥-

\nco£Ww \SØn. ssSt°m D≠m°nb tables t\m°nbmWv ]n∂oSv sIπ¿ {Kl{`aW I£yIƒ hniZoIcn®Xv.

32

{]Imikn‘p

1577 ¬ Hcp [qatIXpsh I≠p. AXv `uam¥co£Øn\pw N{μ\p

a∏pdsØ {Kl߃°nSbn¬ \n∂v AhbpsS I£yIƒ Xm≠nhcp∂ XmsW∂v {Kln®p. CXpw, kq∏¿ t\mhbpamWv tSmfanbpsS ]gb Adn hns\ am‰nadn® c≠p I≠p]nSpØ߃. 13 \hw_¿ 1577 \mWv ssS t°m {_mln [qatIXp I≠Xv. 1587, 1588 ¬ 2 hmfyambn {]kn≤oIcn®

Astronomies Instauratae Progymsnanaata (Introduction to the new

astronomy) tSmfanbptSbpw tIm∏¿ \n°

epIfpsS Hcp an{iamWv. `qtI{μ hyhÿbn¬ AXp tSmfanbpsSbm

Wv. Epicle C√, different C√.

nt‚bpw bqWnthgvkv tamU

ÿncXmc߃ 14000 dmUnssb `qanbn¬ \n∂Ise. `qan Nen°m ØXmWv. AXn\m¬ parallax C√. I£yIsf kv^SnI tKmfßfmb√, {KlKXn hnhcn°m\p≈ tPymsa{Sn°¬ _‘ßfmbmWv I≠Xv. iq\ymImiØn¬ thsd support H∂pw th≠ {Kl߃°v F∂v Cß

s\ BZyambn bqtdm∏n¬ `mh\ sNbvXXv At±lamWv. 1595 ¬ 1000 ÿncXmcßfpsS Im‰temKv D≠v At±lw \nco£n®n´v. 777 FÆw ]n∂oSv sIπdpsS FUnt‰mdnben¬ {]kn≤oIcn®p.

1599 ¬ ssSt°mt{]Kn¬ (35 In.ao. AIse Benathy bn¬) ]pXnb

observatory ÿm]n®p (sU∑m¿°nse cmPmhpambn sX‰n tdma≥ N{I h¿Øn dqtUmƒUv II s‚ £Ww kzoIcn®v). ChnsS sh®v ]pXnb \n co£Wßsfm∂pw sNbvXXmtbm I≠p]nSn®Xmtbm Adnbn√. 1577

tIma‰ns\ Ip´nbmb sIπdpw I≠ncp∂p. CXpw Hcp N{μ{KlWhp amWv sIπdpsS Bkvt{SmWan ]T\sØ t{]m’mln∏n®Xv. ]s£ {_mlnsbt∏mse Hcp \nco£I\mbncp∂n√ At±lw. \nco£Whpw,

se

B

\nco£WsØ _u≤nIambn A\ssekp sNøepw imkv{XØn¬

Hcp

t]mse {][m\amsW∂v Cu c≠pt]cpsS I≠p]nSpØ߃ sXfn

bn°p∂p. F¥psIm≠v 6 {Klw am{Xw? CXnemWv sIπdpsS Nn¥ BZyw. bq¢nUns‚ PymanXnbnse {ZhykwJybmWXv. 6 kam\, NXpc apJ ap≈ Hcp Iyq_v. a‰p 4 Regular Solids = 4 kam\ {XntImW apJap≈ sS{Smsl{U¨; 12 kam\ ]©`pPap≈ tUmsU°msl{U¨; 20 hi hpw kam\ {XntImW apJhpap≈ Ct°mk sl{U¨; 8 {XntImW ap≠m°p∂ HIvSmsl{U¨.

Chsb H∂n\p≈n¬ H∂mbn, AIsØ {ZhyØns‚ aqe Np‰pap≈ hrØtKmf {]Xew sXmSpamdv, (B hrØtKmfw, ]pdØp≈ ASpØ

33

{]Imikn‘p

{ZhyØns‚ AIsØ Xew sXmSpamdv) H∂n\p≈n¬ H∂mbn ASp °pI. Cßs\ AIØv Hcp tKmfw, ]pdØv Hmtcmtcm tkmfnUn\p Np ‰pw Hmtcm tKmfw- BsI 6- Hmtcm∂pw Hmtcm {KlØns‚ {`aW]Yw. 1) HIvSmsl{U¨ a≤yØn¬ kqcys\Np‰n, _p[I£ysb Dƒs°m≠-v

2) AXn\v ]pdØv Icosa hedron, dodeca hedron, tetra hedron, cube-

Cßs-\bmWv kqcy\p Np‰pw {KlI£yIfpsS spacing sIπ¿ sNbvXXv. 1) IqSpX¬ {Klßfp≠v 2) {Kl{`aW I£y sphere A√. elliptical BWv. At∏mƒ Cu ]d™Xv sX‰pw. AXv sIπ¿ Xs∂ Adn™ncp∂p. F∂mepw PymanXnbpw {]]©hpw XΩnep≈ _‘sØ ImWn°m≥ CØcw tamUemWv At±lw D≠m°nbXv.

kqcy\v Zqscbp≈ {KlKXn ]Xps°bmsW∂pw AXv kqcy\n¬ \n∂p≈ Hcp i‡n (vigour) sIm≠msW∂pw tIm∏¿ \n°kv ]d™n cp∂p. {Klßsf amJmeamc√, kqcy\mWv Im¥i‡n t]msemcp i‡n sIm≠v {]h¿Øn∏n°p∂sX∂pw AsXmcp Xcw t¢m°vt]mse bmsW∂pw sXfnbn°¬ sIπ¿ Xs‚ e£yambn IcpXn. Xs‚ ]pkvX Iw Keoentbmhn\pw sIπ¿ Ab®ncp∂p. ssSt°m adp]Sn Ab®p. Keo entbm adp]Sn Ab®n√. 1598 ¬ t]m∏pw B¿®v Uyq°v s^¿Un\m‚pw s{]m´Ã‚pIƒ H∂pIn¬ ImtØmen°cmhWw, As√¶n¬ \mSphnSW sa∂v hn[n®p. 1599 ¬ 320 In.ao. A∏pdw ssSt°m{_mln D≠m°nb t{]Kv H_vk¿th‰dn kzX{¥ambn {]h¿Øn®ncp∂p. 4 s^{_phcn 1600 ¬ ssSt°m{_mlnbpw sIπdpw AhnsSsh®v ]cnNbs∏´p. ssS t°m 58 hb v, sIπ¿ 28 hb v. ssSt°mbpsS Um‰ imkv{Xobambn A]{KYn°m≥ Aßs\ Hcp \√ ]n≥Kmansb In´n. 1600 se th\en¬ ImØen°mhm≥ hnkΩXn® 61 t]cn¬ Hcmfmb sIπsd (BKÃv 2) tPmenbn¬ \n∂v dismiss sNbvXp. ssSt°m{_mlnbpsS adp]Sn DS≥ h∂p. IpSpw_tØbpw Iq´n A\phZn°p∂ hkvXp°ƒ am{XsaSpØv DS≥ t{]Kn¬ hcnI. N{Ih¿Ønbpambn N¿® sNbvXn´p≠v. tPmen ChnsS icnbmIpw.BZyw ssSt°mbpsS IqsS Xmakn®t∏mƒ c≠m fpw k¥pjvScmbn√. ]W°mc\mb ssSt°mbpsS B{inX\mbn B ho´n¬ Igntb≠nh∂ A]am\w sIπ¿°v- sIπdpsS \μntISv I≠ AXr]vXn {_mlnbv°pw. ssSt°mbpsS H^ojy¬ AknÂmbn iºf tØmsS N{Ih¿Øn \nban°pwhsc Cu AXr]vXn \n∂p. 13 HIvtSm _¿ apX¬ 24 HIvtSm_¿ hsc ssSt°m{_mln Hcp semi comatose Ahÿbnembncp∂p. 24 \v t_m[w sXfn™t∏mƒ Xs‚ F√m

34

{]Imikn‘p

\oco£W ^ehpw sIπsd Gev]n®v tIm∏¿ \n°kv tamUe√, ssS t°mWn°v tamUemWv icnsb∂v temIsØ t_m[n∏n°Wsa∂pw, As√¶n¬ Xs‚ PohnXw ]mgmIpsa∂pw {_mln ]d™p. hfsc sNdp ∏hpw, Hcp ss]k Iønen√msX Xs‚ B{inX\mbn h∂h\pw, \μn

tISp≈h\psa¶nepw Cu ]pXnb sNdp∏°mc\mWv (AXphscbp≈ injycmcpa√) AXn\p ]‰nb KWnX⁄s\∂v ‘coma’ bn¬ InS°p tºmgpw At±lØn\v t_m[ap≠mbncp∂p. {_mln acn®v 2 BgvN Ign

™v dptUmƒ^v c≠mas‚ kZ nse Bÿm\ KWnX⁄\mbn ssS

t°m {_mlnbpsS ÿm\Øv Xs∂ \nban®t∏mƒ hnizkn°m\mhmsX

sIπ¿ Xcn®ncp∂p. 1) {KlI£yIƒ hrØa√. Elliptical BWv.

2) kqcy\n¬ \n∂v {KlØnte°p hcbv°p∂ Hcp tcJ kaIm eØv (equal line) kaamb tZi߃ Xm≠p∂p. AXn\m¬ kqcyt\mS SpØ {Klw sNdnb A¿≤hymkamIbm¬ IqSpX¬ henb angle, AI sebp≈Xv henb A¿≤hymkØm¬ sNdnb angle. F√m {KlØn\pw

Htc t^m°knemWv kqcy≥. CØcw c≠v t^m°kv kqcy\p≠v-

(elliptical orbit s‚ 2 foci). At∏mƒ epicycle, equant apXemb ]gbsXm

s° Hgnhm°mw. Xs‚ Xs∂ ]gb ‘nested solid’ tamUepw. 1609 ¬ Astronomia nova bn¬ sIπ¿ Xs‚ I≠p]nSpØ߃ N¿® sNbvXp. Cu {K\vYw th≠{X {i≤n°s∏´n√. Xs‚ KpcpXzmI¿ jW kn≤m¥w sXfnbn°m≥ \yq´¨ D≤cn®t∏mgmWv sIπdpsS kn≤m¥w {it≤bambXv. 1604 apX¬ 1606 hsc hymgØns‚ {]Imi Øn¬ DZn®p\n∂ Hcp ]pXnb Xmcw (kq∏¿ t\mh) At±lw ho£n°p

Ibp≠mbn. 1604 ¬ Hcp civan sd‰n\bn¬ ]Xn®v IÆv AXns‚ Z¿i\ ap≠mhp∂ optics s\°pdn®v sIπ¿ Hcp ]pkvXIsagpXn. Nne¿°v Z¿ it\{μnbamb IÆns‚ A]mIXIfm¬ ImgvN°pdhp≠mImw. A t∏mƒ {]Xn_nw_w sd‰n\bpsS apºntem ]n∂ntem Bbn D≠mhpw.

CXv icnbm°m≥ IÆS D]tbmKn°msa∂v sIπ¿ Is≠Øn. optics

sh®v sSekvtIm∏ns‚ {]h¿Ø\w hnhcn®p. sltdmZns‚ ImeØp≠mb Hcp N{μ{KlWw sh®v {InkvXp BC 5 ¬ P\n®p F∂p IW°m°n Hcp Ie≠¿ ]cnjvIcWw sIπ¿ XpS ßn (1582 ¬ am{XamWv t]m∏v s{KKdn XIII s‚ Ie≠¿ ]cnjvIcWap ≠mbXv). 1616 ¬ sIπdpsS AΩ a{¥hmZn\nsb∂v ap{Z IpØs∏´p. a{¥hmZn\nIsf AdÃp sNbvX IØnbv°p∂ ImeamWXv. 1620 ¬

35

{]Imikn‘p

Ahsc XShnen´p. HIvtSm_¿ 1621 ¬ kzX{¥bm°n. 6 amkØn\Iw Ah¿ acn®p. BZy`mcybpsS acWtijw sIπ¿ 24 hb p≈ Hcp s]¨Ip´nsb 40 mw hb n¬ hnhmlw Ign®ncp∂p. Cu hnja߃°nS bnepw sIπ¿ cNn® Ahkm\sØ ]pkvXIØn\v Harmonice Mundi (Harmony of the world) F∂mbncp∂p t]cv. sIπdpsS 3 mw \nbaw CXnep≠v. Hcp {KlØn\v kqcys\ Np‰ms\Sp°p∂ kabw ({KlØn s‚ kwh’cw) AXn\v kqcy\pambp≈ Zqchpambn _‘s∏´XmWv (tIm∏¿ \n°kv tamUens\∂ t]mse) 2 {KlßfpsS ImeØns‚ h¿§w (square) AhbpsS kqcy\n¬ \n∂p≈ AIeØns‚ Iyq_ns‚ A\p]mXØnemWv. DZm:- sNmΔ kqcy\n¬ \n∂v `qantb°mƒ 1.52 {]mhiyw ZqscbmWv. (1.52) 3 = 3.51 sNmΔbpsS kwh’cw 1.88 {]mhiyw `qkwh’ctØ°mƒ Gsd. (1.88) 2 = 3.53. am¿®v 8, 1618 \mWv Cu 3 mw \nbaØns‚ Bibw At±lØns‚ XebnepZn®Xv. 1619 ¬ Cu {K\vYw ]pdØphcptºmƒ bqtdm∏n¬ 30

yrs war \S°pIbmWv. aXbp≤w, AΩbpsS XShv- Cu disharmony bv°nSbn¬ harmony bmbn 3 volume (1618, 1620, 1621) D≈ epitome of Copernican Astronomy bpw At±lw {]kn≤oIcn®p. tIm∏¿\n° n s‚ kqcytI{μ hyhÿnXnbmWv {_mlnbpsS `qtI{μ hyhÿnXnb√ icn F∂v ka¿∞n®p. tPm¨ \m∏nbdpsS temKcnXw sIπ¿ D]tbmKn ®ncp∂p. 1631 ¬ _p[≥ kqcys‚ ap∂neqsS IS∂pt]mIpsa∂ _p[ Nmcw sIπ¿ {]hNn®p. {^©v Bkvt{SmWa¿ ]nbdn Kmk‚n AXv ho

_p[s‚ CØcw KXn bqtdm∏n¬ BZyambmWv A∂v ho£n°

s∏Sp∂Xv. 1625 ¬ Hmkv{Snbbn¬ s^¿Un\m‚ v c≠mas‚ `cWImeØv Im tØmen°¿ eqXd∑msc D]{Zhn°m≥ XpSßn. s^¿Un\m‚n\v sIπ sd CjvSambncp∂p. shdpsX t]cn\v ItØmen°\mbn´v, A¥cwKambn eqXd\mbnØs∂ t{]Kn¬ Xs‚ D∂Xÿm\Øncn°m≥ A\phZn°m sa∂p ]d™ncp∂p. s^¿Un\m‚ns‚ ssk\ym[n]\mb hme≥Ão≥ t{]Kn¬ sh®v sIπ¿ FgpXnb Hcp PmXIØn¬ {]hNn®sX√mw ^en ®Xn\m¬ At±lØns‚ Hcp kplrØmbn amdnbncp∂p. {InkvXy\m bm¬ aXn, AXnteXp {Kq∏mbmepw th≠n√ F∂ Hcp `mKnI en_d enkw hme≥Ão≥ {]`phn\p≠mbncp∂p. AXn\m¬ 1628 ¬ At±lhpw

£n®p.

36

{]Imikn‘p

IpSpw_hpw Cu {]`phns‚ £Ww kzoIcn®v kmK≥ \KcØnseØn. Ncn{XØn¬ BZyamsbgpXs∏´ science fiction IYbmb “Dream of the moon Fs∂mcp ]pkvXIw sIπ¿ AhnsS shs®gpXn. 1630 ¬ hme≥Ãos\ N{Ih¿Øn Unkvankv sNbvXp. en≥kn¬ sh®v X\n°p In´m≥ _m°nbp≠mbncp∂ iºfIpSn»nJ hmßm\p≈ bm{Xbn¬ 59 mw ]nd∂mfn\p apºv 1630 \hw_¿ 15 \v sIπ¿ Hcp ]\n ]nSn®v acn®p.

{_mlnbv°papºv, sIπ¿°papºv C∏d™ Imcyßsf√mw sNbvX Nne C¥y≥ imkv{X⁄cpsS IrXnIfpw Ahcp]tbmKn®ncp∂ b{¥ ßfpw Cu ]pkvXIØns‚ Hcp `mKambn tN¿Øn´p≠v. 55 h¿jw

XpS¿®bmbn BImi tKmfßsf \nco£n® Zr§WnX ]ctaizc≥ {_m

ln°pw sIπ¿°pw apºmWv

KWn®Xpw A\ssekv sNøp∂ ]mcemIvkv \nbaw Ah¿°paptº A.D. 427 ¬ hcmlanlnc\v Adnbmw (]©kn≤m¥I ImWpI. N.B.S.

{]kn≤oIcWw Dr. Suvarna Nalapat. Ed. II. 2000 AD). bqtdm∏nse aX

ßfpsS ]oV\w ChnSsØ imkv{X⁄¿ A°mesØm∂pw A\p`hn °mXncp∂Xv `mcXØn¬ Z¿i\hpw imkv{X[¿Ωhpw aXhpw H∂m bXp sIm≠mWv. AsXmcp kwkv°mcØns‚ Ahn`mPyLSIambn At\Iw kl{km_vZw \ne\n∂XpsIm≠mWv.

Fenk_Øv I cm⁄nbpsS tUmIvSdpw, amKv\‰nksØ°pdn®v

]T\w \SØnb hy‡nbpamb sPtdman Kn¬_¿´n\v sIπsdt∏mse

_oPKWnXw sIm≠v Z¿in®Xpw

Pohn®Xv.

FeIv{Snkn‰n amKv\

‰nkw F∂nßs\bmWv At±lØns‚ Xmev]cyw hf¿∂Xv. 2000 h¿

jw apºv {Ko°p XXzimkv{X⁄¿°p tijw amKv\‰nkØn¬ Ct±l amWv ]T\w \SØnbXv.

De magnete Magneticisque Corporibus, et de magno magneto Tellure

F∂mWv 1600 ¬ Ct±lw {]kn≤oIcn® ]pkvXIØns‚ t]cv (Im¥nI i‡n, Im¥i‡nbp≈ hkvXp°ƒ, alØmb Im¥nI i‡nbp≈ `qan F∂nhsb°pdn®v). Im¥ i‡nbp≈ Hcp loadstone Xebn¬ sh ®m¬ XethZ\ amdn√; Im¥sØ shfpØp≈n sIm≠pc®m¬ Im¥ i‡n t]mhn√ F∂v A∂sØ bqtdm∏nse Nne hnizmkßsf At± lw \nckn®p. loadstone D]tbmKn®v Nnebn\w teml߃°v Im¥ i‡nbp≠m°msa∂v ImWn®p. `qan Im¥w t]msebmsW∂pw {[ph ßfmWv Im¥Øns‚ +, - ve A‰ßsf∂pw hmZn®p. 2 \q‰m≠p Ign™v

ZpcnXw A\p`hnt°≠nh∂n´n√. sIankv{Sn

ßfmWv Im¥Øns‚ +, - ve A‰ßsf∂pw hmZn®p. 2 \q‰m≠p Ign™v ZpcnXw A\p`hnt°≠nh∂n´n√. sIankv{Sn 37

37

{]Imikn‘p

1820 emWv ssat°¬ ^mctU ]n∂oSnXns\°pdn®v Nn¥n®Xv. tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ tamUen¬, {Kl߃ XßfpsS I£yIfn¬ \n¬°p∂Xv Cu Im¥i‡nbnemsW∂ At±lØns‚ \nKa\w sIπsd kzm[o\n ®ncp∂p. kqcy≥ BImiØns‚ a≤ytcJsb hk¥w, icZv F∂v 2 {]mhiyw kqcy≥ IS°ptºmƒ ]Xps° ]Sn™m´p \oßp∂ Precision of equinox At±lw hniZoIcn®p. Hmtcm \£{XØn\p Np‰pw AhbpsS {Kl߃ (kqcys\t∏mse) Ds≠∂v ]d™p (AD 427. hcmlanlnc s‚ ]©kn≤m¥nI CsX√mw ]dbp∂p≠v). \nc¥camb \nco£Ww, ]co£Ww F∂nhbv°v hcmlanlnc \pw ssSt°m{_mlnbpw, ]ctaizc\pw, Kn¬_¿´pw, Keoentbmhpw F√mw hfsc {]m[m\yw sImSpØp. 1564:- Cu h¿jw hneyw tjIvkv]nbdpw, Keoentbm Keoenbpw P\n®p; ssa°emRvPtem A¥cn®p. A—≥ hn≥k≥kntbm KWnX Ønepw kwKoXØns‚ ssk≤m¥nI hißfnepw Xmev]cyap≈ s{]m ^jW¬ kwKoX⁄≥. 7 a°fn¬ aqØh≥ Keoentbm- (hn¿Po \nb-1573; ssa°emRvPtem-1575; enhnb-1587 am{Xw Pohn®p. a‰p≈ ktlmZc߃ Ip´n°meØpXs∂ acn®p.) Keoentbm A—s‚ injy \mbn \√ kwKoX⁄\mbn hf¿∂p. acWw hsc lute hmbn®ncp∂p. 15 mw hb n¬ ]Tn°m≥ Hcp monastry bnte°b®p. AXv CjvSamI bm¬ At±lw ]utcmlnXyw kzoIcn®p. CXptI´v A—\v `bambn- Keoentbmhn\v IÆn¬ Hcp tcmKw h∂t∏mƒ AXv NnIn’n°ms\∂p ]d™v Iq´ns°m≠pt]mb A—≥ aIs\ ]ns∂ B `mKtØ°b®n√. ho´nencp∂v, tamWmÃnIv kvIqfn¬, A—s‚ I¨sh´Øncpt∂ ]Tn °m\b®p≈p. AXn\m¬ Vallombrosa Abbey bpsS ]gb sdt°mUn¬ Keoentbm KeoenbpsS t]cv defrocked priests (Ip∏mbaqcnb A®∑m¿) enÃnemWv InS°p∂Xv. At±lw saUnkn≥ ]Tn°m≥ t]mbn AXv hn´v KWnXØnte°v NphSpamdnb hnZym¿∞nbpamWv. AcntÃm´nens‚ hyXykvX `mcap≈ hkvXp°ƒ hyXykvX thKXbn¬ hogp∂p F∂ kn≤m¥sØ Jfin ®Xn\mepw hotdmsS X¿°n°p∂Xn\mepw The wrangler F∂mWv kl ]mTnIƒ C´ Hma\t∏cv. Ben∏gw taLØn¬ Htc ÿeØp≠mbn Htc Zqcw k©cn®v Htc kabØv (hyXykvX `mcap≈ I´bpw Xcnbp sams°bmbn) h∂v ]Xn°p∂Xv Keoentbm Nq≠n°m´n. sshZy hnZym¿ ∞nbmbncp∂ ImeØv ]≈nbn¬ Hcp t_md≥ {]kwKw tIƒ°sh,

