tUm.

kph¿Æ \me∏m´v
MBBS, MD (Pathology)

1946 sabv 6 \v P\\w.
1998 ¬ saUn°¬ tImtfPv k¿Δokn¬ \n∂p dn´b¿ sNbvX
tijw AarX C≥Ãn‰yq´v Hm^v saUn°¬ kb≥kv & dnk¿®v
sk‚dn¬ s{]m^kdpw slUv Hm^v Zn Un∏m¿´psa‚pw Bbncp∂p.
Ct∏mƒ tImgnt°mSv k¿ΔIemimebn¬ cmKNnIn’ ^m°¬´n
s{Sbn\nßv sNøp∂Xn\p≈ Icn°pew kne_kv IΩn‰nbpsS D]tZi
Ibmbn {]h¿Øn°p∂p. {][m\ IrXnIƒ: kp[mkn‘p (D]\njXv
`mjyw), ]flkn‘p (kuμcyelcn), {_lvakn‘p ({_lvakq{Xw
`mjyw), kuh¿Æw (`KhZvKoXm `mjyw), \mZebkn‘p, ]mtYbw,
C¥ysb Is≠ج- hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nIbneqsS, \me
∏m´ns‚ N{Ihmfs®ºpcpfn, Hcp ImeL´Øns‚ Hm¿Ωbv°v, ap{Z,
km{μm\μw, a[pcebw, C∂sØ AΩ, AarXtPymXn, ]pgbpsS IY,
Without a stumble- A book on the spirituality of Music, Music therapy in
Administration Management and Education, Ragachikilsa, Education in
ancient India- Nalanda & Valabhi University.
Website:
e-mail:

http://drsuvarnanalapattrust.org
www.nalapat.com
snalapat@gmail.com
snalapat@yahoo.com

{]Imikn‘p

tUm. kph¿Æ \me∏m´v

Un.kn. _pIvkv

Book details

Typeset: K.S. Sunil Kumar, Edappally
Cover design: S.S. Likesh Babu, Ernakulam

{]km[I°pdn∏v

ap≥Ipdn∏v
23.10.1993 alm\han. A©paWn. AIse Im°Iƒ Icbp∂Xp
tIƒ°mw. inht£{XØn¬ \n∂p {]`mXIo¿Ø\߃. PmeIØn\p
]pdØv almtZhnbpsS Agn®n´ apSnt]mse IcntaL߃. Ing°p
sXfn™ HcpIjvWw BImi°odn¬ Xnfßp∂ ip{I≥. tZhnbpsS
eemSØnse IkvXqcnXneIw t]mse! t\m°nt\m°nbncns° Hcp
hmIyw, AXns‚ A¿Yw, a\ n¬ sXfnbp∂p. hcnhcnbmbn apdbmbn
kw`hn°p∂, Bh¿Ø\mflIamb (ssk¢n°¬) N{Icq]amb H∂v.
Ima߃ shdpsX... BflImaw hn≤n... ho¨ hn≤n Imamw. hnZybmIp∂
cYw AwKnIsf°qSmsX “A\wK”ambn tJNcnbmbn BImiam¿t§
k©cn°p∂p. D]m[nIfn√msX k©cn°p∂ B hccpNncamb hc
cpNncYsØ Rm≥ [ym\n°p∂p. “hnhccpNnhmIy_≤”amb B cYw,
AwKnhmNnItfmSpIqSn hmIy\n_≤am°n Dc°phm≥ A[ymb߃
cNn°p∂p. Aam\pjcmb ]q¿hP¿°v (a¨ad™ ]q¿hnI¿°v) cpNn
Icamb, AhccpNnIcamb B hccpNnhmIyw hmKvtZhnbmb ]d®n
bmbn I¨ap∂n¬ AhXcn°p∂p. Cu alm\hanbn¬!
cmaw ZicYw hn≤n
amw hn≤n P\ImflPmw
Atbm[ymaShow hn≤n
KO XmX bYmbpJw

25352244
54435103
11451444
32111272

BsI kwJy
Xncn®n´m¬

123350063
360053321

CXv 360000000 + 50000 + 3300 + 21 Fs∂gpXmw. F√mw tPymXnj,
tPymXnimkv{X]cambn {][m\kwJyIƒ. KO XmX... KO XmX F∂v
Fs∂ kZm apt∂m´v \bn® CØcw kz]v\Z¿i\߃ At\Iw!!!
kz]v\Z¿i\ßsf°pdn®v “]mtYb”Øn¬ FgpXnbt∏mƒ ]e¿°pw
kwibw. kz]v\w at\mtcmKnIfpsS k¶¬]temIat√ F∂v! AXv
imkv{XkΩXamb bYm¿YtemIamtWm F∂v! kXyhpw k¶¬]hpw
XΩn¬ FhnsS th¿Xncn°Ww? sPmlm\kv sIπ¿ kz¿§LSnImcw
kz]v\w I≠p; Xm≥ N{μ\nte°v AXn¬ k©cn®p F∂pw! AXv
sIπ¿ at\mtcmKnbmbXpsImt≠m imkv{X_p≤n GdnbXpsImt≠m?

Imew, tZiw, Du¿÷w, {Zhyw Chsbms° H∂mIp∂ Hc]q¿h\nanj
Ønse [ym\^eamWv Z¿i\w. AXn¬ kz]v\kam\amb H∂p≠v.
]s£ AXv kXyamWv. at\mtcmKa√. temIØn¬ C∂phsc D≠mbn
´p≈ F√m NcmNcßfpsSbpw, k¿h `mjIfpsSbpw, imkv{XßfpsS
bpw kwkvImcßfpsSbpw Fs ≥kv AYhm ckw Bb ckm\p`hw
(kuμcyelcn) ImetZißfpsS _‘\ap≈ hymhlmcnItemIØn
s‚ ]cnanXm\p`hßfpsS ]cn[n°∏pdw BbXpsIm≠mWv Ah \sΩ
kpjp]vXnbnepw, kpjp]vXnk{Zpiamb [ym\kam[nbnepw tXSnhcp
∂Xv. CXn\v Ct∏mƒ akvXnjvIKthjWw sIm≠v sXfnhpIƒ D≠v.
am\hNcnXw Im¿ kmKs‚ tImkvanIv Imem¥cØn¬ (Ie≥U¿)
Ahkm\sØ GXm\pw sk°≥UpIƒ am{XamWv. AXmbXv \Ω
sfms° bYm¿Yw F∂p sX‰n≤cn®ncn°p∂ Cu sIm®pPohnXa√
kXyw. t_m[imkv{Xw, kwKoXw, kmlnXyw, XXzNn¥, imkv{Xw
Chsbms° \ΩpsS akvXnjvIØnep≠v. Chsb√mw hnIkzcamhm
\p≈ Hcp A¥co£hpw, AXn\p]‰nb Np‰p]mSpIfpw In´nbm¬ GXp
a\pjy°p´nbpsS {]Xn`bpw hnIkzcamhpw. AXmXp kabØv {]]©
in¬∏nbpsS Iym≥hmkn¬ \n¿Æbn® t]mse \sΩ tXSn Z¿i\ßfpw,
{ipXnIfpw hs∂ØpI Xs∂ sNøpw. Aßs\ hs∂Ønb {KŸß
fpw, AdnhpIfpw am{XamWv \sΩ \mam°p∂Xv.
C¥ybnse G‰hpw ]g°ap≈ imJbmb KWnXw, AtXmS\p_
‘n®p Xs∂ hf¿∂ph∂ kwKoXw, tPymXnjw, `mjmimkv{Xw Chbp
sS ka\zbamWv Fs‚ ]e IrXnIfpw. Hcp]t£ C∂p \ap°v e`n®n
´p≈ G‰hpw ]gb hymIcW, KWnX, IYm, `mjmimkv{XßfpsS
sb√mw cNbnXmhmb hccpNnsb kw_‘n®v D≠mb Z¿i\w Cu
ka\zbØn\p≈ Hcp apt∂mSnbmbncp∂ncn°Ww. hccpNnbpsS tIcf
_‘w t\m°ptºmƒ tIcfØn\v Cu hnjbßfn¬ D≠mbncp∂ Ah
Kmlw hfsc ]gbXmsW∂p ImWmw. ]ctaizc≥ ]m¿hXn°v ]d™p
sImSpØ _rlZvIY ]pjv]Z¥≥ Hfn™p\n∂p tI´Xns‚ ^eambn
hccpNn F∂ t]tcmsS Iuimw_nbn¬ “ImXymb\” tKm{XØn¬
AKv\ninJ≥ F∂ {_mlvaW\v hkpZØ F∂ ]Xv\nbn¬ P\n®p.
Ip´n°meØv hymUnbpw C{μZØ\pw ho´n¬ h∂v apcPw sIm´n∏mSp
∂Xp I≠ hccpNn Ah¿s°m∏w BSpIbpw ]mSpIbpw sNbvXp. AΩ
bpsS A\phmZtØmsS AhcpsS IqsS hnZy A`ykn°m≥ ]mSeo
]pcØv h¿j≥ F∂ Kpcphns\ kao]n®p. Hcp {]mhiyw sIm≠v hc
cpNnbpw, c≠p{]mhiyw sIm≠v hymUnbpw aq∂p{]mhiyw sIm≠v C{μ
ZØ\pw k¿h imkv{Xhpw lrZnkvYam°n. hccpNn D]h¿js‚ ]p{Xn

D]tImisb hnhmlw Ign®p. h¿js‚ injy∑mcn¬ aμ_p≤nbm
bncp∂ ]mWn\ntbmSp tXm‰v sF{μhymIcWw hccpNn°v \jvSamb
t∏mƒ At±lw lnamebØn¬ sN∂p X] v sNbvXp hymIcW
⁄m\w ho≠pw t\Sn h¿j≥ F∂ Kpcphn\p Kpcphmbn. C{μZØ≥
IqSphn´p IqSpamdn tbmK\μ\mbn cmPyw `cn°p∂Xpw hccpNn a{¥n
bmbXpw hccpNn NmWIys\ I≠Xpw, ]q¿h\μ]p{X≥ N{μKp]vXs\
NmWIy≥ cmPmhm°nbXpw _rlXvIYbnep≠v. hccpNn hn‘yhmkn
\nsb Z¿in®Xpw AhfpsS Acpf∏mSm¬ hn‘yhmknbmb ImW`qXn
sb ImWp∂Xpw At±lØn\p IYIƒ apgph≥ tIƒ∏n®v im]ap‡
\mbXpw _Zcym{iaØn¬ sh®v tbmKmKv\nbn¬ tZlw \in∏n®v inh
temIw ]qInbXpamWv KpWmUys‚ hccpNnIY. AXn¬ tIcftam
]d®n s]‰ ]¥ncpIpetam C√. F∂m¬ hccpNn kckzXnsb kz]v\w
ImWp∂ Hcp cwKap≠v. “\ns‚ icochmkn\nbmb kckzXnbmWp
Rm≥; D]tImi \ns‚ ]q¿hP∑Ønse ]Xv\nbmWv” F∂p ]dbp∂
XmWv Zriyw. \ΩpsS F√mhcptSbpw AIØncn°p∂ hmKvtZhnbmb
B ]d®n (]dbp∂hƒ) Xs∂ kckzXn. A¥¿hmln\nbmbn, t_m[
cq]Øn¬, {]Pv\m]mcanXbmbn HgpIp∂ PetZhX.
Cu ]pkvXIw aq∂v `mKßfmbn´mWv cNn®ncn°p∂Xv.
BZy`mKw B[p\nI tPymXnimkv{XØns‚ hf¿®bpsS Ncn{X
amWv C∂v \Ωƒ FØn\n¬°p∂ imkv{XcwKsØ AdnbmsXtbm,
XmcXayw sNømsXtbm D≈ ]ucmWnI imkv{X]T\߃°v {]k‡n
IpdhmWv. XmcXay]T\w sIm≠v `mjbpw, imkv{Xhpw imkv{X kmln
Xyhpw hf¿® {]m]nt°≠Xv C∂p aebmf`mjbv°v BhiyamWv.
`mjsb kº∂am°m\p≈ Fs‚ bXv\Øns‚ Hcp XpS¿®bmWnXpw.
c≠mw `mKw hcmlanlncs‚ _rlZzmcmlokwlnXbpsS BZysØ
51 A[ymbßfpsS `mjyamWv. CXn¬ ]e `mKßfpw B[p\nIimkv{X
kw_‘amb AdnhpItfmSv (AXmXp `mKØv) XmcXayw sNøm≥
Fs‚ Ignh\pkcn®v {ian®n´p≠v. aq∂mw `mKw Zr§WnX]ctaizcs‚
{Kl\ymbZo]nIbpsS Hcp kw£n]vXcq]amWv. ]ucmWnI `mcXob¿
D]tbmKn®ncp∂ ]e b{¥ßƒ- ]gb sSekvtIm]v AS°w- CXns‚
Ahkm\`mKØv Nn{XßtfmSpIqSn, tN¿Øn´p≠v. tZmfhoc F∂
C≥Ukv hm√n \KcØn¬ I≠ tKmfb{¥Øns‚ amXrIbmWv C∂pw
\Ωƒ hm\\nco£WØn\p]tbmKn°p∂Xv.
AXmXp `mKØn\p ap≥]n¬ AXmXp `mKsØ°pdn®v sNdnsbmcp
apJhpc°pdn∏pw IqSn tN¿Øn´p≠v.

Cu h¿jw `mcXk¿°m¿ {io\nhmk cmam\pPs‚ _lpam\m¿Yw
C‚¿\mjW¬ Cb¿ Zm^v amØam‰nIvkv Bbn {]Jym]n®ncn°bmWv.
GXm\pw h¿j߃°papºv Rm≥ cNn® Cu IrXn, AXn{][m\amb
Cu h¿jØn¬ ]pdØnd°phm≥ klmbn® {io Un.kn. chntbmSv \μn.
CXns‚ Un.Sn.]n NpaXe Gs‰SpØ s{]m^. hn.]n.F≥. \ºqXncntbm
Spw, kztZin imkv{X {]ÿm\t ØmSpw {]tXyIw \μn.
kph¿Æ \me∏m´v {SÃn\pth≠n,
kvt\lmZc]q¿hw,
1 Unkw_¿, 2012

tUm. kph¿Æ \me∏m´v

`mKw H∂v

C¥y-bqtdm∏v
BZm\ {]Zm\߃

D≈S°w
I. imkv{XNcn{Xw
(C¥y-bqtdm∏v BZm\ {]Zm\߃

1. ⁄m\w ]gbXpw ]pXnbXpw
2. {KlKXn, k¿§w
3. ¢mkn°¬ imkv{Xw
4. Um¿hn\nkw
5. {]Imiw, AWpkn≤m¥w
6. h≥IcIfpsS ÿewam‰w
7. sF≥ssÃ≥, sF≥ssÃ\ptijw
8. PKZoiv N{μt_mkv
II. anlntcm]tZiw. hmcmlo_rlZvkwlnXm

15
31
52
76
84
95
128
146
155

(51 A≤ymb߃)
III. ]ctaizchncNnXm {KlW\ymbZo]nIm

541

BapJw
CXv imkv{XØns‚ am{Xw almAssZzXa√; ]uckvXy ]mivNm
Xyimkv{XßfpsS almssZzXw IqSnbmWv
Izm≠w
kn≤m¥w
sshZypXn
Im¥i‡n
{]Imiw

sshZypX Im¥nI
i‡n (^mcsU 1830)
{]Imi Im¥nI
i‡n (amIvkvsh¬ 1870)

Zp¿∫e i‡n
(W,Z IW߃) 1900
{]_ei‡n (1930)

sshZypX Zp¿∫e i‡n
GIoIcWw
1970 shbv≥ s_¿§vkemw

Zp¿∫e {]_e i‡n
GIoIcWw (Unification)

Bt]£nIXm
kn≤m¥w
Imew, tZiw
{KlNe\w KpcpXzmI¿jWw
1600 (\yq´¨)
`qNe\w

Bt]£nIXm
kn≤m¥w (1905-1915
sF≥ssÃ≥)

ssPthm¿÷w
(\yqtdm^nkntbmfPn)
alm AssZzXw
(Super unification theory)

ssPhhpw AssPhhpw Aßs\ H∂mbnØocp∂p. CXv ]pXnbXv.
IWmZs‚ ]camWpkn≤m¥hpw, I]nes‚ kmwJyhpw ]XRvPenbp
sS tbmKZ¿i\hpw, `mcXob tPymXnimkv{Xhpw IqSnbmWv C¥ybn¬
GIwkZvhn{]m _lp[m hZ¥n F∂ AssZzX imkv{Xw D≠m°nbXv.
]pXnbXpw ]gbXpw IqSn Rm≥ Cßs\ ka\zbn°mw.

{]Imikn‘p
{]Imiw, \mZw
{_lvaw
kXyw

i‡n, Ne\w
PKØv
Bt]£nI kXyw (an∞y)

E

MC 2

Izm≠w | ]camWp
kn≤m¥w
{_lvax kXyw

1
{]]©w-AXns‚ Bt]
£nIX-tPymXnimkv{Xw
PK∑nYym

.
O

ssPthm¿÷w
Poh≥
kXyw (Pohmflm)
ssPthm¿÷w (Bioenergy)
+1+1+1...... n+1
\yqtdm^nkntbmfPn
tbmKimkv{Xw
Pothm{_lvssah\m]cx

1977-78 ¬ ‘AarXtPymXn’ F∂ ]pkvXIØn¬ Bcw`n®XmWv
Cu AssZzX eoesb A\mhcWw sNøm\p≈ {ia߃.
1) AssPh {]]©Ønse F√m hkvXp°sfbpw [mXp°sfbpw,
AhbpsS AWp°sfbpw Ahsb°mƒ sNdnb ]camWp°sfbpw
BZyw {Kln°pI. ssPh{]]©Øn¬ sshdkv apX¬ a\pjy≥ hsc
F√m Pohmflm°fpw.
2) [mXp°ƒ, AWp°ƒ, ]camWp°ƒ F∂nhXs∂ F∂dnbpI.
3) ssPhhpw AssPhhpamb Du¿÷w, ]nfiw, KXobX F∂nh
sb a\ nem°pI.
4) Du¿÷Øns‚ (i‡nbpsS) hnfbm´a√msX C°mWp∂ alm
{]]©ßfpw {_lvamfißfpw as‰m∂pa√ F∂ ‘hnZym’X{¥w Adn
™pIgn™m¬ XqWnepw Xpcpºnepw arK]£nIfnepw a\pjy\nepw
F√mw Cuizci‡nbpsS hnfbm´w ImWmw. CXmWv C¥ybpsS
AssZzXw.
5) CXns\ icn°dn™m¬ C¥ybn¬ C∂p≈ F√m hnLS\
hmZßfpw Ahkm\nt°≠XmWv. F√m t`Zhmk\Ifpw Dt]£n®v
a\pjy¿ kvt\l]q¿Δw kt¥mj]q¿Δw Cu sNdnb PohnXsØ al
\obam°n Pohn°m≥ CX√msXmcp hgnbn√.
‘kvt\l’amWv G‰hpw henb aXw. ‘⁄m\’amWv G‰hpw henb
[\w. kvt\lhpw ⁄m\hpap≈ Hcp temIP\Xsb hm¿sØSp°m≥,
Fs‚ cmPyØnse P\߃°v Cu {]Imikn‘p klmbIamhs´.
arXyphn¬ \n∂v AarXXzØnte°v...
Ccp´n¬ \n∂v {]ImiØnte°v...
AkXyØn¬ \n∂v kXyØnte°v...
A[¿ΩØn¬ \n∂v [¿ΩØnte°v...
D≤tc≤camflm\w!!
22.12.2008
tUm. kph¿W \me∏m´v
14

{]Imikn‘p

1. ⁄m\w- ]gbXpw ]pXnbXpw
tPm¨ {Kn-∫ns‚ Science a history (1543-2001) bn¬ apJhpc Bcw`n
°p∂ hmNIw, imkv{Xw \sΩ ]Tn∏n® G‰hpw {][m\]mTw {]]©
Øn¬ \mw a‰p≈hbn¬ \n∂v special A√ F∂msW∂pw CXv bqtdm
∏n¬ XpSßnbXv 16 -mw \q‰m≠n¬ tIm∏¿ \n° v, kqcy tI{μoIrX
{]]©sØ°pdn®v ]dbpIbpw Keoentbm 17 -mw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZy
Øn¬ `qan Hcp {KlamsW∂v sXfnbn°m≥ sSekvtIm∏v D]tbmKn°
bpw sNbvXXp apXemsW∂pamWv. ]n∂oSv kqcy≥ At\Iw \£{Xß
fn¬ H∂p am{XamsW∂pw a\ nembn. 20 -mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm\
Øn¬ \ΩpsS bqWnthgvkv IqSmsX At\Iw bqWnthgvkpIƒ Ds≠
∂v a\ nembn.
icoc imkv{XsØ°pdn®v 1543 ¬ B≥{Unbkv shtkenbkv
FgpXnb De humani Corporis Fabrica, AtX h¿jw {]kn≤oIcn®
tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ De revolutionilus orbinus Colestium F∂o {KŸ
߃ sshZyhpw tPymXnimkv{Xhpw Htc h¿jamWv bqtdm∏n¬ B[p
\nI imkv{X Ncn{XØn¬ A`nhr≤n {]m]n®sX∂p ImWmw. CXv
C¥ybn¬ t]m¿®pKokpImcpw U®pImcpw F√mw FØnb tijamsW
∂pw {i≤n°pI. bqtdm∏nse \thm∞m\sØ Xp¿°nIƒ tIm¨Ãm‚n
t\m∏nƒ ]nSn® (sabv 29-1453) Zn\w apXemWv IW°m°p∂Xv. 1687 ¬
\yq´≥ Philsophical naturalis principia mathematica {]kn≤oIcn®Xp
hscbmWv \thm∞m\ Imew. 1453-1687 hsc 234 h¿jw. AD 400-900
(500 h¿jw) Ah¿ XßfpsS Ccp≠ ImeL´hpw AD 900-1400 (500
h¿jw) XßfpsS a≤yImeL´hpambn IW°m°p∂p.
Xp¿°nIƒ tIm¨Ãm‚nt\m∏nƒ ]nSn®t∏mƒ Hcp kwLw {Ko°p
`mjm ]finX¿ C‰enbnte°v XßfpsS {KŸßfpambn t]mbn. Ahn
sS B {KŸßfpsS ]T\w \S∂t∏mgmWv IdpØ (Ccp≠) ImeL´
Øn\p apºp≈ ImeL´sØ ]p\cp≤cn°m≥ ]≤XnIƒ D≠mbXv.
15