38

{]Imikn‘p

apIfnse Hcp Xq°phnf°ns‚ (chandilier) B´w Xs‚ \mUn (pulse) ]nSn®v Keoentbm Af°m≥ XpSßn. sNdnb Nm]Øntem henb Nm] Øntem BSp∂ t`Zan√msX, Htc kabamWv Hcp B´w ]q¿Æam°m≥ s]≥Upew FSp°p∂sX∂v Aßs\bmWv a\ nembXv. 1602 hsc Cu Bibw At±lw ]co£n®ncp∂p. s]≥UpeØns‚ \ofamWv, `mctam Zqctam (arc) A√ s]≥UpeØns‚ Imesa∂ XXzØn\v ]nk bn¬ 1584-1585 ¬ Øs∂ _oPmhm]w sNbvXncp∂p. Keoentbmhns‚ ¢mkpIƒ c≠phn[ambncp∂p. H∂v bqWnthgvkn ‰nbn¬ kne_ \pkcn®v AcntÃm´n¬ Z¿i\߃ ]Tn∏n°¬. c≠v ho´n¬ h∂ptNcp∂ injy∑mcpambn N¿®IfneqsS ]pXnb ]e Imcy ßfpw ]Tn∏n°¬. Keoentbm ]nkm tKm]pcØn¬ \n∂v hyXykvX `mcap≈ hkvXp°ƒ Fdn™v Ah H∂n®v `qanbn¬ hogptam F∂v ]co£n®ncp∂Xmbn Hcp IYbp≠v. 1586 ¬ sska¨ sÃhn≥ (1548- 1620) 10 ao‰¿ Dbcap≈ Hcp tKm]pcØn¬ \n∂v Cßs\ Cub°´nIƒ Xmtg°n´ncp∂p. hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØv \mcmbWØp {`m¥\pw ae apIfn¬ \n∂v I√n´v Cu ]co£Ww sNbvXncp∂p. 100 dmØep≈ Hcp `mcw 100 Iyq_n‰v DbcØn¬ \n∂v, Hcp dmج `mcw 1 Iyq_n‰v Dbc tØ°mƒ, thKw hogpsa∂ AcntÃm´n¬ kn≤m¥sØ, taev]d™ `mcap≈ I√v sNdnb I√nt\°mƒ 2 C©v hyXymkØn¬ H∏w h∂p hogp∂p F∂ ]co£Ww icnbs√∂p ÿm]n°p∂p F∂mWv Keoen tbm FgpXnbXv. F\n°v 2 C©p sX‰ps≠¶n¬ AcntÃm´nen\v 99 Iyp_n‰v sX‰ps≠∂t±lw X¿°n®p. 1) ]co£Ww sIm≠v Hcp ]gb kn≤m¥sØ sXs‰∂v ÿm]n °mw. icnsb∂pw ÿm]n°mw. 2) Keoentbmhns‚ X¿°Øns‚ style, hy‡nXzw F∂nh sXfnbn°p∂XmWv Cu D≤cWn. Keoentbm IqsSbp≈ s{]m^k¿amsct∏mse bqWnt^mambn Ku¨ [cn°m≥ hnkΩXn®p. thjØne√, I¿ΩØnemWv s{]m^ k¿jn∏v F∂v hnizkn®p. Nph∂ XmSnbpw apSnbpw At±lsØ a‰p≈ hcn¬ \n∂v FSpØp Im´nbncp∂p. ho´n¬ sh®v Ip´nIfpambp≈ informal N¿®Iƒ A∂v Xosc ]Xnhn√mØ H∂mbncp∂p. A—≥ acn°p tºmƒ sh¿Po\nbbpsS kv{Xo[\Øn\mbn hensbmcp ISw hcpØn. Cfb ktlmZc≥ ssa°emRvPtem hfsc hnPbw t\SmØ Hcp kwKoX⁄\mbn, F∂pw Keoentbmhn¬ \n∂v ISw hmßm≥ hcpw. Keoentbm Xs‚ Ip´nIfpw kplrØp°fpambn tN¿∂v \√ `£Ww,

39

{]Imikn‘p

\√ ssh≥ F∂nh Ign°p∂ ioe°mc\pamWv. AXn\m¬ ]mZzm bqWn thgvkn‰nbnse KWnXhn`mKw s{]m^kdpsS, IqSpX¬ hcpam\ap≈ t]mÃv In´m≥ At±lw bXv\n®p. 28 mw hb n¬ At±lØn\Xp In´n. 18 h¿jw AhnsS Pohn®Xv Xs‚ G‰hpw kt¥mjIcamb Zn\ßfm sW∂v Keoentbm tcJs∏SpØn. ]´mf Bhiy߃°p≈ tIm´Isf °pdn®pw, sa°m\nIvkns\°pdn®pw 2 ]pkvXIw FgpXn. InW‰n¬ \n∂p sh≈w tImcp∂ I∏nbpw Ibdpw 10 Intem `mcw 1 Intem `mcw sIm≠v Db¿Øp∂XmWv, tX°n≥sIm´ sIm≠v sh≈w tXhepw AXp Xs∂- Cu \nbaw (law of pulley) Keoentbm hniZoIcn®p. Keo entbm I≠p]nSn® sX¿tamao‰¿ Hc‰w Xpd∂v as‰ A‰Øv Dcp≠ Hcp •mkv Syq_mWv. BZyw H∂p NqSm°n AIsØ hmbp Ifbp∂p. Xpd∂ `mKw Xmtgm´v sh≈Øn¬ apßnb hn[w t\sc (IpØs\) \n¿ØpI. hmbp XWpØv kt¶mNn®m¬ sh≈w apIfnte°p hens®Sp°pw. ]pd Øp hmbp NqSmbm¬ _ƒ_nse hmbp hnIkn°pw. sh≈Øns‚ se h¬ Xmgpw. F∂m¬ PeØns‚ Dbcw NqSns\ am{Xa√ ]pdsØ a¿± sØbpw A\pkcn®mIbm¬ Cu I≠p]nSpØw hnPbn®n√. Xs∂ ]W°mc\m°p∂ Hcp I≠p]nSpØw thWsa∂v Keoentbm tamln®p. Aßs\bmWv tImw]mkv I≠p]nSn®Xv (]s£ ]W°mc\mbn√). Afhp tcJs∏SpØnb Hcp temtlm]IcWw. Calculator Bbpw D] tbmKn°mw. shSnsh°p∂h¿°v hyXykvX Zqcw shSnbp≠ t]mIm≥ tXm°v (]oc¶n) Dd∏nt°≠ Dbcw IW°m°m\mWv CXv BZyw D≠m °nbXv. F∂m¬ Iq´p]eni IW°m°p∂Xn\v hym]mcnIƒ D]tbm Kn®ncp∂p. 1590 ¬ CXns‚ hnev]\ IqSn. 1603 ¬ aebnse Hcp kpJhmk ÿeØv KplIfn¬ \n∂p≈

Imv (Cool air through system of ducts- early form of AC) X´n Ddßptºmƒ

Ft¥m hnjhmXIw X´n Keoentbmhns‚ Hcp kplrØv X¬£Ww acn°bpw, Keoentbmhn\v ÿncambn k‘nthZ\ (acn°pwhsc) D≠m IpIbpw sNbvXp. A∂v At±lØn\v 39 hb mWv. 40 -mw hb mhptºm tg°v {]IrXn XXz⁄≥, KWnX⁄≥, sh\n n¬ {]mtbmKnI im kvt{Xm]IcW߃ D≠m°p∂ hy‡n apXemb coXnIfn¬ {]ikvX \mbn°gn™ncp∂p. s]≥Upe߃, sNcn™ {]XeØnepcp´p∂ ]¥pIƒ (acceleration ]Tn°m≥ \mdmWØp {`m¥≥ sNbvX t]mse) F∂nh ]mZzbn¬ At±lw ]co£n®p. KpcpXzmI¿jW ^eambn hy XykvX `mcap≈ hkvXp°ƒ Htc A\p]mXØn¬ `qanbnte°v accele-

40

{]Imikn‘p

rate sNøp∂p F∂v sXfnbn®p. sslt{UmÃm‰nIvkv, amKv\‰nkw F∂n hbn¬ ]co£Ww \SØn. sabv 1597 ¬ sIπ¿°b® Hcp IØn¬ tIm∏¿\n°kv tamUens\ At±lw {]iwkn®n´p≠v. kmlnXyw, IhnX, Xntb‰¿ kwKoXw (lute) F∂nhbnepw, {]`mjWßfnepw ka bw sNehgn®p. sIπ¿ ]Tn® kq∏¿ t\mh HIvtSm_¿ 1604 ¬ I≠p. At∏mgmWv BZyambn Keoentbm Bkvt{SmWanbnte°v Xncn™Xv. AXns\ kkq£vaw \nco£n®v Hcp IhnX cq]Øn¬ Xs‚ \nKa\w FgpXpIbpw At\Iw {]`mjW߃ \SØpIbpw sNbvXp. CXn\nsS 1605 ¬ c≠p ktlmZcnamcpsS `¿Øm°∑mcpw kv{Xo[\°pSn»nJ In´mØXn\v KeoentbmbpsS t]cn¬ tIkpsImSpØp. C‰enbn¬ t]mƒ A©ma≥ am¿∏m∏bmbn. At±lØns‚ 2 {]iv\߃.

1) kz¥ambn ssk\yan√- a‰p≈hcpsS ssk\yklmbw thWw. 2) As√¶n¬ Inquisition i‡nsIm≠v Bflobi‡n (Xs‚ chair s‚ i‡n) Im´Ww. s]utfm km¿∏n kz¿§hmXn¬ cmPm°∑mcpsSbpw ]ptcmlnX∑m cpsSbpw cmjv{Sob i‡nbne√, Ah\hs‚ Bflotbm∂Xnbnepw I¿ ΩØnepamsW∂v hmZn®p. CXns\Xnsc tdmanse knwlmk\Øns‚ _u≤nI i‡n I¿±n\mƒ sdm_¿s´m _√m¿sa Bbncp∂p. 1606 ¬ km¿∏n AS°w At\Iw t]sc t]m∏v cmPy{`jvScm°n. ]Icw sh\nkv sPkyq´pIsf apgph≥ HmSn®p. ImØenIv kvs]bn≥ t]m∏nt\bpw s{]m´Ã‚ v {^m≥kv sh\nknt\bpw klmbn°p∂ bp≤w XpSßn. tdmante°v N¿®bv°mbn km¿∏nsb £Wn®p (_√m¿sabpambn X¿ °w)- ]s£ Ibdpw XobpamWv hØn°ms‚ X¿°Øn\p≈ Bbp[ sa∂v ]d™v km¿∏n £Ww \nckn®p. km¿∏nsb NpSm≥ ]‰mØXn\p ]Icw km¿∏nbpsS ]pkvXI߃ hØn°m≥ Np´pIcn®p. sh\nkv At±lØns‚ iºfw Iq´pIbpw sNbvXp. HIvtSm_¿ 7, 1607. cm{Xn km¿∏nsb 5 t]¿ B{Ian®p. 15 IpØp IpØn. heØv s\‰nbn¬ \n∂v heØv IhnfneqsS ]pdØp ImWpwhn[w Hcp Ip¥w Xpf®p Ib‰n. F∂n´pw AXv`pXIcambn km¿∏n c£s∏´p. Cu kw`hw Keoentbm sb Akzÿ\m°n. Hcp shSnbp≠bpsS ]mX (trajectory) Hcp ]mct_m fbmsW∂v Keoentbm ÿm]n®psIm≠ncn°bmW°meØv. 1608 ¬ ^vtfmd≥knse {InÃo\bpsS £W{]Imcw B¿tÆm \Zn°p IpdpsI (aIs‚ hnhmlØn\v stage sI´m≥) acw sIm≠p≈ stage sI´m≥ Keoentbm t]mbn. 1604 ¬ 45 mw hb n¬ tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ A\p

41

{]Imikn‘p

bmbn, km¿∏nbpsS ]gb kplrØv F∂v c≠v coXnbn¬ hØn°m≥ Keoentbmhns\ t\m´∏p≈nbm°n. 1609 ¬ sh\nkn¬ sh®v sSenkvtIm ∏ns‚ I≠p]nSpØw (Hens Lippershey) At±lw tI´ncp∂p. sh\nkns‚ anen´dn, hym]mcmhiy߃°v AXv Gsd klmbsa∂v Keoentbm IW°p Iq´n. hym]mc em`w A∂v XpdapJtØmSSp°p∂ I∏ens\ BZyw I≠v Xncn®dnbp∂XnemIbm¬. Hcp U®pImc≥ AØcsam∂p ambn sh\nkn¬ h∂Xdn™v At±lw Abmsf Xnc™p. ImWm\m bn√. Hcp Syq_n¬ 2 se≥kp≈ D]IcWamsW∂p am{Xsa Keoentbm hn\v AXns\°pdn®dn™ncp∂p≈p. C\n Xm≥ t\cw sshIn®m¬ ]W °mc\mhm\p≈ hensbmchkcw \jvSs∏Spsa∂p IW°m°n Keoen tbm kzbw Aßs\ H∂p≠m°m≥ \nivNbn®p. 24 aWn°q¿ sIm≠v AXphsc D≠mbn´p≈ sSekvt°m∏pIfn¬ sh®v G‰hpw anI® H∂p ≠m°pIbpw sNbvXp. U®pIm¿ 2 tIm¨tIhv ImNap]tbmKn®v Xe IpØmb {]Xn_nw_ap≠m°n. Keoentbm Hcp tIm¨shIvkv, Hcp tIm¨tIhv ImNw sIm≠v bYm¿∞ {]Xn_nw_hpw. BKÃv 4 \v Xs‚ hnPbw Adnbn°m≥ km¿∏n°v FgpXn. 10 h´w amKv\nss^bnßv i‡ntbmsS tXmepsIm≠p≈ Ddbv°IØv kq£n°s∏´ ]pXnb sS ekvt°m∏pambn BKÃv Ahkm\w sh\oknseØn, sk\‰n\v {]Z¿in ∏n®p. ]nk bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ BPoh\m¥ DtZymKhpw, 1000 s{Iu¨ h¿jw tXmdpw Cc´n°p∂ iºfhpw Aßs\ In´n. ^vtfmd≥knse tImkntam c≠ma\pw CXpt]mse At±lw demonstration \SØn- 1609 Unkw_tdmsS 20 {]mhiyw Magnifying power Iq´m≥ km[n®p. Elector of Cologue \v H∂b®p. sIπ¿°pw H∂b®psImSpØp (sSekvt°m∏v Keoentbm Ab®Xv Htc Hcp Bkvt{SmWa¿°mWv). 1610 ¬ Xs‚ sS ekvt°m∏psh®v hymgØns‚ 4 N{μ∑msc At±lw Is≠Øn- BImi KwKbn¬ AkwJyw \£{Xap≠v. N{μs‚ {]Xew Ht´sd

IpgnIfp≈XmWv; aeIfpap≈XmWv. March 1610 ¬ The starry messenger F∂ ]pkvXIw ]pdØph∂p. ip{Is‚ phases, i\n Hcp perfect sphere A√, N{μs‚ phases Dw ip{Is‚ phases Dw IqSn XmcX ayw, CsXms° Keoentbm I≠p. kqcys‚ apJØp≈ sunspots \nco £n®p. 1611 am¿®n¬ Keoentbm tdman¬ sN∂v t]m∏v 5 mas‚ apºn¬ sSekvt°m∏v {]Z¿in∏n®p. Im¿±n\mƒ _√m¿sa AXneqsS \nco£n° bpw Hcp ]ptcmlnX kwLsØ (scientific subcommittee) CXns\°pdn®v A`n{]mbw ]dbm≥ \ntbmKn°bpw sNbvXp. sPkyq´v k_v IΩn‰nbpsS

A`n{]mbw:-

42

{]Imikn‘p

1. BImi KwKbn¬ At\Iw \£{Xap≠v.

2. i\n°v AfimIrXnbp≠v. Ccphihpw Db¿∂mWv. tKmfa√.

3. N{μs‚ apJw an∂p∂X√.

4. hymgØn\v 4 N{μ∑mcp≠v.

5. ip{I\v N{μs\t∏mse phases D≠v.

sunspots Hcp shfpØ sources ¬ project sNbvXv tdman¬ F√mh¿ °pw ImWpwhn[w Keoentbm Im´ns°mSpØp (C∂v CsXmcp standard device for teaching BWv). PqWn¬ At±lw ^vtfmd≥knte°p aSßn. 1611 ¬ lnaw Pew km{μo`hn®XmsW∂v Hcp kl{]h¿ØI≥ ]d™p. lnaw PeØn¬ s]mßn°nS°p∂p. AXn\m¬ PetØ°mƒ

I\ww IpdhmWv (Rarified form of warter) F∂v Kenentbm. Htc composi- tion, ]e cq]w D≈ hkvXp°ƒ sh≈Øn¬ s]m¥n°nS°p∂Xpw Xmgv∂pInS°p∂Xpw demonstrate sNbvXv ImWn°m≥ kl{]h¿ØI s\ Keoentbm hnfn®p. ]co£Ww sNbvXp ImWn®me√msX hnizkn °cpsX∂ \ne]mSpsIm≠mWv Keoentbmhns\ 1 st scientist F∂v bqtdm

]y¿ hnfn®Xv. X¿°w hcptºmƒ ss

bmWv B{ibnt°≠sX∂ Cu \ne]mSmWv hØn°ms\ At±lØn s\Xncm°nbXv. sPkyq´v Bkvt{SmWa¿ {IntÃm^¿ ssj\¿ BZyw Xm\mWv sunspot I≠sX∂v hmZn®p (AXnepw apºv tXmakv lmcnb´v F∂ Cw•ojpImc\pw tPmlm≥ ^m{_ojykv F∂ {^©pImc\pw I≠ncp ∂p). 1615 ¬ 52 mw hb n¬ Xs‚ A`n{]mb߃ tdma≥ N¿®ns\ Adnbn°m≥ ho≠pw Keoentbm tdman¬ t]mbn. tdmanse Aw_mk U¿ hcp∂Xv A]ISamsW∂dnbn®ncp∂p. 1615 Unkw_¿ 11 \v Aw_m kUdpsS ho´n¬ AXnYnbmbn Keoentbm FØn. skbn‚ v ]o‰¿ knwlmk\Øns‚ ]n∂nse i‡n A∂pw (73 hb mb) s_√m¿sa bmWv. At±lw Keoentbmhns‚ buh\Øn¬ km¿∏ntbmsSm∏w Keo entbmhns‚ ho´n¬ kμ¿iI\pambncp∂p. s_√m¿sa t]mƒ 5 mat\mSv tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ kn≤m¥w sXt‰m icntbm F∂v \nivNbn®p ]d bm≥ Hcp IΩoj≥ sh°m≥ ]d™p. kqcy≥ {]]©Øns‚ tI{μ

_nμphmsW∂ kn≤m¥w Foolish, absurd, Formaly heritical F∂h¿

nfns\b√, ]co£Wßsf

hn[nsbgpXn. `qan k©cn°p∂p F∂Xv aXhnizmkØn\p hncp≤am sW∂pw! s^{_phcn 24: Cu A`n{]mbsØ Jfin°tbm, ]n¥mßp

43

{]Imikn‘p

Itbm sNøcpsX∂v s_√m¿sa Keoentbmhnt\mSv ]d™p. CXv A\p kcn°mØ ]£w Inquisition \v XømdmhWw. s^{_phcn 26: s_√m¿sa t]m∏ns‚ Xocpam\w ]dbm≥ Keoen tbmsh £Wn°p∂p. B dqan¬ Inquisiton, km£nIfS°w £Wn° s∏´ncp∂p. s_√m¿sa hmXn¬°¬ sN∂v Keoentbmhns\ kzoIcn®v Fs¥ms° tI´mepw adptØm, A\pIqeamtbm H∂pw ]dbcpsX∂ Xs‚ \ntcm[\m⁄ Hm¿Ωs∏SpØp∂p. t]m∏v ]dbp∂Xp tI´X√m sX Keoentbm adpsØmc£cw ]d™n√- A\pIqeambpw ]d™n√. Inquisition kwkmcn°m≥ XpSßnbt∏mƒ s_√m¿sa tZjyw A`n\bn ®v Keoentbmhns\ ]pdtØ°p sIm≠pt]mbn. AhcpsS documents

H∏nSm≥ kΩXn®n√. unsigned, unauthored record of minutes Hm^ojy¬

sdt°m¿Un¬ Inquisition tN¿Øp. CX\pkcn®v Inquisition s‚ apºn¬ sX‰p kΩXn®v Keoentbm Xm≥ ]d™ncp∂sXms° ]n≥hen®p. 1617 ¬ ^vtfmd≥knse Ip∂nt∑ep≈ s_s√mUvKm¿tUm sIm´mcØn te°v Keoentbm Xmakw am‰n. 16, 15 {]mbap≈ 2 s]¨Ip´nIƒ (h¿ Po\nb, enhnb) hnhmlw Ign°mØ `mcybn¬ At±lØn\p≠mbncp ∂p. Illigimate girls,- ktlmZcnamcpsS kv{Xo[\w t]mse Ch¿°pw hcptam F∂ {]iv\w- Cu Ip´nIƒ C°mcytam¿Øv Order of poor clares ¬ I\ymkv{XoIfmbn- (aqØ Ip´n ]ns∂ Maria Celeste F∂pw Cfbhƒ Arcangelo F∂pw t]cv kzoIcn®p).