{]Imikn‘p

imkv{XØn\p tdmam°m¿ henb kw`mh\sbm∂pw sNbvXncp∂n√.
14 -mw \q‰m≠nse tπKv, sXmgnemfnIfpsS Zu¿√`yØn¬ Iemin®
t∏mƒ IqSpX¬ ASnaIsf In´pI, a\pjym≤zm\Øn\p ]Icw \n¬
°p∂ b{¥ßƒ (technology) I≠p]nSn°pI, ]gb hym]mc am¿§
߃ ({]tXyIn®pw IS¬ am¿§w) I≠p]nSn°pI apXemb e£yßtfm
sSbmWv bqtdm∏v imkv{XsØ t]mjn∏n®Xv. tIm∏¿ \n° v ]gb
{Ko°p XØzimkv{X⁄sct∏msebmbncp∂p. ]co£W߃ \SØp
Itbm, kz¥ambn BImi \nco£Ww sNbvIsbm, Xs‚ Is≠Øep
Iƒ as‰mcmƒ°v ]co£Ww \SØmhp∂hbmsW∂v [cn°pItbm
sNbvXncp∂n√. Cu A¿∞Øn¬ At±lw Hcp ‘Scientist’ A√. tSmfan
bpsS ]gb k¶o¿Æamb hnhcWsØ IqSpX¬ efnXam°n hnhcn
°p∂ Hcp ‘Nn¥m]co£Ww’ (thought experiment) BWv sNbvXXv.
CuPn]vXn¬ P\n-®p hf¿∂ Ptolemy of Alexandria (2nd century AD) {Ko
kns‚ Adnhv Dƒs°m≠mWv imkv{XPvR\mbXv. AeIvkm{finbbn
se {Ko°phn⁄m\w AeIvkm≠¿°ptijap≈ (C¥ybn¬ \n∂v
IS¬ ISs∂Ønb) hnPvRm\tiJcamWv. 300 BC apX¬ 200 AD
hscbp≈ {Ko°v Bkvt{SmWanbpsS Ncn{XamWv tSmfanbpsS {KŸw.
Ad_n `mjbn¬ Almagist (The greatest). {Ko°p `mjbnsegpXnb
aqeØn\v The mathematical compilation Ft∂ A¿∞ap≈q. tSmfan
{Kl\nco£Ww \SØpIbpw Xs‚ ap≥KmanIsf t]mse Nn{X߃
(\£{X `q]Sw AS°w) hc°pIbpw sNbvXncp∂p. AXn\m¬ tIm∏¿
\n° nt\°mƒ imkv{Xob am¿§w D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. ]s£, tIm∏¿
\n° ns‚ Intuition BWv, tSmfanbpsS imkv{X am¿§Øns‚ I≠p
]nSpØambncp∂n√ icn F∂Xv {it≤bamWv.
1. {Kl{`aW I£y ]q¿Æ hrØamWv.
2. _p[≥, ip{I≥, sNmΔ, i\n, hymgsa∂ {Kl߃, kqcy≥,
N{μ≥, \£{X߃ ChbpsS Ne\amWv ]Tn®ncp∂Xv.
3. CXn\p≈ {]mtbmKnI am¿§w `qanbnse \nco£I\v Xm≥ \n¬
°p∂ `qansb tI{μam°n a‰p≈hsb ]Tn°emWv.
4. Hcp {Klw Xs‚ tI{μ _nμphn\p Np‰pw Hcp sNdnb hrØØn
epw, `qan°p Np‰pw Hcp henb hrØØnepw Idßp∂p. sNdnb hrØ
sØ (N{IØn\p≈nse N{IsØ) Epicycle F∂p ]dbp∂p.
5. ImWm\mhmØ henb kv ^ SnI hrØ߃ BImi
tKmfßsf hrØØn¬ Nen∏n°p∂p. Ah `qan°p Np‰pw Nen°p∂n√.
16

{]Imikn‘p

`qanbn¬ \n∂Ise Hcp _nμphns\ (Equant point- Hmtcm {KlØn\pw
thsd) Np‰nbmWv Nen°p∂Xv.
6. `qan tI{μ_nμp. as‰√m hkvXp°fpw Equant Point s\ Np‰n°d
ßp∂p. henb N{Iw Equant Point s\ tI{μam°nbXmWv. Cu N{IØn
\v deferent F∂v t]cv.
CXv (tSmfan) kvYnc XmcßfpsS ]cnÿnXnbn¬ `qanbnse \nco
£I≥ ImWp∂ {]Xn`mkßfpsS Hcp h¿Æ\bmWv. C¥ybn¬ CXv
tPymXnimkv{XØns‚ {]mYanI \nco£W]mTamWv. BZyambn I∏¬
bm{X sNbvXhcpw, KncnapIfnepw IStemc kaXeßfnepw \n∂v \nco
£n®hcpamb BZnah¿§Øns‚ {]mtbmKnI A\p`h⁄m\w. CXm
Wv AeIvkm≠dpsS ImeØv {Koknte°pw AeIvkm{finbbnte
°pw k©cn®v tSmfanbpsS {KŸØn¬ ImWp∂ imkv{Xw.
C¥ybn¬ kqcy\mWv kucbqYtI{μw. `qanbn¬ \n∂p≈ `qtI{μ
hyhkvY ‘\nco£W’Øns‚ data bmWv. AXv ]n∂oSv _oPKWnXw
sh®v ]©mwKKWnXw accurate B°m\mWv. BC 3 -mw \q‰m≠n¬ Xs∂
kqcy\mImw tI{μsa∂v AcnÃm¿°kv kwibw {]ISn∏n®ncp∂p. tSm
fanbpsS hnhcWw k¶o¿ÆamWv. F¶nepw \nco£Ww sIm≠v test
sNøm\pw {]hNn°m\pw Ignbp∂ {KlÿnXnsb AXn\dnbmw. 19 s^
{_phcn 1473 ¬ P\n® (t]mfnjv) ans°memPv tIm∏¿\n°v Xs‚ \maw
em‰n≥ `mjbnem°n, \ns°mfmkv tIm∏¿ \n°kv Bbn. A—≥ hym
]mcn. AΩmh≥ _nj∏v. 1496 ¬ C‰enbn¬ h∂v \oXnimkv{Xhpw sa
Unkn\pw ¢mkn°pIfpw KWnXhpw ]Tn®p. 1519 ¬ 7 -mw \q‰m≠nse
ss_km‚nb≥ Xntbm^nekv kntamI‰bpsS IhnXm kamlmcw {Ko
°n¬ \n∂v em‰n\nte°v X¿÷a sNbvXv {]kn≤oIcn®p. 1506 ¬ t]mf
≠n¬ Xncns®Øn. 1512 ¬ AΩmh≥ eq°mkv acn°pwhsc At±lØn
s‚ ^nknjy\pw sk{I´dnbpambncp∂p. Xs‚ ]≈n tPmenIƒ (canon),
saUn°¬ tPmenIƒ, A\h[n sNdnb knhn¬ Hm^okp Imcy߃
F∂nhbv°nSbnepw Bkv{SmWanbn¬ Xmev]cyw \ne\n¿Øn. 1510 ¬
Is≠Ønb Xs‚ tIm∏¿\n°kv tamU¬ 1543 emWv At±lw {]kn
≤oIcn®Xv. 33 h¿jsØ Xmakw F¥n\v?
1. At±lw Xs‚ Canon, saUn°¬ tPmenIfm¬ Ft∏mgpw Xnc
t°dnb hy‡nbmbncp∂p. ]≈n iºfØn\v \oXn ImWn°m≥ At±
lw kZm AXn\mbn {]h¿Øn®p. t{^mw t_m¿°v IØo{Uense CS
hI°m¿°pw km[p°ƒ°pw th≠n ]Ww hmßmsX saUn°¬ k¿
Δokv sNbvXp.
17

{]Imikn‘p

2. KWnX⁄s\∂ \nebv°v Id≥kn ]cnjv°cWØn\p≈
πm≥ D≠m°n®Xv At±lsØs°m≠mWv.
3. \nba⁄\mIbm¬ diocese s‚ \nba Imcyßfn¬ At±l
tØmSmWv D]tZiw tXSnbncp∂Xv.
4. 1520 ¬ Ing°≥ _mƒ´nIv {]tZihpw {]jybpw \nb{¥n®ncp∂
Syqt´mWnIv ss\‰pIƒ F∂ {IqtkU¿am¿°v Xpeyamb aXkwLw
t]mf≠v B{Ian®t∏mgpw A{]Xo£nXambn tkh\w sNtø≠nh∂p.
A√≥Ão\nse Hcp tIm´ B{IanIƒs°Xnsc amkßtfmfw At±lw
ImØp kq£n®p.
5. ]gb tNmZy߃-°v DØcw sImSp°p∂ Xs‚ Is≠ج
]pXnb tNmZy߃ D≠m°psa∂ Adnhv At±lØn\p≠mbncp∂p.
N{μs\°pdn®v ‘equant’ F∂ [mcW kzoImcyambncp∂n√. GXmWv
{]]©Øns‚ tI{μw? kqcy≥ tI{μamWv. F∂mepw N{μs‚ {]iv\w
Xocp∂n√. {Kl߃ ]Xps°bmhp∂Xn\pw thKØnemhp∂Xn\pw
Epicycles s\ B{ibnt°≠n hcp∂p. G‰hpw AIsebp≈ {KlØn\
∏pdw \£{X߃ (ÿncXmcw) Hcp crystal sphere t\mSp _‘n®sX
¶n¬, `qan Nen°ptºmƒ Ahbnepw N\\ap≠mhWw (parallax). Imdn
encn°ptºmƒ ]pdsØ sNSnIfmWv Nen°p∂sX∂v tXm∂pw t]mse.
]s£, Nen°p∂ `qanbnencp∂v t\m°ptºmƒ Aßs\ \£{Xw Nen
°p∂Xv ImWp∂n√. \£{X߃ {Klßfn¬ \n∂v \qdp IW°n\v
ssa¬ AIsebmbmte parallax effect ImWm\mhmØ hn[w sNdp
Xmhq. ]s£ F¥n\mWv Cuizc≥ C{Xbpw hensbmcp iq\ykvYew
{Kl߃°pw \£{X߃°panSbn¬ C´psh®Xv?
Cu tNmZyØn\pØcw tXSp∂Xns‚ Xmakw h∂p.
6. `qan Nen°p∂ps≠¶n¬, Xpd∂ hml\Øn¬ k©cn°p∂h
cpsS apSnsb ]d∏n°p∂ t]mse \nc¥cambn Hcp Im‰v C√mØsX¥v?
F¥psIm≠v `qNe\w kap{ZØn¬ henb thentb‰ØncIƒ D≠m°p
∂n√ (kp\manØnc). `qan Nen°p∂ps≠¶n¬ F¥psIm≠Xv `qansb
Ipep°n IjvWam°p∂n√? (16 -mw \q‰m≠nse bqtdm]y¿°v Ne\sa
∂m¬ IpXnc∏pdØp≈ bm{X, h≠nbnep≈ bm{X F∂mbncp∂p
BsI k¶ev]w. kp\mantbm `qanIpep°w sIm≠v `qanta¬ D≠mIp∂
am‰ßtfm t{Sm∏n°¬ cmPyßfnep≈h¿°v \nc¥cm\p`hamWv. AXn
\memWv Ah¿°v `qNe\sØ°pdn®v hy‡amb [mcW t\csØ
18

{]Imikn‘p

D≠mbXv). CsXms° tIm∏¿ \n° n\v D≠mb kwibßfmWv. Ah
bmemWv {]kn≤oIcWw sshInbXv.
7. kqcy≥ tI{μ_nμpsh¶n¬ F¥psIm≠v F√mw kqcy\nte°v
hogp∂n√ F∂v 16 -mw \q‰m≠nse imkv{X⁄¿ tNmZn®p. ‘We don't
know’ Ft∂ tIm∏¿ \n° n\v ]dbm≥ Ign™p≈p. HSphn¬ 1539 ¬
KWnX⁄\mb sd‰n° ns‚ \n¿_‘hpw, Xm\nt∏mƒ hr≤\msb
∂pw C\n Xs‚ {KŸw ]pdØphnSm™m¬ AXp \jvSamhpsa∂ t_m
[hpw sIm≠mWv tIm∏¿ \n° v {]kn≤oIcn°m≥ Iq´m°nbXv. sd‰n
°kv CXn\v `mctaev]n® B≥{Unbmkv Hmknbm≥Udns‚ BapJ
tØmsS ]pkvXIw ]pdØph∂p. Hmknbm≥U¿ tIm∏¿ \n°kv tamU
ens\ \ninXambn hna¿in® am¿´n≥ eqØdpsS A\pbmbn (Lutharan
minister) BIbm¬ CXv Hcp efnXamb KWnX\nbaw sIm≠v {Kl
Ne\w KWn°p∂ ]pkvXIamsW∂pw ‘bqWnthgvkns‚ bYm¿∞ tam
Ue’s√∂pw BapJØnsegpXn. am¿´n≥ eqX¿ (1483-1546) ss__nfn¬
tPmjz `qantbmS√, kqcyt\mSmWv A\ßmsX \n¬°m≥ Iev]n®sX
∂pw AXn\m¬ `qan°pNp‰pw kqcy\mWv Nen°p∂sX∂pw hmZn®p.
1543 ¬ acW°nS°bn¬ sh®mWv tIm∏¿ \n° v Xs‚ ]pkvXIØn
s‚ tIm∏n kzoIcn°p∂Xv. AXn\m¬ BapJsØ°pdns®m∂pw At±
lw ]d™n´n√.
i\n{KlØnte°p≈ Hcp spaceprobe s‚ flight KWn°ptºmƒ
kqcys\ tI{μam°nbn´pw, N{μ\nte°p≈ tdm°‰ns‚ flight KWn°p
tºmƒ `qtI{μambn´pamWv C∂pw NASA bnse imkv{X⁄¿ {]mIvSn
°¬ tamUemsbSp°p∂Xv. CXv `qan kqcys\ Np‰nbpw, N{μ≥ `qansb
Np‰nbpw, kqcy≥ {]]©Øns‚ tI{μ_nμpsh Np‰nbpw Nen°p∂p
F∂v Adnbm™n´√. Cu tI{μ_nμpsh B[p\nI imkv{Xw Milky
way (BImi KwK) F∂v hnfn°p∂p. C¥ybn¬ Cu BImi KwK
]memgnbnte°pw (sshIpWvTw) `qanbnse KwK ssIemkØnte°p
ap≈ am¿§amWv. bqtdm]y≥ s{]m´Ã‚pIƒ tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ ]p
kvXIsØ \nμn®p. tdma≥ ImØen°v N¿®v AhKWn®p. Cw•≠n¬
am{XamWv tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ ]pkvXIsØ kzmKXw sNbvXsX∂Xv
AhcpsS imkv{X t_m[w ImWn°p∂p.
a‰p{Kl߃:- _p[\pw ip{I\pw kqcyt\mSSpØv {]`mX, kmbm
”ßfn¬ am{Xw ImWp∂p. a‰p≈h Aßs\b√. BImiØns‚
GXp `mKØpw cm{XnbpsS GXp kabØpw ImWmw. tSmfan CXv kqcy
19

{]Imikn‘p

kmao]yw sIm≠msW∂v ]d™ncp∂p. tIm∏¿ \n° v Cu c≠p
{KlßfpsS I£yIƒ `qanbpsS I£ybv°IØmIbm¬, Ah \sΩ
°mƒ kqcys‚ ASpØmsW∂pw ]d™p. a‰p aq∂p {Kl߃°v `q{`
aW]YØn\v ]pdØmWv I£yIƒ. ChbpsSsb√mw kqcys\ Np‰m
s\Sp°p∂ kabw t\m°n _p[s‚ sIm√w sNdpXpw i\nbpsS sIm√w
G‰hpw Zo¿Lhpsa∂v tIm∏¿ \n° v ]d™p. {KlßfpsS Ne\
kz`mhw kqcy\pw `qanbpw XΩnep≈ ZqctØmSv Bt]£nIambn {Kl
Øn\v kqcyt\mSp≈ Zqcw A\pkcn®mWv F∂v tIm∏¿ \n° v ]d
™p. bYm¿∞Zqcw AdnbmsXbpw, {Klßsf kqcy\n¬ \n∂p≈
Zqca\pkcn®v {IaØn¬ \nivNbn®p. _p[≥, ip{I≥, `qan, sNmΔ, hym
gw, i\n F∂ {Iaw C¥y≥ cmin N{IØnep≈Xp Xs∂bmWv.
1520 ¬ P\n® KWnX⁄\pw k¿tΔbdpw XnsbmsUmsse‰v I≠p
]nSn® hy‡nbpw, BZyambn Hcp ÿncw ]©mwKw (Imemhÿ,
Bkv{SmWan, tSmfanIv tamU¬ AS°w) cNn® hy‡nbpamb entbm
Wm¿Uv UnKvkns‚ ]p{X≥ tXmakv UnKvkv (Cw•ojv Bkvt{SmWa¿)
tIm∏¿ \n° ns‚ ]pkvXIsØ t]m∏pessdkv sNbvXp. A—s‚
sSekvtIm∏v sh®v At±lw BImiw \nco£n®ncp∂p. 1572 ¬ At±lw
I≠ kq∏¿ t\mhsb ssSt°m{_mln Xs‚ A\men nkn¬ D]tbm
Kn®n´p≠v. BImi KwKbnse At\Iw \£{X߃ At\Iw kqcy∑m
cmsW∂v At±lw I≠p. 1595 ¬ UnKvkv acn°ptºmƒ Keoentbm
Keoen ]mZzbnse s{]m^kdmWv. ImØen°v k` tIm∏¿ \n°kv
tamU¬ kzoIcn® Knbm¿Umt\m {_ptWmsb 1600 ¬ Np´pIcn®p. sl¿
a‰nksa∂ hnπhmflIamb kao]\Øn\mWv (aX kao]\w) ]≈n
At±lsØ Np´sX∂pw imkv{XØn\v FXncmb√ F∂pw hmZn°p∂
h¿ c≠mbmepw ‘A`n{]mb kzm{X{¥y’Øn\v FXncmbmsW∂pw A[¿
ΩamsW∂pw ad°p∂p.
sl¿a‰nkw:- tamk ns‚ ImeØv CuPn]vXy≥ hnZybpsS ssZh
amb tXmØns‚ Iƒ´mbncp∂p CXv. tXmØns‚ {Ko°p]Zw sl¿ankv
(_p[{Klw). AXn\m¬ sl¿a‰nkw. amkntUmWnbbn¬ \n∂mWv
sl¿a‰nksØ C‰enbn¬ sIm≠ph∂Xv. ItØmen°≥ N¿®v icn
bmb aXamb CuPn]vXy≥ imkv{XØnte°v Xncn®pt]mIWsa∂v
{_qtWm hmZn®Xn\mWv 1591 ¬ sh\nkn¬ sh®v At±lsØ Inquisition
\v ssIamdnbXpw Np´pIcn®Xpw. 1616 ¬ sIπdpsS ]pkvXIw hØn°m≥
\ntcm[n®p. 1835 emWv B \ntcm[\w \o°nbXv. {_lvamfihpw
20

{]Imikn‘p

]nfimfihpw Htc kabw ]T\hnt[bambn- t¢mUnbkv Kmse\kv
F∂ Kmes‚ {KŸßƒ B≥{Unbkv shtkenbkv ho≠pw
Is≠ØnbXv ss_km‚nb≥, Ad_n kwkvImcßfn¬ \n∂mWv.
tIm∏¿ \n° pw shtkenbkpw XßfpsS Is≠ج Hcp ]p\¿
Z¿i\hpw ]gbXns‚ evolution Dw F∂√msX, Revolution F∂v hnNmcn
®ncp∂n√. tSmfantbbpw Kmet\bpw ho≠pw Is≠ØpIbmbncp∂p,
Ah¿. Kme≥ AD 130 ¬ Gjymssa\dn¬ (Xp¿°n) P\n® {Ko°v ^nkn
jy\mWv. [\nI\mb B¿°nsSIv‰pw Irjn°mc\pamb Abmƒ Kme\v
16 hb p≈t∏mƒ Cu Ip´n saUnkn\n¬ t]scSp°psa∂v kz]v\w
I≠p. sImdn¥nepw AeIvkm≥{Unbbnepw ]Tn®v P∑\mSmb s]¿Kma
Ønse t•Untb‰¿amcpsS tUmIvSdmbn, ]n∂oSv C‰enbn¬ t]mbn am¿
°kv Hmdnenbkns‚ kplrØpw sshZy\pamWv. AD 180 ¬ N{Ih¿Øn
bmb ItΩmU n\pw (Hmdnenbkns‚ ]p{X≥) At±lambncp∂p
tUmIvS¿. lnt∏m{Im‰kns\ “sshZyØns‚ ]nXmhv” F∂v At±lam
Wv hnfn®Xv. \mb, ]∂n, Ipcß≥ F∂nhsb UnkIvSv sNbvXmWv
At±lw a\pjyicocsØ°pdns®gpXnbXv. (hfsc Ipd®v a\pjy ico
cßsf UnkIvSv sNbvXn´p≈p) F∂mepw 12-13 \q‰m≠v (1200-1300 sIm
√w)- AXmbXv 16 -mw \q‰m≠phsc- Kmes‚ hm°mbncp∂p a\pjys‚
Anatomy °v Ahkm\ hm°v. 1525 ¬ Kmes‚ aqe{KŸw ({Ko°v) {]kn
≤s∏SpØn. A∂v B¿°pw {Ko°v AdnbmØXn\m¬ AXns‚ em‰n≥
X¿÷abmWv tUmIvS¿am¿ ]Tn®ncp∂Xv. 1514 Unkw_¿ 31 \v sshZy
∑mcpsS IpSpw_Øn¬ shtkenbkv P\n®p.1537 ¬
- tUmIvSdmbn. A\m
‰an ]Tn°m≥ Hcp ih°√dbnse icocw 1536 ¬ At±lw tamjvSn®n´p
≠v. ]mZzbn¬ s{]m^kdmbt∏mƒ PUvPv am¿°mt‚mWntbm sIm≠
cn\n h[in£°p hn[n® {Inan\epIfpsS icocw hn´psImSpØXn\m¬
tamjWw sNbvXn√. A°meØv ^nknjy≥ k¿÷t\°mƒ Db¿∂
h\mbncp∂p. Ip´nIƒ°v Dissection ImWn®psImSp°p∂Xp sIm≠pw
Iøn¬ tNmc ]pcfp∂XpsIm≠pw Cu \ne shtkenbkv am‰n. kzbw
Unsk£≥ sNbvXv Nn{XklnXw ]Tn∏n°pIbpw ]pkvXIw cNn°pI
bpw sNbvXp. Xs‚ {]kn≤amb 2 ]pkvXI߃ cNn®v, 30 hb mIpw
apºv At±lw Xs‚ tPmen Dt]£n®p. ]Tn∏n°p∂Xn\p ]Icw saUn
kn≥ {]mIvSokv sNøm≥ BZyw Nm¿ekv 5 -mas‚bpw ]ns∂ At±l
Øns‚ ]p{X≥ kvs]bn\nse ^nen]vkv c≠mat‚bpw BkvYm\
sshZy\mbn. 1564 ¬ At±lØns‚ kΩXtØmsS Pdpktean¬
Xo¿∞bm{X t]mbn. aSßptºmƒ I∏¬ IS¬t£m`Øn¬ s]´p. `£
21