1618 ¬ I≠ 3 [qatIXp°sf°pdn®v schemir AS°ap≈ sPkyq

´pIƒ FgpXnbXns\ CeybUvt]mseb√ imkv{X]pkvXIw F∂v Keoentbm hna¿in®p. {]]©{K\vYØn\v Hcp {]tXyI en]nbp≠v. AXp ]Tn°msX AXns‚ `mjtbm ktμitam a\ nemhn√- {XntIm Ww, hrØw apXemb PymanXob cq]ßfpsS KWnX`mjbnemWv {]] ©w FgpXs∏´n´p≈Xv. AXv ]Tn°msX {]]©`mjbnse Hcp ]Zw t]mepw B¿°pw a\ nemhn√- Ccp´Øp X∏pwt]msebmWXv F∂v Keoentbm FgpXn. CØcw kao]\߃ sPkyq´pIsf ho≠pw sNmSn ∏n®p.

1620 ¬ ap∏Xp h¿jsØ bp≤w ImtØmen°¿°v A\pIqeambn-

-1621 ¬ Keoentbmhns‚ 3 {]nbs∏´ c£I¿ (Cosimo II 30 -mw hb

t]m∏v t]mƒ 5 ma≥, Im¿Un\mƒ s_√m¿sa 79 -mw ]nd∂mfn\p apºv) acn®p. 1616 se kw`h߃°v Keoentbmhn\p≠mbncp∂ GI klmbn s_√m¿sa acn®tXmsS C√mXmbn- t]m∏v t]mfn\p tijw h∂ t]m∏v

n¬,

44

{]Imikn‘p

{KnKdn XV 1623 ¬ acn®p. I¿±n\mƒ am^ntbm _m¿_sd\n am¿∏m∏bm bn (A¿_≥ VII) The Assayer, FgpXm\pw, tIm∏¿\n° v knÃw ]Tn ∏n®p. sIm≈m\pw (]s£ AXmWv icnsb∂p ka¿∞n°cpXv) Keoen tbmhn\v A\phmZw In´n. CXn\nSbn¬ Keoentbm Compound microscope D≠m°nbncp∂p. (]tØmfPn- C∂sØ \nebnte°v hnIkn®Xv Cu D]IcWw sIm≠mWv. kp{ipX kwlnXbn¬ C√mØ Hcp kwKXn CsXm∂mWv. AXphscbp≈ saUn°¬ Adnhns\ Cu sSIvt\mfPn bmWv hnIkn∏ns®SpØXv). 1629 ¬ (\hw_¿) Dialogue on the two chief world system t]m∏ns‚ A\phmZtØmsS apgph\m°n. k¬hnbm ‰n (tIm∏¿\n°kv `mKw) knwπnkntbm (tSmfan`mKw) F∂v 2 t]¿ N¿® sNøp∂ a´nemWv cN\. AcntÃm´nens‚ ]pkvXIØn\v `mjy sagpXnb Simphicius s‚ t]cpw, 1614 ¬ acn® Xs‚ kplrØns‚ t] cpw \¬IpI hgn Keoentbm Cu k¶ev] kw`mjWØn\v kXym hÿ IqSn D≠m°n. \njv]£ km£nbmbn 1620 ¬ acn® kplrØv kms{KtUmhns\bpw tN¿Øp. The Assayer A\phZn® \nt°mtfm dn °m¿Un F∂ sUman\n°≥ ]ptcmlnX\mWv Cu ]pkvXIhpw ]cntim [n®Xv. AhcptSXmb BapJw, D]kwlmcw, th≠ am‰ßƒ hcpØp sa∂v dn°m¿UnbpsS IΩn‰n ]d™ncp∂p. 1631 ¬ {]n‚nßv XpSßn- March 1632 ¬ hnev]\ ^vtfmd≥kn¬ Bcw`n®p. t]m∏ns‚ acpaI≥ I¿±n\mƒ {^m≥skkvt°m _m¿s_dn\n Xm≥ hfsc kt¥mj]q¿Δw hmbn®Xmbn Keoentbmhn\v FgpXn.

1616 ¬ ]d™ Inquisition Imcy߃°v hn]coXambn, Cu ]pkvX IØneqsS tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ hmZsØ defend sNbvXXn\m¬ sPkyq ´pIƒ t£m`n®p. A¿_≥ VIII tdmante°v hnNmcWbv°mbn Keoentbm hns\ hnfn®p. ]pkvXI hnXcWw \n¿Øn°m≥ {ian®p. tdmans‚ Cu £Ww F¥n\msW∂dnbmambncp∂ (km¿∏nsbt∏mse) hr≤\pw tcm Knbpamb Keoentbm AXp \o´nsh°m≥ A`y¿∞n®p. akv°\nbnse ]pXnb kmcYyØn\v km¿∏n°v sh\okv sImSpØ t]mse Keoentbm hn\v kpc£ \¬Im≥ km[n°pambncp∂n√. 19 hb mb s^¿Un\m ≥tUm c≠ma≥ BWv A∂v Tuscany bn¬ Grand duke.

1633 s^{_phcn 13 \v Keoentbm tdmanseØn- tπKv ]S¿∂p ]nSn

°bm¬ 3 BgvN Skv°≥ AXn¿Ønbn¬ Xßn. k‘n thZ\bm¬ cm{Xn apgph≥ Icbp∂ At±lØn\v hnNmcW hsc (G{]n¬) Xmakn °m\p≈ kuIcyhpw Hcp°ns°mSpØncp∂p.

45

{]Imikn‘p

hnNmcWbn¬ Db¿∂ Ip‰®m´pIƒ:-

1) em‰n\nsegpXmsX C‰menb≥ `mjbnsegpXn. AXn\m¬ km[m

cW°m¿°pt]mepw ktμiw a\

2) hneyw Kn¬_¿´v F∂ Ip‰hmfnsbt∏mse tIm∏¿\n° {]iwkn®p.

ns\°pdn®v

]Tn∏n°cpXv, At±lØns‚ \nKa\sØ icnsh°cpXv F∂mWv. AXv A\pkcn°msX t]m∏ns‚ hm°v sX‰n®v {]h¿Øn®p.

heresy tb°mƒ Ip‰amWv false charge of heresy F∂ \nbaØm¬

Inquisition XpSßnbm¬ Inquisitors B hy‡nsb hnSn√. AXmbXv Inquisitors ItØmen°m k`bpsS D∂Xm[nImcnIfmWv. Ah¿ Ip‰°m cmsW∂p ]d™p in£n®m¬ k` s]mfnbpw. AXn\m¬ I¿±n\mƒ _m¿s_dn\n (t]m∏ns‚ acpaI≥) hr≤\mb Keoentbmhnt\mSv con- fess sNøm≥ At]£n°bpw AXn\v t{]cn∏n°bpw HSphn¬ A\pkcn ∏n°bpw sNbvXp. 69 hb n¬ k‘nthZ\bm¬ Xf¿∂v, C≥Izknt‰ gvkns‚ ]oU\w `b∂mWv At±lw AXv kΩXn®Xv. sPkyq´pIƒ

hnPbmlvfmZØn¬ Poh]cy¥w XShphn[n®p. Inquisition Council se

_m¿s_dn\n AS°w 3

t]¿ B in£bn¬ H∏nSm≥

tdmanse Skv°≥ Fw_knbn¬ ho´pXS¶¬, ko\ B¿®p_nj∏ns‚ IÃUnbn¬ XS߬, 1634 apX¬ Arcetri °SpØv Keoentbmhns‚ ho´n¬Øs∂ ho´pXS¶¬ Cßs\ in£ \o≠p. 1634 G{]n¬ c≠n\v aqØ aIƒ acn®t∏mƒ tIm¨sh‚n¬ t]mIm≥ A\phmZw sImSpØp.

Cu in£m°meØv Discoveries & Mathematical discourses regarding

new sciences F∂ {K\vYw FgpXn- CXv BZysØ B[p\nI imkv{X ]mTy]pkvXIamWv. 1638 ¬ C‰enbn¬ \n∂v Hfn®pISØn Louis Elzevir Cu ]pkvXIw {]kn≤oIcn®p. C‰enbnsemgnsI temIw apgph≥ CXn s\ kzmKXw sNbvXp. C°meØv Keoentbmhn\v ImgvN \jvSs∏´p. Hcp s]≥Upew t¢m°p≠m°p∂Xv aI\v At±lw ]d™psImSpØp. aI≥ Vincenzio A—s‚ acWtijw Aßs\sbm∂v D≠m°n. 17 mw \q‰m≠n¬ {InÃy≥ lyqK≥kpw s]≥Upew t¢m°v D≠m°n. 1642 P\phcn amkw 8/9 cm{Xn 78 mw ]nd∂mfn\p apºv Keoentbm acn®p. imkv{Xw KWnX `mjbmWv; PymanXob cq]ßfpsS `mjbmWv; Ccphihpw equalise sNøp∂ kahmIy `mjbmWv. Keoentbmhns‚

46

_m¿s_dn\nbpsS CSs]S¬

ns\

nembn.

3) 1616 se sPkyq´v an\p´vkn¬ ]d™Xv tIm∏¿\n°

10 I¿±n\mƒamcn¬ 7 t]cmWv AXv

hn[n®Xv.

Iq´m°nbn√.

{]Imikn‘p

Cu imkv{Xobamb kao]\w E = mc 2 \p tijw F√m imkv{X⁄cpw icnsh°p∂p. C¥ybpsS Cu `mjbmWv Bkvt{SmWan, sshZyw, Zimw iw, kwJyIsf en]nbmbn am‰p∂ coXn, {ioN{Iw, b⁄thZnbpsS Afhv, IVC/ lmc∏≥ ImeØv Xq°w/I´n/_me≥kv ChbpsS D]tbm Kw, IWmZs‚ ]camWp kn≤m¥w Chbnsems° ImWp∂Xv. CXns‚ XpS°w ]mentbmenØn°v ImeØmWv (Archaeology sXfnhpIƒ k]vXssk‘hw F∂ Fs‚ ]pkvXIØn¬ ImWpI). CXv hcmlanln c≥, ]ctaizc≥, kw{Kma am[h≥ Imew hsc ChnsS XpS¿®bmbn D≠mbncp∂p. AXn\ptijw bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X⁄cneqsS ]pXnb Hcp \thm∞m\w In´n bqtdm]y≥ imkv{Xambn Adnbs∏Sm≥ XpS ßn. c≠p`mjbnemsW∂√msX C¥ybntebpw bqtdm∏ntebpw im kv{X \nKa\߃°p am‰an√. ]pXnb sSIvt\mfPnbn¬ am‰ap≠pXm\pw. 1540 emWv + - F∂ Nnlv\w BZyambn bqtdm]y≥ KWnXØn¬ (Robert Recorde) D]tbmKn®Xv. sdt°m¿sU saUn°¬ tUmIvSdpw J\nIfpsS k¿tΔbdpw KWnX⁄\pambncp∂p. 2 hkvXp°ƒ ka amsW∂p ImWn°m≥ Htc hen∏ap≈ 2 kam¥ctcJ (=) bmWv DØ asa∂v B knw_epw At±lw D]tbmKn®p. temKcnXamWv Bkvt{Sm Wa¿amcpsS KWnXw Ffp∏am°nbXv. F¥mWv temKcnXw? 100 x 1000 F∂Xv 10 2 x 10 3 Fs∂gpXp∂ i‡nkwJy. 100,000 = 10 5 BWv (2+3=5 BIbm¬) 2345 = 10 3.37 BWv. AXn\m¬ 2345 s‚ temKcnXw 3.37. AXmbXv KpW\w, lcWw F∂ 2 {Inbtbbpw [\w, EWw F∂ {Inbbm°n efnXh¬°cn°mw. AØcw Hcp tS_nƒ D≠m°nsh°mw. 1970 ¬ t]m°‰v Im¬°pte‰¿ hcpwapºv temKcnXamWv D]tbmKn®ncp∂Xv. CØcw ]©mwK∏´nIIƒ, hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØpw AXn\papºpw C¥ybnep≠v. `mKhXØn¬ Imekzcq]amb Cuizc\n¬ \n∂p {]] ©ap≠mbn F∂p ]dbp∂Xv a\pjycq]amb Hcoizc≥ D≠m°n F∂ ÿqem¿∞Øne√ (ImØen°v N¿®ns‚ {]]©krjvSn Keoentbmhn t\mSnS™Xv Cu {]iv\w sIm≠mWv). `mKhXw alm]pcmWamWv. alm]pcmWØn\v Zie£Wap≈ Xn¬ 5 FÆw k¿§w, hnk¿§w, ÿm\w, CuiIY, a\z¥cw F∂nh bmWv. k¿§w: KpWt£m`Øm¬ {_lvaØn¬ \n∂v {]IrXn kw`hn°p ∂Xn\v kmwJyw, ]camWp kn≤m¥w, i_vZ{_lva]camb i_vZ im

47

{]Imikn‘p

kv{Xw F∂nh D]tbmKn°p∂p. hnk¿§w {_lvamhn¬ \n∂v k]vX¿ jnIfpw Ahcn¬ \n∂v D≠mb krjvSnIfpamWv. ÿm\Øn¬, Cu {]]©Øn¬ hnhn[ AhXmc߃°pw ssPh AssPh h¿§ßƒ°p ap≈ ÿm\w. CuiIYbn¬ AhXmc߃, Ncn{X ]pcpj∑m¿ F∂n hcpsS Ncn{XßfmWv. a\z¥cØn¬ a\p°fpsS Imew, a\pkrjvSn apXembh. k¿§\ncq]WØn\v lcnbpsS eoemkzcq]Øns‚ {]fbØn\p apºpw ]nºpap≈ 2 hn[w Ahÿmt`Zßfp≠v. 9 Xcw krjvSnbn¬ 6 Xcw {]mIrXw, 3 Xcw sshIrXw, CXpIqSmsX ]ØmaXmbn D`bXcw (Ipamc krjvSn) Fs∂m∂pap≠v. 3 Xcw {]fbØn¬ ImeIrXw, {Zhy IrXw, KpWaqesa∂v aqs∂Æambn \nXyw, ss\anØnIw, {]IrXneb sa∂v 2 hn[w {IaØnep≠v. sshIrXamb a\pkrjvSn (7,8,9 krjvSnIƒ) {IaØn¬ Huj[nh\kv]Xn (kkyw- Botany), XncyIvtemIw (arK ]£n- Zoology), a\pjytemIw F∂nhbmWv. CXn¬ a\pjykrjvSn Iotgm´v `£Ww Cd°p∂p. kky߃ `£Ww apIfnte°v hen°p ∂p- arK߃ CXv c≠pa√.

a\pjy≥ arKw kkyw
a\pjy≥
arKw
kkyw

Cu k¿Δhpw ImeIrXamb \nXy{]fbØn¬ C√mXmhpw- {Zhy IrXamb ss\anØnI {]fbØn¬ ]q¿Æeban√- KpWaqeamb {]Ir Xnebw tbmKnIfpsS AhÿbmWv. Imekzcq]amb Cuizcs\°pdn ®mWv C¥y≥ Bkvt{SmWan ]Tn°p∂Xv. B Imekzcq]Øn¬ \n∂v {Zhykzcq]hpw KpWkzcq]hpambn \mw ImWp∂ Zriy{]]©w Fß s\ D≠mbn F∂pw. Imekzcq]amb Cuizc kzcq]w AZriyhpw Ahy ‡hpamW-v ]s£ AXns‚ km∂n≤yw \sΩ kZm t_m≤ys∏SpØp ∂p; A\p`hn∏n°p∂p. AXn\m¬ C{μnb߃ sIm≠v AdnbmsXbpw \mw AXns\ Adnbp∂p (AXn{μnbw). Imekzcq]Øn¬ AXnkq£vaamb ]camWp°ƒ tbmPn®v kmam \y {]]©w (General), hntij {]]©w (Special) F∂v {]]©w D≠m bn. AXmbXv ÿqeamb {Zhy {]]©Øn∂pw, kq£vaamb Ime {]] ©Øn∂pw aqew ]camWphmWv. ]camWp{Zhyw (matter) IemIXaß fmWv. Ime]camWp F∂p ]d™m¬ Hcp kqcyIncWw Hcp {Zhy ]c amWphn¬ h∂p]Xn°m≥ FSp°p∂ kabw (unit time) BWv. CØcw \nch[n Ime]camWp°fmWv Hcp kqcycivan (\nc¥cw {]hln°p

48

{]Imikn‘p

∂Xv). Hcp {]Imi civan°v {_lvamfiamsI hym]n°m≥ th≠ kabw alZvImeamWv. {]Imi civan°v AZriyambXpw (\mw Ct∏mƒ Infrared, Ultraviolet F∂phnfn°p∂ Nph∂ k‘y°p Xmsg iymah¿ ÆØn\∏pdw) ZriyambXpw (7 h¿Æap≈ VIBJYOR- C{μ[\p v) F∂v 2 `mKap≠v. Imew, alZvImew, kq£vaImew F∂nhsb{XktcWp hgn ÿqehpw kq£vahpamb {Zhy/Ime ]camWp°fpambn H∂m°p∂ (Imew, tZiw AYhm {]Imi civan, {Zhyw F∂nh H∂msW∂p hy‡ am°p∂ IW°v) {]{Inb `mKhXØn¬ Cßs\bmWv.

2 =

]camWp

1 AWp

(AZriyw)

3 = 1 {XktcWp

]camWp

(Zriyw) (Af°mw)

3

{XktcWp

=

1 {XpSn

(Af°mhp∂ Imew)

100

{XpSn

=

1 th[w

3

th[w

=

1 ehw

3

ehw

=

1 \nanjw

(Af°m≥ b{¥w)

3

\nanjw

=

1 £Ww

5

£Ww

=

1 ImjvT

15

ImjvT

=

1 eLp

15

eLp

=

1 \mgnI

(PeLSnImcw Af°p∂p)

2

\mgnI

= 1 aplq¿Øw

6

\mgnI

= 1 bmaw (1 {]lcw) (aWnap´n Adnbn°Ww)

4

bmaw

=

1 ]I¬, = 1 cm{Xn

15

cm∏I¬

=

1 ]£w

(N{μKXn)

2

]£w

=

Hcp amkw- (`qan, kqcy≥ F∂nhb\pkcn ®v 12 BZnXycpsS cminÿm\w)

2

amkw

= 1 EXp (kkyarKmZn{]IrXn, Im‰v KXn A\pk cn®v ImWmhp∂ Imeam‰w)

= 1 Ab\w- kqcy≥, `qan F∂nhcpsS Bt] £nI ÿm\am‰w- AYhm Ne\w CØcw 12 amkw= kwh’cw- Hcp `q]cn{Iaw kqcy\pNp‰pw (a\pjyh¿jw)

2 Ab\w

120 kwh’cw

a\pjymbp

6 amkw

= 1 tZh Zn\w

= 1 a\pjymbp

v

v 120 a\pjyh¿jsa¶n¬ Hcp {_lvamfiØns‚ {k

v 2 ]cm¿≤w. CXns\ Ziwi k{ºZmb

jvSmhmb {_lvamhns‚ Bbp

49

{]Imikn‘p

Øn¬ temKcnXØnemWv C¥y°m¿ FgpXnbn cp∂Xv. GIw, Ziw, iXw, kl{kw apX¬ ]cm¿ ≤w hsc Cßs\bmWv (IqSpXembn \mZeb kn‘phn¬ CXns‚ KWnXhpw kuμcyim kv{Xhpw hnhcn®Xn \m¬ Bh¿Øn°p∂n√). bqtdm∏n¬ 16 mw \q‰m≠n¬ Bcw`n® Nn¥mhnπhw C¥ybn¬ kl{km_vZ߃°p apºp kw`hn®ncp∂p. Cu `mj AdnbmsX {]] ©`mjbnse Hcp]Zw a\ nemhn√ F∂

Keoentbmhns‚ hm°v AXn\m¬ tdma≥

10000000000000 ItØmen°≥ ]≈nsb sNmSn∏n® t]mse

C¥ybnse CuizchnizmknIsf sNmSn∏nt° ≠Xn√. \ΩpsS thZ]pcmWßfn¬ ]d™sXms° icnbmsW∂v ]Xps°∏Xps° temIsØ ]co£W \nco£WßfneqsS B[p\nI imkv{Xw t_m≤ys∏SpØns°mt≠ Ccnbv°bmWv. ssk‘h P\X bpsS imkv{Xhpw aXhpw sFizc {] IrXnbptSbpw {]]©Ønt‚bpw ]T\hpw X∑bXzhpw hnthIhpamWv. hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ 14 mw A≤ymbw tPymXn imkv{X]cambn \nco£Ww sNøm\p≈ hyXykvX bt{¥m]IcW ßfpsS hnhcWamWv. A≤ymbw 15 tPymXntjm]\njØv, {Kl \£ {XmZnIfpsS Bt]£nIÿnXn, {KlWw, ZnIv{`wi \nbaØns‚ ASn ÿm\ XØzw, N{μ kqcy{KlW߃ IqSmsX a‰p {Kl k©mc Øn¬ hcp∂ {KlWw, Ing°pw ]Sn™mdpsa∂ Znim \n¿Æbw Xs∂ `q{`aW \nbaØm¬ Bt]£nIamsW∂ AssZzXw, e¶sb \nc£ tcJbmbn sh®v tZim¥c kwip≤n sNøp∂ coXn, `qtKmfØns‚ 4 _nμp°ƒ (4 {]tZi߃) hoXw `qa≤ytcJm `mKØpw, I¿°nSI Z£nWmb\ tcJm `mKØpw (Tropic of cancer) FSpØv `qtKmf {`aW Øm¬ Cu 4 _nμp°fnse kqcymkvXabmZn t`Zhpw h¿Æn®v ]dbp∂p. CsXms° t\csØ as‰mcp {K\vYØn¬ AhXcn∏n®XmIbm¬, ]p Xnb imkv{XNcn{XØn¬ kam\ Nn¥mKXn F∂v Fßs\ Ft∏mƒ D≠mbn F∂v hmb\°m¿°p XmcXayw sNømw. N{μ, kqcy{KlW ߃, ip{I\S°w a‰p {Klßfpw {KlWap≠m°p∂p, ip{I\v phases D≠v, At\Iw \£{X߃ BImi KwKbnep≠v Fs∂ms° AD 427 se hcmlanlnc≥ Xs‚ {K\vYßfn¬ sXfnbn®n´p≠v.