{]Imikn‘p

Wan√mXmbn. F√mh¿°pw IS¬s®mcp°p≠mbn. {Ko°v Zzo]amb km
s‚bn¬ sh®v acn®p (50 -mw hb n¬). shtkenb n\pw lm¿hnbv°pw
CSbn¬ Km{_ntb¬ ^tem∏nbkv (Fallopean tube) ssltdm\nakv
^m{_njykv (Fw{_ntbmfPn- tImgnap´ta¬) F∂p c≠pt]sc ]mZz
bn¬ ]Tn∏n®n´p≈p.
1553 ¬ ssat°¬ sk¿sh‰kv (Servetus) lesser circulation I≠p
]nSn®p. {_ptWmsbt∏mse tbip CuizcmhXmctam Cuizc]p{Xt\m
A√, Cuizc krjvSn am{XamWv F∂p hnizkn®Xn\m¬, tPm¨
Im¬hns‚ Im¬hn\nÃpIfm¬ 27 HIvtSm_¿ 1553 ¬ Np´pIcn°s∏´p
At±lw.
hneyw lm¿hnbmWv lrZbhpw c‡Nw{IaWhpw Is≠ØnbXv.
India
kp{ipX kwlnX
hcmlanlncs‚
]©kn≤m¥nI

Astronomy

Medicine

ss]ØtKmdkv
AcntÃm´n¬/tSmfan

lnt∏m{Im‰kv
Kme≥

tIm∏¿ \n°kv

tIm∏¿ \n°kv
shtkenbkv
hneyw lm¿hn

Rm≥ ]Tn®Xv Botany, Zoology, Medicine F∂nhbmWv (Pohim
kv{Xw). Astronomy bn¬ Xmev]cyw D≠v F∂pam{Xw (tIm∏¿ \n°kn
s\ t]mse!), kp{ipX kwlnX (BC 500) hcmlanlncs‚ IrXn (AD
427) F∂nhbmWv C¥y≥ saUn°¬/k¿Pn°¬/tPymXn»mkv{XsØ
]q¿Æambn Dƒs°m≈m≥ BZyw Rm≥ ]Tn® {KŸßƒ. kp{ipX
kwlnXbn¬ a\pjys‚ Anatomy, Dissection ]e C\w kkvX\nIƒ,
D]IcW߃ F∂nh BC 500 ¬ Xs∂ D≠v. hccpNn, hknjvT≥,
ss]Xmal≥ apX¬ hcmlanlnc≥, Bcy`S≥, ]ctaizc≥, kw{Kma
am[h≥ hsc F√mhcpw Astronomy bn¬ F{X \q‰m≠papºv bqtdm∏n
t\°mƒ ap∂nemWv F∂v AhcpsS D≤cWnIƒ, {KŸßƒ ]Tn®mWv
Rm≥ a\ nem°nbXv. {Kokv, C‰en, bqtdm∏n¬ imkv{XØn\v 3 {]mh
iyw hf¿® D≠mbXv.
22

{]Imikn‘p

1. tkmfa¨/^pWojy≥ ImeØn\ptijw
2. AeIvkvm≠¿/AcntÃm´n¬/tSmfan C¥y_‘Øn\p tijw
3. t]m¿®pKokv/U®v/{^©v/Cw•ojv kº¿°Øn\ptijw.
Cu aq∂masØ kº¿°ØnemWv bqtdm∏n¬ Renaissance Imew.
Imehpw ⁄m\ ]p\tcm≤mcWhpw C¥y≥ {KŸßtfmSpw C¥ytbm
Spap≈ kº¿°hpamWv bqtdm]y≥ imkv{XØns‚ hf¿®°p ImcW
ambXv.
hymks‚ Imet_m[w
{_lva

hknjvT≥

i‡n

]cmic≥

hymk≥

(ss]Xmalkn≤m¥w)
(hknjvTkn≤m¥w)

(]cmickn≤m¥w)

`mKhXØn¬,
BIrjvW\n¿§am¬ {XnwiZvh¿jm[nIKtX Iseu
\haotXm\`tkyN IYmcw`w iptIItcmXv
]co£nØv {ihWmt¥N Iseuh¿jiXZztb
ipt≤ ipsNu\haymw Nt[\ptPm f IYbXvIYmw
XkvamZ]nIseu{]m]vtX {XnwiZvh¿jKtXKhXn
DuNpcq¿tPkntX ]t£ \haymw{_ lvaWxkpXmx
F∂p]dbptºmƒ, Hcp kw`hw (event) GXp ImeØv, BcpsS
PohnX thfbn¬ Bh¿Øn®p F∂v Imew, tZiw, t{ImtWmfPn, kw`
hw F∂nhbpsS t_m[w IrXyambn ImWn°p∂Xv, tPymXn»mkv{X
Øns‚ ]g°w ImWn°p∂p.
I. BC 3104 ¬ \n∂v 30 h¿jw Ign™v BC 3074 ¬ ipIal¿jn ]co

£nØn\pth≠n I∂nbn¬ kqcy≥ \n¬s°, ip¢]£ \hanbn¬
N{μ≥ \n¬s° KwKmXocØv BZyambn `mKhX ]mcmbWw sNbvXp.
23

{]Imikn‘p

(kqcy N{μ∑m¿°v `qanbpambp≈ B {]tXyIZn\Ønse _‘w Hcp
{]tXyI tZisØ \nco£I\v A\p`hs∏´ hn[w ImWpI).
II. 200 h¿jw Ign™v BC 2874 ¬ I¿°nSI amkØnse ip¢

\han°v (I¿°nSIw ]nXrbm\Imew. tKmI¿Æ≥ ktlmZcs‚ t{]X
ap‡n°mWv sNbvXXv) tKmI¿ÆØpsh®v tKmI¿Æ≥. `rKp]macsc
t∏mepw sIm≠ph∂v tIƒ∏n®p.
III. AXn∂v 30 h¿jw Ign™v 2844 BC bn¬ lcnZzmcØn¬ {_lva
]p{X≥ \mcZ\v aμmIn\oXocØnse ‘B\μXS’Øn¬ ]cam\μ
e_v[nbv°v. AXpw I¿°nSI ip¢ \han°mWv.
IV. 30 h¿jØn\ptijw 2814 BC bn¬ ss\animcWyØn¬ sh®v

tcmal¿jWkpX\mb kqX≥ `mKhXw k]vXmlw \SØn.
aq∂masØ bpKmh¿Ø\Øn¬, 3 -mw bpKmcw`Øn¬ kckzXo
XocØpsh®v thZsØ A©m°n ]IpØv hymk≥ A©p injy∑m
¿°p sImSpØp. Ahsc thZw {]Ncn∏n°m≥ G¿∏mSm°n.
EtKzZw
bPq¿tΔZw
kmathZw
AY¿Δw

- ss]e≥
- sshiºmb\≥
- ssPan\n
- kpa¥p

hymk]p{X∑mcmbncp∂p ipI\pw, tcmal¿jW\pw (kqX Ipe
Øn¬)- Cu {_mlvaWkpX/kqXhwiØnemWv. ss\animcWyØn¬
`mKhX k]vXmlw \SØnb kqXP\\w. ]©athZw hymk≥ D]tZ
in®Xv tcmal¿jW\mWv. CXmWv `mKhXw.
{KlßfpsS Ne\ t`ZKXnbm¬ kw`hn°p∂ hyXykvXßfmb
5 kwh’c߃ (kwh’cw, ]cnh’cw, h’cw, CUmh’cw, A\p
h’cw). {Kl߃ Ne\Øm¬ 60 h¿jØn¬ (LCM- F√m {Klßfp
sSbpw {`aWkabØn¬) ]pds∏´ kvYesØØpw, {Kl߃ `qanbn
se \nco£I\v H∂ns®mcnSØv ImWs∏Sp∂ {KltbmKkz`mhw, kqcy
t‚bpw N{μt‚bpw AXn\∏pdsØ Hcp temIØnt‚bpw Adnhv F∂nh
ss]Xmal≥, hknjvT≥, ]cmic≥, hymk≥ F∂nh¿°dnbmw. Cu
AdnhmWv AD 427 ¬ hcmlanlnc≥ t{ImUoIcn®Xv. AXv C¥ybpsS
Bkvt{SmWanbpsS renaissance Bbn IW°m°mw (sIπ¿°v 1200
24

{]Imikn‘p

h¿jw apºv). hymk≥ `mKhXØn¬ PeLSnImb{¥w D≠m°p∂Xv
IrXyambn ]dbp∂p. kabw Af°m\pw Archimedis principle s‚
Sinking & floatation of a vessel IrXyambn Adn™v demonstrate sNøm
\pw AXnkq£vaamb \najw, £Ww apXemb am{X t]mepw Adnbm
\pw AXns\ a\pjys‚ izmtkmOzmk/{]mWmbma am{Xbpambn Xmc
Xays∏SpØm\pw km[n°p∂Xpw hfsc IrXyambn sa‰e¿Pn Adnbm
hp∂ Hcmƒ°pam{Xw D≠m°m\mhp∂XpamWv PeLS-nI-mb{¥w. Bdv
]ew sNºpsIm≠p≈ Xm{a ]m{XØns‚ ASnbn¬ Hcp ]WanS kz¿
ÆØm¬ D≠m°nb 4 AwKpewiemIbm¬ Hcp Zzmcan´v sh≈Øn¬
CSpI. ZzmcØneqsS sh≈w IS∂v ]m{Xw apßp∂Xns\Sp°p∂ kabw
Hcp \mgnI. CXmWv `mKhXØnse PeLSnImb{¥w. CXv hcmlanln
c≥ ho≠pw hnhcn°p∂p AD 427 ¬ (a‰p ]e b{¥ßtfmsSm∏w). BC
3104 ¬ ZzmcI XpdapJØp\n∂pw BZna lmc∏≥ \Kcßfn¬ \n∂pw
BtKmfk©mcw \SØnbncp∂, I∏¬\n¿ΩmWw, Afhv, Xq°°´n,
sa‰e¿Pn AS°w ]eXpw BtKmfambn ]cnNbs∏SpØnb Hcp
kwkvImcØn\pam{Xta Cu t_m[w D≠mhq F∂Xv A\pam\n°mhp
∂tXbp≈p.
`qan: hymk≥ k]vXZzo]hXnbmb `qan hnd®Xpw BZniq{Z cmPm
°fmb lncWym£/lncWyIiy]p ImeØpw kXy{hX ImeØpw
AS°w, BC 3104 ¬ ZzmcI apßptºmƒ hsc ‘kp\man’ØncIƒ Db¿
∂Xpw ]eh´w IrXyambn h¿Æn°p∂p. I¿±a≥ hnam\k©mcw sNøp
tºmƒ “t{]£bnXz`pthmtKmfw” (`qansb tKmfmIrXnbn¬ I≠p)
Fs∂gpXp∂p. km[mcW Hcp hnam\Øn¬ `qansb tKmfmIrXnbn¬
ImWn√. Hcp ‘spaceship’¬ am{Xsa CXp ImWp. Aßs\ `qanbpsS
BI¿jWhebØn\p ]pdsØmcp temIsØ C¥y°m¿°v (ChnsS
hymk\v Adnbpambncp∂pthm?
`qh\tImiafieØn¬ `qan, kqcy≥, N{μ≥, tPymXnjKWw,
k]vXkn‘p, k]vXZzo]w Chbp≠v. AfitImihnkvXrXn 50 tImSn
tbmP\- H∂v H∂ns\Np‰n Hmtcm∂pw D≈nep≈Xnt\°mƒ 10 Cc´n
hen∏Øn¬ `qan apXembn (`qanbnse \nco£I\v) 7 BhcWw D≠v.
F∂m¬ CXv Hscm‰ Afia√, AkwJyw Afikaqlßfp≠v.
(kucbqY߃) C{]Imcw At\Iw Afi kaqlap≈ {_lvamfiw
(universe) Hcp ]camWp t]mse alm£c{_lvaØn¬ ebn®ncn°p∂
XmWv hymks‚ lcn[maw.
25

{]Imikn‘p
i\n
hymgw
sNmΔ
ip{I≥
_p[≥
N{μ≥

`qan
N{μ≥ ip{I≥
_p[≥
sNmΔ

`qan

hymgw
i\n

Nn{Xw 1.1: `qtI{μamb \nco£Ww
(Observation- Scientific
experiment- in each age)

Nn{Xw 1.2: kqcytI{μambm¬ `qan/
N{μ≥ F∂nh¿ H‰ bqWn‰mbn
kucbqYØn\pw 7 BhcWw

AfitImiØns‚ Cu A\p]mXw, AXv H‰bv°√ At\Iw
kucbqY߃ (\£{Xhyql߃) D≠v F∂ Adnhv hymk\p≠v.
A≤ymbw 3, 57 -mw t«mIØn¬ XZm`mchXo`qan (`qan `mchXnbmWv)
F∂p ]dbp∂p. `mcw (KpcpXzw) D≈hƒ Xmtgm´phogp∂, Xmtgm´p
hogvØp∂p (BI¿jWw). Cßs\ X∂nte°v hogvØp∂ `qanbpsS
kz`mhw ]dbp∂ hymk≥ BZnhcmlIev]Øn¬ `mchXnbmb `qan
Xs‚ ]Yw hn´p Xmgv∂pt]mbXmbn (Xs‚ tI{μamb kqcy\nte°v)
]dbp∂p. tSmfanbpsSbpw sIπdpsSbpw \yq´s‚bpw ssF≥sÃs‚bpw
ImesØ kn≤m¥ßƒ ]ebnSØpw `mKhXØnep≠v. Ah¿ Nn¥n
°p∂Xn\pw \nco£n°p∂Xn\pw F{Xtbmapºv Cßs\ Nne¿ Nn¥n
®ncp∂p, Pohn®ncp∂p F∂Xn\¿∞w a\pjyakvXnjvIØn\v Racial
Superiority C√ F∂p am{XamWv. ]cmics‚ tKmtemIw, (Sea Sudhasindhu for description) inwipamch¿Æ\ F∂nhbpw hymk\dnbmw.
`qtemIw
a\pjycpsS
tkma (N{μ) temIw
]nXr°fpsS
kqcytemIw
tZh∑mcpsS
tKmtemIw
hnjvWp]Zw
b{X kqcyky tkmaky kn≤m¥w \ KXnx IZm
Xw temIw lnKXmkvtXXp {ioaXv `mKhXm{ihmXv
26

{]Imikn‘p

F∂v tKmI¿ÆmZnIƒ tI´ kqcyhmIyØn¬ kqcykn≤m¥w,
tZh∑mcpsS KXn, N{μkn≤m¥w ]nXr°fpsS KXn (KXn F∂m¬ Ne\
amWv) F∂dnbWw. kqcykn≤m¥hpw N{μkn≤m¥hpw `qanbn¬ \n∂v
\nco£n°p∂ \nco£I≥ {Kln°p∂ `qtI{μhyhkvYnXnbpw, ]pd
Øpt]mIp∂ \nco£I≥ {Kln°p∂ kqcytI{μÿnXn, tKmtemI
ÿnXn F∂nhbpw ]q¿ΔoI¿ hnhcn°p∂p. ‘kqcyhmIy’sa∂v `mKhX
Øn¬ ]dbp∂p. hccpNnbpsS tPymXnj ]≤Xnbnse “N{μhmIy”߃
t]msebmWv Ah. I¿±a≥ t]mbXv spaceship emWv F∂Xn\v hymk
`mKhXØn¬ I¿±a]p{X\pw {]Ya sshjvWhmhXmchpamb I]ne
hmIyw DZmlcWw. (30 -mw A≤ymbw. `mKhXw).
tbmP\m\mw kl{kmWn
\hXnw \h Nm[z\
{Xn`n¿ aplq¿sØ¿Zym`ymwhm \oXx
{]m]vtXm \nbmX\mx
99000 tbmP\ 2-3 aplq¿Øw sIm≠pXm≠p∂Xv km[mcW hnam
\a√ F∂p Xo¿®. {]ImithKXsb°pdn®pw AXnt\mSSpØp k©cn
°p∂ D]IcWßsf°pdn®pw D≈ Adnhv CXv ImWnbv°p∂p.
kpZ¿i\ ImeN{Iw
{XtbmZimcw {XniXw jjvSn]¿Δ
j¨t\ay\¥ OZnbZv {XnWm`n
Icmft{kmtXm PKZm OnXy[mhmXv
13 Ac߃, 360 ]¿Δ߃ (Un{Kn), 6 t\an (EXp) A\¥w OZ߃
(N{I߃ N{I߃°p≈n¬) aq∂p\m`n. (3 x 4=12 cmin). C{]Imcw
PKØp apgph≥ IogS°p∂, krjvSn®v c£n®v kwlcn°p∂, Icmf
t{kmX pw kpZ¿i\hpamb ImeN{Iw F∂¿∞w.
`qanbv°v e£w tbmP\ kah¿Øpfambn, \nbpXw tbmP\ hn
imeambn Hcp B`y¥ctImiw (kqcyt\mSSpØv) D≠v. ImeN{IØn
s‚ 13 Acw ZimwiKWnXtØmSpw Hcp {_lvambp nt\mSpw _‘s∏´
XmWv. 2 ]cm¿≤w = Hcp {_lvambp v. Hcp ]cm¿≤w = (10)13.
1000 NXpcypKw = 1 {_lvaZn\w (Hcp tImSn 20 e£w `qZn\w). 14
a\phns‚ Imew Hcp a\z¥cw x 14 = 2996000 h¿jw.
Hc a\z¥cw = 214000 h¿jw
71 NXpcypKØn¬ (852000 h¿jØn¬) 14 a\p°ƒ `cn®p.
27

{]Imikn‘p

IrXw
t{XXm
Zzm]c
Ien

4000
3000
2000
1000

+
+
+
+

800 k‘y
600 k‘y
400 k‘y
200 k‘y

10000

+ 2000 = 12000 x 71 = 8,52,000

hymks‚ Cu IW°n¬ BC 10000 apX¬ AD 2000 hscbp≈ Hcp
NXpcypK Imew BWv Ct∏mƒ Ign™Xv. Cu ImeKW\bn¬ 120
hb p≈ Hcp a\pjymbp v sNdnsbmcp IWamWv. Hcp]s£, sIπ¿,
\yq´≥ F∂nhcpsS kn≤m¥ßƒ G‰hpw {]mtbmKnIambn, eLphmbn,
F√m a\pjy¿°pw a\ nemhpw hn[w F√m ImetØ°pambn tcJs∏
SpØnsh® “stellar am∏pIƒ” C¥ybnse PmXIßfmWv. cmambW
ImeØv {iocma≥ P\n®t∏mgpw Zzm]cbpKØn¬ {ioIrjvW≥ P\n®
t∏mgpw ‘PmXIw’ D≠v. kqcy≥, N{μ≥, eKv\w, XnYn\£{X߃, EXp,
{KlßfpsS ÿnXn F√mw Cu PmXIßfnep≠v. Fßs\bmWv sIπ
dpsSbpw \yq´s‚bpw \nbaßfdnbmsX PmXIw FgpXm\mhns√∂v
]d™Xv?
CXv Fs‚ PmXIw sh®v Rm≥ DZmlcn®p ImWnbv°mw:6.5.1946. ]I¬ 11.55. 1843482 IenZn\w. ]pW¿Xw \£{Xw (1121
taSw 23). Xn¶fmgvN DZn®v 14 \mgnI 25 hn\mgnI ]pe¿∂v, ip¢]£
jjvTn, kqIcIcWw, [rXn \nXytbmKw, [¿ΩI¿Øm F∂ N{μ{Inb,
I¿°nSI cmin a≤yt{Z°mWØn¬ P\\w.
CXnent∏mƒ IenbpKw, {InkvXph¿jw, sIm√h¿jw F∂nhbpsS
(3 Xcw ImeKW\) XmcXayw km[n°psa∂XpXs∂ imkv{Xobamb
Hcp kao]\amWv. N{μ≥ ]pW¿Xw \£{XØn¬ F∂p ]d™m¬
anYp\sam I¿°nSsam Bhmw. kqcy≥ taSØnepw, `qan (eKv\w) I¿°n
SIØnepw. AXmbXv lunisolar, geocentric ÿm\߃ CXn¬ \n∂p
Xs∂ \ap°p {Kln°mw (tcmaIbpKØn¬ C{Xtb D≈p F∂v ]©
kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ImWpI). ip¢]£ jjvTn F∂p ]dbp∂Xn\m¬
N{μs‚ ÿnXn, \£{Xhpw XnYnbpw XΩnep≈ hyXymkw apXemb
hbpw \mw Adnbp∂p. C\n IrXyambn {Klkv^pSØn\v N{μhmIyw
D]tbmKn°p∂p. A£cØn\v kwJy sImSp°p∂ coXnbmWXv.
28

{]Imikn‘p

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

kqcy≥
N{μ≥
sNmΔ
_p[≥
hymgw
ip{I≥
i\n
cmlp
KpfnI≥
eKv\w
XnYn
\nXytbmKw
[qaw
hyXo]mXw
]cnthjw
C{μNm]w
[qatIXp

{ioIcwcXv\w
a¿tØym hcnjvTx
hotcm tKm]mex
tbmKot{μm \q\w
{ioekvXcpWx
⁄m\o XpjvtSmbw
Km\o kptc{μmx
_mtem [otcmbw
tbmKeo\mflm
Io¿Æw h¬°ew
Km\o {]t⁄m{X.
kqcn¿Øp Ipeo\x
{]]q¿sÆ \nan.
ssZhhnXv {]oXmx
tZthm hotcm\p
{ioIrjvtWm \mbIx
{io]cm{]]qPyx

tajw

cmin

Un{Kn an\p´v

0.
2.
3.
0.
5.
1.
2.
1.
5.
3.

22.
24.
13.
2.
26.
16.
27.
29.
3.
14.
15.
59.
5.
24.
24.
5.
22.

5.
6.
0.
11.
11.

CShw

12
15
24.
31.
32
0.
3.
33
31
51
15.
31
12.
48.
48
12
12

anYp\w

Im¿ØnI
]pW¿Xw

ao\w

i\n
(]pW¿Xw)
I¿°nSIw

(Im¿ØnI)
ip{I≥

Ipw`w

[qatIXp
C{μ
sNmΔ
{`aW ]Yw

aIcw

[\p

sNmΔ (Bbneyw)
_p[
{`aW]Yw
kqcy≥

ip{I
{`aW]Yw

hymg
{`aW]Yw ]©Iw
i\n
{`aW]Yw

Nnßw
hymgw
hy.[q. (lkvXw)

Xpemw

hrivNnIw
29

I∂n

{]Imikn‘p

]pdsØ NXpcw \£{Xafiew; AIsØ hyqlw `qanbnencp∂v
a\pjy≥ ImWp∂ {KlÿnXnsb¶n¬ CXv Cßs\ hcbv°mw. kqcy
ÿm\w tajØnemIbm¬ `qa≤ytcJ°v (e¶) ASpØmWv. hnjphXv
tcJbv°SpØv AizXn Ign™v `cWnbn¬. N{μ≥ anYp\Øn¬ 24°15'
]pW¿XØn¬. `qanbpsS DZbeKv\w I¿°nSIØn¬ 4°.51' bn¬ ]pjy
\£{XØn¬. (• F∂ knw_¬ AXmXp {`aW ]YØn¬ ImWpI).
_p[≥ kqcy\SpØv 2°.31' (AizXnbn¬) AXv Nn{XØn¬ • ASbmf
Øn¬ kqcy{`aW ]YØn¬ ImWn®ncn°p∂p (kqcys\ Cu Nn{X
Øn¬ ImWn®n´n√). hymgw 5 cmin Ign™v (I∂nbn¬) 26°.32'; ip{I≥
CShØn¬ 16°. i\n anYp\Øn¬ 27°.3'. C\n ChbpsS ]ckv]c tIm
WnI AIew t\m°n bYm¿∞ Zqcw I≠p]nSnbv°mw. cmlp `qÿm\
amWv. XnYnbpw \£{Xhpw Adn™m¬ kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS ew_\w
KWn°mw. (AXns‚ hyXymkØn¬ \n∂v). CXp IqSmsX hymgØn\pw
sNmΔbv°pw CSbnep≈ [qamZn]©IØns‚ kv^pShpw ([qaw, hyXo
]mXw, ]cnthjw, C{μNm]w, [qatIXp) F∂nhbpw IrXyambn X∂n
cn°pw PmXIØn¬. Hcp P\\w Hcp kw`hw (event) BWv. B kw`
hw \S°p∂ tZiØv (A£mwi, tcJmwiØn¬) B {]tXyI kabØv
ÿncXmc afieØns‚ \nivNnX Xmc kaqlßsf B[mcam°n
D≠m°nbncn°p∂ Hcp \£{X]Sw (stellar map) AXnse {KlÿnXn,
Ch IrXyambn ImWn°p∂p PmXIw. CXv {iocma≥, {ioIrjvW≥
apXemb alm]pcpj∑m¿s°∂ t]mse Rm\pw \nßfpw Dƒs∏´
s]mXpP\Øn\pw Ds≠∂Xv ⁄m\w F{X am{Xw P\Iobh¬°cn°
s∏´ncp∂p, AXpw F{X Imew apºv F∂v sXfnbn°p∂p. Bkvt{Sm
sIan°¬ XØz߃ sh®mWv PmXIw FgpXp∂Xv (KWnXhpw, \nco
£Whpw sh®v). AXn\m¬ AXp imkv{XamWv. ÿncXmc afieØn
te°pw AXn\∏pdtØbv°pw ]Sn™md≥ cmPyßfnse a\pjyakvXn
jv°w HscSpØpNm´w \SØnbXv hmkvt°mUn KmabpsS hchn\p
tijamsW∂Xv {i≤n°Ww. ⁄m\w Hcmfn¬ \n∂p as‰mcmƒ, Hcp
kwkv°mcØn¬ \n∂v as‰mcp kwkv°mcw t\Sn F∂p ]dbp∂Xv Hc
]am\a√. Hcmƒ ]Tn∏n®p. as‰mcmƒ ]Tn®p. injy≥ Kpcphns‚ hnZysb
t]mjn∏n®p. CXt√ imkv{XØns‚ coXn! bqtdm∏nt‚bpw C¥ybptS
bpw BZm\{]Zm\ Ncn{XØn¬ imkv{XßfpsS F√mw Kpcp C¥ybm
Wv. B[p\nI sSIvt\mfPnbpsS Kpcp ]mivNmXy temIamWv. 21 -mw
\q‰m≠n¬ Pohn°p∂ \mw AXp a\ nem°mXncn°p∂XmWv G‰hpw
henb Zpc¥w.
30

{]Imikn‘p

2. {KlKXn, k¿§w
ssSt°m{_mln, sIπ¿, Keoentbm, sFkIv \yq´¨ F∂XmWv
{KlKXn ]Tn® bqtdm]y≥ Bkvt{SmWa¿amcpsS t{ImtWmfPn.
CXn¬ {_mlnbpw sIπdpw Ahkm\sØ anÃn°pIƒ F∂pw, Keoen
tbm BZysØ imkv{X⁄s\∂pw Adnbs∏Sp∂p.
14 Unkw_¿ 1546 ¬ kzoU\n¬ {_mln P\n®p. 21 BKÃv 1560
\v t]m¿®pKen¬ ]q¿Æhpw tIm∏≥lmK\n¬ `mKnIhpambp≠mb Hcp
{KlWw {_mlnsb (13 hb v) BI¿jn®p. CXv ]gb ]©mwKw sh®v
Ad_v Bkvt{SmWa¿am¿ {]hNn®ncp∂p F∂Xpw. tSmfanbpsS em‰n≥
X¿PvPa AS°w Bkvt{SmWan ]pkvXI߃ hmbn°m≥ CXv ImcW
ambn. 1563 ¬ i\nbpw hymghpw IqSnbp≈ tbmKw BImiØn¬ Zriy
ambn. CXv t\csØ {]hNn®ncp∂p. ]s£ Hcp amkw Ign™v 24
BKÃn\mWp≠mbXv. {]hN\hpw Zriyhpw IqSnh∂ Cu hyXymkw
N¿®mhnjbambn. 16 -mw hb n¬ CXv Is≠Øembn {_mlnbpsS
e£yw. Hcp \£{Xhpw Hcp {Klhpw XΩnep≈ tImWnI AIew
Hcp tPmSn Compass IÆnt\mSp tN¿Øpsh®mWv ssSt°m Af∂ncp
∂Xv. 1564 ¬ 2 hSn tN¿Øpsh®v Ipcnip cq]Øn¬ ]ckv]cw slide
sNøp∂Xpw, AfhpIƒ tcJs∏SpØnbXpamb Hcp Cross-staff of
Radium I∏¬ bm{X°m¿ {Kl\£{XßfpsS tImWnI AIew Im
Wm≥ D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. ssSt°mbv°v In´nb b{¥Øn¬ Afhv IrXy
amb√ tcJs∏SpØnbncp∂Xv. AXn\m¬ data sX‰mbn In´n.
19 -mw hb n¬ Rostock University bn¬ tN¿∂v Bkvt{SmfPn, sa
Unkn≥, sIankv{Sn F∂nhbmWv At±lw ]Tn®Xv. BImiØpw `qan
bnepw a\pjy icocØnepw \S°p∂Xn¬ H∂n®v {i≤ sh®p. 28 HIvtSm
_¿ 1566 ¬ Hcp N{μ{KlWap≠mbn. CXv 80 hb mb Ht´ma≥ kp¬
Øms‚ acWw (kpsseam≥) D≠m°psa∂v {_mln {]hNn®p. At±l
sØ {InkvXy≥ bqtdm∏n\p `bambncp∂p. AXn\m¬ kp¬Øm≥
31

{]Imikn‘p

acn®p F∂p tI´t∏mƒ Ah¿ {_mlnbpsS {]hN\sØ ]pIgvØn.
{KlWØn\v F{Xtbm Zn\w apsº kp¬Øm≥ acn®ncp∂p F∂v
hm¿Ø In´nbt∏mƒ Io¿Øn aßpIbpw sNbvXp.
1569 ¬ \nco£Ww \SØm≥ Hcp Quadrant D≠m°n®p. 6 ao‰¿
A¿≤hymkw. Np‰pap≈ hrØmIrXnbmb Arc ¬ an\p´pIƒ tcJs∏Sp
Ønbncp∂p. AXns\ Hcp kplrØns‚ tXm´Øns‚ \Sphnse Ip
∂n¬ ÿm]n®v 5 sIm√w \nco£Ww \SØn. Unkw_¿ 1574 se sIm
Sp¶m‰n¬ AXv tISph∂p. 11 \hw_¿ 1572. et_md´dnbn¬ \n∂v ho´n
te°p \S°p∂ hgn BImiØp t\m°nb ssSt°m Imkntbm∏nb
kaqlØn¬ (hS°p `mKØv W cq]Øn¬ ImWmw) Hcp ]pXnb \£
{Xw I≠p. IqSpX¬ {]Imiap≈ H∂v. A°meØv AXv Hcp [qatIXp
BImtam F∂v kwibap≠mbn. bqtdm∏n¬ A∂v `uam¥co£Ønse
[qatIXp°sf (upto N{μ≥) am{Xsa Adnbq. AXv ]Tn°m≥ Imkntbm
∏nbbpsS a‰p \£{Xßfpambn Bt]£nIZqcw \nco£n°Ww. tIm
a‰v, ao‰ntbm¿ F∂nh ÿm\w amdpw. \£{Xsa¶n¬ amdn√. Hcp sextant
sh®v Cu ]pXnb \£{XsØ \nco£n®p (18 amkw). BZyw ip{It\m
fw {]Imiap≠mbncp∂ AXv Htc ÿm\Øv 18 amkw \n∂v Unkw_¿
1572 ¬ am™pt]mbn. De nova stella (1573) F∂ ]pkvXIw CXns\°pdn
s®gpXn. 125 BC bn¬ ln∏m¿°kv I≠ CXp t]msemcp {]Xn`mksØ
XmcXays∏SpØn. ssSt°m {_mln I≠Xv Hcp kq∏¿ t\mhbmbn
cp∂p. ]s£ CXpsh®v, `qan kqcy\p Np‰pw k©cn°bmsW¶n¬
D≠mtI≠ parallax shift Af°m≥ {ian® ssSt°m{_mln parallax
I≠n√. AXn\m¬ `qan ANebpw, \£{X߃ Np‰p∂hbpsa∂v
IcpXn (Hcp hntcm[m`mkambn AXv).
tIm∏≥lmK\pw F¬knt\mdn\pw CSbnse lzo≥ Zzo]n¬ 22 s^
{_phcn 1576 ¬ sNmΔbpw N{μ\pw (iinawKetbmKw) XΩnep≈ Conjuction \nco£n°m≥ s{^Udn°v cmPmhv Ab®p. ChnsS Ddm\nt_m¿Kv
H_vk¿th‰dn (Ddm\nb= Bkvt{SmWanbpsS Muse.) sse{_dnbpw
{]n‚nßv {] pw D≠m°n. 20 h¿jw AhnsS ]T\w \SØn.
4 h¿jw XmcafieØn¬ kqcys‚ KXn ]Tn°m≥
12 h¿jw sNmΔ, hymgw ChbpsS KXn ]Tn°m≥
30 h¿jw i\nbpsS KXn ]Tn°m≥\nco£Ww \SØn. ssSt°m D≠m°nb tables t\m°nbmWv
]n∂oSv sIπ¿ {Kl{`aW I£yIƒ hniZoIcn®Xv.
32

{]Imikn‘p

1577 ¬ Hcp [qatIXpsh I≠p. AXv `uam¥co£Øn\pw N{μ\p
a∏pdsØ {Kl߃°nSbn¬ \n∂v AhbpsS I£yIƒ Xm≠nhcp∂
XmsW∂v {Kln®p. CXpw, kq∏¿ t\mhbpamWv tSmfanbpsS ]gb Adn
hns\ am‰nadn® c≠p I≠p]nSpØ߃. 13 \hw_¿ 1577 \mWv ssS
t°m {_mln [qatIXp I≠Xv. 1587, 1588 ¬ 2 hmfyambn {]kn≤oIcn®
Astronomies Instauratae Progymsnanaata (Introduction to the new
astronomy) tSmfanbptSbpw tIm∏¿ \n° nt‚bpw bqWnthgvkv tamU

epIfpsS Hcp an{iamWv. `qtI{μ hyhÿbn¬ AXp tSmfanbpsSbm
Wv. Epicle C√, different C√.
ÿncXmc߃ 14000 dmUnssb `qanbn¬ \n∂Ise. `qan Nen°m
ØXmWv. AXn\m¬ parallax C√. I£yIsf kv^SnI tKmfßfmb√,
{KlKXn hnhcn°m\p≈ tPymsa{Sn°¬ _‘ßfmbmWv I≠Xv.
iq\ymImiØn¬ thsd support H∂pw th≠ {Kl߃°v F∂v Cß
s\ BZyambn bqtdm∏n¬ `mh\ sNbvXXv At±lamWv. 1595 ¬ 1000
ÿncXmcßfpsS Im‰temKv D≠v At±lw \nco£n®n´v. 777 FÆw
]n∂oSv sIπdpsS FUnt‰mdnben¬ {]kn≤oIcn®p.
1599 ¬ ssSt°mt{]Kn¬ (35 In.ao. AIse Benathy bn¬) ]pXnb
observatory ÿm]n®p (sU∑m¿°nse cmPmhpambn sX‰n tdma≥ N{I
h¿Øn dqtUmƒUv II s‚ £Ww kzoIcn®v). ChnsS sh®v ]pXnb \n
co£Wßsfm∂pw sNbvXXmtbm I≠p]nSn®Xmtbm Adnbn√. 1577
se tIma‰ns\ Ip´nbmb sIπdpw I≠ncp∂p. CXpw Hcp N{μ{KlWhp
amWv sIπdpsS Bkvt{SmWan ]T\sØ t{]m’mln∏n®Xv. ]s£
{_mlnsbt∏mse Hcp \nco£I\mbncp∂n√ At±lw. \nco£Whpw,
B \nco£WsØ _u≤nIambn A\ssekp sNøepw imkv{XØn¬
Hcp t]mse {][m\amsW∂v Cu c≠pt]cpsS I≠p]nSpØ߃ sXfn
bn°p∂p.
F¥psIm≠v 6 {Klw am{Xw? CXnemWv sIπdpsS Nn¥ BZyw.
bq¢nUns‚ PymanXnbnse {ZhykwJybmWXv. 6 kam\, NXpc apJ
ap≈ Hcp Iyq_v. a‰p 4 Regular Solids = 4 kam\ {XntImW apJap≈
sS{Smsl{U¨; 12 kam\ ]©`pPap≈ tUmsU°msl{U¨; 20 hi
hpw kam\ {XntImW apJhpap≈ Ct°mk sl{U¨; 8 {XntImW
ap≠m°p∂ HIvSmsl{U¨.
Chsb H∂n\p≈n¬ H∂mbn, AIsØ {ZhyØns‚ aqe Np‰pap≈
hrØtKmf {]Xew sXmSpamdv, (B hrØtKmfw, ]pdØp≈ ASpØ
33

{]Imikn‘p

{ZhyØns‚ AIsØ Xew sXmSpamdv) H∂n\p≈n¬ H∂mbn ASp
°pI. Cßs\ AIØv Hcp tKmfw, ]pdØv Hmtcmtcm tkmfnUn\p Np
‰pw Hmtcm tKmfw- BsI 6- Hmtcm∂pw Hmtcm {KlØns‚ {`aW]Yw.
1) HIvSmsl{U¨ a≤yØn¬ kqcys\Np‰n, _p[I£ysb Dƒs°m≠v2) AXn\v ]pdØv Icosa hedron, dodeca hedron, tetra hedron, cubeCßs-\bmWv kqcy\p Np‰pw {KlI£yIfpsS spacing sIπ¿
sNbvXXv. 1) IqSpX¬ {Klßfp≠v 2) {Kl{`aW I£y sphere A√.
elliptical BWv. At∏mƒ Cu ]d™Xv sX‰pw. AXv sIπ¿ Xs∂
Adn™ncp∂p. F∂mepw PymanXnbpw {]]©hpw XΩnep≈ _‘sØ
ImWn°m≥ CØcw tamUemWv At±lw D≠m°nbXv.
kqcy\v Zqscbp≈ {KlKXn ]Xps°bmsW∂pw AXv kqcy\n¬
\n∂p≈ Hcp i‡n (vigour) sIm≠msW∂pw tIm∏¿ \n°kv ]d™n
cp∂p. {Klßsf amJmeamc√, kqcy\mWv Im¥i‡n t]msemcp i‡n
sIm≠v {]h¿Øn∏n°p∂sX∂pw AsXmcp Xcw “t¢m°v” t]mse
bmsW∂pw sXfnbn°¬ sIπ¿ Xs‚ e£yambn IcpXn. Xs‚ ]pkvX
Iw Keoentbmhn\pw sIπ¿ Ab®ncp∂p. ssSt°m adp]Sn Ab®p. Keo
entbm adp]Sn Ab®n√. 1598 ¬ t]m∏pw B¿®v Uyq°v s^¿Un\m‚pw
s{]m´Ã‚pIƒ H∂pIn¬ ImtØmen°cmhWw, As√¶n¬ \mSphnSW
sa∂v hn[n®p. 1599 ¬ 320 In.ao. A∏pdw ssSt°m{_mln D≠m°nb
t{]Kv H_vk¿th‰dn kzX{¥ambn {]h¿Øn®ncp∂p. 4 s^{_phcn
1600 ¬ ssSt°m{_mlnbpw sIπdpw AhnsSsh®v ]cnNbs∏´p. ssS
t°m 58 hb v, sIπ¿ 28 hb v. ssSt°mbpsS Um‰ imkv{Xobambn
A]{KYn°m≥ Aßs\ Hcp \√ ]n≥Kmansb In´n. 1600 se th\en¬
ImØen°mhm≥ hnkΩXn® 61 t]cn¬ Hcmfmb sIπsd (BKÃv 2)
tPmenbn¬ \n∂v dismiss sNbvXp. ssSt°m{_mlnbpsS adp]Sn DS≥
h∂p. “IpSpw_tØbpw Iq´n A\phZn°p∂ hkvXp°ƒ am{XsaSpØv
DS≥ t{]Kn¬ hcnI. N{Ih¿Ønbpambn N¿® sNbvXn´p≠v. tPmen
ChnsS icnbmIpw.” BZyw ssSt°mbpsS IqsS Xmakn®t∏mƒ c≠m
fpw k¥pjvScmbn√. ]W°mc\mb ssSt°mbpsS B{inX\mbn B
ho´n¬ Igntb≠nh∂ A]am\w sIπ¿°v- sIπdpsS \μntISv I≠
AXr]vXn {_mlnbv°pw. ssSt°mbpsS H^ojy¬ AknÂmbn iºf
tØmsS N{Ih¿Øn \nban°pwhsc Cu AXr]vXn \n∂p. 13 HIvtSm
_¿ apX¬ 24 HIvtSm_¿ hsc ssSt°m{_mln Hcp semi comatose
Ahÿbnembncp∂p. 24 \v t_m[w sXfn™t∏mƒ Xs‚ F√m
34

{]Imikn‘p

\oco£W ^ehpw sIπsd Gev]n®v tIm∏¿ \n°kv tamUe√, ssS
t°mWn°v tamUemWv icnsb∂v temIsØ t_m[n∏n°Wsa∂pw,
As√¶n¬ Xs‚ PohnXw ]mgmIpsa∂pw {_mln ]d™p. hfsc sNdp
∏hpw, Hcp ss]k Iønen√msX Xs‚ B{inX\mbn h∂h\pw, \μn
tISp≈h\psa¶nepw Cu ]pXnb sNdp∏°mc\mWv (AXphscbp≈
injycmcpa√) AXn\p ]‰nb KWnX⁄s\∂v ‘coma’ bn¬ InS°p
tºmgpw At±lØn\v t_m[ap≠mbncp∂p. {_mln acn®v 2 BgvN Ign
™v dptUmƒ^v c≠mas‚ kZ nse Bÿm\ KWnX⁄\mbn ssS
t°m {_mlnbpsS ÿm\Øv Xs∂ \nban®t∏mƒ hnizkn°m\mhmsX
sIπ¿ Xcn®ncp∂p.
1) {KlI£yIƒ hrØa√. Elliptical BWv.
2) kqcy\n¬ \n∂v {KlØnte°p hcbv°p∂ Hcp tcJ kaIm
eØv (equal line) kaamb tZi߃ Xm≠p∂p. AXn\m¬ kqcyt\mS
SpØ {Klw sNdnb A¿≤hymkamIbm¬ IqSpX¬ henb angle, AI
sebp≈Xv henb A¿≤hymkØm¬ sNdnb angle. F√m {KlØn\pw
Htc t^m°knemWv kqcy≥. CØcw c≠v t^m°kv kqcy\p≠v(elliptical orbit s‚ 2 foci). At∏mƒ epicycle, equant apXemb ]gbsXm
s° Hgnhm°mw. Xs‚ Xs∂ ]gb ‘nested solid’ tamUepw.
1609 ¬ Astronomia nova bn¬ sIπ¿ Xs‚ I≠p]nSpØ߃
N¿® sNbvXp. Cu {K\vYw th≠{X {i≤n°s∏´n√. Xs‚ KpcpXzmI¿
jW kn≤m¥w sXfnbn°m≥ \yq´¨ D≤cn®t∏mgmWv sIπdpsS
kn≤m¥w {it≤bambXv. 1604 apX¬ 1606 hsc hymgØns‚ {]Imi
Øn¬ DZn®p\n∂ Hcp ]pXnb Xmcw (kq∏¿ t\mh) At±lw ho£n°p
Ibp≠mbn. 1604 ¬ Hcp civan sd‰n\bn¬ ]Xn®v IÆv AXns‚ Z¿i\
ap≠mhp∂ optics s\°pdn®v sIπ¿ Hcp ]pkvXIsagpXn. Nne¿°v Z¿
it\{μnbamb IÆns‚ A]mIXIfm¬ ImgvN°pdhp≠mImw. A
t∏mƒ {]Xn_nw_w sd‰n\bpsS apºntem ]n∂ntem Bbn D≠mhpw.
CXv icnbm°m≥ IÆS D]tbmKn°msa∂v sIπ¿ Is≠Øn. optics
sh®v sSekvtIm∏ns‚ {]h¿Ø\w hnhcn®p.
sltdmZns‚ ImeØp≠mb Hcp N{μ{KlWw sh®v {InkvXp BC
5 ¬ P\n®p F∂p IW°m°n Hcp Ie≠¿ ]cnjvIcWw sIπ¿ XpS
ßn (1582 ¬ am{XamWv t]m∏v s{KKdn XIII s‚ Ie≠¿ ]cnjvIcWap
≠mbXv). 1616 ¬ sIπdpsS AΩ ‘a{¥hmZn\n’sb∂v ap{Z IpØs∏´p.
a{¥hmZn\nIsf AdÃp sNbvX IØnbv°p∂ ImeamWXv. 1620 ¬
35