1

10

100

1000

10000

100000

1000000

10000000

100000000

1000000000

10000000000

100000000000

1000000000000

50

{]Imikn‘p

`qtKmfØns‚ Im¥i‡n, tKmfmIrXn:- ]©alm`qXabkvXmcmKWm]RvPtc alotKme! tJbkv°mt¥mA¥xÿm

teml ChmhÿntXmhrXx

(A≤ymbw 13. t«mIw 1.

]©kn≤m¥nI) (XmcmKW ]RvPchpw `qanbpw ]©alm`qXabamWv, `qan tKm fmIrXnbmWv; 2 Im¥ßƒ°nSbn¬ (_m¿ amKv\‰v t]mse) Ccpºv F∂Xn¬ sshZypX Im¥nI i‡n, ]©`qXØn¬ \n∂v AssPh hkvXp D≠mhp∂ Adnhv) AtX A≤ymbw t«mIw 30, 31 ¬ hcmlanlncs‚ sSekvt°m∏v {]h¿Ø\w hnhcn°p∂p: Dbcap≈ Hcp ^eIØns‚ {]XeØn¬ ZniIƒ, \£{Xÿm\w F∂nh tcJs∏SpØnb tijw, AXns‚ sX °p`mKØv {]XeØns‚ am\ap≈ i¶pshbv°pI. i¶p ew_ambn cns° \nco£I≥ ZrjvSn AXns‚ ISbv°¬ IÆpsh®v ]Xps° sN cn®v IÆpw {[phXmchpw Htc tcJbn¬ hcpwhsc sNcnbv°pI (Cß s\ GXp \£{XtØbpw t\m°mw). XpS¿∂p≈ t«mIØn¬ hnZKv≤¿ `qanbpsS tI{μw, `qhymkw, CsXms° Cßs\ sh®v \n¿Æbn°psa ∂pw Cu am¿§Øn¬ i¶phns‚ A{Kw apX¬ {]Xew hscbp≈ ew_w A£mwiPymhpw, ISbv°¬ (IÆv) \n∂v ew_Øn\p≈ AIew (DØc Z£nWtcJ) Colatitue s‚ Pymhv BsW∂pw, F√mw ]dbp∂p ≠v. t«mIw 39 ¬ `qanbn¬ \n∂pt\m°ptºmƒ {IaØn¬ N{μ≥, _p [≥, ip{I≥, sNmΔ, hymgw, i\n F∂nhtbbpw kqcyt\bpw ImWmsa ∂pw Chbn¬ {Kl߃ AXmXns‚ I£ybn¬ ({`aW ]Yw) \nivNnX thKØn¬ Ingt°m´p k©cn°p∂p F∂pw ]dbp∂p. t«mIw 40 `qan bn¬ \n∂v DbcØnte°p k©cn°pwtXmdpw cminIfpsS ]ckv]c Zqcw h¿≤n®phcp∂p (Expanding universe pattern). FÆ®{IØns‚ X≠pIƒ°nSbnep≈ `mKw A®pX≠nt\mSSpØv sNdpXpw N{IØn s‚ ]cn[n `mKØv hepXpambncn°p∂Xpt]msebmWnsX∂pw, CXn \m¬ (t«mIw 41) G‰hpw ASpØp≈ N{μ≥ io{LØnepw, G‰hpw AIsebp≈ i\n (aμ≥) ]Xps°bpw k©cn°p∂p F∂pw ]dbp∂p.

51

{]Imikn‘p

3. ¢mkn°¬ imkv{Xw

C∂v \mw Im¿´oknb≥ tIm Hm¿Unt\‰v F∂p hnfn°p∂ {Xnam\ ap≈ tZit_m[w, AXnt\mSv {XnImesa∂ NXp¿Ωm\w tN¿∂v Bdp am\ap≈ Iyq_v (j¨apJw) F∂nh C¥y≥ imkv{XØn\v ]t≠ Adnbmw. ]s£ bqtdm∏n¬ sZ°m¿ØmWv CXns\°pdn®mZyw ]d ™Xv.

1619 \hw_¿ 10. Um\yq_v \Zo XocØv Uyq°v Hm^v _thdnb bpsS ssk\yw s{]m´Ã‚pItfmSp bp≤w sNøm≥ XºSn®p. Cu Iym ºnep≠mbncp∂ sZ°m¿Øv Xs‚ InS°bn¬ InS∂v at\mcmPyw hnNm cn°bmWv. Cu {]]©kz`mhsa¥v? PohnXØn\v A¿∞sa¥v? apdn bpsS Hcp aqebv°¬ ]d°p∂ Cu®sb t\m°ns°m≠v. s]s´∂v At± lØn\p tXm∂n. Cu®bpsS ÿm\w ImeØn¬ shdpw aq∂v kwJy sIm≠v {]hNn°mw. apdnbpsS aqebn¬ Iq´nap´p∂ 3 NpacpIfn¬ \n∂v AXns‚ Zqcw ]d™m¬! Cu {Xnam\ Nn{XamWv C∂v \mw {Km^vF∂p ]dbp∂Xv. X, Y F∂ c≠v kwJy- aqebn¬ \n∂v hc® 3 masØ Z F∂ kwJy. Cu®bpsS ÿm\w (Z) Cßs\ \n¿Æbn°mw. `qanbp tSbpw `qanbnse a\pjyt‚bpw ÿm\hpw kqcyN{μkn≤m¥°m¿ Cßs\bmWv C¥ybn¬ \n¿Æbn°p∂sX∂v At±lw Adn™ncp ∂n√. AXn\m¬ AsXmcp I≠p]nSpØw Xs∂bmbncp∂p. X, Y, Z sIm ≠v ({Xnam\w) ÿm\w \n¿Æbn°p∂ ]≤Xn

sb C∂v Im¿´oknb≥ tIm Hm¿Unt\‰v F∂p hnfn°p∂p. aq∂Sn Ingt°m´v \S∂v aq∂Sn hS

t°m´v t]mhpI F∂v hgn ]dbptºmƒ \mw CXmWv sNøp∂sX∂v eoemhXnbn¬ `mkv° cmNmcy\pw ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ hcmlanlnc \pw hy‡am°nbn´p≠v. `qanbnencp∂v a\p

X jy≥ Db¿∂ tZißfnte°v (a‰p {KlI£y

52

Y Z Z1 Z2
Y
Z
Z1
Z2

{]Imikn‘p

Ifnte°v) Zqchpw AhbpsS ÿm\hpw Is≠Øptºmgpw CXm Wp]tbmKn°p∂Xv. hknjvTap\nbpsS ImeØpt]mepw CXv C¥y bnep≠v (]©kn≤m¥nI, N.B.S tIm´bw, 2 nd Ed., 2000, tUm. kph¿W \me∏m´v). XmgsØ \nebnencp∂v apIfnse Hcp ^vfm‰ns‚ ÿm\w (hgn) ]d™psImSp°ptºmgpw CXmWv sNøp∂Xv. F∂m¬ `qanbpw {Klßfpw Ne\w (KXn- NXp¿∞am\amb Imew) F∂nh D≈Xpw ^vfm‰v ÿmhcw (A\ßmØXv) F∂ ANehpamWv. {XntImWw (3 tImWpIfp≈, Hcp cq]w) 3 kwJysIm≠v ]dbm hp∂ {]]©ÿm\w AYhm {XntImWanXn(Trigonometry °v kwkv IrXØnse ]gb t]cv) sZ°m¿Øn\papºv C¥ybn¬ D]tbmKn®ncp ∂p. 9 {KlßfpsS ÿm\w 9 {XntImWambn hc®v 9 {XntImWtØbpw AhbpsS _‘tØbpw ImWn°p∂ N{Iafie߃ ChnsS F{X tbm Imew apºv KWnX⁄¿°dnbmw. kn‘pKwKm kckzXn XocØv

IV C lc∏≥ ImeØv CXn\p

°ptSizc t£{XØn\SpØv (C¥ybpsS ]Sn™md≥ XocØv) ]men tbmenØn°v a\pjy¿ {]XnjvTn® Hcp {XntImWmIrXnbnep≈ ]md °√v (i¶p) ANyqenb≥ Kplma\pjycpsS Znimt_m[sØ ImWn°p ∂XmWv. t]mfnt\jy≥ IS¬bm{X°mcpsS Spatial Intelligence (slm hm¿Uv Km¿Uv\¿) A°meØp Xs∂ C¥y≥ IStemcsØ IS¬ k©mcnIfmb BZna a\pjy¿°p≠mbncp∂p. AXns‚ XpS¿®bmWv hcmlanlnc\pw a‰pw! PymanXnsb (Geometry) B¬Pn{_ sIm≠v A\ ssekv sNømsa∂v Cu Adnhp≈h¿t° {Kln°m\mhq. 20 mw \q‰m ≠n¬ Bt]£nIXm kn≤m¥hpw Izm≠w Xnbdnbpw h∂Xv {]]© Øns‚ Cu KWnX`mj 16 mw \q‰m≠n¬ bqtdm∏n\v Xpd∂p In´nbt∏m gmWv. C¥ybn¬ CXv ]t≠ kw`hn®XpsIm≠mhWw ChnsS kmwJy, ]camWpkn≤m¥hpw Ime, ImemXoX t_m[hpw tZiIme ss\c¥ cyhpw t\csØ {]Xn]mZn°s∏´Xv. IS¬bm{X sNøp∂h¿°v CXv thKw D≠mhpw. bqtdm∏v hmkvt°mUnKmabv°p tijsa CXns‚ {]m [m\yw icn°v a\ nem°nbp≈p F∂pam{Xw! C¥ybn¬ kwJysb A£cam°nbmWv FgpXpI. Cu coXn (1,2,3 F∂Xn\p]Icw x,y,z As√¶n¬ a,b,c Fs∂gpX¬) bqtdm∏n¬ sZ°m¿Øv XpSßnsh®p.

_mtK¿ I, \mt\L´nse Ip

sXfnhp≠v.

x 2 F∂m¬ X x X BWv, x 3 F∂m¬ X x X x X BWv F∂v A\en‰n°¬ KWnXØn\v 17 mw \q‰m≠n¬ At±lw XpS°w Ipdn®p.

53

{]Imikn‘p

Keoentbmhns\ hØn°m≥ in£n®Xdn™t∏mƒ ImØen°v

Bbncp∂n´pw sZ°m¿Øv Le Monde, On Traite de la Lumiere F∂ Xs‚

]pkvXIw (tlmf≠n¬) {]kn≤oIcn°p∂Xv \n¿Ønsh®Xv, Xm\pw tIm∏¿\n° ns\ A\pIqen°p∂XpsIm≠mWv. 1637 ¬ sa‰ocntbm fPn, Hm]vSnIvkv, tPymsa{Sn F∂nhsb°pdn®v The Method Fs∂mcp ]p kvXIw ]pdØnd°n. 1641 ¬ ]pdØph∂ c≠masØ ]pkvXI (Medita- tionnes de prima philosophia) ØnemWv Rm≥ Nn¥n°p∂p, AXn\m¬ Rm≥ D≠v F∂ {]kn≤hmNIw FgpXnbXv. 1644 ¬ Principea Philoso- phiae bn¬ ^nknIvkn¬ Inertia bpsS Hcp hniZoIcWw At±lw sIm SpØp. iq\yw (void) ]camWp, AWp (atom) F∂nhsb X≈n∏d™p sZ°m¿Øv. B.C. 5 mw \q‰m≠n¬ sUtam{In‰kpw, B.C. 342-271 hsc Pohn® F∏nIyqdkpw {Kokn¬ AWpkn≤m¥w ]Tn∏n®ncp∂p. ]nbdn Kmsk‚n 1649 ¬ {]kn≤oIcn® Xs‚ ]pkvXIØn¬ Cu AWp kn≤m ¥sØ ho≠pw ]p\cp≤cn®p. AWp°ƒ tN¿∂v tamfnIyqfpIƒ D≠m Ipsa∂v ]d™p (AtX kabw hneyw lm¿ΔnbpsS c‡Nw{IaWw sX‰msW∂pw hmZn®p). iq\yX (vacum) AYhm void Ds≠∂v Keoen tbmhns‚ injy≥ Chm≥ sPenà tSmdnsk√n sXfnbn®psIm≠ncn° bmbncp∂p. Bgap≈ InWdn¬ \n∂v Hcp ]ºpsIm≠v 30 ASn (9 ao‰¿) bne[nIw DbcØn¬ Pew FØn°m\mhmØsX¥v F∂ {]iv\amWv tSmdnsk√n°v Keoentbm sImSpØXv. A¥co£Øns‚ `mcw sNep Øp∂ a¿±tØ°mƒ ss]∏nse sh≈w sNepØp∂ a¿±w Ipdhmbm te CXp km[n°q F∂v tSmdnsk√n Is≠Øn. 1643 ckw D]tbmKn®v Hc‰w AS® Hcp Syq_v sIm≠v At±lw CXv sXfnbn®p. Aßs\ _m tcmao‰¿ I≠p]nSnbv°bpw Hcp ‘vaccum’ krjvSn®v sXfnbn°bpw sN bvXp. Cu a¿±a\pkcn®mWv c‡Nw{IaWw F∂v C∂v F√mh¿°p adnbmw. sa¿°pdn tImfØnt\m Pe\nc∏nt\m apIfn¬ vaccum (iq \yX) BsW∂v CXpsIm≠v ]q¿Æambn ]dbm\mhns√∂v sZ°m¿Øv hmZn®p. Kmsk‚n {]Imiw kqcy\n¬ \n∂v \nc¥cw {]hln°p∂ AWpIWßfmsW∂pw Ah a\pjys‚ IÆn¬ ]Xn®n´mWv ImWp ∂sX∂pw ]d™p. sZ°m¿Øv, kqcy≥ Hcp bqWnthgvk¬ PesØ a¿±n°ptºmƒ AXns‚ a¿±w a\pjys‚ IÆn¬ A\p`hs∏SpIbm sW∂mWv hnNmcn®Xv. Hcp \£{XØn¬ \n∂phcp∂ a¿±XcwKw XSm IØnse AeIƒ t]mseb√, PeØn¬ Hcp a¿±ap≠mbm¬ XpS¿® bmbn D≠mhp∂ a¿±XcwKamWv (Riverberating pressure wave) F∂¿ ∞w. Cu Z¿i\sØ sZ°m¿Øns‚ kplrØns‚ ]p{X≥ {InkvXy≥

54

{]Imikn‘p

lyqK≥kv hnIkn∏ns®SpØp. {]ImiØns‚ XcwK\ymbw Aßs\ D≠mbn. KWnXw, sa°m\nIvkv imJIfn¬ lyqK≥kns‚ kw`mh\ Iƒ AhKWnbv°mhX√. \yq´s‚ kaImeo\\mbn F∂Xp am{Xam bncp∂p Cu imkv{X⁄\p ]‰nb \n¿`mKyw. Momentum, Centrifugal forces \v KpcpXzmI¿jWtØmSp≈ kmZriyw F∂nh \yq´\p aptº sXfnbn®p lyqK≥kv. 1657 se s]≥Upew t¢m°ns‚ t]cnemWv C∂ t±lw Adnbs∏Sp∂Xv. 1658 ¬ lyqK≥kns‚ t¢m°pIƒ ]≈nIfn¬ {]Xy£s∏´p. 1658 apX¬ km[mcW°mcpsS ho´nepw kqcyÿm\w t¢m°pt\m°n \n¿Æbn°m\p≈ CØcw t¢m°pIƒ h∂p. \mw D] tbmKn°p∂ t¢m°v, hm®v F∂nh kqcy\pNp‰pw `q{`aWØm¬ hcp∂ Cu 2 tKmfßfpsS ]ckv]c _‘w, ÿm\w F∂nh Nen°p∂ Hcp {Km^vcq]Øn¬ ImWn°p∂XmWv. 1655 ¬ lyqK≥kv sSekvt°m∏p Iƒ D≠m°m≥ XpSßn. sSekvt°m∏pIfn¬ {]Imiw se≥kn\m¬ hfbptºmƒ D≠mhp∂ t{Imam‰nIv A_tdj≥ (hnhn[ h¿Æ߃ {]Xn_nw_Øns‚ Np‰pw ImWpw) I∏epIfn¬ sSekvt°m∏v D]tbm Kn°p∂ \mhnI¿°v Hcp {]iv\a√. ]s£ \£{X\nco£I\mb im kv{X⁄\v {]iv\amWv. Hcp XSn® ImNØn\p]Icw 2 t\¿Ø ImNw sh®m¬ Cu {]iv\w ]cnlcn°msa∂v lyqK≥kv a\ nem°n. CØc samcp sSekvt°m∏psIm≠v 1655 ¬ i\nbpsS N{μ\mb ssS‰s\ lyq K≥kv I≠p]nSn®p. ]Øph¿jØn\Iw IqSpX¬ \s√mcp sSekvt°m ∏p≠m°n i\n°pNp‰pw t\¿Ø Hcp {]Xew Ds≠∂pw (i\nbpsS ring) Nnet∏mƒ AXp ImWmXncn°psa∂pw (Edge on from Earth) Nne t∏mƒ Keoentbm I≠t]mse 2 sNhnt]mse tXm∂psa∂pw (face on) AXv sSekvt°m∏v sNdpXmbXp sIm≠msW∂pw lyqK≥kv sXfn bn®p.

1645 apX¬ imkv{Xob Nn¥mKXnbp≈h¿ e≠\n¬ HØpIqSn ]ckv]cw BibkwhmZw \SØnbncp∂p. 1662 ¬ Nm¿ekv c≠mas‚ Nm¿´¿ {]Imcw CXv tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbmbn cq]w {]m]n®p. CXn s‚ ^≠v cmjv{Sa√, ss{]h‰v hy‡nIƒ Xs∂bmWv hln®ncp∂Xv. 1663 ¬ CXnse BZysØ hntZin AwKw {^©pImc\mb lyqK≥kv Bbn. 4 h¿jw Ign™v {^m≥kn¬ XØpeyamb kb≥kv A°mZan XpSßnbXv eqbn ]Xn\memas‚ kwc£WØn¬ ^≠v sImSpØn´m Wv. 1700 emWv Cu tamUen¬ s_¿en≥ A°mZan D≠mbXv. lyqK≥ kns‚ Refraction \nba߃, CuY¿ F∂ Pecq]amb Hcp vaccum ¬

55

{]Imikn‘p

{]Imiw D≠m°p∂ a¿±XcwKw, km{μamb •mkneqsS km{μX Ipd™ hmbpth°mƒ ]Xps°bmWv {]Imiw IS∂pt]mhpI F∂ Is≠ج, {]Imi civanbpsS thKX A\¥amIbm¬ kqcy\nse Hcp {]iv\w AYhm a¿±am‰w DSs\ IÆnseØp∂p F∂ Xocpam\w F∂nh hfsc {][m\ambncp∂p. {^©v A°mZanbn¬ lyqK≥kns‚ kaImeo\\mb Hte tdma¿ {]ImithKX hfsc IqSpXemWv, ]s£ A\¥a√ F∂p IcpXn. tdmadpw Kntbmh\n I n\nbpw (Ct±lØn s‚ t]cnemWv i\nbpsS dnßnse Cassini division Adnbs∏Sp∂Xv). hymgØns‚ N{μ∑m¿ hymgØns‚ ÿm\Øm¬ {KlWhnt[bamIp ∂p F∂p I≠p. F∂m¬ Ch XΩnep≈ CSthf Ft∏mgpw H∂√. Cu am‰w `qan°v Xs‚ I£ybn¬ (kqcy\pNp‰pw) D≈ ÿm\Øn\v hymgÿm\hpambp≈ _‘w sIm≠mWv. AXn\m¬ {]ImithKX A\¥a√ km¥sa∂v tdma¿ hmZn®p. `qan hymgØn¬ \n∂Ieptºmƒ \mw {KlWw sshIn°mWp∂p. AXmbXv {KlWhm¿Ø sSekvt°m ∏n¬ FØn°m≥ {]ImiØn\v Xmakw t\cnSp∂p. Cßs\ \nivNbn®v hymgØns‚ G‰hpw AIw`mKØp≈ Keoenb≥ N{μ≥ Ctbmhns‚ {KlWw \hw_¿ 9, 1679 \v {]hNn®p. Cu {]hN\ {]Imcw a‰p≈h¿ {]hNn®Xn¬ \n∂v 10 an\p´p Ignt™ {KlWw \S°q. At±lØns‚ {]hN\w A£cw{]Xn icnbmbn. `qanbpsS I£ybpsS hymkwsh®v Cu ImeXmakØn¬ \n∂v {]ImithKX 225000 In.ao/sk°‚ v F∂v tdma¿ IW°m°n. C∂dnhp≈ `qI£ybpsS hymkwsh®v tdmadpsS KWnXw sNbvXm¬ CXv 2,98,000 In.ao/sk°‚ v F∂p In´pw. B[p\nI imkv{XØns‚ 2,99,792 In.ao/sk°‚ v F∂ aqeyhpambn CXv tbmPn °p∂p (C¥ybnse KWnXw ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ImWpI).