{]Imikn‘p

Ahsc XShnen´p. HIvtSm_¿ 1621 ¬ kzX{¥bm°n. 6 amkØn\Iw
Ah¿ acn®p. BZy`mcybpsS acWtijw sIπ¿ 24 hb p≈ Hcp
s]¨Ip´nsb 40 mw hb n¬ hnhmlw Ign®ncp∂p. Cu hnja߃°nS
bnepw sIπ¿ cNn® Ahkm\sØ ]pkvXIØn\v Harmonice Mundi
(Harmony of the world) F∂mbncp∂p t]cv. sIπdpsS 3 mw \nbaw
CXnep≠v. Hcp {KlØn\v kqcys\ Np‰ms\Sp°p∂ kabw ({KlØn
s‚ kwh’cw) AXn\v kqcy\pambp≈ Zqchpambn _‘s∏´XmWv
(tIm∏¿ \n°kv tamUens\∂ t]mse) 2 {KlßfpsS ImeØns‚
h¿§w (square) AhbpsS kqcy\n¬ \n∂p≈ AIeØns‚ Iyq_ns‚
A\p]mXØnemWv. DZm:- sNmΔ kqcy\n¬ \n∂v `qantb°mƒ 1.52
{]mhiyw ZqscbmWv.
(1.52)3 = 3.51
sNmΔbpsS kwh’cw 1.88 {]mhiyw `qkwh’ctØ°mƒ Gsd.
(1.88)2 = 3.53.
am¿®v 8, 1618 \mWv Cu 3 mw \nbaØns‚ Bibw At±lØns‚
XebnepZn®Xv. 1619 ¬ Cu {K\vYw ]pdØphcptºmƒ bqtdm∏n¬ 30
yrs war \S°pIbmWv. aXbp≤w, AΩbpsS XShv- Cu disharmony
bv°nSbn¬ harmony bmbn 3 volume (1618, 1620, 1621) D≈ epitome of
Copernican Astronomy bpw At±lw {]kn≤oIcn®p. tIm∏¿\n° n
s‚ kqcytI{μ hyhÿnXnbmWv {_mlnbpsS `qtI{μ hyhÿnXnb√
icn F∂v ka¿∞n®p. tPm¨ \m∏nbdpsS temKcnXw sIπ¿ D]tbmKn
®ncp∂p. 1631 ¬ _p[≥ kqcys‚ ap∂neqsS IS∂pt]mIpsa∂ _p[
Nmcw sIπ¿ {]hNn®p. {^©v Bkvt{SmWa¿ ]nbdn Kmk‚n AXv ho
£n®p. _p[s‚ CØcw KXn bqtdm∏n¬ BZyambmWv A∂v ho£n°
s∏Sp∂Xv.
1625 ¬ Hmkv{Snbbn¬ s^¿Un\m‚ v c≠mas‚ `cWImeØv Im
tØmen°¿ eqXd∑msc D]{Zhn°m≥ XpSßn. s^¿Un\m‚n\v sIπ
sd CjvSambncp∂p. shdpsX t]cn\v ItØmen°\mbn´v, A¥cwKambn
eqXd\mbnØs∂ t{]Kn¬ Xs‚ D∂Xÿm\Øncn°m≥ A\phZn°m
sa∂p ]d™ncp∂p. s^¿Un\m‚ns‚ ssk\ym[n]\mb hme≥Ão≥
t{]Kn¬ sh®v sIπ¿ FgpXnb Hcp PmXIØn¬ {]hNn®sX√mw ^en
®Xn\m¬ At±lØns‚ Hcp kplrØmbn amdnbncp∂p. {InkvXy\m
bm¬ aXn, AXnteXp {Kq∏mbmepw th≠n√ F∂ Hcp `mKnI en_d
enkw hme≥Ão≥ {]`phn\p≠mbncp∂p. AXn\m¬ 1628 ¬ At±lhpw
36

{]Imikn‘p

IpSpw_hpw Cu {]`phns‚ £Ww kzoIcn®v kmK≥ \KcØnseØn.
Ncn{XØn¬ BZyamsbgpXs∏´ science fiction IYbmb “Dream of
the moon” Fs∂mcp ]pkvXIw sIπ¿ AhnsS shs®gpXn. 1630 ¬
hme≥Ãos\ N{Ih¿Øn Unkvankv sNbvXp. en≥kn¬ sh®v X\n°p
In´m≥ _m°nbp≠mbncp∂ iºfIpSn»nJ hmßm\p≈ bm{Xbn¬
59 mw ]nd∂mfn\p apºv 1630 \hw_¿ 15 \v sIπ¿ Hcp ]\n ]nSn®v
acn®p.
{_mlnbv°papºv, sIπ¿°papºv C∏d™ Imcyßsf√mw sNbvX
Nne C¥y≥ imkv{X⁄cpsS IrXnIfpw Ahcp]tbmKn®ncp∂ b{¥
ßfpw Cu ]pkvXIØns‚ Hcp `mKambn tN¿Øn´p≠v. 55 h¿jw
XpS¿®bmbn BImi tKmfßsf \nco£n® Zr§WnX ]ctaizc≥ {_m
ln°pw sIπ¿°pw apºmWv Pohn®Xv. _oPKWnXw sIm≠v Z¿in®Xpw
KWn®Xpw A\ssekv sNøp∂ ]mcemIvkv \nbaw Ah¿°paptº
A.D. 427 ¬ hcmlanlnc\v Adnbmw (]©kn≤m¥I ImWpI. N.B.S.
{]kn≤oIcWw Dr. Suvarna Nalapat. Ed. II. 2000 AD). bqtdm∏nse aX
ßfpsS ]oV\w ChnSsØ imkv{X⁄¿ A°mesØm∂pw A\p`hn
°mXncp∂Xv `mcXØn¬ Z¿i\hpw imkv{X[¿Ωhpw aXhpw H∂m
bXp sIm≠mWv. AsXmcp kwkv°mcØns‚ Ahn`mPyLSIambn
At\Iw kl{km_vZw \ne\n∂XpsIm≠mWv.
Fenk_Øv I cm⁄nbpsS tUmIvSdpw, amKv\‰nksØ°pdn®v
]T\w \SØnb hy‡nbpamb sPtdman Kn¬_¿´n\v sIπsdt∏mse
ZpcnXw A\p`hnt°≠nh∂n´n√. sIankv{Sn FeIv{Snkn‰n amKv\
‰nkw F∂nßs\bmWv At±lØns‚ Xmev]cyw hf¿∂Xv. 2000 h¿
jw apºv {Ko°p XXzimkv{X⁄¿°p tijw amKv\‰nkØn¬ Ct±l
amWv ]T\w \SØnbXv.
De magnete Magneticisque Corporibus, et de magno magneto Tellure

F∂mWv 1600 ¬ Ct±lw {]kn≤oIcn® ]pkvXIØns‚ t]cv (Im¥nI
i‡n, Im¥i‡nbp≈ hkvXp°ƒ, alØmb Im¥nI i‡nbp≈
`qan F∂nhsb°pdn®v). Im¥ i‡nbp≈ Hcp loadstone Xebn¬ sh
®m¬ XethZ\ amdn√; Im¥sØ shfpØp≈n sIm≠pc®m¬ Im¥
i‡n t]mhn√ F∂v A∂sØ bqtdm∏nse Nne hnizmkßsf At±
lw \nckn®p. loadstone D]tbmKn®v Nnebn\w teml߃°v Im¥
i‡nbp≠m°msa∂v ImWn®p. `qan Im¥w t]msebmsW∂pw {[ph
ßfmWv Im¥Øns‚ +, -ve A‰ßsf∂pw hmZn®p. 2 \q‰m≠p Ign™v
37

{]Imikn‘p

1820 emWv ssat°¬ ^mctU ]n∂oSnXns\°pdn®v Nn¥n®Xv. tIm∏¿
\n° ns‚ tamUen¬, {Kl߃ XßfpsS I£yIfn¬ \n¬°p∂Xv
Cu Im¥i‡nbnemsW∂ At±lØns‚ \nKa\w sIπsd kzm[o\n
®ncp∂p. kqcy≥ BImiØns‚ a≤ytcJsb hk¥w, icZv F∂v 2
{]mhiyw kqcy≥ IS°ptºmƒ ]Xps° ]Sn™m´p \oßp∂ Precision
of equinox At±lw hniZoIcn®p. Hmtcm \£{XØn\p Np‰pw AhbpsS
{Kl߃ (kqcys\t∏mse) Ds≠∂v ]d™p (AD 427. hcmlanlnc
s‚ ]©kn≤m¥nI CsX√mw ]dbp∂p≠v).
\nc¥camb \nco£Ww, ]co£Ww F∂nhbv°v hcmlanlnc
\pw ssSt°m{_mlnbpw, ]ctaizc\pw, Kn¬_¿´pw, Keoentbmhpw
F√mw hfsc {]m[m\yw sImSpØp.
1564:- Cu h¿jw hneyw tjIvkv]nbdpw, Keoentbm Keoenbpw
P\n®p; ssa°emRvPtem A¥cn®p. A—≥ hn≥k≥kntbm KWnX
Ønepw kwKoXØns‚ ssk≤m¥nI hißfnepw Xmev]cyap≈ s{]m
^jW¬ kwKoX⁄≥. 7 a°fn¬ aqØh≥ Keoentbm- (hn¿Po
\nb-1573; ssa°emRvPtem-1575; enhnb-1587 am{Xw Pohn®p. a‰p≈
ktlmZc߃ Ip´n°meØpXs∂ acn®p.) Keoentbm A—s‚ injy
\mbn \√ kwKoX⁄\mbn hf¿∂p. acWw hsc lute hmbn®ncp∂p.
15 mw hb n¬ ]Tn°m≥ Hcp monastry bnte°b®p. AXv CjvSamI
bm¬ At±lw ]utcmlnXyw kzoIcn®p. CXptI´v A—\v `bambnKeoentbmhn\v IÆn¬ Hcp tcmKw h∂t∏mƒ AXv NnIn’n°ms\∂p
]d™v Iq´ns°m≠pt]mb A—≥ aIs\ ]ns∂ B `mKtØ°b®n√.
ho´nencp∂v, tamWmÃnIv kvIqfn¬, A—s‚ I¨sh´Øncpt∂ ]Tn
°m\b®p≈p. AXn\m¬ Vallombrosa Abbey bpsS ]gb sdt°mUn¬
Keoentbm KeoenbpsS t]cv defrocked priests (Ip∏mbaqcnb A®∑m¿)
enÃnemWv InS°p∂Xv.
At±lw saUnkn≥ ]Tn°m≥ t]mbn AXv hn´v KWnXØnte°v
NphSpamdnb hnZym¿∞nbpamWv. AcntÃm´nens‚ hyXykvX `mcap≈
hkvXp°ƒ hyXykvX thKXbn¬ hogp∂p F∂ kn≤m¥sØ Jfin
®Xn\mepw hotdmsS X¿°n°p∂Xn\mepw The wrangler F∂mWv kl
]mTnIƒ C´ Hma\t∏cv. Ben∏gw taLØn¬ Htc ÿeØp≠mbn
Htc Zqcw k©cn®v Htc kabØv (hyXykvX `mcap≈ I´bpw Xcnbp
sams°bmbn) h∂v ]Xn°p∂Xv Keoentbm Nq≠n°m´n. sshZy hnZym¿
∞nbmbncp∂ ImeØv ]≈nbn¬ Hcp t_md≥ {]kwKw tIƒ°sh,
38

{]Imikn‘p

apIfnse Hcp Xq°phnf°ns‚ (chandilier) B´w Xs‚ \mUn (pulse)
]nSn®v Keoentbm Af°m≥ XpSßn. sNdnb Nm]Øntem henb Nm]
Øntem BSp∂ t`Zan√msX, Htc kabamWv Hcp B´w ]q¿Æam°m≥
s]≥Upew FSp°p∂sX∂v Aßs\bmWv a\ nembXv. 1602 hsc
Cu Bibw At±lw ]co£n®ncp∂p. s]≥UpeØns‚ \ofamWv,
`mctam Zqctam (arc) A√ s]≥UpeØns‚ Imesa∂ XXzØn\v ]nk
bn¬ 1584-1585 ¬ Øs∂ _oPmhm]w sNbvXncp∂p.
Keoentbmhns‚ ¢mkpIƒ c≠phn[ambncp∂p. H∂v bqWnthgvkn
‰nbn¬ kne_ \pkcn®v AcntÃm´n¬ Z¿i\߃ ]Tn∏n°¬. c≠v
ho´n¬ h∂ptNcp∂ injy∑mcpambn N¿®IfneqsS ]pXnb ]e Imcy
ßfpw ]Tn∏n°¬. Keoentbm ]nkm tKm]pcØn¬ \n∂v hyXykvX
`mcap≈ hkvXp°ƒ Fdn™v Ah H∂n®v `qanbn¬ hogptam F∂v
]co£n®ncp∂Xmbn Hcp IYbp≠v. 1586 ¬ sska¨ sÃhn≥ (15481620) 10 ao‰¿ Dbcap≈ Hcp tKm]pcØn¬ \n∂v Cßs\ Cub°´nIƒ
Xmtg°n´ncp∂p. hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØv \mcmbWØp {`m¥\pw ae
apIfn¬ \n∂v I√n´v Cu ]co£Ww sNbvXncp∂p. 100 dmØep≈ Hcp
`mcw 100 Iyq_n‰v DbcØn¬ \n∂v, Hcp dmج `mcw 1 Iyq_n‰v Dbc
tØ°mƒ, thKw hogpsa∂ AcntÃm´n¬ kn≤m¥sØ, taev]d™
`mcap≈ I√v sNdnb I√nt\°mƒ 2 C©v hyXymkØn¬ H∏w h∂p
hogp∂p F∂ ]co£Ww icnbs√∂p ÿm]n°p∂p F∂mWv Keoen
tbm FgpXnbXv. F\n°v 2 C©p sX‰ps≠¶n¬ AcntÃm´nen\v 99
Iyp_n‰v sX‰ps≠∂t±lw X¿°n®p.
1) ]co£Ww sIm≠v Hcp ]gb kn≤m¥sØ sXs‰∂v ÿm]n
°mw. icnsb∂pw ÿm]n°mw. 2) Keoentbmhns‚ X¿°Øns‚ style,
hy‡nXzw F∂nh sXfnbn°p∂XmWv Cu D≤cWn.
Keoentbm IqsSbp≈ s{]m^k¿amsct∏mse bqWnt^mambn
Ku¨ [cn°m≥ hnkΩXn®p. thjØne√, I¿ΩØnemWv “s{]m^
k¿jn∏”v F∂v hnizkn®p. Nph∂ XmSnbpw apSnbpw At±lsØ a‰p≈
hcn¬ \n∂v FSpØp Im´nbncp∂p. ho´n¬ sh®v Ip´nIfpambp≈
informal N¿®Iƒ A∂v Xosc ]Xnhn√mØ H∂mbncp∂p. A—≥ acn°p
tºmƒ sh¿Po\nbbpsS kv{Xo[\Øn\mbn hensbmcp ISw hcpØn.
Cfb ktlmZc≥ ssa°emRvPtem hfsc hnPbw t\SmØ Hcp
kwKoX⁄\mbn, F∂pw Keoentbmhn¬ \n∂v ISw hmßm≥ hcpw.
Keoentbm Xs‚ Ip´nIfpw kplrØp°fpambn tN¿∂v \√ `£Ww,
39

{]Imikn‘p

\√ ssh≥ F∂nh Ign°p∂ ioe°mc\pamWv. AXn\m¬ ]mZzm bqWn
thgvkn‰nbnse KWnXhn`mKw s{]m^kdpsS, IqSpX¬ hcpam\ap≈
t]mÃv In´m≥ At±lw bXv\n®p. 28 mw hb n¬ At±lØn\Xp In´n.
18 h¿jw AhnsS Pohn®Xv Xs‚ G‰hpw kt¥mjIcamb Zn\ßfm
sW∂v Keoentbm tcJs∏SpØn. ]´mf Bhiy߃°p≈ tIm´Isf
°pdn®pw, sa°m\nIvkns\°pdn®pw 2 ]pkvXIw FgpXn. InW‰n¬
\n∂p sh≈w tImcp∂ I∏nbpw Ibdpw 10 Intem `mcw 1 Intem `mcw
sIm≠v Db¿Øp∂XmWv, tX°n≥sIm´ sIm≠v sh≈w tXhepw
AXp Xs∂- Cu \nbaw (law of pulley) Keoentbm hniZoIcn®p. Keo
entbm I≠p]nSn® sX¿tamao‰¿ Hc‰w Xpd∂v as‰ A‰Øv Dcp≠ Hcp
•mkv Syq_mWv. BZyw H∂p NqSm°n AIsØ hmbp Ifbp∂p. Xpd∂
`mKw Xmtgm´v sh≈Øn¬ apßnb hn[w t\sc (IpØs\) \n¿ØpI.
hmbp XWpØv kt¶mNn®m¬ sh≈w apIfnte°p hens®Sp°pw. ]pd
Øp hmbp NqSmbm¬ _ƒ_nse hmbp hnIkn°pw. sh≈Øns‚ se
h¬ Xmgpw. F∂m¬ PeØns‚ Dbcw NqSns\ am{Xa√ ]pdsØ a¿±
sØbpw A\pkcn®mIbm¬ Cu I≠p]nSpØw hnPbn®n√. Xs∂
]W°mc\m°p∂ Hcp I≠p]nSpØw thWsa∂v Keoentbm tamln®p.
Aßs\bmWv tImw]mkv I≠p]nSn®Xv (]s£ ]W°mc\mbn√).
Afhp tcJs∏SpØnb Hcp temtlm]IcWw. Calculator Bbpw D]
tbmKn°mw. shSnsh°p∂h¿°v hyXykvX Zqcw shSnbp≠ t]mIm≥
tXm°v (]oc¶n) Dd∏nt°≠ Dbcw IW°m°m\mWv CXv BZyw D≠m
°nbXv. F∂m¬ Iq´p]eni IW°m°p∂Xn\v hym]mcnIƒ D]tbm
Kn®ncp∂p. 1590 ¬ CXns‚ hnev]\ IqSn.
1603 ¬ aebnse Hcp kpJhmk ÿeØv KplIfn¬ \n∂p≈
Im‰v (Cool air through system of ducts- early form of AC) X´n Ddßptºmƒ
Ft¥m hnjhmXIw X´n Keoentbmhns‚ Hcp kplrØv X¬£Ww
acn°bpw, Keoentbmhn\v ÿncambn k‘nthZ\ (acn°pwhsc) D≠m
IpIbpw sNbvXp. A∂v At±lØn\v 39 hb mWv. 40 -mw hb mhptºm
tg°v {]IrXn XXz⁄≥, KWnX⁄≥, sh\n n¬ {]mtbmKnI im
kvt{Xm]IcW߃ D≠m°p∂ hy‡n apXemb coXnIfn¬ {]ikvX
\mbn°gn™ncp∂p. s]≥Upe߃, sNcn™ {]XeØnepcp´p∂
]¥pIƒ (acceleration ]Tn°m≥ \mdmWØp {`m¥≥ sNbvX t]mse)
F∂nh ]mZzbn¬ At±lw ]co£n®p. KpcpXzmI¿jW ^eambn hy
XykvX `mcap≈ hkvXp°ƒ Htc A\p]mXØn¬ `qanbnte°v accele40