1671 ¬ sNmΔbpsS ]mceIvkv {^©v Knbm\bn¬ (Jean Richer)

\n∂pw ]mcokn¬ \n∂pw (Ikn\n) \nco£n®p. c≠pÿesØ \nco£ I¿°v D≠mb sNmΔbpsS ÿm\am‰w, ÿncXmc{]Xew, ]mcokv apX¬ {^©v Knbm\ hscbp≈ t_kvsse≥ F∂nh sh®v sNmΔbnte°p≈ Zqcw Af°msa∂pw CXpw sIπdpsS \nbahpw tN¿Øm¬ F√m {Kl I£yIfpsS hymkhpw Adnbmsa∂pw, CXv tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ kqcy tI{μ tamUens\ icnsh°p∂p F∂pw imkv{XtemIw apgph≥ AwKo Icn®p. 1690 ¬ Theatre on light F∂ t]cn¬ lyqK≥kns‚ {]Imi kw_‘amb {K\vYw ]pdØph∂p.

1661 ¬ t_mbvens‚ The Sceptical sIanÃv F∂ {K\vYw B¬s°

ansb imkv{Xobamb sIankv{Sn XeØnte°v sIm≠ph∂p. 17 mw \q‰m

56

{]Imikn‘p

≠ns‚ Ahkm\Øn¬ k¿ sFkIv \yq´≥ B¬s°an sNbvXncp∂p F∂v Hm¿°Ww.

18, 19 \q‰m≠pIfn¬ sIankv{Sn {]NmcØnembt∏mƒ t_mbnens‚ Cu ]pkvXIw Hcp hgnØncnhmbn hymJym\n°s∏´p. imkv{Xob coXn bn¬ B¬s°an D]tbmKn°p∂XmWv sIankv{Sn. Xmgv∂ temlØn¬ \n∂v kz¿Æap≠m°p∂ Philosopher's stone s\ °pdn®v A⁄mXcmb BfpIƒ ]cØnbncp∂ A‘hnizmksØ t_mbv¬ imkv{Xobambn t\cn´p (C¥ybn¬ \ZoXocsØ aWenepw aeIfnse [mXp°fnepw \n∂v kz¿Æw tiJcn®ncp∂ ]gb coXnsbbmWv bqtdm∏nepw t]¿ky bnepw Cßs\ Hc‘hnizmkambn amdnbXv). Hcp hkvXphns‚ kz`mhw Adnbm≥ sIan°¬ A\menknkv \SØp∂ coXn t_mbv¬ \S∏m°n.

1662 apX¬ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ t_mbv¬ AwKamWv. 1680 ¬ AXns‚ {]knU‚mbn sXcs™SpØt∏mƒ, Xs‚ hy‡n]camb BZ¿ißfm¬ skmssk‰nbpsS {]Xn⁄ (Oath) FSp°m\mhns√∂p ]d™v AXp \nckn®p. ktlmZcn ImXdos‚ IqsSbmbncp∂p Xma kw. B ho´n¬ At±lØns‚ em_d´dnbpw injy∑mcpw Hs° D≠m bncp∂p. F√m _p≤nPohnIfpw AhnsS h∂p. Hcp KpcpIpew t]mse bmWv ImXdos‚ ho´n¬ At±lw Xs‚ ]T\hpw, A≤ym]\hpw \SØn

bXv. G‰hpw _lpam\nX\mbn (Honourable Robert Royal, Esquire), Po

hnXØn¬ Hcn°epw Icn]pcfmsX Pohn®p. kºmZyw apgph≥ Poh ImcpWy {]h¿Ø\߃°v Zm\w sNbvXp. acn®t∏mƒ ÿmhc PwKa hkvXp°fpw HkyØp{]Imcw Zm\w sNbvXncp∂p.

1667 ¬ am¿skt√m am¬]nPnbpsS {]_‘߃ tdmb¬ skmssk ‰n {]kn≤oIcn°m\mcw`n®p. ^ntemk^nbpw saUnkn\pw s_mtfm Kv\ bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ \n∂p ]Tn® Ct±lw 1669 ¬ BZyambn tdmb¬ s^t√m Bb C‰menb\mWv. ssat{Imkvt°m∏n, hΔmens‚ NndIn se c‡°pgepIƒ, jUv]ZLS\, tImgn°p™ns‚ hf¿® (chick embryo), kkyßfpsS Cebnse stomata XpSßn At\Iw Imcy߃ At±lw {]Xn]mZn®p. N¿ΩØnepw izmktImiØnepap≈ c‡°pg epIfpsS kmayw, B¿´dnbpw shbn\pw XΩnep≈ kwtbmK߃ F∂nh ]Tn®v, lm¿hnbpsS c‡Nw{IaW tamUen¬ \nIØmsX InS∂ `mK߃ At±lw \nIØn. h¿j߃°ptijw CtX I≠p ]nSpØw, am¬]nPnbpsS kn≤m¥w AdnbmsXØs∂, kzX{¥ambn B‚Wn hm≥ eyqh≥ tlm°v Is≠Øn. CXv ssat{Imkvt°m∏v

57

{]Imikn‘p

F∂ sSIvt\mfPn saUn°¬ imkv{XØn\p \¬Inb kw`mh\ bmWv.

dn®m¿Uv temh¿ (1631-1691) HmIvkvt^m¿Uv {Kq∏nse AwKambncp ∂p. At±lØns‚ Imew apX¬ c‡sØ {]mWhmbphpw t]mj Imwihpw F√mbnSØpw FØn°p∂ Hcp k©mcam¿§ambn IcpXm≥ XpSßn (kp{ipX kwlnXbn¬ CXv ]dbp∂p≠v). F∂m¬ icocw Hcp b{¥amsW∂ hnNmcw A°mew apX¬ XpSßn. {]]©hpw ico chpw Hcp bm{¥nI tamUemWv F∂ Im¿´oknb≥\nbaw {]_e ambn. 17 mw \q‰m≠n¬ am¬]nPn Kntbmh\n t_msd√n Unk£\pIƒ (Ct±lw KWnXimkv{X s{]^kdmbncp∂p) Gsd \SØn. t_msd√n A‰m‰an ]Tn®p. kqcys\ IS∂pt]mIp∂ [qatIXphns‚ ]mX ]mc t_mfbmWv; hymgw Xs‚ N{μ∑mcn¬ kqcy≥ {Klßfn¬ sNepØp∂ AtX {]tNmZ\w D≠m°p∂p, icocw amwkt]inIfpsS i‡nIfm¬ {]h¿Øn°p∂ enhdp (livers) IfpsS Hcp knÃamWv, \S°ptºmgpw HmSptºmgpw amwkt]io {]h¿Ø\w PymanXobambn A\ssekv sN ømw, ]£nbpsS ]d°epw a’yØns‚ \o¥epw KWnX]cambn hnh cn°mw, Fs∂ms°bmWv At±lØns‚ \nKa\߃. Cuizc\v Cu b{¥w XpSßnsh°p∂ Hcp sajo≥ Unssk\dpsS ]Wntb D≈p F∂pw, Cu LS\bn¬ a‰p arKßfpw a\pjy\pw hyXymkans√∂pw , a\pjy\v {]]©Øn¬ a‰p hkvXp°tf°mƒ alØmb ÿm\sam∂p ans√∂pw At ±lw IcpXn.

1677 ¬ saUn°¬ Un{Kn FSpØ FtUzUv ssSk¨ e≠\n¬

tUmIvS¿ Bbn {]mIvSokv sNbvXncp∂p. At\Iw Unsk£\pIƒ sNbvX Ct±lw 1679 ¬ tdmb¬skmssk‰nbpsS fellow Bbn. 1684 ¬ e≠\nse _Xvtew tlmkv]n‰ens‚ tUmIvSdpw Kh¿Ædpambn. Cu am\knI tcmKtI{μw (Bedlam) tcmKnIsf G‰hpa[nIw ]oUn∏n®ncp∂ tI{μamWv. ]W°m¿°pw ]cnjvImcnIƒ°pw Hcp Entertainment SqdnÃv tI{μw t]mse, Hcp ImgvN_w•mhnse curiosity t]msebmWv tcmKnIsf I≠ncp∂Xv. Cu ÿnXn ssSk¨ am‰n. sPbne¿amsct∏mep≈ ]p cpj ]cnNmcIsc am‰n kv{Xo t\gvkpamsc \nban®p. tcmKnIfpsS hkv{XØn\mbn Hcp ^≠v \o°nsh®p. hyXykvX species IfpsS LS\ ]Tn°p∂ Comparative Anatomy bpsS ]nXmhmWv ssSk¨.

1680 ¬ sXbnwkv \Znbn¬ \n∂p]nSn® Hcp Porpoise s\ 7 jn√nßpw 6 s]\nbpw sImSpØphmßn UnkIvSv sNbvX ssSk¨ AsXmcp

58

{]Imikn‘p

a’ya√ kkvX\ PohnbmsW∂pw B¥cnI LS\ Icbnse \m¬ °menIfptSXn\p Xpeysa∂pw {Kln®p. ]pdwcq]Øn¬ Imen√ F∂ hyXymkta D≈p. F∂m¬ Iøns\ {]Xn\n[oIcn°p∂ scapula, lqa dkv, Aƒ\, tdUnbkv, Im¿∏¬ t_mWpIƒ, sa‰mIm¿∏epIƒ, ]c kv]cw tbmPn® 5 hncepIƒ F∂nh Ahbv°p≠v. tNc, H´I∏£n, Nnºm≥kn F∂nßs\ ]eXnt\bpw At±lw dessect sNbvXp. a\pjy \pw Nnºm≥knbpw Htc icoc LS\bmWv. 48 ImcyØn¬ Nnºm≥kn°v a\pjyt\mSpw- 27 ImcyØn¬ Ipcßt\mSpamWv kmZriyw. AXn\m¬ Nnºm≥kn Ipcßt\°mƒ a\pjykZriamWv. Nnºm≥knbpsS akvXn jv°w, hen∏ØnsemgnsI as‰√mw sIm≠pw a\pjyakvXnjv°w t]m sebmsW∂Xv ssSks\ AXv`pXs∏SpØn.

ssiihØnemWv Cu kmZriyw IqSpX¬. Ct∏mgXn\v \ntbms´\n (holding on to youth) F∂p ]dbpw. a\pjyinip hfcp∂Xv Nnºm≥kn sb°mƒ ]Xps°bmWv. AXn\m¬ P\n°ptºmƒ a\pjyinip Nnºm ≥kntb°mƒ ]n∂n¬, hfsc \ncmew_mhÿbnemWv. F∂m¬ hfcp tºmƒ acØn¬ Du™memSm\pw h\hn`hw tiJcn°m\pap≈ Adn thmsS Ahkm\n°p∂p Nnºm≥knbpsS temIw. a\pjyt‚Xv ]e Imcyßfpw Adnbm\pw ]Tn°m\pw DXIp∂ coXbnep≈ hnimeamb Hcp temIambnØocp∂p.

17 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm\Øn¬ {_n´ojv imkv{XcwKsØ aq∂p {][m\ {]Xn`Iƒ tdm_¿´v lp°pw, FUva≠v lmenbpw, sFkIv \yq´WpamWv. lp°nt\mSv \yq´\p≠mbncp∂ ]Ibpw AXpsIm≠p ≠mb {]iv\ßfpw {]kn≤amWv. Keoentbm acn°p∂Xn\v 7 h¿jw apºv lp°v P\n®p. At±lw Hcp ]≈nbn¬ curate Bbncp∂p. ]mepw ]gßfpa√msX as‰m∂pw `£n°m≥ Ip´n°mew apXte km[n®ncp ∂n√. hfsc A\mtcmKyhm\mbn, Dbcw Ipd™v, F√pIfpsS sshIey tØmsSbmWt±lw hf¿∂ph∂X.v ISen¬ tcJmwiw \n¿Æbn°p∂ t{ImtWmao‰¿ F∂ t]m°‰vhm®v At±lw D≠m°n. tdm_¿´v t_mbv ens‚ kmºØnI klmbtØmsS, At±lØns‚ Akn v Bbn ´mWv lp°v Pohn®Xv. 29 mw hb n¬ At±lw cNn® ssat{Im{Km^nb, ]Xnhn\p hn]coXambn Cw•ojp`mjbnembncp∂p. Keoentbmhns‚ starry messenger Hcp henb {]]©Øns‚ Nn{XamsW¶n¬ CXv Hcp sIm®p{]]©Øns‚ Nn{XamWv. H∂v sSekvt°m∏v sIm≠v ImWp∂p, H∂p ssat{Imkvt°m∏psIm≠pw. tImiLS\, Xqhens‚bpw Nn{X

59

{]Imikn‘p

ie`®ndIns‚bpw, Cu®°Ænt‚bpw LS\ F∂nßs\ ssPhtemI sØ At±lw hnhcn®p. t^mknepIƒ Hcp ImeØv `qanbn¬ Pohn®n cp∂ kkyarKmZnIfmsW∂v ]d™p. ssPh h¿§ßfn¬ (Nn{Xie`w) ImWp∂ h¿Æ sshhn≤yw {]ImiØns‚ Interference (Ccphiß fneqsS reflect sNøp∂ {]Imiw) sIm≠msW∂v At±lw ]co£W ßfneqsS sXfnbn®p. XcwK\ymbsØ B[mcam°nb Cu \nbaØn¬ XcwKw hißfn¬ \n∂p hißfnte°v (transverse oscillation) Btμm f\amWv lyqK≥kv ]d™ t]mse push-pull kΩ¿± XcwKa√. Xo IØptºmgpw izmtkmOzmkØnepw A¥co£Ønse H∂v (C¥y bn¬ {]mW≥- Ct∏mƒ HmIvknP≥) FSp°p∂p≠v. t¢m°vt^kv ssS∏v _mtcmao‰¿, Im‰v Af°p∂ guage, sX¿tamao‰dns‚ HcpC\w, diving bell, sslt{Kmkvt°m∏v F∂nh I≠p]nSn®p. Imemhÿm \nco£Ww sNbvXp (1 st Metereologist F∂v ]dbs∏Sp∂p). F√m I¿ΩØn\p ]n∂n epw Bflm¿∞amb I¿Ωtijnbp≈ ssI, hnizkvXamb IÆv, Ah sIm≠v \nco£n°m\pw kXyk‘ambn tcJs∏SpØm\pw D≈ a\ v F∂nh thWsa∂v At±lw hnizkn®p. {]]© imkv{Xw akvXnjv°w sIm≠v Is≠ØmØXmbn H∂pw _m°nbn√. AsXms° ]t≠ \S ∂p. C\nbp≈h¿ sNtø≠Xv \nco£n®v tcJs∏SpØemWv F∂v FgpXn. 1674 ¬ At±lØns‚ Hcp {]`mjWØn¬ F√m BImi tKmf ߃°pw KpcpXzmI¿jWaps≠∂pw, Hcn°¬ EPphmb Hcp efnX Ne\w XpSßnb Hcp hkvXp t\¿tcJbn¬ ÿncambn Nen°psa∂pw, as‰mcp i‡nbm¬ XSbs∏´v am{XamWv AXv Zniamdn (deflection) hr Øw, Fen]vkv apXemb k¶o¿Æ h{ItcJIfn¬ k©cn°p∂sX ∂pw ]d™p. ]ckv]cmI¿jWXzap≈ At\Iw tKmfßfpsS BI¿ jW i‡n, AXv F{XtØmfw ASpØmWv, ZqscbmWv F∂\pkcn®n cn°pw F∂pw ]d™p. lp°ns‚ 2 masØ supposition \man∂v \yq´s‚ BZysØ Ne\ \nbaambdnbp∂p. 1678 emWv lp°ns‚ FemÃnkn‰n \nbaw (Hooks law) h∂Xv. 1703 ¬ At±lw \ncymX\mbn. 1670 apX¬ \yq´\v lp°nt\mSv Aa¿jap≠v. {]Imi kz`mhw {]nkßfpw ImNß fpw sh®v ]Tn®v shfpØ civansb (kqcy{]Imiw) 7 \ndambn ]ncn°p Ibpw ho≠psamcp {]nkØneqsS ISØn shfpØ civanbm°pIbpw sNbvXv {]ImiØn¬ k]vXh¿Æhpaps≠∂v \yq´¨ Is≠Ønbncp ∂p. AXn\paptº lp°v AS°w ]ecpw CXpsNbvXncp∂p. t{Imam‰nIv

60

{]Imikn‘p

A_tdj≥ C√mØ Hcp dn^vfIvSn-ßv sSekvt°m∏v (AXn\papºv en sbmWm¿Uv Un§kv CXv sNbvXncp∂p) \yq´¨ D≠m°n. 1671 ¬ Cu sSekvt°m∏v e≠\n¬ {Kjmw tImtfPn¬ demonstrate sNbvXp. 11 P\phcn 1672 ¬ \yq´¨ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ fellow Bbn sXc s™Sp°s∏´p. \yq´≥ {]ImiØns‚ IWkn≤m¥w (Corpuscular theory) sXcs™SpØ BfmWv (lyqK≥kpw lp°pw XcwK kn≤m¥w

AYhm wave model Dw).

{]mbw IqSnbh\pw IqSpX¬ I≠p]nSpØ߃ \SØnbh\pamb lp°n\v th≠{X s{IUn‰v sImSp°msX sNdp∏°mc\mb \yq´\v im kv{X temIw A¿ln°p∂Xnepw _lpaXn sImSp°p∂Xv At±lØn s‚ Zmcn{Zyw, ]≠v tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbpsS ÿm]I\mbncp∂ Hcmfp sS the°mc\mbncp∂p F∂ Ah⁄, At±lØns‚ _mlycq]Øn s‚ sshIeyw Chsbms°bmbncp∂p. CXv ]e¿°psa∂ t]mse tdm _¿´v lp°n\pw Adnbmambncp∂p. B thZ\ At±lw NnetcmSv ]d ™ncp∂p. HmƒU≥_¿§v CXv s]mSn∏pw sXmßepw sh®v \yq´s\ Adnbn®p. BPoh\m¥ ]I sh°pIbpw, imkv{X clkyw t]mse ]IbpsS clkyhpw BtcmSpw ]dbmsX D≈n¬ sh®ncn°pIbpw sN øp∂ kz`mhw \yq´\v D≠mbncp∂p. J.G. Crowther Cu c≠p imkv{X ⁄∑msc 2 hmIyØn¬ hnhcn®n´p≠v. “Hooke could not understand

Newton regarded discoveries as private

what tact had to do with science

property. \yq´s‚ tZjyw Xo¿°m≥ lp°v hfsc kulrZØn¬ Ab® Hcp FgpØn\v \yq´¨ Ab® adp]Sn c≠pt]cptSbw kz`mh sØ ImWn°p∂p. kXymt\zjWØn¬ \ΩpsS c≠pt]cptSbpw At\zjW^ew H∂mhp∂Xpw, \ΩpsS A\menknkv hyXykvXamIp ∂Xpw kam\lrZbcmb imkv{X⁄cmIbm¬ kw`mhyamWv F∂pw AXn\m¬ tZjyw hnNmcn°cpsX∂pw hfsc hn\oXambn´mWv lp°n s‚ FgpØv. \yq´s‚ IØn¬ sZ°m¿Øv sNbvX imkv{Xtkh\ Øn\v Xm¶ƒ ]eXpw IqSpXembn \¬In. {]tXyIn®pw t\¿Ø {]Xe ØneqsS h¿Æ߃ ISØnb XØzNn¥bv°v. Rm≥ IqSpX¬ h√Xpw I≠n´ps≠¶n¬ AXv giants s‚ tXmfn¬ Ibdn am{XamWv F∂mWv. \yq´s‚ kz`mhw Adnbmhp∂ imkv{XtemIw Cu hm°pIsf Ht´sd hniIe\w sNbvXn´p≠v. 1. lp°ns‚ I≠p]nSpØßfpsS bYm¿∞ AhImin sZ°m¿ ØmWv.

61

{]Imikn‘p

2. Giant F∂ hm°ns‚ ‘G’ Iym]n‰¬ se‰dmWv. lp°v Dbcw Ip d™v \s´√n\v hfhp≈ HcmfmWv. X\n°v h√Xpw tamjvSn°Wsa¶n¬ AXv ]≠sØ Giant imkv{X⁄cn¬ \n∂pXs∂ aXn. \nßsft∏mse icochpw a\ pw ]nKvanbmb Hcp the°mc\n¬ \n∂pth≠ F∂¿ ∞w.