{]Imikn‘p
rate sNøp∂p F∂v sXfnbn®p. sslt{UmÃm‰nIvk,v amKv\‰nkw F∂n

hbn¬ ]co£Ww \SØn. sabv 1597 ¬ sIπ¿°b® Hcp IØn¬
tIm∏¿\n°kv tamUens\ At±lw {]iwkn®n´p≠v. kmlnXyw,
IhnX, Xntb‰¿ kwKoXw (lute) F∂nhbnepw, {]`mjWßfnepw ka
bw sNehgn®p. sIπ¿ ]Tn® kq∏¿ t\mh HIvtSm_¿ 1604 ¬ I≠p.
At∏mgmWv BZyambn Keoentbm Bkvt{SmWanbnte°v Xncn™Xv.
AXns\ kkq£vaw \nco£n®v Hcp IhnX cq]Øn¬ Xs‚ \nKa\w
FgpXpIbpw At\Iw {]`mjW߃ \SØpIbpw sNbvXp. CXn\nsS
1605 ¬ c≠p ktlmZcnamcpsS `¿Øm°∑mcpw kv{Xo[\°pSn»nJ
In´mØXn\v KeoentbmbpsS t]cn¬ tIkpsImSpØp. C‰enbn¬
t]mƒ A©ma≥ am¿∏m∏bmbn. At±lØns‚ 2 {]iv\߃.
1) kz¥ambn ssk\yan√- a‰p≈hcpsS ssk\yklmbw thWw.
2) As√¶n¬ Inquisition i‡nsIm≠v Bflobi‡n (Xs‚ chair
s‚ i‡n) Im´Ww.
s]utfm km¿∏n kz¿§hmXn¬ cmPm°∑mcpsSbpw ]ptcmlnX∑m
cpsSbpw cmjv{Sob i‡nbne√, Ah\hs‚ Bflotbm∂Xnbnepw I¿
ΩØnepamsW∂v hmZn®p. CXns\Xnsc tdmanse knwlmk\Øns‚
_u≤nI i‡n I¿±n\mƒ sdm_¿s´m _√m¿sa Bbncp∂p. 1606 ¬
km¿∏n AS°w At\Iw t]sc t]m∏v cmPy{`jvScm°n. ]Icw sh\nkv
sPkyq´pIsf apgph≥ HmSn®p. ImØenIv kvs]bn≥ t]m∏nt\bpw
s{]m´Ã‚ v {^m≥kv sh\nknt\bpw klmbn°p∂ bp≤w XpSßn.
tdmante°v N¿®bv°mbn km¿∏nsb £Wn®p (_√m¿sabpambn X¿
°w)- ]s£ Ibdpw XobpamWv hØn°ms‚ X¿°Øn\p≈ Bbp[
sa∂v ]d™v km¿∏n £Ww \nckn®p. km¿∏nsb NpSm≥ ]‰mØXn\p
]Icw km¿∏nbpsS ]pkvXI߃ hØn°m≥ Np´pIcn®p. sh\nkv
At±lØns‚ iºfw Iq´pIbpw sNbvXp. HIvtSm_¿ 7, 1607. cm{Xn
km¿∏nsb 5 t]¿ B{Ian®p. 15 IpØp IpØn. heØv s\‰nbn¬ \n∂v
heØv IhnfneqsS ]pdØp ImWpwhn[w Hcp Ip¥w Xpf®p Ib‰n.
F∂n´pw AXv`pXIcambn km¿∏n c£s∏´p. Cu kw`hw Keoentbm
sb Akzÿ\m°n. Hcp shSnbp≠bpsS ]mX (trajectory) Hcp ]mct_m
fbmsW∂v Keoentbm ÿm]n®psIm≠ncn°bmW°meØv. 1608 ¬
^vtfmd≥knse {InÃo\bpsS £W{]Imcw B¿tÆm \Zn°p IpdpsI
(aIs‚ hnhmlØn\v stage sI´m≥) acw sIm≠p≈ stage sI´m≥
Keoentbm t]mbn. 1604 ¬ 45 mw hb n¬ tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ A\p
41

{]Imikn‘p

bmbn, km¿∏nbpsS ]gb kplrØv F∂v c≠v coXnbn¬ hØn°m≥
Keoentbmhns\ t\m´∏p≈nbm°n. 1609 ¬ sh\nkn¬ sh®v sSenkvtIm
∏ns‚ I≠p]nSpØw (Hens Lippershey) At±lw tI´ncp∂p. sh\nkns‚
anen´dn, hym]mcmhiy߃°v AXv Gsd klmbsa∂v Keoentbm
IW°p Iq´n. hym]mc em`w A∂v XpdapJtØmSSp°p∂ I∏ens\
BZyw I≠v Xncn®dnbp∂XnemIbm¬. Hcp U®pImc≥ AØcsam∂p
ambn sh\nkn¬ h∂Xdn™v At±lw Abmsf Xnc™p. ImWm\m
bn√. Hcp Syq_n¬ 2 se≥kp≈ D]IcWamsW∂p am{Xsa Keoentbm
hn\v AXns\°pdn®dn™ncp∂p≈p. C\n Xm≥ t\cw sshIn®m¬ ]W
°mc\mhm\p≈ hensbmchkcw \jvSs∏Spsa∂p IW°m°n Keoen
tbm kzbw Aßs\ H∂p≠m°m≥ \nivNbn®p. 24 aWn°q¿ sIm≠v
AXphsc D≠mbn´p≈ sSekvt°m∏pIfn¬ sh®v G‰hpw anI® H∂p
≠m°pIbpw sNbvXp. U®pIm¿ 2 tIm¨tIhv ImNap]tbmKn®v Xe
IpØmb {]Xn_nw_ap≠m°n. Keoentbm Hcp tIm¨shIvkv, Hcp
tIm¨tIhv ImNw sIm≠v bYm¿∞ {]Xn_nw_hpw. BKÃv 4 \v
Xs‚ hnPbw Adnbn°m≥ km¿∏n°v FgpXn. 10 h´w amKv\nss^bnßv
i‡ntbmsS tXmepsIm≠p≈ Ddbv°IØv kq£n°s∏´ ]pXnb sS
ekvt°m∏pambn BKÃv Ahkm\w sh\oknseØn, sk\‰n\v {]Z¿in
∏n®p. ]nk bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ BPoh\m¥ DtZymKhpw, 1000 s{Iu¨
h¿jw tXmdpw Cc´n°p∂ iºfhpw Aßs\ In´n. ^vtfmd≥knse
tImkntam c≠ma\pw CXpt]mse At±lw demonstration \SØn- 1609
Unkw_tdmsS 20 {]mhiyw Magnifying power Iq´m≥ km[n®p. Elector
of Cologue \v H∂b®p. sIπ¿°pw H∂b®psImSpØp (sSekvt°m∏v
Keoentbm Ab®Xv Htc Hcp Bkvt{SmWa¿°mWv). 1610 ¬ Xs‚ sS
ekvt°m∏psh®v hymgØns‚ 4 N{μ∑msc At±lw Is≠ØnBImi KwKbn¬ AkwJyw \£{Xap≠v. N{μs‚ {]Xew Ht´sd
IpgnIfp≈XmWv ; aeIfpap≈XmWv . March 1610 ¬ The starry
messenger F∂ ]pkvXIw ]pdØph∂p. ip{Is‚ phases, i\n Hcp
perfect sphere A√, N{μs‚ phases Dw ip{Is‚ phases Dw IqSn XmcX
ayw, CsXms° Keoentbm I≠p. kqcys‚ apJØp≈ sunspots \nco
£n®p. 1611 am¿®n¬ Keoentbm tdman¬ sN∂v t]m∏v 5 mas‚ apºn¬
sSekvt°m∏v {]Z¿in∏n®p. Im¿±n\mƒ _√m¿sa AXneqsS \nco£n°
bpw Hcp ]ptcmlnX kwLsØ (scientific subcommittee) CXns\°pdn®v
A`n{]mbw ]dbm≥ \ntbmKn°bpw sNbvXp. sPkyq´v k_v IΩn‰nbpsS
A`n{]mbw:42

{]Imikn‘p

1. BImi KwKbn¬ At\Iw \£{Xap≠v.
2. i\n°v AfimIrXnbp≠v. Ccphihpw Db¿∂mWv. tKmfa√.
3. N{μs‚ apJw an∂p∂X√.
4. hymgØn\v 4 N{μ∑mcp≠v.
5. ip{I\v N{μs\t∏mse phases D≠v.
sunspots Hcp shfpØ sources ¬ project sNbvXv tdman¬ F√mh¿
°pw ImWpwhn[w Keoentbm Im´ns°mSpØp (C∂v CsXmcp standard
device for teaching BWv). PqWn¬ At±lw ^vtfmd≥knte°p aSßn.

1611 ¬ lnaw Pew km{μo`hn®XmsW∂v Hcp kl{]h¿ØI≥
]d™p. lnaw PeØn¬ s]mßn°nS°p∂p. AXn\m¬ PetØ°mƒ
I\ww IpdhmWv (Rarified form of warter) F∂v Kenentbm. Htc composition, ]e cq]w D≈ hkvXp°ƒ sh≈Øn¬ s]m¥n°nS°p∂Xpw
Xmgv∂pInS°p∂Xpw demonstrate sNbvXv ImWn°m≥ kl{]h¿ØI
s\ Keoentbm hnfn®p. ]co£Ww sNbvXp ImWn®me√msX hnizkn
°cpsX∂ \ne]mSpsIm≠mWv Keoentbmhns\ 1st scientist F∂v bqtdm
]y¿ hnfn®Xv. X¿°w hcptºmƒ ss__nfns\b√, ]co£Wßsf
bmWv B{ibnt°≠sX∂ Cu \ne]mSmWv hØn°ms\ At±lØn
s\Xncm°nbXv.
sPkyq´v Bkvt{SmWa¿ {IntÃm^¿ ssj\¿ BZyw Xm\mWv
sunspot I≠sX∂v hmZn®p (AXnepw apºv tXmakv lmcnb´v F∂
Cw•ojpImc\pw tPmlm≥ ^m{_ojykv F∂ {^©pImc\pw I≠ncp
∂p). 1615 ¬ 52 mw hb n¬ Xs‚ A`n{]mb߃ tdma≥ N¿®ns\
Adnbn°m≥ ho≠pw Keoentbm tdman¬ t]mbn. tdmanse Aw_mk
U¿ hcp∂Xv A]ISamsW∂dnbn®ncp∂p. 1615 Unkw_¿ 11 \v Aw_m
kUdpsS ho´n¬ AXnYnbmbn Keoentbm FØn. skbn‚ v ]o‰¿
knwlmk\Øns‚ ]n∂nse i‡n A∂pw (73 hb mb) s_√m¿sa
bmWv. At±lw Keoentbmhns‚ buh\Øn¬ km¿∏ntbmsSm∏w Keo
entbmhns‚ ho´n¬ kμ¿iI\pambncp∂p. s_√m¿sa t]mƒ 5 mat\mSv
tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ kn≤m¥w sXt‰m icntbm F∂v \nivNbn®p ]d
bm≥ Hcp IΩoj≥ sh°m≥ ]d™p. kqcy≥ {]]©Øns‚ tI{μ
_nμphmsW∂ kn≤m¥w Foolish, absurd, Formaly heritical F∂h¿
hn[nsbgpXn. `qan k©cn°p∂p F∂Xv aXhnizmkØn\p hncp≤am
sW∂pw! s^{_phcn 24: Cu A`n{]mbsØ Jfin°tbm, ]n¥mßp
43

{]Imikn‘p

Itbm sNøcpsX∂v s_√m¿sa Keoentbmhnt\mSv ]d™p. CXv A\p
kcn°mØ ]£w Inquisition \v XømdmhWw.
s^{_phcn 26: s_√m¿sa t]m∏ns‚ Xocpam\w ]dbm≥ Keoen
tbmsh £Wn°p∂p. B dqan¬ Inquisiton, km£nIfS°w £Wn°
s∏´ncp∂p. s_√m¿sa hmXn¬°¬ sN∂v Keoentbmhns\ kzoIcn®v
Fs¥ms° tI´mepw adptØm, A\pIqeamtbm H∂pw ]dbcpsX∂
Xs‚ \ntcm[\m⁄ Hm¿Ωs∏SpØp∂p. t]m∏v ]dbp∂Xp tI´X√m
sX Keoentbm adpsØmc£cw ]d™n√- A\pIqeambpw ]d™n√.
Inquisition kwkmcn°m≥ XpSßnbt∏mƒ s_√m¿sa tZjyw A`n\bn
®v Keoentbmhns\ ]pdtØ°p sIm≠pt]mbn. AhcpsS documents
H∏nSm≥ kΩXn®n√. unsigned, unauthored record of minutes Hm^ojy¬
sdt°m¿Un¬ Inquisition tN¿Øp. CX\pkcn®v Inquisition s‚ apºn¬
sX‰p kΩXn®v Keoentbm Xm≥ ]d™ncp∂sXms° ]n≥hen®p. 1617
¬ ^vtfmd≥knse Ip∂nt∑ep≈ s_s√mUvKm¿tUm sIm´mcØn
te°v Keoentbm Xmakw am‰n. 16, 15 {]mbap≈ 2 s]¨Ip´nIƒ (h¿
Po\nb, enhnb) hnhmlw Ign°mØ `mcybn¬ At±lØn\p≠mbncp
∂p. Illigimate girls,- ktlmZcnamcpsS kv{Xo[\w t]mse Ch¿°pw
hcptam F∂ {]iv\w- Cu Ip´nIƒ C°mcytam¿Øv Order of poor
clares ¬ I\ymkv{XoIfmbn- (aqØ Ip´n ]ns∂ Maria Celeste F∂pw
Cfbhƒ Arcangelo F∂pw t]cv kzoIcn®p).
1618 ¬ I≠ 3 [qatIXp°sf°pdn®v schemir AS°ap≈ sPkyq
´pIƒ FgpXnbXns\ “CeybUv” t]mseb√ imkv{X]pkvXIw F∂v
Keoentbm hna¿in®p. {]]©{K\vYØn\v Hcp {]tXyI en]nbp≠v.
AXp ]Tn°msX AXns‚ `mjtbm ktμitam a\ nemhn√- {XntIm
Ww, hrØw apXemb PymanXob cq]ßfpsS KWnX`mjbnemWv {]]
©w FgpXs∏´n´p≈Xv. AXv ]Tn°msX {]]©`mjbnse Hcp ]Zw
t]mepw B¿°pw a\ nemhn√- Ccp´Øp X∏pwt]msebmWXv F∂v
Keoentbm FgpXn. CØcw kao]\߃ sPkyq´pIsf ho≠pw sNmSn
∏n®p.
1620 ¬ ap∏Xp h¿jsØ bp≤w ImtØmen°¿°v A\pIqeambn1- 621 ¬ Keoentbmhns‚ 3 {]nbs∏´ c£I¿ (Cosimo II 30 -mw hb n¬,
t]m∏v t]mƒ 5 ma≥, Im¿Un\mƒ s_√m¿sa 79 -mw ]nd∂mfn\p apºv)
acn®p. 1616 se kw`h߃°v Keoentbmhn\p≠mbncp∂ GI klmbn
s_√m¿sa acn®tXmsS C√mXmbn- t]m∏v t]mfn\p tijw h∂ t]m∏v
44

{]Imikn‘p

{KnKdn XV 1623 ¬ acn®p. I¿±n\mƒ am^ntbm _m¿_sd\n am¿∏m∏bm
bn (A¿_≥ VII) The Assayer, FgpXm\pw, tIm∏¿\n° v knÃw ]Tn
∏n®p. sIm≈m\pw (]s£ AXmWv icnsb∂p ka¿∞n°cpXv) Keoen
tbmhn\v A\phmZw In´n. CXn\nSbn¬ Keoentbm Compound microscope
D≠m°nbncp∂p. (]tØmfPn- C∂sØ \nebnte°v hnIkn®Xv Cu
D]IcWw sIm≠mWv. kp{ipX kwlnXbn¬ C√mØ Hcp kwKXn
CsXm∂mWv. AXphscbp≈ saUn°¬ Adnhns\ Cu sSIvt\mfPn
bmWv hnIkn∏ns®SpØXv). 1629 ¬ (\hw_¿) Dialogue on the two
chief world system t]m∏ns‚ A\phmZtØmsS apgph\m°n. k¬hnbm
‰n (tIm∏¿\n°kv `mKw) knwπnkntbm (tSmfan`mKw) F∂v 2 t]¿
N¿® sNøp∂ a´nemWv cN\. AcntÃm´nens‚ ]pkvXIØn\v `mjy
sagpXnb Simphicius s‚ t]cpw, 1614 ¬ acn® Xs‚ kplrØns‚ t]
cpw \¬IpI hgn Keoentbm Cu k¶ev] kw`mjWØn\v kXym
hÿ IqSn D≠m°n. \njv]£ km£nbmbn 1620 ¬ acn® kplrØv
kms{KtUmhns\bpw tN¿Øp. The Assayer A\phZn® \nt°mtfm dn
°m¿Un F∂ sUman\n°≥ ]ptcmlnX\mWv Cu ]pkvXIhpw ]cntim
[n®Xv. AhcptSXmb BapJw, D]kwlmcw, th≠ am‰ßƒ hcpØp
sa∂v dn°m¿UnbpsS IΩn‰n ]d™ncp∂p. 1631 ¬ {]n‚nßv XpSßnMarch 1632 ¬ hnev]\ ^vtfmd≥kn¬ Bcw`n®p. t]m∏ns‚ acpaI≥
I¿±n\mƒ {^m≥skkvt°m _m¿s_dn\n Xm≥ hfsc kt¥mj]q¿Δw
hmbn®Xmbn Keoentbmhn\v FgpXn.
1616 ¬ ]d™ Inquisition Imcy߃°v hn]coXambn, Cu ]pkvX
IØneqsS tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ hmZsØ defend sNbvXXn\m¬ sPkyq
´pIƒ t£m`n®p. A¿_≥ VIII tdmante°v hnNmcWbv°mbn Keoentbm
hns\ hnfn®p. ]pkvXI hnXcWw \n¿Øn°m≥ {ian®p. tdmans‚ Cu
£Ww F¥n\msW∂dnbmambncp∂ (km¿∏nsbt∏mse) hr≤\pw tcm
Knbpamb Keoentbm AXp \o´nsh°m≥ A`y¿∞n®p. akv°\nbnse
]pXnb kmcYyØn\v km¿∏n°v sh\okv sImSpØ t]mse Keoentbm
hn\v kpc£ \¬Im≥ km[n°pambncp∂n√. 19 hb mb s^¿Un\m
≥tUm c≠ma≥ BWv A∂v Tuscany bn¬ Grand duke.
1633 s^{_phcn 13 \v Keoentbm tdmanseØn- tπKv ]S¿∂p ]nSn
°bm¬ 3 BgvN Skv°≥ AXn¿Ønbn¬ Xßn. k‘n thZ\bm¬
cm{Xn apgph≥ Icbp∂ At±lØn\v hnNmcW hsc (G{]n¬) Xmakn
°m\p≈ kuIcyhpw Hcp°ns°mSpØncp∂p.
45

{]Imikn‘p

hnNmcWbn¬ Db¿∂ Ip‰®m´pIƒ:1) em‰n\nsegpXmsX C‰menb≥ `mjbnsegpXn. AXn\m¬ km[m
cW°m¿°pt]mepw ktμiw a\ nembn.
2) hneyw Kn¬_¿´v F∂ Ip‰hmfnsbt∏mse tIm∏¿\n° ns\
{]iwkn®p.
3) 1616 se sPkyq´v an\p´vkn¬ ]d™Xv tIm∏¿\n° ns\°pdn®v
]Tn∏n°cpXv, At±lØns‚ \nKa\sØ icnsh°cpXv F∂mWv. AXv
A\pkcn°msX t]m∏ns‚ hm°v sX‰n®v {]h¿Øn®p.
heresy tb°mƒ Ip‰amWv false charge of heresy F∂ \nbaØm¬
Inquisition XpSßnbm¬ Inquisitors B hy‡nsb hnSn√. AXmbXv
Inquisitors ItØmen°m k`bpsS D∂Xm[nImcnIfmWv. Ah¿ Ip‰°m
cmsW∂p ]d™p in£n®m¬ k` s]mfnbpw. AXn\m¬ I¿±n\mƒ
_m¿s_dn\n (t]m∏ns‚ acpaI≥) hr≤\mb Keoentbmhnt\mSv confess sNøm≥ At]£n°bpw AXn\v t{]cn∏n°bpw HSphn¬ A\pkcn
∏n°bpw sNbvXp. 69 hb n¬ k‘nthZ\bm¬ Xf¿∂v, C≥Izknt‰
gvkns‚ ]oU\w `b∂mWv At±lw AXv kΩXn®Xv. sPkyq´pIƒ
hnPbmlvfmZØn¬ Poh]cy¥w XShphn[n®p. Inquisition Council se
10 I¿±n\mƒamcn¬ 7 t]cmWv AXv hn[n®Xv. _m¿s_dn\n AS°w 3
t]¿ B in£bn¬ H∏nSm≥ Iq´m°nbn√. _m¿s_dn\nbpsS CSs]S¬
tdmanse Skv°≥ Fw_knbn¬ ho´pXS¶¬, ko\ B¿®p_nj∏ns‚
IÃUnbn¬ XS߬, 1634 apX¬ Arcetri °SpØv Keoentbmhns‚
ho´n¬Øs∂ ho´pXS¶¬ Cßs\ in£ \o≠p. 1634 G{]n¬ c≠n\v
aqØ aIƒ acn®t∏mƒ tIm¨sh‚n¬ t]mIm≥ A\phmZw sImSpØp.
Cu in£m°meØv Discoveries & Mathematical discourses regarding
new sciences F∂ {K\vYw FgpXn- CXv BZysØ B[p\nI imkv{X
]mTy]pkvXIamWv. 1638 ¬ C‰enbn¬ \n∂v Hfn®pISØn Louis Elzevir
Cu ]pkvXIw {]kn≤oIcn®p. C‰enbnsemgnsI temIw apgph≥ CXn
s\ kzmKXw sNbvXp. C°meØv Keoentbmhn\v ImgvN \jvSs∏´p.
Hcp s]≥Upew t¢m°p≠m°p∂Xv aI\v At±lw ]d™psImSpØp.
aI≥ Vincenzio A—s‚ acWtijw Aßs\sbm∂v D≠m°n. 17 mw
\q‰m≠n¬ {InÃy≥ lyqK≥kpw s]≥Upew t¢m°v D≠m°n. 1642
P\phcn amkw 8/9 cm{Xn 78 mw ]nd∂mfn\p apºv Keoentbm acn®p.
imkv{Xw KWnX `mjbmWv; PymanXob cq]ßfpsS `mjbmWv;
Ccphihpw equalise sNøp∂ kahmIy `mjbmWv. Keoentbmhns‚
46