Cu FgpØv imkv{XtemIØns‚ ]IbpsS a\»mkv{Xw ImWn °p∂p. 1674 ¬ ]mcoknse H_vk¿th‰dn t]msem∂v Cw•≠n¬ D≠m °m≥ tdmb¬ skmssk‰n Xocpam\n®p. CXn\p ImcWw {^m≥kn¬ N{μs‚ ÿncXmcßfpambn _‘s∏´ ÿm\\n¿Æbw IS¬ bm{X bn¬ kabaf°p∂ Hcp t¢m°v BsW∂ hm¿Ø ]c∂XmWv (Cu hnhcw C¥y≥ Bkvt{SmWan°v At\I kl{km_vZambdnbmw). AXn\m¬ N{μNe\Øns‚ IrXyamb tS_nfpIƒ, tcJmwi\n¿Æb {]iv\w ]cnlcn°m≥ IrXyamb t{ImtWmao‰¿ F∂nh thWw. tPm¨ ^vfmwÃoUv (1646-1719) CXn\v \ntbmKn°s∏´p. CXptI´ Nmƒkv c≠m a≥ IS¬bm{X sNøp∂ cmjv{Ssa∂ \nebv°v {_n´\v t\hntKj¨ klmbn°p∂ F√m ⁄m\hpw thWsa∂pw AXn\v Hcp H_vk¿th ‰dn ÿm]n°Wsa∂pw \nivNbn®p. {Ko\n®vIp∂n¬ CXn\v ÿew \n ¿Æbn®p. 1675 ¬ ^vfmwÃoUpambn FgpØpIpØpIƒ \SØnbncp∂ FUva≠v lmen e≠\nseØn. 27, 21 Unkw_dn¬ 2 {]mhiyw \S∂ N{μ{KlWw \nco£n®p. 21 BKÃn¬ sNmΔsb N{μ≥ ad®Xpw 1676 th\en¬ kqcy\n¬ henb sunspot D≠mbXpw lmen ]Tn®ncp∂p. hS °≥ BImisØ sSekvt°m∏v D]tbmKn®v ]q¿Æambn k¿tΔ sNø embncp∂p ^vfmwÃoUns‚ ZuXyw. sX°≥ A¿≤tKmfØnse BIm iØnse G‰hpw {]Imiap≈ 100 {]ImitKmfßsf ]Tn°¬ lmen bptSbpw. CXn\mbn A∂v {_n´ojv km{amPyØns‚ G‰hpw sX°p≈ sk‚ v slen\ Zzo]nte°v lmen t]mbn. Hcp km{amPyØns‚ IS¬ k©mcØn\v AXns‚ G‰hpw sXt° A‰Øp\n∂psIm≠v IS¬ k©mcnIƒ°v Bhiyamb coXnbn¬ (sX°≥ kap{ZßfneqsSbmWv {][m\ IS¬ hym]mcam¿§w) {]ImitKmfßsf land mark B°p∂ k{ºZmbw C¥ybn¬ \n∂mWv {_n´≥ ]Tn®Xv. C¥y≥ Bkvt{SmW anbn¬ hn{imhkv, ssh{ihW≥, cmhW≥ Imew apX¬ F∂pw, A∂pw e¶bmWv {][m\ H_vk¿th‰dn ({Ko\n®√, AXn\p ]‰nb sX∂v {_n´\v AXn\m¬ a\ nembncp∂p). 20 mw hb n¬ ]T\w Dt]

62

{]Imikn‘p

£n®v \hw_¿ 1676 ¬ lmenbpw kplrØv sPbnwkv ¢¿°pw skbn‚ v slen\ Zzo]nte°p t]mbn. 1678 ¬ sX°≥ \£{XßfpsS Im‰temKv

{]kn≤oIcn®p. ^vfmwÃoUv “Our Southern Tycho” F∂ t]cv sImSp°

_p[≥ kqcyapJØpIqsS IS∂pt]mIp∂Xv sk‚ v sl

eo\bn¬ sh®v lmen \nco£n®ncp∂p. ]mcemIvkv \nbat`Z {]Imcw kqcy\nte°p≈ Zqcw Af°m≥ CXv klmbIambn.

bqtdm∏n¬ 17 mw \q‰m≠n¬ \£{X \nco£Ww aq∂p ImcWß fmemWv XpSßnbXv. 1) IS¬ k©mcØn\v, 2) anen´dn {]m[m\yw, 3) hym]mc {]m[m\yw. slthenbkv (P¿Ω≥) ssSt°mbpsS Um‰sb \nco£n®v A\ ssekv sNbvXpsIm≠ncp∂Xv shdpw imkv{XtNmZnXamb Pn⁄mk bmembncp∂p. lmen Aßs\b√. Z£nWmImiØv lmen ssSt°m \nco£n® Nne Xmcßsf \nco£n°bm¬ DØcmImiw \nco£n°p∂ slthenb n\v AXpI≠m¬ sIm≈msa∂p tXm∂n. 1678 ¬ lmen AXb®psImSpØp. slthenb ns‚ kzX{¥\nco£Whpw Um‰bpw Ctßm´pw In´n. 1679 ¬ lmen Um≥kn§nseØn. 68 hb mb slthen

b v sSekvt°m∏v D]tbmKn°msX \Kv\t\{Xw sIm≠psNbvX \nco £Ww, AhbpsS IrXyX F∂nh lmensb AXv`pXs∏SpØn. lmen bpsS kz`mhØn¬ kv{XoIfpamb AhnlnX _‘w Hcp Zu¿_eyam

bncp∂p. lmen sN√ptºmƒ 68 Imc\mb slthenb ns‚ 2 mw `mcy

Fenk_Øbv°v 32 hb mWv. 22 hb

lnX _‘Ønte¿s∏´p. slthenbkv acn®p F∂ptI´t∏mƒ lmen hn[hbv°v Ab®psImSpØXv Xs‚ aq∂pamksØ iºfw sIm≠p am{Xw hmßm≥ km[n°p∂ hfsc hne]nSn∏p≈ kn¬°v hkv{Xßfm Wv. 1680/81 ¬ Hcp [qatIXp Zriyambn. e≠\nepw ]mcoknepap≈ F√mh¿°pw Zriyambncp∂p Cu {]Xn`mkw. lmen ]mcokn¬ {InkvXp akv kmbmlv\Øn¬ Cu [qatIXphns‚ c≠mw hchmWv I≠Xv (\hw_¿ 1680 \v {]Xy£s∏´v kqcy\SptØ°v Nen®v A{]Xy£ambn- ]n∂oSv ho≠pw {]Xy£s∏´p. Cu c≠mw hchv). N{μs\ B[mcam°n N{μtcJmwiw icn°v \nivNbn°p∂ Hcp ]≤Xn°v NpcpßnbXv 18 h¿ jw \nc¥cw \nco£n°Ww. lmen Cßs\ H∂v 2 h¿jØn\IØv D≠m°nbXv At±lw as‰hnsS \nt∂m ISwhmßn F∂Xn\p sXfnhm Wv. 1684 ¬ {IntÃm^¿ sd≥, tdm_¿´v lp°v F∂nhcpamb kw`mjW Øn¬ \n∂v {KlI£yIfpsS Inverse law of attraction lmensb BI¿

mb lmenbpw Chcpw Ahn

bpw sNbvXp.

63

{]Imikn‘p

jn®p. lp°v sImSpØ Cu sFUnbbpambn lmen \yq´s\ kμ¿in®p.

1684 ¬ lmen h∂v Xt∂mSv, {Kl߃°v kqcy\nte°v BI¿jW

i‡n Ds≠∂pw AXv ZqcØns‚ square \v A\p]mXØnemsW∂pap s≠¶n¬ Ah D≠m°p∂ curve s‚ BIrXn F¥mIpsa∂v tNmZn® Xmbn \yq´≥ Xs∂ FgpXnbn´p≠v. AXv Fen]vkmbncn°psa∂v ]d ™t∏mƒ lmen kt¥mjw sIm≠p aXnad∂p. Fßs\ Is≠Øn F∂ lmenbpsS tNmZyØn\v Rm≥ IW°m°nbXmsW∂v \yq´≥ ]d™p. B IW°pIƒ lmen tNmZn®p. ]n∂oSb®pXcmsa∂v \yq´≥ ]dbpIbpw sNbvXp.

Cu kw`hamWv AXphsc clkyambn sh® Principia {]kn≤s∏

SpØm≥ \yq´\v ImcWambnØo¿∂Xv. F√mhcpw thKw {]kn≤s∏Sp Øm\pw t]scSp°m\pw {ian°p∂ imkv{XtemIØv \yq´≥ F¥psIm ≠nßs\ clky kz`mh°mc\mbn? Hcp km[mcW I¿jI IpSpw_ ØnemWt±lw P\n®Xv. ]nXmhv I¿jI kºØpsIm≠v {ItaW

1623 ¬ hqƒkv tXm¿∏v am\¿ kz¥am°n Lord of the Manor Bbn,

CXpw l∂ sFkvIu F∂ `mcy sIm≠ph∂ kv{Xo[\hp (50 ]u≠v h¿jØn¬) amWv \yq´\p≠mbncp∂Xv. \yq´t\m A—t\m (tdm_¿´v \yq´≥) FgpXm\pw hmbn°m\pw ]Tn®ncp∂n√. l∂bpsS ktlmZc≥ hneyw ]ptcmlnX\pw tIw{_nUvPv _ncpZ[mcnbpambncp∂p. 1642 ¬ hnhmlm\¥cw , sFkIv \yq´¨ acn°ptºmƒ l∂ K¿`nWnbmWv. Ahƒ°v {InkvXpakv Zn\Øn¬ P\n® Ip´nbmWv A—s‚ t]cn¬ \maIcWw sNbvX sFkIv \yq´¨. {KntKmdnb≥ Ie≠¿ {]Imcw 8 P\phcn 1642 \v Keoentbm acn®p. 1642 Unkw_¿ 25 \v Pqenb≥ Ie ≠¿ {]ImcamWv \yq´¨ P\n®Xv. {KntKmdnb≥ Ie≠dn¬ CXv 4 P\phcn 1643 BWv. Pqenb≥ Ie≠dn¬ Keoentbm acn°p∂Xv 1641 Unkw_dnepw. 4 P\phcn 1643 De Revolutionibus \v IrXyw 100 h¿jw Ign™mWv. 1645 ¬ l∂ thsd hnhmlw Ign®p. l∂bpsS amXm]nXm °ƒ \yq´s\ hf¿Øn. 8 h¿jw GI\mbn AhcpsS IqsS \yq´¨ hf¿∂p. AXn\m¬ kplrØp°sf D≠m°p∂ ioew D≠mbn√. \√ hiw At±lØn\pIn´nb anI® hnZym`ymkamWv. as‰mcp \√hiw 21 mw hb papX¬ \yq´≥ Xs‚ A—s‚ kzØv, AΩbpsS kzØv, c≠m \—s‚ kzØns‚ Hcp ]¶v F∂nh e`n®v kmºØnIambn \√ \nebn embn- ]pcpj∑mcpamb√msX \yq´\v _‘ap≠mbn√ (Nne¿ AXns\ thsdmcp XcØn¬ hymJym\n®n´p≠v). 1663-1668 ¬ tIw{_nUvPn¬ sh®p

64

{]Imikn‘p

sNbvX ]co£W \nco£W߃ ]n¬°meØv \yq´s\ {]ikvX\m °n. \yq´≥ Im¬°pekv I≠p]nSn® ImeØv eo_v\nkpw Im¬°pe kv I≠p]nSn®p. CXv lp°pamsb∂ t]mse eo_v\nkpambpw \yq´s\ sX‰n®p. Im¬°pekv KWnX{Inb Ffp∏am°p∂p. Hcp {KlØns‚ I£ybnse ÿm\w amdnamdn hcp∂Xn\m¬ (ImewsN√pwtXmdpw) Cu coXn thWw AXns‚ ÿm\ \n¿ÆbØn\v. C∂sØ imkv{Xw Im¬ °pekv IqSmsX km≤ya√ (Cu Im¬°pe ns‚ C¥y≥ Ncn{Xw as‰mcnSØv Rm≥ ]d™n´p≠v). N{μs\ Xs‚ I£ybn¬ \n¿Øp∂ Xpw B∏nfns\ X∂nte°p hogvØp∂Xpw `qanbpsS KpcpXzmI¿jW amWv. CXn\v (Zqcw) 2 hpambp≈ _‘w \yq´¨ IW°m°n (1666 ¬ Cu Inverse Square law IW°m°n). 30 hb mhptºmtg°pw {]Imiw, Im¬°pekv F∂nh kw_‘n® ]T\w At±lw ]q¿Ønbm°nbncp ∂p. KpcpXzmI¿jWsØ°pdn® ]T\w At±lsØ B¬s°anbnte °p Xncn®p. imkv{X ]T\w, I≠p]nSpØ߃ Ip´n°meØp Ign™p. IqSpX¬ kabw At±lw B¬s°anbv°mWv sNehgn®n´p≈Xv. 4 mw \q‰m≠nse AeIvkm{finbbnse Bcnb ns‚ A\pbmbn (Arian) Bbncp∂p \yq´¨. Cuizcs\ {]tXyI {]Xn`mkambn ImWp∂ CXn¬ tbiphn\v ssZhoIX C√. F∂m¬ CXn\mbn {_qtWmsb t∏se Np´pIcn°s∏Sm≥ At±lØn\njvSan√mbncp∂p. AXn\m¬ Trinity bn¬ hnizkn°p∂p F∂v (hnizkn°msX) At±lw {]Xn⁄ sbSpØp. \yq´s‚ clky kz`mhØn\v CXpw Hcp ImcWambn- 1674 ¬ \yq´\paptº lp°v “action at a distance” F∂dnbp∂ KpcpXzmI¿j WØn\v N{μt∑ep≈ i‡nsb°pdn®v {]_‘w {]kn≤oIcn®p. Inverse square law lp°nt‚Xmbncp∂p. 1684 ¬ lmen h∂t∏mƒ \yq ´¨ s]s´∂v DØcw sImSpØXv AXpsIm≠mWv. 1687 ¬ lmenbpsS \nc¥camb \n¿_‘Øm¬ 3 hmeyØn¬ \yq´s‚ Ncn{X{][m\amb ]pkvXIw ]pdØph∂p. lp°ns\°pdnt®m At±lw sImSpØ insights s\°pdnt®m H‰ d^d≥kpw \yq´¨ AXn¬ sh®n√. \yq´¨ Cuizc\v Hcp b{¥w D≠m°pIbpw \nc¥cw \SØns°m ≠pt]mIbpw sNøp∂ ka¿∞\mb Hcp B¿°nsSIvSns‚ CtaPv \¬ In. Hcp Xcw [¿ΩN{I {]h¿Ø\ kq{X[mcs\∂ C¥y≥ CtaPv t]mse. 1687 \ptijw \yq´¨ imkv{X⁄\√mXmbn. 1696 ¬ tdmb¬ an‚ns‚ hm¿U\pw aPnkvt{S´pambn. At\Iw t]sc I≈ \mWy߃ ASn® Ip‰Øn\v ]nSn°pIbpw Xq°ns°m√m≥ hn[n°pIbpw sNø

65

{]Imikn‘p

embn \yq´s‚ tPmen. kvXpXy¿lambn CXp sNbvXXn\v DtZymK°b ‰w In´n. 1705 se ]m¿esa‚ v sXcs™Sp∏n¬ B≥ cmPIpamcn \yq´\v

nse B sXcs™Sp∏n¬ \yq´¨ tXm

‰p. ]ns∂ At±lw a’cn®n√. \yq´s‚ k¿ ]Zhn 1705 sXcs™Sp∏v Pbn°m\p≈ Hcp cmjv{Sob Icp\o°ambncp∂p, imkv{XtemIØn\v \¬Inb kw`mh\Iƒ°p≈ _lpaXnb√ F∂Xv tJZIcamWv. 1703 ¬ lp°v acn®p. B \hw_dn¬ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbpsS {]knU≠mbn \yq´¨ sXcs™Sp°s∏´p. 1704 ¬ At±lØns‚ Hm]v‰nIvkv {]kn≤oIcn®p. 20 h¿j°mew Xs‚ HutZymKnI I¿Øhyw \yq´¨ {i≤m]q¿Δw \n¿Δln®p. Chbnsem∂v {Kjmw tImtfPns\ (t_mbv¬, lp°v F∂nhbpsS Nn{Xßfp≈Xpw t_mbv¬ ÿm]n®Xp amb KpcpIpew) s{Ibn≥ tIm¿´ntebv°v am‰embncp∂p. Cu am‰Øn \nSbn¬ Fs∂t∂°pambn \jvSs∏´Xv Htc Hcp Nn{XamWv. lp°ns‚ am{Xw!! Ncn{XØn¬ lp°ns‚ Nn{X t]mepw Ahtijn∏n°mXncn °m≥ {i≤n°Wsa¶n¬ Xo¿®bmbpw lp°v Xt∂°mƒ henb im kv{X⁄\msW∂ t_m[w \yq´s‚ D≈nep≠mbncp∂ncn°Ww. {]m bw sIm≠pw {]kn≤nsIm≠pw ]IzXbm¿÷n°m≥ Cu henb imkv{X ⁄s‚ a\ n\mbn√ F∂Xv {it≤bamWv.

k¿]Zhn \¬In. 60 mw hb

Inverse square law {]]©Øn¬ k¿ΔØn\pw _m[IamsW∂ XmWv AXns‚ bYm¿∞ {]m[m\yw. F√m ImeØpw F√m hkvXp°

ƒ°pw AXv _m[IamWv. {]n≥kn∏nbbpsS hb‰m´n (anUvssh^v) F∂v hnfn°s∏´ lmenbmWv Cu Bibw {]Ncn∏n®hcn¬ apJy≥. 17 mw \q‰m≠nse {_n´\nse s]mfn‰n°¬ {]iv\ßfnsem∂pw lmen ]s¶

IW°\pkcn®v

B¿®v _nj∏v Duj¿ IW°m°nb 4004 BC bmWv {]]© krjvSn Bcw`sa∂ hmZw F∂nhsb°pdn®v ]Tn°bpw Cu XobXn sX‰msW ∂v ka¿∞n°bpw sNbvXp. ISens‚ D∏vckw t\m°n `qanbpsS {]mbw \n¿Æbn°msa∂p ]d™p. ]≈n°v CsXm∂pw kzoImcyambncp∂n√. `qanbn¬ hyXykvX `mKßfnse Im¥i‡n hyXykvXamsW∂pw CX dn™m¬ IS¬bm{X IqSpX¬ kpKaamIpsa∂pw lmen FgpXn. A¥ co£Ønse a¿±t`Z߃, Im‰pIƒ, a¨kq¨ hm]mc°m‰pIƒ, BZy sØ metereological chart (1686) F∂nh {]kn≤oIcn®p. ISen\Snbn¬ 18 ao‰¿ Xmsg (10 ^mØw) tPmen sNøp∂h¿°v (apsØSp°p∂h¿)

Hcp diving bell D]tbmKn°m\p≈ ]co£Ww \SØn. a\pjys‚ acW

SpØn√. ss

nfnse

sh≈s∏m°w, ss

nfnse

66

{]Imikn‘p

\nc°v, AX\pkcn®v C≥jpd≥kv {]oanbw IW°mt°≠Xv AS°w sNbvXpsh®p. `qanbpsS hnhn[ `mKßfnse \nco£I¿ ip{I≥ kqcy apJØneqsS k©cn°p∂Xv ImWp∂Xnep≈ hyXymkw sIm≠v ]mc emIvkv hgn kqcy\nte°p Zqcaf∂p. 1716 \ptijw 1761, 1769 ¬ CXp≠m hpsa∂v {]hNn®p.

C≥Ukvhmen knhnssetkj\ptijw Xq°°´nIsf Iqe¶j ambn ]Tn®Xv lmenbmWv. Hcp kz¿Æ°´n AtX hep∏ap≈ •mkv I´ntb°mƒ 7 Cc´n Xq°ap≠v. AXn\m¬ AXn¬ 7 {]mhiyw {Zhyw IqSpXep≠mhWw. •mkn¬ 6/7 `mKw iq\yÿm\amhWw (Empty space) sh≈n kz¿Æw s]mXnbm≥ Cu \nbaw D]tbmKn°mw. kz¿Æw ]qip∂Xv Hcp B‰Øns‚ I\sa¶n¬ 1/100 C©v \ofap≈ Hcp Iyq_v kz¿ÆØn¬ 2433 aney\ne[nIw B‰w D≠mhWw (CXv an\naw BWv). 1691 ¬ CsXms° {]kn≤oIcn®p. 1693 ¬ `qanbpsS Im¥nI {]Xew ]Tn°m≥ Hcp bm{X XpSßn- CXv IS¬ bm{X°p klmbIamIpsa∂ Xn\m¬ \mhnItk\°v Xmev]cyap≠mbncp∂p. 52 ASn \ofw 18 ASn hoXn, 89 S¨ tIhp`mcap≈ sNdnb Hcp I∏¬ CXn\mbp≠m°n (tem Iw Np‰m\pw, kuØv A‰vem‚nIv k©mcØn\pw D]tbmKn°p∂ pink F∂v hnfn°p∂ C\w I∏¬) G{]n¬ 1, 1694 \v ]pds∏´p. C°meØv [qatIXphn¬ Xmev]cyambn- AhbpsS elliptical orbit, AhbpsS inverse square law A\pkcn® kqcy{]Z£nWw F∂nhbpsS ]gb sdt°mUp Iƒ 2 h¿jsØ Cu bm{XbnemWt±lw ]cntim[n®Xv (FhnsS \n∂v Bcn¬ \n∂v F∂v hy‡a√). 1682 ¬ I≠ [qatIXp 75-76 h¿jØn semcn°¬ 3 {]mhiyambn XpS¿®bmbn \nco£n°s∏´XmsW∂t±lw At∏mgmWdn™Xv. lmenbpsS am¿§ßƒ foul BsW∂Xn\m¬ 1682 se [qatIXp \∂mbn \nco£n® ^vfmwÃoUv B \nco£W ^ew lment°m \yq´t\m sImSpØn√. 2 h¿jw Ign™v Cu expedition s]mfn™Xpw \yq´¨ lmensb Xs‚ an‚nse U]yq´n I¨t{Smfdmbn \nban°p∂XpamWv Ncn{Xw I≠Xv. 1698 ¬ lmen AXpt]£n®p. HIvtSm_¿ 15 \v Hcp h¿jw \o≠p\n¬°p∂ as‰mcp bm{X°v t]mIm≥ Izo≥ tacnbn¬ \n∂v Iev]\ In´n. A°meØv ]o‰¿ Zn t{K‰v (km¿) Cw•≠v kμ¿in®p. At±lw I∏¬ \n¿ΩmWsØ°pdn®v ]Tn°m≥ h∂XmWv ({]mbw Ccp]XpIfn¬). 1698 se bm{XbpsS tijw ho≠pw lmen IS¬bm{X \SØn. 52° S (sXt° Atacn°≥ ap\ºv) hscbp≈ Im¥nIi‡n \nco£n®v 27 BKÃv 1700 ¬ πnauØn¬ Xncns®Øn.

67

{]Imikn‘p

1701 ¬ Cw•ojv Nm\ense thentb‰w ]Tn®p. CXn¬ {^©v XpdapJ

\nco£Ww, AhcpsS {]Xntcm[w F∂nh clky \nco£Ww sNøp∂ clky AP≠ D≠mbncp∂p. 1702 ¬ Izo≥ B≥ lmensb Bkv{Snb bneb®v tIm´Iƒ (XpdapJsØ) i‡ns∏SpØm≥ \ntbmKn®p. P\p hcn 1704 ¬ CXn\mbn clky tkh\ ^≠n¬ \n∂t±lØn\p ]Ww \¬Inbn´p≠v. AXn\m¬ {][m\ambn Nmc∏Wnbmbncp∂p F∂qln °p∂p. At∏mtg°pw lmen {_m≥Un IpSn®v Swear sNøp∂ Hcp ISen se Iym]vSs‚ kwkmcw A\pIcn°m≥ XpSßnbncp∂Xmbn ^vfmw ÃoUv tcJs∏SpØp∂p (Captain Halley ]n∂oSv Dr. Halley bmbn) 1758 ¬ 1682 se [qatIXp Xncn®phcpsa∂ lmenbpsS {]hN\w At±lsØ {]kn≤\m°n.

ln∏m¿° ns‚ \£{X`q]SØnse Arcturus (tNmXn) ÿm\w

AS°w ]e \£{Xÿm\hpw sX‰msW∂v ^vfmwÃoUv tcJs∏SpØn-

1719 ¬ At±lw acn®t∏mƒ 63 mw hb n¬ B t]mÃn¬ lmen \nban

X\mbn. Aßs\bmWv 18 h¿jsØ N{μ/Xmc \nco£W^ew lmen bpsS Iønb¬ In´nbXv. 1720 apX¬ 1742 hsc (85 mw hb v) lmen \n co£Ww \SØn.

1758 {InkvXpakv Zn\Øn¬ {]hNn®t]mse, lmenbpsS [qtaIXp

I≠p. 13 G{]n¬ 1759 \v AXv kqcy\v G‰hpw ASpsØØn- 1761 epw

1769 epw ip{INmcw lmen {]hNn®t]mse 60 H_vk¿th‰dnIfnencp∂v

BfpIƒ \nco£n®p. lmen IW°m°nb kqcy\nte°p≈ Zqcw 153 aney≥ In.ao- B[p\nIcptSXv 149.6 an√y≥ In.ao. Aßs\ acn®v 27 h¿jw Ign™mWv lmen imkv{XtemIØv Ncn{Xw krjvSn®Xv.

1686 ¬ {^m≥knkv hn√Mv_nbpsS {]IrXnimkv{Xw {]kn≤oI

cn®p. tPm¨ td {]IrXnimkv{X (Biology) cwKØv ^nknIvkn¬ \yq´¨ F∂ t]mse alm\mbn Db¿∂p- hn√Mv_n tdbpsS kplr Øpw kl{]h¿ØI\pambncp∂p. Imƒ ens∂bkv F∂ saUn°¬ tUmIvS¿ kkyßfpsS \maw em‰n\n¬ \n∂v {]mtZinI `mjIfnte °m°n. 1741 ¬ saUn°¬ {]mIvSokv \n¿Øn ASpØ h¿jw t_m´Wn bnte°v Xncn™p. 1740 se At±lØns‚ Systema naturae t_m´Wn bnse \mgnI°√mbn. bqtdm∏n¬ a\pjys\ _tbmfPn°¬ ¢mkn ^nt°j\n¬ BZyambn Dƒs∏SpØnbXv At±lamWv. Nnºm≥kn

pansapians F¶n¬ a\pjy≥ homosapians am{XamWv AXn¬. ens∂

bkv ss

nfnse

{]fbsØ \nckn®n√. F∂m¬ AwKoIcn®pan√.

68

{]Imikn‘p

A{Xbpw sNdnb Imew (200 Zn\Øn¬ Ipdhv) \o≠p\n∂ H∂n\v kap{Z PohnIsf Icbnte°v _lpZqcw ASn®pIb‰n t^mknepIƒ D≠m °m≥ km[n°n√. Hcp ImeØv `qan apgph≥ PeØn\Snbnembncp ∂ncn°mw. Ipd®p Ipd®mbn h‰nbXmhmw. Aßs\bmhmw kap{Z PohnIfpsS t^mkn¬ aeapIfn¬ ImWp∂sX∂v At±lw IcpXn.

A\phZn°p∂ 6000 h¿jtØ°mƒ F{Xtbm ]g°w

`qan°ps≠∂v A\pam\n°p∂X√msX ent∂bkv AXv sXfn®p ]d™v BcpsS hntcm[hpw kºmZn®n√. C¥ybntebpw ssN\bntebpw {]m No\ Ncn{X߃ bqtdm∏n¬ In´ns°m≠ncn°bmbncp∂p. slm¿Øpkv ae_mdn°kv h∂p Ign™ncp∂p. tImwsX Z _t^mWns‚ Historia naturelle 44 hmfyambn 1749-1804 \nSbnemWv {]kn≤oIcn®Xv. {]IrXn Ncn{XØns‚ BZysØ B[nImcnI {K\vYamWXv. ]mcokn¬ cmPm hns‚ s_m´mWn°¬ Km¿U\n¬ 1731 apX¬ kp{]≠mbncp∂p At± lw. KWnXw, h\kwc£WØn¬ silviculture s‚ ]¶v F∂nh Xmev]cy ap≈ hnjbßfmbncp∂p.

[qatIXpsh kqcy≥ ]pdwX≈nbXv BWv ]n¬°meØv `qanbmb

sX∂v _t^m¨ IcpXn. AXn\m¬ XpS°Øn¬ `qan DcpInb emh t]msebmhWw. ]n∂oSv XWpØv Poh\v hfcm≥ km[n®p. AXn\v

]dbp∂ 6000 sIm√w t]mc. \yq´s‚ {]n≥kn∏nbbnepw

XØpeyamb \nKa\ap≠v. Dcp°nb Ccpºptemlw t]msebp≈ Hcp tKmfw- 4000000 ASn hymkap≈ H∂v A{Xbpw Zn\Øne[nIsaSp°pw H∂p XWpØpIn´m≥. AXmbXv 50000 h¿jØntesd FSp°pw XWp °m≥!Nne Ahy‡ ImcWßfm¬ NqSv \o≠p\n¬°p∂ Imew hym ktØ°mƒ sNdnb A\p]mXØnemhWw h¿≤n°p∂sX∂v Rm≥ A\pam\n°p∂p. icnbmb A\p]mXw Bsc¶nepw ]co£n®v I≠p]nSn °Ww. \yq´s‚ Cu A\pam\sØ _t^m¨ ]co£n®p. 42964 h¿j hpw 221 Znhkhpw thWw `qan XWp°ms\∂t±lw IcpXn. `qan°v 75000 h¿jw {]mbaps≠∂pw ]d™p (C∂v 4.5 _n√y≥ h¿jamWv `qanbpsS {]mbsa∂v IW°m°nbncn°p∂p) 1747 ¬ kqcycivanIƒ Ipsd IÆmSnIfneqsS ISØnhn´v 200 ASn Zqscbp≈ acsØ (I∏en s\) Xo ]nSn∏n°p∂ ^pWojycpsS hnZy At±lw sNbvXp ImWn®p (kndmIyqkn¬ tdma≥ I∏epIsf B¿°nanUnkv Cßs\ IØn®ncp ∂p). Po≥ ^udnb¿ (1768-1830) s\t∏mfnbs‚ D]tZjvSmhmbncp∂p. ^udnb¿ A\menknkv C∂pw IzmkdpIfpsS ]T\Øn¬ imkv{Xw

ss

ss

nfn¬

69

{]Imikn‘p

D]tbmKn°p∂p. `qanbpsS {]Xeta XWpØn´p≈p. D≈v Np´p]gpØ emhbmWv. 1820 ¬ ^udnb¿ `qanbpsS {]mbw IW°m°nbXv 100 aney≥ h¿jamWv (_t^mtW°mƒ 1000 {]mhiyw A[nIw. C∂tØ

_t^m¨ Um¿hnt\°mƒ apºv k¿Δ

PohPmehpw H‰ aqeØn¬ \n∂v Evolution, Natural selection sIm≠p≠m bXmsW∂v ]d™ BfmWv. kv{Xo ]pcpj kwtbmKw sIm≠p≈ {] P\\sØ°pdn®pw N¿®Iƒ \SØnbncp∂p. tPm¿÷kv Iphnb¿ Comparative Anatomy sb aptºm´p sIm≠pt]mbn- Ihnbpw \mSI IrØpamIm\m{Kln®v k¿÷\mbnØo¿∂ BfmWv Iphnb¿. amwk `p°pw kky`p°pamb arK߃°v D≈ hyXymkw At±lw hniZoI cn®p. t^mknepIƒ ]Tn®p. Iphnbdn\p apºv emam¿°mWv ]mcoknse \mNzd¬ lnÃdn ayqknbØn¬ Xeh\mbncp∂Xv.

18 mw \q‰m≠n¬ sIankv{Snbn¬ ]ptcmKXn D≠mbn. s_©an≥ {^m¶ven≥ sshZypXnbn¬ ]co£Ww \SØn- Nmƒkv sIutfmw_v sshZypXnbnepw Im¥i‡nbnepw \SØnb KthjWw c≠pw Inverse Square law ]men°p∂Xmbn I≠p. s_mtfmKv\bnse A\m‰anÃpw H_vÃ{SnIvkv s{]m^kdpamb eqbnPn Km¬h\n CeIv{SnIv _m‰dn I≠p]nSn®p. XhfbpsS amwkt]inbpsS Ne\w I≠mWv Cu D]Ic Ww D≠m°nbXv. amwkt]inbn¬ sshZypXnDs≠∂t±lw sXfnbn ®p. 1746 ¬ bqf¿ (1707-1783) {]Imiw XcwKhpw, Hmtcm h¿Æhpw hyXy kvX XcwKthKXbpambn, {]Imiw refract sNøp∂Xns‚ KWnX hni ZoIcWw X∂p. \yq´s\ t]Sn®v Bcpw CXn\v {]m[m\yw sImSpØn√.

semsamt\mtkhv 1748 ¬ Law of Conservation of mass and energy sIm

≠ph∂p. tXmakv ssd‰v BImiKwKbn¬ Hcp N{Iw t]mse \£{X ßfp≈Xn¬ H∂mWv kqcys\∂v I≠p. sl¿j¬ bpdm\ ns\ Is≠ Øn. tPm¨ anj¬ BZyambn XtamZzmcßsf°pdn®v ]d™p. {]Imi Øns‚ thKX km¥amsW∂pw Hcp hkvXp IqSpX¬ `mcap≈sX¶n¬ AXns‚ BI¿jWØn¬ \n∂p hnSm≥ IqSpX¬ thKX thWsa∂p ap≈ \nbaØn¬ \n∂mWnXv A\pam\n®Xv. 18 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm \ØnemWnXv. kzX{¥ambn CtX Bibw AtX ImeØv Is≠Ønb as‰mcmƒ ]nbdn sska¨ emπmkv BWv. {^©v \yq´¨ F∂mWt± lw Adnbs∏Sp∂Xv. hymghpw i\nbpw AhcpsS I£ybpw 929 h¿jØnsemcn°te longterm shift sIm≠v F√mw ]pds∏´nSsØØp∂ {]Xn`mkw D≠m°q.

°mƒ 50 {]mhiyw

Ipdhv).

70

{]Imikn‘p

CXv emπmkv \yq´s‚ {Kmhnt‰j\¬ Xnbdnbnse ]nghmbn Is≠Øn.

t{]m

KWnX{]iv\߃ N¿® sNbvXncp∂p. G{]n¬ 1788 \v emπmkv FgpXn-

kucbqYw Hcp icmicn ÿm\Øn\pNp‰pw oscillate sNøp∂p (Btμm f\w) AhnsS \n∂v amdp∂n√. amdp∂ps≠¶n¬Øs∂ hfsc hfsc sNdnb Afhpam{Xw. LS\, KpcpXzmI¿jWi‡n F∂nhbm¬ AXn s\mcp ÿncXbp≠v. B ÿncX \jvSs∏SpØm≥ ]pdsØmcp i‡n

t° Ignbq. Aßs\ H∂v C∂phsc Is≠Ønbn´pan√.G‰hpw Ipd

®p \nbaßfm¬ G‰hpa[nIw {]Xn`mk߃ krjvSn°p∂ {]IrXn bpsS emfnXyw emπmkv FSpØp ]d™p. kucbqYw D≠mbXv s\_p ebn¬ \n∂msW∂v (Nebular hypothesis) Im‚ns\t∏mse emπmkpw ]d™p.

September 1749 ¬ MD FSpØ tijw Hcn°epw saUnkn≥ {]mIvSo kv sNømsX PntbmfPnbpsS bqWnt^mant‰dnb ≥ Xnbdn D≠m°nb BfmWv sPbnwkv l´¨. sIankv{Snbpw Irjnbpambncp∂p CjvShnj b߃. {]IrXn {]Xn`mk߃°v `qanbpsS apJOmb am‰m≥ 6000 h¿jØntesd thWsa∂pw `qanbpsS DXv`hsØ°pdn® At\zjWw anYybmsW∂pw At±lw IcpXn. BZyw apXte (a‰p {Kl\£{XmZn Ifp≈ {]]©w D≠mb apX¬) AXp≠v. AXn\hkm\hpan√. Hcp Nn{Xie`Øn\v Hcp Znhkw Bbpt D≈psh¶n¬ cm{Xn AXns\mcp Catastrophy bmWv. a\pjy\v Hcp lnabpKw Catastrophy bmWv. ]s£ `qanbv°Xv Nnc]cnNnXamb Hcp {]Xn`mkw am{Xw- CXns‚ t]cmWv

Uniformitarian theory. Npcp°Øn¬, {_lvaZn\hpw, tZhZn\hpw, ]nXr Zn\hpw, `qZn\hpw F∂t]mse Hcp Bt]£nIX! {_lvamhns‚bpw kucbqYØnt‚bpw Bbp v C¥y°m¿°v Hcp {_lvamfiØnt‚

bpw, \ΩpsS kucbqYØnt‚bpw Bbp mWv. N{μs‚ Bbp mWv

]nXr°ƒ°v. `qanbpsS Bbp nt\°mƒ Ipdhv a\pjymbp v. AXnepw

Ipdhv a‰p arK]£nIƒ°v! CXv C¥ybn¬ IrXyambn IW°m°n ]d™ncp∂p. kkyßfn¬ Bbp pIqSnb Ben\v hensbmcp ÿm\

ap≠v kkyPmXnbn¬! Cu kwKXn bqtdm∏n¬ BZyw AhXcn∏n®Xv l´≥. a\pjy\v Hcp kp\man, Hcp ZzmcI ap߬, Hcp `qan Ipep°w h√msØmcp A\p`hamWv. ]s£ `qan°Xv cm∏IepIƒ t]mse Bh¿ Øn®\p`hn°p∂ Hcp Nnc]cnNnX kw`hw. Hcp ]gb P\XbpsS ]q¿

ΔnI ⁄m\kºØv XeapdIfmbn ssIamdp∂h¿°pw AsXmcp {]h

Xnbdn hnIkn∏n®p. emπmkpw tPmk^v em{Kmßpw

nen‰n

71

{]Imikn‘p

Nn°mhp∂ ]cnNnX kw`hw! kcbphn¬ Atbm≤y apßptºmgpw IS en¬ ZzmcI apßptºmgpw {iocma\pw {ioIrjvW\pw At£m`ycmbn cn°p∂Xv Cu ⁄m\hnthI sshcmKy kmwkvImcnI kºØpsIm ≠mWv. 19 mw \q‰m≠n¬ a\pjy\v Cu {]]©Ønep≈ ÿm\sØ°pdn®v

\n∂p hyXykvXamb Hcp coXnbn¬ bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X

⁄¿ Nn¥n°m≥ XpSßn. {]IrXnbpsS sXcs™Sp∏v (natual selection)

Hcp Nn¥mhnjbambn. Nmƒkv Um¿hn\mbncp∂p CXns‚ tI{μ_nμp. Nmƒkv eb¬, B¬{^Uv d ¬ hmekv F∂nh¿ At±lØns‚ ]m¿ izh¿ØnIfmbn \n∂ c≠p {]apJcmWv. 1766 ¬ HMS tdmw\n F∂ I∏en¬ ]gvk¿ Bbncp∂p ebens‚ apØO≥. ]gvkdpsS tPmen I∏ente°p th≠ km[\߃ hmßemWv. CXv IqSpX¬ ]WØn\v ]S°∏epIƒ°v (t\hn°v) hn¬°pw. 1778 ¬ At±lw AUvand¬ tPm¨ ss_ds‚ sk{I´dnbpw At±lØns‚ HMS {]n≥kkv tdmb ens‚ ]gvkdpamWv. Atacn°≥ kzmX{¥ybp≤Øn¬ ss_ds‚ I∏¬∏S°p sNbvX tkh\Øn\v In´nb ss{]kvaWn sIm≠v 500 G°¿ FtÉv kvtIm´ve‚n¬ hmßn. At±lØns‚ aI≥ h°oembn. (ebens‚ A—≥). 1797 \hw_¿ 14 \v (CXv \ΩpsS s\lvdphns‚ P∑Zn\hpamWv Ft∂m¿°pI) Nmƒkv eb¬ F∂ PntbmfPnÃv P\n ®p. Nmƒkn\v Hcp hb p≈t∏mƒ Cw•≠nse New Forest te°v Ip Spw_w amdnØmakn®p. AhnsSsh®v Ip´n°meØp Xs∂ kky߃, sNdnb sNdnb jSv]Z߃ F∂nhsb \nco£n°m≥ Xmev]cyw XpS ßn. tdm_¿´v t_°vsh√ns‚ Introduction to geology A—s‚ sse{_ dnbn¬ \n∂p hmbn®t∏mgmWv PntbmfPnbn¬ Xmev]cyw tXm∂nbXv. t_°vsh¬ l´s‚ D≤cWnIƒ Gsd D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. AXn\m¬ l´t‚bpw XpS¿∂v tπs^bdnt‚bpw ]pkvXI߃ hmbn°m\nSbmbn. HmIvkvt^mUn¬ sh®v hneyw kvanØv F∂ k¿tΔb¿ ]Tn® Cw•≠n se t^mknepIsfbpw AhbpsS ImetØbpw ]cnNbs∏´p. kvanØv ^mZ¿ Hm^v Cw•ojv PntbmfPnF∂dnbs∏Sp∂p. 1815 emWv At±l Øns‚ PntbmfPn°¬ map {]kn≤s∏SpØnbXv. 1816 ¬ Cu ]pkvX IØnse ⁄m\hpambn Hcp bqtdm]y≥ Sq¿ \SØn Xncn®ph∂ A≤ym ]I≥ hneyw _°ve‚ v sImSpØ an\dtemfPn ¢mkpIfn¬ \n∂mWv hnZym¿∞nbmb eb¬ kvanØns\ ]cnNbs∏´Xv. eb¬ bqtdm∏n¬ ]ebnShpw kμ¿in®p. IphnbdpsS t^mkn¬ ]T\w ]mcoknse sse {_dnbn¬ sh®p hmbn®p. At±lØns‚ kvs]knsa≥ tiJcw Pm¿