{]Imikn‘p

Cu imkv{Xobamb kao]\w E = mc2 \p tijw F√m imkv{X⁄cpw
icnsh°p∂p. C¥ybpsS Cu `mjbmWv Bkvt{SmWan, sshZyw, Zimw
iw, kwJyIsf en]nbmbn am‰p∂ coXn, {ioN{Iw, b⁄thZnbpsS
Afhv, IVC/ lmc∏≥ ImeØv Xq°w/I´n/_me≥kv ChbpsS D]tbm
Kw, IWmZs‚ ]camWp kn≤m¥w Chbnsems° ImWp∂Xv. CXns‚
XpS°w ]mentbmenØn°v ImeØmWv (Archaeology sXfnhpIƒ
k]vXssk‘hw F∂ Fs‚ ]pkvXIØn¬ ImWpI). CXv hcmlanln
c≥, ]ctaizc≥, kw{Kma am[h≥ Imew hsc ChnsS XpS¿®bmbn
D≠mbncp∂p. AXn\ptijw bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X⁄cneqsS ]pXnb
Hcp \thm∞m\w In´n ‘bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X’ambn Adnbs∏Sm≥ XpS
ßn. c≠p`mjbnemsW∂√msX C¥ybntebpw bqtdm∏ntebpw im
kv{X \nKa\߃°p am‰an√. ]pXnb sSIvt\mfPnbn¬ am‰ap≠pXm\pw.
1540 emWv + - F∂ Nnlv\w BZyambn bqtdm]y≥ KWnXØn¬
(Robert Recorde) D]tbmKn®Xv. sdt°m¿sU saUn°¬ tUmIvSdpw
J\nIfpsS k¿tΔbdpw KWnX⁄\pambncp∂p. 2 hkvXp°ƒ ka
amsW∂p ImWn°m≥ Htc hen∏ap≈ 2 kam¥ctcJ (=) bmWv DØ
asa∂v B knw_epw At±lw D]tbmKn®p. temKcnXamWv Bkvt{Sm
Wa¿amcpsS KWnXw Ffp∏am°nbXv. F¥mWv temKcnXw?
100 x 1000 F∂Xv 102 x 103 Fs∂gpXp∂ i‡nkwJy.
100,000 = 105 BWv (2+3=5 BIbm¬)
2345 = 103.37 BWv. AXn\m¬ 2345 s‚ temKcnXw 3.37. AXmbXv
KpW\w, lcWw F∂ 2 {Inbtbbpw [\w, EWw F∂ {Inbbm°n
efnXh¬°cn°mw. AØcw Hcp tS_nƒ D≠m°nsh°mw. 1970 ¬
t]m°‰v Im¬°pte‰¿ hcpwapºv temKcnXamWv D]tbmKn®ncp∂Xv.
CØcw ]©mwK∏´nIIƒ, hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØpw AXn\papºpw
C¥ybnep≠v. `mKhXØn¬ Imekzcq]amb Cuizc\n¬ \n∂p {]]
©ap≠mbn F∂p ]dbp∂Xv a\pjycq]amb Hcoizc≥ D≠m°n F∂
ÿqem¿∞Øne√ (ImØen°v N¿®ns‚ {]]©krjvSn Keoentbmhn
t\mSnS™Xv Cu {]iv\w sIm≠mWv).
`mKhXw alm]pcmWamWv. alm]pcmWØn\v Zie£Wap≈
Xn¬ 5 FÆw k¿§w, hnk¿§w, ÿm\w, CuiIY, a\z¥cw F∂nh
bmWv.
k¿§w: KpWt£m`Øm¬ {_lvaØn¬ \n∂v {]IrXn kw`hn°p
∂Xn\v kmwJyw, ]camWp kn≤m¥w, i_vZ{_lva]camb i_vZ im
47

{]Imikn‘p

kv{Xw F∂nh D]tbmKn°p∂p. hnk¿§w {_lvamhn¬ \n∂v k]vX¿
jnIfpw Ahcn¬ \n∂v D≠mb krjvSnIfpamWv. ÿm\Øn¬, Cu
{]]©Øn¬ hnhn[ AhXmc߃°pw ssPh AssPh h¿§ßƒ°p
ap≈ ÿm\w. CuiIYbn¬ AhXmc߃, Ncn{X ]pcpj∑m¿ F∂n
hcpsS Ncn{XßfmWv. a\z¥cØn¬ a\p°fpsS Imew, a\pkrjvSn
apXembh.
k¿§\ncq]WØn\v lcnbpsS eoemkzcq]Øns‚ {]fbØn\p
apºpw ]nºpap≈ 2 hn[w Ahÿmt`Zßfp≠v. 9 Xcw krjvSnbn¬ 6
Xcw {]mIrXw, 3 Xcw sshIrXw, CXpIqSmsX ]ØmaXmbn D`bXcw
(Ipamc krjvSn) Fs∂m∂pap≠v. 3 Xcw {]fbØn¬ ImeIrXw, {Zhy
IrXw, KpWaqesa∂v aqs∂Æambn \nXyw, ss\anØnIw, {]IrXneb
sa∂v 2 hn[w {IaØnep≠v. sshIrXamb a\pkrjvSn (7,8,9 krjvSnIƒ)
{IaØn¬ Huj[nh\kv]Xn (kkyw- Botany), XncyIvtemIw (arK
]£n- Zoology), a\pjytemIw F∂nhbmWv. CXn¬ a\pjykrjvSn
Iotgm´v `£Ww Cd°p∂p. kky߃ `£Ww apIfnte°v hen°p
∂p- arK߃ CXv c≠pa√.
a\pjy≥
arKw
kkyw

Cu k¿Δhpw ImeIrXamb \nXy{]fbØn¬ C√mXmhpw- {Zhy
IrXamb ss\anØnI {]fbØn¬ ]q¿Æeban√- KpWaqeamb {]Ir
Xnebw tbmKnIfpsS AhÿbmWv. Imekzcq]amb Cuizcs\°pdn
®mWv C¥y≥ Bkvt{SmWan ]Tn°p∂Xv. B Imekzcq]Øn¬ \n∂v
{Zhykzcq]hpw KpWkzcq]hpambn \mw ImWp∂ Zriy{]]©w Fß
s\ D≠mbn F∂pw. Imekzcq]amb Cuizc kzcq]w AZriyhpw Ahy
‡hpamWv- ]s£ AXns‚ km∂n≤yw \sΩ kZm t_m≤ys∏SpØp
∂p; A\p`hn∏n°p∂p. AXn\m¬ C{μnb߃ sIm≠v AdnbmsXbpw
\mw AXns\ Adnbp∂p (AXn{μnbw).
Imekzcq]Øn¬ AXnkq£vaamb ]camWp°ƒ tbmPn®v kmam
\y {]]©w (General), hntij {]]©w (Special) F∂v {]]©w D≠m
bn. AXmbXv ÿqeamb {Zhy {]]©Øn∂pw, kq£vaamb Ime {]]
©Øn∂pw aqew ]camWphmWv. ]camWp{Zhyw (matter) IemIXaß
fmWv. Ime]camWp F∂p ]d™m¬ Hcp kqcyIncWw Hcp {Zhy ]c
amWphn¬ h∂p]Xn°m≥ FSp°p∂ kabw (unit time) BWv. CØcw
\nch[n Ime]camWp°fmWv Hcp kqcycivan (\nc¥cw {]hln°p
48

{]Imikn‘p

∂Xv). Hcp {]Imi civan°v {_lvamfiamsI hym]n°m≥ th≠
kabw alZvImeamWv. {]Imi civan°v AZriyambXpw (\mw Ct∏mƒ
Infrared, Ultraviolet F∂phnfn°p∂ Nph∂ k‘y°p Xmsg iymah¿
ÆØn\∏pdw) ZriyambXpw (7 h¿Æap≈ VIBJYOR- C{μ[\p v) F∂v
2 `mKap≠v. Imew, alZvImew, kq£vaImew F∂nhsb{XktcWp
hgn ÿqehpw kq£vahpamb {Zhy/Ime ]camWp°fpambn H∂m°p∂
(Imew, tZiw AYhm {]Imi civan, {Zhyw F∂nh H∂msW∂p hy‡
am°p∂ IW°v) {]{Inb `mKhXØn¬ Cßs\bmWv.
2 ]camWp
= 1 AWp
(AZriyw)
3 ]camWp
= 1 {XktcWp
(Zriyw) (Af°mw)
3 {XktcWp = 1 {XpSn
(Af°mhp∂ Imew)
100 {XpSn
= 1 th[w
3 th[w
= 1 ehw
3 ehw
= 1 \nanjw
(Af°m≥ b{¥w)
3 \nanjw
= 1 £Ww
5 £Ww
= 1 ImjvT
15 ImjvT
= 1 eLp
15 eLp
= 1 \mgnI
(PeLSnImcw Af°p∂p)
2 \mgnI
= 1 aplq¿Øw
6 \mgnI
= 1 bmaw (1 {]lcw) (aWnap´n Adnbn°Ww)
4 bmaw
= 1 ]I¬, = 1 cm{Xn
15 cm∏I¬
= 1 ]£w
(N{μKXn)
2 ]£w
= Hcp amkw(`qan, kqcy≥ F∂nhb\pkcn
®v 12 BZnXycpsS cminÿm\w)
2 amkw
= 1 EXp (kkyarKmZn{]IrXn, Im‰v KXn A\pk
cn®v ImWmhp∂ Imeam‰w)
6 amkw
= 1 Ab\w- kqcy≥, `qan F∂nhcpsS Bt]
£nI ÿm\am‰w- AYhm Ne\w
CØcw 12 amkw= kwh’cw- Hcp `q]cn{Iaw kqcy\pNp‰pw
(a\pjyh¿jw)
2 Ab\w
= 1 tZh Zn\w
120 kwh’cw = 1 a\pjymbp v
a\pjymbp v 120 a\pjyh¿jsa¶n¬ Hcp {_lvamfiØns‚ {k
jvSmhmb {_lvamhns‚ Bbp v 2 ]cm¿≤w. CXns\ Ziwi k{ºZmb
49

{]Imikn‘p
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
100000000
1000000000
10000000000
100000000000
1000000000000
10000000000000

Øn¬ temKcnXØnemWv C¥y°m¿ FgpXnbn
cp∂Xv. GIw, Ziw, iXw, kl{kw apX¬ ]cm¿
≤w hsc Cßs\bmWv (IqSpXembn \mZeb
kn‘phn¬ CXns‚ KWnXhpw kuμcyim
kv{Xhpw hnhcn®Xn \m¬ Bh¿Øn°p∂n√).
bqtdm∏n¬ 16 mw \q‰m≠n¬ Bcw`n®
Nn¥mhnπhw C¥ybn¬ kl{km_vZ߃°p
apºp kw`hn®ncp∂p. Cu `mj AdnbmsX {]]
©`mjbnse Hcp]Zw a\ nemhn√ F∂
Keoentbmhns‚ hm°v AXn\m¬ tdma≥
ItØmen°≥ ]≈nsb sNmSn∏n® t]mse
C¥ybnse CuizchnizmknIsf sNmSn∏nt°
≠Xn√. \ΩpsS thZ]pcmWßfn¬ ]d™sXms° icnbmsW∂v
]Xps°∏Xps° temIsØ ]co£W \nco£WßfneqsS B[p\nI
imkv{Xw t_m≤ys∏SpØns°mt≠ Ccnbv°bmWv. ssk‘h P\X
bpsS imkv{Xhpw aXhpw sFizc {] IrXnbptSbpw {]]©Ønt‚bpw
]T\hpw X∑bXzhpw hnthIhpamWv.
hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ 14 mw A≤ymbw tPymXn
imkv{X]cambn \nco£Ww sNøm\p≈ hyXykvX bt{¥m]IcW
ßfpsS hnhcWamWv. A≤ymbw 15 tPymXntjm]\njØv, {Kl \£
{XmZnIfpsS Bt]£nIÿnXn, {KlWw, ZnIv{`wi \nbaØns‚ ASn
ÿm\ XØzw, N{μ kqcy{KlW߃ IqSmsX a‰p {Kl k©mc
Øn¬ hcp∂ {KlWw, Ing°pw ]Sn™mdpsa∂ Znim \n¿Æbw Xs∂
`q{`aW \nbaØm¬ Bt]£nIamsW∂ AssZzXw, e¶sb \nc£
tcJbmbn sh®v tZim¥c kwip≤n sNøp∂ coXn, `qtKmfØns‚ 4
_nμp°ƒ (4 {]tZi߃) hoXw `qa≤ytcJm `mKØpw, I¿°nSI
Z£nWmb\ tcJm `mKØpw (Tropic of cancer) FSpØv `qtKmf {`aW
Øm¬ Cu 4 _nμp°fnse kqcymkvXabmZn t`Zhpw h¿Æn®v ]dbp∂p.
CsXms° t\csØ as‰mcp {K\vYØn¬ AhXcn∏n®XmIbm¬, ]p
Xnb imkv{XNcn{XØn¬ kam\ Nn¥mKXn F∂v Fßs\ Ft∏mƒ
D≠mbn F∂v hmb\°m¿°p XmcXayw sNømw. N{μ, kqcy{KlW
߃, ip{I\S°w a‰p {Klßfpw {KlWap≠m°p∂p, ip{I\v phases
D≠v, At\Iw \£{X߃ BImi KwKbnep≠v Fs∂ms° AD 427
se hcmlanlnc≥ Xs‚ {K\vYßfn¬ sXfnbn®n´p≠v.
50

{]Imikn‘p

`qtKmfØns‚ Im¥i‡n, tKmfmIrXn:]©alm`qXabkvXmcmKWm]RvPtc alotKme!
tJbkv°mt¥mA¥xÿm
teml ChmhÿntXmhrXx
(A≤ymbw 13. t«mIw 1.
]©kn≤m¥nI)
(XmcmKW ]RvPchpw `qanbpw ]©alm`qXabamWv, `qan tKm
fmIrXnbmWv; 2 Im¥ßƒ°nSbn¬ (_m¿ amKv\‰v t]mse) Ccpºv
F∂Xn¬ sshZypX Im¥nI i‡n, ]©`qXØn¬ \n∂v AssPh
hkvXp D≠mhp∂ Adnhv)
AtX A≤ymbw t«mIw 30, 31 ¬ hcmlanlncs‚ sSekvt°m∏v
{]h¿Ø\w hnhcn°p∂p: Dbcap≈ Hcp ^eIØns‚ {]XeØn¬
ZniIƒ, \£{Xÿm\w F∂nh tcJs∏SpØnb tijw, AXns‚ sX
°p`mKØv {]XeØns‚ am\ap≈ i¶pshbv°pI. i¶p ew_ambn
cns° \nco£I≥ ZrjvSn AXns‚ ISbv°¬ IÆpsh®v ]Xps° sN
cn®v IÆpw {[phXmchpw Htc tcJbn¬ hcpwhsc sNcnbv°pI (Cß
s\ GXp \£{XtØbpw t\m°mw). XpS¿∂p≈ t«mIØn¬ hnZKv≤¿
`qanbpsS tI{μw, `qhymkw, CsXms° Cßs\ sh®v \n¿Æbn°psa
∂pw Cu am¿§Øn¬ i¶phns‚ A{Kw apX¬ {]Xew hscbp≈ ew_w
A£mwiPymhpw, ISbv°¬ (IÆv) \n∂v ew_Øn\p≈ AIew
(DØc Z£nWtcJ) Colatitue s‚ Pymhv BsW∂pw, F√mw ]dbp∂p
≠v. t«mIw 39 ¬ `qanbn¬ \n∂pt\m°ptºmƒ {IaØn¬ N{μ≥, _p
[≥, ip{I≥, sNmΔ, hymgw, i\n F∂nhtbbpw kqcyt\bpw ImWmsa
∂pw Chbn¬ {Kl߃ AXmXns‚ I£ybn¬ ({`aW ]Yw) \nivNnX
thKØn¬ Ingt°m´p k©cn°p∂p F∂pw ]dbp∂p. t«mIw 40 `qan
bn¬ \n∂v DbcØnte°p k©cn°pwtXmdpw cminIfpsS ]ckv]c
Zqcw h¿≤n®phcp∂p (Expanding universe pattern). FÆ®{IØns‚
X≠pIƒ°nSbnep≈ `mKw A®pX≠nt\mSSpØv sNdpXpw N{IØn
s‚ ]cn[n `mKØv hepXpambncn°p∂Xpt]msebmWnsX∂pw, CXn
\m¬ (t«mIw 41) G‰hpw ASpØp≈ N{μ≥ io{LØnepw, G‰hpw
AIsebp≈ i\n (aμ≥) ]Xps°bpw k©cn°p∂p F∂pw ]dbp∂p.

51

{]Imikn‘p

3. ¢mkn°¬ imkv{Xw
C∂v \mw Im¿´oknb≥ tIm Hm¿Unt\‰v F∂p hnfn°p∂ {Xnam\
ap≈ tZit_m[w, AXnt\mSv {XnImesa∂ NXp¿Ωm\w tN¿∂v Bdp
am\ap≈ Iyq_v (j¨apJw) F∂nh C¥y≥ imkv{XØn\v ]t≠
Adnbmw. ]s£ bqtdm∏n¬ sZ°m¿ØmWv CXns\°pdn®mZyw ]d
™Xv.
1619 \hw_¿ 10. Um\yq_v \Zo XocØv Uyq°v Hm^v _thdnb
bpsS ssk\yw s{]m´Ã‚pItfmSp bp≤w sNøm≥ XºSn®p. Cu Iym
ºnep≠mbncp∂ sZ°m¿Øv Xs‚ InS°bn¬ InS∂v at\mcmPyw hnNm
cn°bmWv. Cu {]]©kz`mhsa¥v? PohnXØn\v A¿∞sa¥v? apdn
bpsS Hcp aqebv°¬ ]d°p∂ Cu®sb t\m°ns°m≠v. s]s´∂v At±
lØn\p tXm∂n. Cu®bpsS ÿm\w ImeØn¬ shdpw aq∂v kwJy
sIm≠v {]hNn°mw. apdnbpsS aqebn¬ Iq´nap´p∂ 3 NpacpIfn¬ \n∂v
AXns‚ Zqcw ]d™m¬! Cu {Xnam\ Nn{XamWv C∂v \mw “{Km^v”
F∂p ]dbp∂Xv. X, Y F∂ c≠v kwJy- aqebn¬ \n∂v hc® 3 masØ
Z F∂ kwJy. Cu®bpsS ÿm\w (Z) Cßs\ \n¿Æbn°mw. `qanbp
tSbpw `qanbnse a\pjyt‚bpw ÿm\hpw kqcyN{μkn≤m¥°m¿
Cßs\bmWv C¥ybn¬ \n¿Æbn°p∂sX∂v At±lw Adn™ncp
∂n√. AXn\m¬ AsXmcp I≠p]nSpØw Xs∂bmbncp∂p. X, Y, Z sIm
≠v ({Xnam\w) ÿm\w \n¿Æbn°p∂ ]≤Xn
Y
sb C∂v Im¿´oknb≥ tIm Hm¿Unt\‰v F∂p
hnfn°p∂p. aq∂Sn Ingt°m´v \S∂v aq∂Sn hS
t°m´v t]mhpI F∂v hgn ]dbptºmƒ \mw
Z
Z1
CXmWv sNøp∂sX∂v eoemhXnbn¬ `mkv°
Z2
cmNmcy\pw ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ hcmlanlnc
\pw hy‡am°nbn´p≠v. `qanbnencp∂v a\p
X jy≥ Db¿∂ tZißfnte°v (a‰p {KlI£y
52

{]Imikn‘p

Ifnte°v) Zqchpw AhbpsS ÿm\hpw Is≠Øptºmgpw CXm
Wp]tbmKn°p∂Xv. hknjvTap\nbpsS ImeØpt]mepw CXv C¥y
bnep≠v (]©kn≤m¥nI, N.B.S tIm´bw, 2nd Ed., 2000, tUm. kph¿W
\me∏m´v). XmgsØ \nebnencp∂v apIfnse Hcp ^vfm‰ns‚ ÿm\w
(hgn) ]d™psImSp°ptºmgpw CXmWv sNøp∂Xv. F∂m¬ `qanbpw
{Klßfpw Ne\w (KXn- NXp¿∞am\amb Imew) F∂nh D≈Xpw
^vfm‰v ÿmhcw (A\ßmØXv) F∂ ANehpamWv.
{XntImWw (3 tImWpIfp≈, Hcp cq]w) 3 kwJysIm≠v ]dbm
hp∂ {]]©ÿm\w AYhm “{XntImWanXn” (Trigonometry °v kwkv
IrXØnse ]gb t]cv) sZ°m¿Øn\papºv C¥ybn¬ D]tbmKn®ncp
∂p. 9 {KlßfpsS ÿm\w 9 {XntImWambn hc®v 9 {XntImWtØbpw
AhbpsS _‘tØbpw ImWn°p∂ N{Iafie߃ ChnsS F{X
tbm Imew apºv KWnX⁄¿°dnbmw. kn‘pKwKm kckzXn XocØv
IV C lc∏≥ ImeØv CXn\p sXfnhp≠v. _mtK¿ I, \mt\L´nse Ip
°ptSizc t£{XØn\SpØv (C¥ybpsS ]Sn™md≥ XocØv) ]men
tbmenØn°v a\pjy¿ {]XnjvTn® Hcp {XntImWmIrXnbnep≈ ]md
°√v (i¶p) ANyqenb≥ Kplma\pjycpsS Znimt_m[sØ ImWn°p
∂XmWv. t]mfnt\jy≥ IS¬bm{X°mcpsS Spatial Intelligence (slm
hm¿Uv Km¿Uv\¿) A°meØp Xs∂ C¥y≥ IStemcsØ IS¬
k©mcnIfmb BZna a\pjy¿°p≠mbncp∂p. AXns‚ XpS¿®bmWv
hcmlanlnc\pw a‰pw! PymanXnsb (Geometry) B¬Pn{_ sIm≠v A\
ssekv sNømsa∂v Cu Adnhp≈h¿t° {Kln°m\mhq. 20 mw \q‰m
≠n¬ Bt]£nIXm kn≤m¥hpw Izm≠w Xnbdnbpw h∂Xv {]]©
Øns‚ Cu KWnX`mj 16 mw \q‰m≠n¬ bqtdm∏n\v Xpd∂p In´nbt∏m
gmWv. C¥ybn¬ CXv ]t≠ kw`hn®XpsIm≠mhWw ChnsS kmwJy,
]camWpkn≤m¥hpw Ime, ImemXoX t_m[hpw tZiIme ss\c¥
cyhpw t\csØ {]Xn]mZn°s∏´Xv. IS¬bm{X sNøp∂h¿°v CXv
thKw D≠mhpw. bqtdm∏v hmkvt°mUnKmabv°p tijsa CXns‚ {]m
[m\yw icn°v a\ nem°nbp≈p F∂pam{Xw! C¥ybn¬ kwJysb
A£cam°nbmWv FgpXpI. Cu coXn (1,2,3 F∂Xn\p]Icw x,y,z
As√¶n¬ a,b,c Fs∂gpX¬) bqtdm∏n¬ sZ°m¿Øv XpSßnsh®p.
x2 F∂m¬ X x X BWv,
x3 F∂m¬ X x X x X BWv F∂v A\en‰n°¬ KWnXØn\v