ss

nfn¬

72

{]Imikn‘p

Un≥ sZ πm‚kn¬ sN∂pI≠p. 21 mw hb n¬ PntbmfPn°¬ skm ssk‰n Hm^v e≠\n¬ s^t√m Bbn. \nbahnZym¿∞nbmbnØo¿∂ eb¬ 1821 HIvtSm_dn¬ KnUnb≥ ams‚¬ (1790-1852) F∂ k¿÷s\ kskIvkn¬ sh®v ]cnNbambn. At±lw At\Iw Unt\mkdpIfpsS t^mknepIƒ Is≠Ønb Hcp PntbmfPnÃpambncp∂p. 1822 ¬ \nba ]T\w Xev°mew \n¿Øn eb¬ ]q¿Æambn PntbmfPnbnte°p Xn cn™p. Cw•≠nse `qK¿`ineIƒ°v At\Iw hn≈epIfpw hfhpIfpap s≠∂pw, AXv i‡amb `qanIpep°ßfmhWsa∂pw, B `qan Ipep° amWv Hcn°¬ ISen\Snbn¬ InS∂ `qansb IS¬\nc∏n\p apIfnseØn ®sX∂pw kvanØv FgpXnbncp∂p. hneyw tImWn s_b¿ B hfhpIƒ Xm¬°menIhpw hfsc i‡hpamb, `qanbpsS A¥¿`mKØp≈ {]Xn `mk߃ D≠m°nbXmhm\mWv km≤yX Fs∂gpXn- l´≥ BZysØ A`n{]mb°mc\mbncp∂p. 1823 emWv eb¬ BZyambn Cw•ojv Nm\¬ IS∂v e≠\n¬ \n∂v 11 aWn°qdn¬ Isebvkn¬ FØp∂Xv (BZy sØ Ãow I∏en¬). 1825 ¬ Izm¿´¿en sdhypbn¬ {]_‘ßfpw _p°v sdhypIfpw FgpXm≥ ]_vfnjdmbncp∂ tPm¨ aptd Bhiys∏´p. CXnep≠mb hnPbw Xs‚ PntbmfPn°¬ kwcw`ßsf ]pkvXI cq] Ønem°m\p≈ {]tNmZ\w 1827 ¬ eben\p \¬In. 1828 ¬ ]mcokn¬ sN∂v sdmUdn°v ap¿®nksW (1792-1871) I≠p. c≠pt]cpw IqSn a≤y [cWymgn XocØneqsS hS°≥ C‰en hsc k©cn®p. ]mZzbn¬ \n∂v ap¿®nk¨ aSßn. eb¬ bqtdm∏ns‚ G‰hpw ASpØp InS°p∂ AKv\n]¿ΔX `qIºtaJebmb knknenbnte°p Xncn®p. F‰v\bn¬ 700 ASnbpw AXn\p]cnbpambn Db¿Øs∏´ ISens‚ ASnØ´pw Hcn SØv Ahsb th¿Xncn®psIm≠v emhbpw At±lw I≠p. t^mkn¬ I°Iƒ 20 ASn Xmsg, AXn∂Snbn¬ _mkmƒ´nIv emh, t^mkn¬ I°Iƒ°p]cn as‰mcp eb¿ emhbpw. F‰v\bpsS ASn`mKw 90 ssa¬ hymkamWv. AXmbXv 90 {]mhiyw emh, Hmtcm ssa¬ hoXw HgpIn bmte ASnsXm´v apSnhscbp≈ CØcsamcKv\n]¿ΔXØns‚ Dbcw FØp. F‰v\bpw knknenbpw `qanbnse XmcXtay\ ]pXnb `mKßfm Wv. AXn\m¬ AhnSsØ kky߃ IqSpX¬ ]gb `mKßfmb B{^n °, bqtdm∏ns‚ CXc`mK߃ F∂nhnSßfn¬ \n∂v FØnbXmhWw. Pqsse 1830 ¬ BZy tIm∏n (principles of geology) ]pdØndßn. kvs] bn\nse ^o¬Uvh¿°n\ptijw P\phcn 1832 ¬ c≠masØ hmfyw h∂p. 1831 ¬ e≠≥ Inßvkv tImtfPn¬ PntbmfPn sNb¿ h∂p.

73

{]Imikn‘p

eb¬ sImSpØ {]`mjWßfn¬ kv{XoIsf tIƒhn°mcmbn A\ph Zn®Xv [ocamb Hcp ]pXpabmbncp∂p. ]≈n A[nImcnIƒ ebens‚ `qanbpsS {]mbsØ°pdn® A`n{]mb߃°pw At±lsØ \nban °p∂Xn\pw FXncmbncp∂p. 1832 ¬ entbmWm¿Uv tlm¿W¿ F∂ PntbmfPnÃns‚ aIƒ tacn tlm¿Wsd hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°pw PntbmfPn Xmev]cyambncp∂p. AXn\m¬ B _‘w hfsc sI´pd ∏p≈ Hcp kplrXv_‘hpambnØo¿∂p. Ah¿°p Ip´nIfp≠mbn√.

2 masØ hmfyØnemWv species s\°pdn®v eb¬ Nn¥n®Xv. Hm tcm kv]ojokn\pw Hcp anYp\w (pair) AYhm Hcp hy‡n DXv`h ÿm\ amWv. AXn¬ \n∂v Nne Imeßfn¬, tZißfn¬ {]tPmev]mZ\w sIm ≠v, XeapdIfmbn hwi߃ D≠mhpIbpw AhnShnsS, X߃°v tbm Pn® `qtKmf ÿm\ßfn¬ s]‰ps]cpIn Pohnbv°bpw sNøp∂p-- CXv

t\mhbpsS B¿°ns‚ ImesØ ss

C¥ybn¬ hwim\pNcnXwF∂mWv ]pcmtWXnlmk߃ ]dbpI. Hcp ÿeØv Hcp ImeØp≠mbncp∂ hwi߃, a‰pImeØv B ÿe Øv \in®Xmbpw, as‰mcnSØv s]‰ps]cpIbpw sNbvXXmbn Cu ]gb t{ImtWmfPn (hwim\pNcnXw) ]dbp∂p≠v. eb¬ a\pjy\v a‰v Poh Pmeßtf°mƒ {]mapJyw sImSp°p∂p. `£Ww, a‰v AkwkvIrX hkvXp°ƒ F∂nhbv°p≈ a’cw sIm≠mWv hwi߃ Nne Ime Øv Nne tZiØv \in®pt]mIp∂sX∂pw eb¬ ]d™p. 1833 G{]n en¬ 3 mw hmfyw h∂p. 1875 ¬ 12 mw FUnj≥ h∂Xv ebens‚ acW tijamWv. 1838 ¬ h∂ At±lØns‚ Elements of geology PntbmfPn bpsS BZysØ B[p\nI sSIvÃv _p°mWv. BZysØ \√ imkv{X kmlnXyImc≥ F∂pw eb¬ t]scSpØp. Xs‚ ]pkvXI߃ sIm SpØ kºmZyambncp∂p At±lØns‚ {][m\ hcpam\w. 1841 ¬ hS s° Atacn°≥ bm{Xbn¬ \bm{K sh≈®m´w, {]IrXni‡nIƒ, `q anbpsS ]g°Øn\p ZrjvSm¥amb PntbmfPn°¬ sXfnhpIƒ F∂nh \nco£n®p. ebens‚ ]pkvXIsØ XpS¿∂v Nmƒkv Um¿hns‚ Origin

CXns\

nƒ°YmhinjvSamWv.

of species h∂p. hwißfpsS am‰sØ°pdn®v BZyIme {Ko°p ]fin X¿ ]d™ncp∂p. 1620 ¬ {^m≥knkv t_°¨, ]n∂oSv KWnX⁄≥ eo_v\nkv, 18 mw \q‰m≠n¬ _pt^m¨ F∂nh¿ ]d™ncp∂p. Imem hÿmam‰w sIm≠mWnsX∂v Ch¿ ]d™ncp∂p. Um¿hn\pw B¬{^ Uv d ¬ hme n\pw apºv Um¿hns‚ apØ—≥ Cdmkva pw {^©p Imc≥ Po≥ _m]v‰nsà emam¿°pw 19 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZyØn¬ CXn s\°pdn®p Nn¥n®ncp∂p. Cdmkvakv Um¿hns‚ A—≥ tdm_¿´v Um¿

74

{]Imikn‘p

hn≥ (1682-1754) F¬Ã¨ {KmaØn¬ \n∂v PpdmknIv ImesØ sπkn tbmtkmdns‚ t^mkn¬ AhinjvSw Is≠SpØp. tdm_¿´v Um¿hn≥ AXv tdmb¬ skmssk‰n°v Zm\w sNbvXp. AXn\m¬ At±lsØ tdmb¬ skmssk‰n Hcp ao‰nßn\v £Wn®p. A∂v {]knU≠mbncp∂

\yq´sW tdm_¿´v Um¿hn≥ I≠p. A∂p XpSßnbXmWv Um¿hn≥ IpSpw_Øns‚ t^mkn¬ Iºw. aI≥ Cdmkvakv ¢mknIv ]Tn®p, Ihnbmbn {]ikvXn t\Sn. tIw{_nUvPn¬ saUnkn\p tN¿∂p. Izo≥kv

tImtfPv A≤ym]I\mb tPm¨ anjens‚

an\v 24 In.ao. hS°v en®v^o¬UnemWv Fdmkvakv {]mIvSokv XpSßn bXv. Fdmkva ns‚ 3 a°fn¬ tdm_¿´v (1766-1848) am{XamWv hnhmln X\mbXv. CXnemWv Nmƒkv tdm_¿´v Um¿hns‚ P\\w. 20 mw hb

_¿anßm

kplrØmbn.

n¬ saUnkn≥ ]Tn°ptºmƒ Unk£≥ sNøptºmƒ ssIapdn™v sk]v‰nkoanb h∂mWv Um¿hns‚ A—s‚ tPyjvT≥ acn®Xv. tdm_¿´v Um¿hn≥ tUmIvSdmbn. ]s£ c‡w ImWm≥ CjvSs∏´ncp∂n√.

75

{]Imikn‘p

4. Um¿hn\nkw

Cdmkvakv Um¿hns‚ ]pkvXI߃

1789 ¬ Loves of the plants

1792 ¬

The economy of vegetation AYhm s_m´m\n°v Km¿U≥

Ch 2440 hcn IhnXIƒ, 80000 hm°pIƒ, Ahbv°p≈ Ipdn ∏pIƒ tN¿∂XmWv. kkytemIsØ°pdn®mWv.

1794

Zoonomia Vol I (KZyw) (200000 ]Z߃)

1796 Zoonomia Vol II (KZyw) 50 % IqSpX¬ hen∏w hmfyw I ¬ Evolution kw_‘amb Xs‚ hnNmc߃ KZyØn¬ FgpXnbn´p≠v. Cu ]pkvXIØn¬ IqSpX¬ A≤ymb߃ saUnkn≥, _tbmfPn kw_‘amWv. a\pjys‚ CSs]S¬ kkyarKtemIØn¬ hcpØp∂ am‰ßƒ At±lw {i≤ns®gpXn- DZmlcWambn IqSpX¬ hnfhpIn´p∂ s\¬hnØn\w hf¿ØpI, IqSpX¬ i‡nbp≈ ]¥b °pXnc C\sØ D≠m°pI apXembn a\pjys‚ Ir{Xna sXcs™ Sp∏v.

amXm]nXm°fn¬ \n∂v Ip´nIƒ°v kz`mh߃ In´p∂Xpw hnhcn °p∂p. Nne ]£nIƒ ]cn∏p sImØnsbSp°m≥ I´nbp≈ sIm°v (XØ) apXemb Ahbh߃ natural selection sIm≠mWv kºmZn°p ∂Xv. CXv Ah hwißfnte°v ssIamdp∂p. `qanbnse Poh\v Hscm‰ aqe DXv`hImcWta D≈p F∂t±lw FgpXp∂p≠v. Fdmkvakv IhnX sj√n, tImfdnUvPv, Io‰vkv, thUvkvh¿Øv F∂nhcpsS kzm[o\ap≈ XmWv. 1796 ¬ tImfdnUvPv Fdmkvakns\ kμ¿in®n´p≠v. `qan D≠m bn, a\pjy\p≠mhp∂Xn\v tImSn°W°ph¿jw apºv F√m arKßfpw Hscm‰ PohX¥phn¬ \n∂p≠mbn. B PohX¥phmWv Pohs‚ BZy sØ almaqewF∂v Fdmkvakv FgpXn. Cu BZnaqew krjvSn°m≥ Hcoizc≥ thWw. ]s£ AhnSp∂tßm´p≈ hnImkØn¬ Cuizc\v

76

{]Imikn‘p

]¶n√ F∂mWt±lØns‚ hmZw. 1803 ¬ ]ZyØnsegpXnb The Temple of Nature Hcp sNdnb ssat{Imkvt°m∏n°v kq£va ssPhIWØn¬ \n∂v k¿ΔPohPmehpap≠mb Ncn{XamWv. 18 G{]n¬ 1802 \v 70 mw hb n¬ At±lw acn®p. emam¿°v 1763 ¬ Ahkm\n® 7 yrs war ¬ {^©pssk\yØnep ≠mbncp∂p. Ing°≥ {^m≥knepw saUn‰td\nb\nepw I≠ h\y PohPmeØn¬ Aßs\ Xmev]cyw h∂p. 1768 ¬ anen´dn PohnXw Ahkm\n∏n®v ]mcokn¬ Hcp _m¶n¬ tPmen°mc\mbn. saUnkn≥, t_m´Wn {]`mjW߃ [mcmfw {ihn®p. 10 h¿jØn\Iw cNn® French Flora {^m≥knse kkyimkv{X⁄¿°v Ãm≥tU¿Uv sSIvÃv _p°v Bbn. Cu ]pkvXIhpw _pt^mWns‚ ]cnNbhpw sIm≠v A°mZan

bnte°v

_tbmfPn, ^nknIvkv, sIankv{Sn, sa‰ocntbmfPn F∂nhbmbncp ∂p CjvShnjb߃. Invertebrates (\s´√n√mØ PohnIƒ) F∂ \maw emam¿°ns‚ kw`mh\bmWv. G‰hpw efnXLS\bp≈hbn¬ \n∂v G‰hpw k¶o¿Æ LS\bnep≈hbnte°p≈ hnImkw emam¿°v hnh cn®p. emam¿°v “Zoonomia” bm¬ {]tNmZn°s∏´ncp∂p F∂pw hy‡n ]camb s]cpam‰Øn¬ t]mepw Fdmkvakv Um¿hn\pambn kmZriyw D≠mbncp∂p F∂pw Nq≠n°mWn°s∏Sp∂p. emam¿°ns‚ Hcp ]cn anXn At±lØns‚ `mjbmbncp∂p. Dt±in®Xv hy‡am°m\p≈ Ignhv At±lØn\p≠mbncp∂n√. 78 mw hb n¬ IÆns‚ ImgvNtijn t]mb tijamWv 7 hmfyambn (1815-1822) At±lØns‚ ]pkvXIw {]kn≤o Icn°s∏´sX∂Xn\m¬ CXv Xo¿Øpw icnbmIWsa∂n√.

sXcs™Sp°s∏´p.

_m¶v tPmen Dt]£n°m≥ km[n®p.

emam¿°ns‚ 4 \nba߃

1. Poh∂v kz¥amb i‡nbm¬ F√m ssPhicoc߃°pw h¿≤n

°m\p≈ \nc¥chmk\ klPamWv (GItImiØn¬ \n∂v _lp tImi Pohnbnte°v)

2. Pohnbn¬ ]pXnb Awi߃, ]pXpXmbn A\p`hs∏Sp∂ Bh

iy߃ \nc¥cambnØocptºmgpw, B Bhiy߃ D≠m°p∂ ]pXp Ne\ßfmepw D≠mhp∂p.

3. AwK߃, AhbpsS IgnhpIƒ F∂nhbpsS hnImkØn\v AhbpsS \nc¥c D]tbmKhpambp≈ \nc¥c _‘w A\pt]£Wo bamWv.

77

{]Imikn‘p

4. Hcp hy‡nbpsS PohImeØv am‰wsIm≠v t\SnsbSpØsX√mw Dev]mZ\ tijnbneqsS ASpØ Xeapdbnte°v ssIamdp∂p.

(Inheritance of acquired characters- CXv _tbmfPn-°en sX‰mWv.

Adnhns‚ ImcyØn¬ am{XamWv t\Snb am‰w- kwkv°mcw- ssI amdm≥ XeapdIƒ°p IgnbpI.) CkntUm¿ sP{^n sk‚ v lnebn¿ (1772-1844) emam¿°v ]dbp∂ ]pXnb Ahbh߃ D]{ZhIcamb ^eap≠m°p∂ ]£w Ah t\ Snb P¥p°ƒ NØpt]mbn, ]pXnb ]cnXÿnXnbn¬ Pohn°m≥ km [n°p∂ P¥p°ƒ am{Xw Ahtijn°psa∂p IqSn Iq´nt®¿Øp. Cu ]ivNmØeØnemWv tUm. tdm_¿´v Um¿hns‚ aI\mbn 12 s^{_phcn 1809 ¬ P\n® Nmƒkv Um¿hns‚ cwK{]htiw. Pqsse 1817 ¬ Xs‚ 8 mw hb n¬, 52 hb pImcnbmb AΩ s]s´∂p≈ Hcp hbdpthZ\bm¬ acn®Xv Um¿hn\v Xo¿°m\mhmØ ZpxJap≠m°n. A—≥ acn®pt]mb AΩsb°pdn®v Bcpw Hc£cw ]dbp∂XnjvSs∏ SmsX, PohnXw apgph≥ hnjmZ{KkvX\mbn Ign™pIqSn. ktlmZcn am¿ ho´p`cWw Gs‰SpØp. ASpØ h¿jw Um¿hns\ t_m¿Unßv kvIqfneb®p. C°meØv Np‰pap≈ {]IrXnbn¬ Ip´n BIrjvS\mbn. tPyjvT≥ Cdmkvakv AtX kvIqfnep≠mbncp∂p. c≠pt]cpw IqSn Hcp sNdnb sIankv{Sn em_d´dn D≠m°n. Fdmkvakv tIw{_nUvPn¬ saUnkn\p tN¿∂p. Um¿hn≥ saUn°¬ ]mcºcyw \ne\n¿Øm\mbn, tdm_¿´v, c≠masØ aIt\bpw FUn≥_tdmbn¬ saUn°¬ ]T\ Øn\b®p. ihw Iodptºmƒ Um¿hn\v AkpJ߃ D≠mbn. 2 Hm∏td j\pIƒ I≠tXmsS ]T\w AklyambntØm∂n. t¢mtdmt^mw Is≠Øp∂Xn\v apºmWXv. Aedn°cbp∂ Ip´nsb k¿Pdn°p hnt[ bam°p∂ cwKw At\I Imew Xs∂ th´bmSnbXmbn Hmt´m_tbm {K^nbn¬ Um¿hn≥ FgpXn. Zoonomia Um¿hn≥ hmbn®ncp∂p. IS¬ Øoc PohnIfpsS ]T\w, PntbmfPn F∂nhbnte°v kvtIm´njv Iw]m c‰ohv A\m‰anÃv tdm_¿´v {Km‚ns‚ ¢mkpIƒ Um¿hns‚ {i≤ Xncn ®phn´p. ss{IÃv tImtfPn¬ sh®v tIw{_nUvPv t_m´Wn s{]m^k¿ tPm¨ sl≥kvtem, PntbmfPn s{]m^k¿ BZw skUvPvhn°v F∂n hcpw At±lsØ BI¿jn®p. 1831 ¬ shbn¬knse ]mdIsf ]Tn°m≥ Hcp PntbmfPn°¬ bm {X t]mbn Um¿hn≥. AhnsS sh®v ]gb tIw{_nUvPv A≤ym]I≥ tPm¿Pv ]ot°m°ns‚ FgpØpIn´n. HMS _oKnfn¬ Hcp k¿tΔ bm{X

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bv°p≈ £Ww. sl≥kvtem CXn\v Um¿hns‚ t]cmWv iq]m¿i sNbvXncp∂Xv. ]s£ CXns‚ ^≠v kzbw hln°Ww. BZyw A—≥

hnkΩXn®p. 27 Unkw_¿ 1831 \v _oKnfn¬ ]pds∏Sptºmƒ Um¿hn\v

23 hb mbn´n√. 5 h¿jw \o≠p\n∂p Cu temIw Np‰nk©mcw. Nnen

bn¬ sh®v Hcp bYm¿∞ `qIºw ImWm\pw, Ic Dbcp∂Xpw kap{Z \nc∏n¬ \n∂v HcSn DbcØn¬ kap{ZØnse PohnIƒ \nt£]n°s∏ Sp∂Xp \nco£n°m\pw Um¿hn\v Ahkcap≠mbn. ebens‚ Princi- ples of Geology hmfyw I Xs‚ k©mcØn¬ Um¿hn≥ IqsS sIm≠p t]mbncp∂p. AXn¬ eb¬ h¿Æn® {]Xn`mkamWv Um¿hn≥ I≠Xv. ebens‚ IÆneqsS temIw I≠v Um¿hn≥ Dd® bqWnt^mant‰dnb \mbn. At±lw Xs∂ ]n∂osSgpXn- Fs‚ ]pkvXI߃ ]IpXn ebens‚ akvXnjv°Øn¬ \n∂p≠mbXmWv. ebens‚ principles s‚ ta∑ AXv HcmfpsS a\ ns‚ tSm¨(tone) am‰n°fbp∂p F∂XmWv Xncn®p h∂t∏mƒ aI\p In´nb kzoIcWw A—s\ hnkvabn∏n°bpw B\μn∏nbv°bpw sNbvXp. Um¿hn\v ebens\ ImWm≥ Ahkcw In´n.

1839 ¬ 30 mw hb n¬ -Journal of Researches F∂ t]cn¬ Um¿hn \pw Iym]v‰≥ ^n‰vkvtdmbpw _oKvƒ bm{Xm\p`h߃ FgpXnbXv {]kn ≤oIcn®p; Um¿hn≥ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ -Fellow Bbn; Ikn≥ FΩsb hnhmlw Ign®p. 1842 ¬ Um¿hn≥ `mcytbmsSm∏w sI‚n¬