17 mw \q‰m≠n¬ At±lw XpS°w Ipdn®p.
53

{]Imikn‘p

Keoentbmhns\ hØn°m≥ in£n®Xdn™t∏mƒ ImØen°v
Bbncp∂n´pw sZ°m¿Øv Le Monde, On Traite de la Lumiere F∂ Xs‚
]pkvXIw (tlmf≠n¬) {]kn≤oIcn°p∂Xv \n¿Ønsh®Xv, Xm\pw
tIm∏¿\n° ns\ A\pIqen°p∂XpsIm≠mWv. 1637 ¬ sa‰ocntbm
fPn, Hm]vSnIvkv, tPymsa{Sn F∂nhsb°pdn®v The Method Fs∂mcp ]p
kvXIw ]pdØnd°n. 1641 ¬ ]pdØph∂ c≠masØ ]pkvXI (Meditationnes de prima philosophia) ØnemWv Rm≥ Nn¥n°p∂p, AXn\m¬
Rm≥ D≠v F∂ {]kn≤hmNIw FgpXnbXv. 1644 ¬ Principea Philosophiae bn¬ ^nknIvkn¬ Inertia bpsS Hcp hniZoIcWw At±lw sIm
SpØp. iq\yw (void) ]camWp, AWp (atom) F∂nhsb X≈n∏d™p
sZ°m¿Øv. B.C. 5 mw \q‰m≠n¬ sUtam{In‰kpw, B.C. 342-271 hsc
Pohn® F∏nIyqdkpw {Kokn¬ AWpkn≤m¥w ]Tn∏n®ncp∂p. ]nbdn
Kmsk‚n 1649 ¬ {]kn≤oIcn® Xs‚ ]pkvXIØn¬ Cu AWp kn≤m
¥sØ ho≠pw ]p\cp≤cn®p. AWp°ƒ tN¿∂v tamfnIyqfpIƒ D≠m
Ipsa∂v ]d™p (AtX kabw hneyw lm¿ΔnbpsS c‡Nw{IaWw
sX‰msW∂pw hmZn®p). iq\yX (vacum) AYhm void Ds≠∂v Keoen
tbmhns‚ injy≥ Chm≥ sPenà tSmdnsk√n sXfnbn®psIm≠ncn°
bmbncp∂p. Bgap≈ InWdn¬ \n∂v Hcp ]ºpsIm≠v 30 ASn (9 ao‰¿)
bne[nIw DbcØn¬ Pew FØn°m\mhmØsX¥v F∂ {]iv\amWv
tSmdnsk√n°v Keoentbm sImSpØXv. A¥co£Øns‚ `mcw sNep
Øp∂ a¿±tØ°mƒ ss]∏nse sh≈w sNepØp∂ a¿±w Ipdhmbm
te CXp km[n°q F∂v tSmdnsk√n Is≠Øn. 1643 ckw D]tbmKn®v
Hc‰w AS® Hcp Syq_v sIm≠v At±lw CXv sXfnbn®p. Aßs\ _m
tcmao‰¿ I≠p]nSnbv°bpw Hcp ‘vaccum’ krjvSn®v sXfnbn°bpw sN
bvXp. Cu “a¿±”a\pkcn®mWv c‡Nw{IaWw F∂v C∂v F√mh¿°p
adnbmw. sa¿°pdn tImfØnt\m Pe\nc∏nt\m apIfn¬ vaccum (iq
\yX) BsW∂v CXpsIm≠v ]q¿Æambn ]dbm\mhns√∂v sZ°m¿Øv
hmZn®p. Kmsk‚n {]Imiw kqcy\n¬ \n∂v \nc¥cw {]hln°p∂
AWpIWßfmsW∂pw Ah a\pjys‚ IÆn¬ ]Xn®n´mWv ImWp
∂sX∂pw ]d™p. sZ°m¿Øv, kqcy≥ Hcp bqWnthgvk¬ PesØ
a¿±n°ptºmƒ AXns‚ a¿±w a\pjys‚ IÆn¬ A\p`hs∏SpIbm
sW∂mWv hnNmcn®Xv. Hcp \£{XØn¬ \n∂phcp∂ a¿±XcwKw XSm
IØnse AeIƒ t]mseb√, PeØn¬ Hcp a¿±ap≠mbm¬ XpS¿®
bmbn D≠mhp∂ a¿±XcwKamWv (Riverberating pressure wave) F∂¿
∞w. Cu Z¿i\sØ sZ°m¿Øns‚ kplrØns‚ ]p{X≥ {InkvXy≥
54

{]Imikn‘p

lyqK≥kv hnIkn∏ns®SpØp. {]ImiØns‚ XcwK\ymbw Aßs\
D≠mbn. KWnXw, sa°m\nIvkv imJIfn¬ lyqK≥kns‚ kw`mh\
Iƒ AhKWnbv°mhX√. \yq´s‚ kaImeo\\mbn F∂Xp am{Xam
bncp∂p Cu imkv{X⁄\p ]‰nb \n¿`mKyw. Momentum, Centrifugal
forces \v KpcpXzmI¿jWtØmSp≈ kmZriyw F∂nh \yq´\p aptº
sXfnbn®p lyqK≥kv. 1657 se s]≥Upew t¢m°ns‚ t]cnemWv C∂
t±lw Adnbs∏Sp∂Xv. 1658 ¬ lyqK≥kns‚ t¢m°pIƒ ]≈nIfn¬
{]Xy£s∏´p. 1658 apX¬ km[mcW°mcpsS ho´nepw kqcyÿm\w
t¢m°pt\m°n \n¿Æbn°m\p≈ CØcw t¢m°pIƒ h∂p. \mw D]
tbmKn°p∂ t¢m°v, hm®v F∂nh kqcy\pNp‰pw `q{`aWØm¬ hcp∂
Cu 2 tKmfßfpsS ]ckv]c _‘w, ÿm\w F∂nh ‘Nen°p∂ Hcp
{Km^v’ cq]Øn¬ ImWn°p∂XmWv. 1655 ¬ lyqK≥kv sSekvt°m∏p
Iƒ D≠m°m≥ XpSßn. sSekvt°m∏pIfn¬ {]Imiw se≥kn\m¬
hfbptºmƒ D≠mhp∂ t{Imam‰nIv A_tdj≥ (hnhn[ h¿Æ߃
{]Xn_nw_Øns‚ Np‰pw ImWpw) I∏epIfn¬ sSekvt°m∏v D]tbm
Kn°p∂ \mhnI¿°v Hcp {]iv\a√. ]s£ \£{X\nco£I\mb im
kv{X⁄\v {]iv\amWv. Hcp XSn® ImNØn\p]Icw 2 t\¿Ø ImNw
sh®m¬ Cu {]iv\w ]cnlcn°msa∂v lyqK≥kv a\ nem°n. CØc
samcp sSekvt°m∏psIm≠v 1655 ¬ i\nbpsS N{μ\mb ssS‰s\ lyq
K≥kv I≠p]nSn®p. ]Øph¿jØn\Iw IqSpX¬ \s√mcp sSekvt°m
∏p≠m°n i\n°pNp‰pw t\¿Ø Hcp {]Xew Ds≠∂pw (i\nbpsS
ring) Nnet∏mƒ AXp ImWmXncn°psa∂pw (Edge on from Earth) Nne
t∏mƒ Keoentbm I≠t]mse 2 sNhnt]mse tXm∂psa∂pw (face
on) AXv sSekvt°m∏v sNdpXmbXp sIm≠msW∂pw lyqK≥kv sXfn
bn®p.
1645 apX¬ imkv{Xob Nn¥mKXnbp≈h¿ e≠\n¬ HØpIqSn
]ckv]cw BibkwhmZw \SØnbncp∂p. 1662 ¬ Nm¿ekv c≠mas‚
Nm¿´¿ {]Imcw CXv “tdmb¬ skmssk‰n”bmbn cq]w {]m]n®p. CXn
s‚ ^≠v cmjv{Sa√, ss{]h‰v hy‡nIƒ Xs∂bmWv hln®ncp∂Xv.
1663 ¬ CXnse BZysØ hntZin AwKw {^©pImc\mb lyqK≥kv
Bbn. 4 h¿jw Ign™v {^m≥kn¬ XØpeyamb kb≥kv A°mZan
XpSßnbXv eqbn ]Xn\memas‚ kwc£WØn¬ ^≠v sImSpØn´m
Wv. 1700 emWv Cu tamUen¬ s_¿en≥ A°mZan D≠mbXv. lyqK≥
kns‚ Refraction \nba߃, CuY¿ F∂ Pecq]amb Hcp vaccum ¬
55

{]Imikn‘p

{]Imiw D≠m°p∂ a¿±XcwKw, km{μamb •mkneqsS km{μX
Ipd™ hmbpth°mƒ ]Xps°bmWv {]Imiw IS∂pt]mhpI F∂
Is≠ج, {]Imi civanbpsS thKX A\¥amIbm¬ kqcy\nse
Hcp {]iv\w AYhm a¿±am‰w DSs\ IÆnseØp∂p F∂ Xocpam\w
F∂nh hfsc {][m\ambncp∂p. {^©v A°mZanbn¬ lyqK≥kns‚
kaImeo\\mb Hte tdma¿ {]ImithKX hfsc IqSpXemWv, ]s£
A\¥a√ F∂p IcpXn. tdmadpw Kntbmh\n I n\nbpw (Ct±lØn
s‚ t]cnemWv i\nbpsS dnßnse Cassini division Adnbs∏Sp∂Xv).
hymgØns‚ N{μ∑m¿ hymgØns‚ ÿm\Øm¬ {KlWhnt[bamIp
∂p F∂p I≠p. F∂m¬ Ch XΩnep≈ CSthf Ft∏mgpw H∂√.
Cu am‰w `qan°v Xs‚ I£ybn¬ (kqcy\pNp‰pw) D≈ ÿm\Øn\v
hymgÿm\hpambp≈ _‘w sIm≠mWv. AXn\m¬ {]ImithKX
A\¥a√ km¥sa∂v tdma¿ hmZn®p. `qan hymgØn¬ \n∂Ieptºmƒ
\mw {KlWw sshIn°mWp∂p. AXmbXv {KlWhm¿Ø sSekvt°m
∏n¬ FØn°m≥ {]ImiØn\v Xmakw t\cnSp∂p. Cßs\ \nivNbn®v
hymgØns‚ G‰hpw AIw`mKØp≈ Keoenb≥ N{μ≥ Ctbmhns‚
{KlWw \hw_¿ 9, 1679 \v {]hNn®p. Cu {]hN\ {]Imcw a‰p≈h¿
{]hNn®Xn¬ \n∂v 10 an\p´p Ignt™ {KlWw \S°q. At±lØns‚
{]hN\w A£cw{]Xn icnbmbn. `qanbpsS I£ybpsS hymkwsh®v
Cu ImeXmakØn¬ \n∂v {]ImithKX 225000 In.ao/sk°‚ v F∂v
tdma¿ IW°m°n. C∂dnhp≈ `qI£ybpsS hymkwsh®v tdmadpsS
KWnXw sNbvXm¬ CXv 2,98,000 In.ao/sk°‚ v F∂p In´pw. B[p\nI
imkv{XØns‚ 2,99,792 In.ao/sk°‚ v F∂ aqeyhpambn CXv tbmPn
°p∂p (C¥ybnse KWnXw ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ImWpI).
1671 ¬ sNmΔbpsS ]mceIvkv {^©v Knbm\bn¬ (Jean Richer)
\n∂pw ]mcokn¬ \n∂pw (Ikn\n) \nco£n®p. c≠pÿesØ \nco£
I¿°v D≠mb sNmΔbpsS ÿm\am‰w, ÿncXmc{]Xew, ]mcokv apX¬
{^©v Knbm\ hscbp≈ t_kvsse≥ F∂nh sh®v sNmΔbnte°p≈
Zqcw Af°msa∂pw CXpw sIπdpsS \nbahpw tN¿Øm¬ F√m {Kl
I£yIfpsS hymkhpw Adnbmsa∂pw, CXv tIm∏¿\n° ns‚ kqcy
tI{μ tamUens\ icnsh°p∂p F∂pw imkv{XtemIw apgph≥ AwKo
Icn®p. 1690 ¬ Theatre on light F∂ t]cn¬ lyqK≥kns‚ {]Imi
kw_‘amb {K\vYw ]pdØph∂p.
1661 ¬ t_mbvens‚ The Sceptical sIanÃv F∂ {K\vYw B¬s°
ansb imkv{Xobamb sIankv{Sn XeØnte°v sIm≠ph∂p. 17 mw \q‰m
56

{]Imikn‘p

≠ns‚ Ahkm\Øn¬ k¿ sFkIv \yq´≥ B¬s°an sNbvXncp∂p
F∂v Hm¿°Ww.
18, 19 \q‰m≠pIfn¬ sIankv{Sn {]NmcØnembt∏mƒ t_mbnens‚
Cu ]pkvXIw Hcp hgnØncnhmbn hymJym\n°s∏´p. imkv{Xob coXn
bn¬ B¬s°an D]tbmKn°p∂XmWv sIankv{Sn. Xmgv∂ temlØn¬
\n∂v kz¿Æap≠m°p∂ Philosopher's stone s\ °pdn®v A⁄mXcmb
BfpIƒ ]cØnbncp∂ A‘hnizmksØ t_mbv¬ imkv{Xobambn
t\cn´p (C¥ybn¬ \ZoXocsØ aWenepw aeIfnse [mXp°fnepw
\n∂v kz¿Æw tiJcn®ncp∂ ]gb coXnsbbmWv bqtdm∏nepw t]¿ky
bnepw Cßs\ Hc‘hnizmkambn amdnbXv). Hcp hkvXphns‚ kz`mhw
Adnbm≥ sIan°¬ A\menknkv \SØp∂ coXn t_mbv¬ \S∏m°n.
1662 apX¬ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ t_mbv¬ AwKamWv. 1680
¬ AXns‚ {]knU‚mbn sXcs™SpØt∏mƒ, Xs‚ hy‡n]camb
BZ¿ißfm¬ skmssk‰nbpsS {]Xn⁄ (Oath) FSp°m\mhns√∂p
]d™v AXp \nckn®p. ktlmZcn ImXdos‚ IqsSbmbncp∂p Xma
kw. B ho´n¬ At±lØns‚ em_d´dnbpw injy∑mcpw Hs° D≠m
bncp∂p. F√m _p≤nPohnIfpw AhnsS h∂p. Hcp KpcpIpew t]mse
bmWv ImXdos‚ ho´n¬ At±lw Xs‚ ]T\hpw, A≤ym]\hpw \SØn
bXv. G‰hpw _lpam\nX\mbn (Honourable Robert Royal, Esquire), Po
hnXØn¬ Hcn°epw Icn]pcfmsX Pohn®p. kºmZyw apgph≥ Poh
ImcpWy {]h¿Ø\߃°v Zm\w sNbvXp. acn®t∏mƒ ÿmhc PwKa
hkvXp°fpw HkyØp{]Imcw Zm\w sNbvXncp∂p.
1667 ¬ am¿skt√m am¬]nPnbpsS {]_‘߃ tdmb¬ skmssk
‰n {]kn≤oIcn°m\mcw`n®p. ^ntemk^nbpw saUnkn\pw s_mtfm
Kv\ bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ \n∂p ]Tn® Ct±lw 1669 ¬ BZyambn tdmb¬
s^t√m Bb C‰menb\mWv. ssat{Imkvt°m∏n, hΔmens‚ NndIn
se c‡°pgepIƒ, jUv]ZLS\, tImgn°p™ns‚ hf¿® (chick
embryo), kkyßfpsS Cebnse stomata XpSßn At\Iw Imcy߃
At±lw {]Xn]mZn®p. N¿ΩØnepw izmktImiØnepap≈ c‡°pg
epIfpsS kmayw, B¿´dnbpw shbn\pw XΩnep≈ kwtbmK߃
F∂nh ]Tn®v, lm¿hnbpsS c‡Nw{IaW tamUen¬ \nIØmsX
InS∂ `mK߃ At±lw \nIØn. h¿j߃°ptijw CtX I≠p
]nSpØw, am¬]nPnbpsS kn≤m¥w AdnbmsXØs∂, kzX{¥ambn
B‚Wn hm≥ eyqh≥ tlm°v Is≠Øn. CXv “ssat{Imkvt°m∏v”
57

{]Imikn‘p

F∂ sSIvt\mfPn saUn°¬ imkv{XØn\p \¬Inb kw`mh\
bmWv.
dn®m¿Uv temh¿ (1631-1691) HmIvkvt^m¿Uv {Kq∏nse AwKambncp
∂p. At±lØns‚ Imew apX¬ c‡sØ {]mWhmbphpw t]mj
Imwihpw F√mbnSØpw FØn°p∂ Hcp k©mcam¿§ambn IcpXm≥
XpSßn (kp{ipX kwlnXbn¬ CXv ]dbp∂p≠v). F∂m¬ icocw
Hcp b{¥amsW∂ hnNmcw A°mew apX¬ XpSßn. {]]©hpw ico
chpw Hcp bm{¥nI tamUemWv F∂ ‘Im¿´oknb≥’ \nbaw {]_e
ambn. 17 mw \q‰m≠n¬ am¬]nPn Kntbmh\n t_msd√n Unk£\pIƒ
(Ct±lw KWnXimkv{X s{]^kdmbncp∂p) Gsd \SØn. t_msd√n
A‰m‰an ]Tn®p. kqcys\ IS∂pt]mIp∂ [qatIXphns‚ ]mX ]mc
t_mfbmWv; hymgw Xs‚ N{μ∑mcn¬ kqcy≥ {Klßfn¬ sNepØp∂
AtX {]tNmZ\w D≠m°p∂p, icocw amwkt]inIfpsS i‡nIfm¬
{]h¿Øn°p∂ enhdp (livers) IfpsS Hcp knÃamWv, \S°ptºmgpw
HmSptºmgpw amwkt]io {]h¿Ø\w PymanXobambn A\ssekv sN
ømw, ]£nbpsS ]d°epw a’yØns‚ \o¥epw KWnX]cambn hnh
cn°mw, Fs∂ms°bmWv At±lØns‚ \nKa\߃. Cuizc\v Cu
b{¥w XpSßnsh°p∂ Hcp sajo≥ Unssk\dpsS ]Wntb D≈p
F∂pw, Cu LS\bn¬ a‰p arKßfpw a\pjy\pw hyXymkans√∂pw ,
a\pjy\v {]]©Øn¬ a‰p hkvXp°tf°mƒ alØmb ÿm\sam∂p
ans√∂pw At ±lw IcpXn.
1677 ¬ saUn°¬ Un{Kn FSpØ FtUzUv ssSk¨ e≠\n¬
tUmIvS¿ Bbn {]mIvSokv sNbvXncp∂p. At\Iw Unsk£\pIƒ
sNbvX Ct±lw 1679 ¬ tdmb¬skmssk‰nbpsS fellow Bbn. 1684 ¬
e≠\nse _Xvtew tlmkv]n‰ens‚ tUmIvSdpw Kh¿Ædpambn. Cu
am\knI tcmKtI{μw (Bedlam) tcmKnIsf G‰hpa[nIw ]oUn∏n®ncp∂
tI{μamWv. ]W°m¿°pw ]cnjvImcnIƒ°pw Hcp Entertainment SqdnÃv
tI{μw t]mse, Hcp ImgvN_w•mhnse curiosity t]msebmWv tcmKnIsf
I≠ncp∂Xv. Cu ÿnXn ssSk¨ am‰n. sPbne¿amsct∏mep≈ ]p
cpj ]cnNmcIsc am‰n kv{Xo t\gvkpamsc \nban®p. tcmKnIfpsS
hkv{XØn\mbn Hcp ^≠v \o°nsh®p. hyXykvX species IfpsS
LS\ ]Tn°p∂ Comparative Anatomy bpsS ]nXmhmWv ssSk¨.
1680 ¬ sXbnwkv \Znbn¬ \n∂p]nSn® Hcp Porpoise s\ 7 jn√nßpw
6 s]\nbpw sImSpØphmßn UnkIvSv sNbvX ssSk¨ AsXmcp
58

{]Imikn‘p

a’ya√ kkvX\ PohnbmsW∂pw B¥cnI LS\ Icbnse \m¬
°menIfptSXn\p Xpeysa∂pw {Kln®p. ]pdwcq]Øn¬ Imen√ F∂
hyXymkta D≈p. F∂m¬ Iøns\ {]Xn\n[oIcn°p∂ scapula, lqa
dkv, Aƒ\, tdUnbkv, Im¿∏¬ t_mWpIƒ, sa‰mIm¿∏epIƒ, ]c
kv]cw tbmPn® 5 hncepIƒ F∂nh Ahbv°p≠v. tNc, H´I∏£n,
Nnºm≥kn F∂nßs\ ]eXnt\bpw At±lw dessect sNbvXp. a\pjy
\pw Nnºm≥knbpw Htc icoc LS\bmWv. 48 ImcyØn¬ Nnºm≥kn°v
a\pjyt\mSpw- 27 ImcyØn¬ Ipcßt\mSpamWv kmZriyw. AXn\m¬
Nnºm≥kn Ipcßt\°mƒ a\pjykZriamWv. Nnºm≥knbpsS akvXn
jv°w, hen∏ØnsemgnsI as‰√mw sIm≠pw a\pjyakvXnjv°w t]m
sebmsW∂Xv ssSks\ AXv`pXs∏SpØn.
ssiihØnemWv Cu kmZriyw IqSpX¬. Ct∏mgXn\v \ntbms´\n
(holding on to youth) F∂p ]dbpw. a\pjyinip hfcp∂Xv Nnºm≥kn
sb°mƒ ]Xps°bmWv. AXn\m¬ P\n°ptºmƒ a\pjyinip Nnºm
≥kntb°mƒ ]n∂n¬, hfsc \ncmew_mhÿbnemWv. F∂m¬ hfcp
tºmƒ acØn¬ Du™memSm\pw h\hn`hw tiJcn°m\pap≈ Adn
thmsS Ahkm\n°p∂p Nnºm≥knbpsS temIw. a\pjyt‚Xv ]e
Imcyßfpw Adnbm\pw ]Tn°m\pw DXIp∂ coXbnep≈ hnimeamb
Hcp temIambnØocp∂p.
17 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm\Øn¬ {_n´ojv imkv{XcwKsØ aq∂p
{][m\ {]Xn`Iƒ tdm_¿´v lp°pw, FUva≠v lmenbpw, sFkIv
\yq´WpamWv. lp°nt\mSv \yq´\p≠mbncp∂ ]Ibpw AXpsIm≠p
≠mb {]iv\ßfpw {]kn≤amWv. Keoentbm acn°p∂Xn\v 7 h¿jw
apºv lp°v P\n®p. At±lw Hcp ]≈nbn¬ curate Bbncp∂p. ]mepw
]gßfpa√msX as‰m∂pw `£n°m≥ Ip´n°mew apXte km[n®ncp
∂n√. hfsc A\mtcmKyhm\mbn, Dbcw Ipd™v, F√pIfpsS sshIey
tØmsSbmWt±lw hf¿∂ph∂X.v ISen¬ tcJmwiw \n¿Æbn°p∂
t{ImtWmao‰¿ F∂ t]m°‰vhm®v At±lw D≠m°n. tdm_¿´v t_mbv
ens‚ kmºØnI klmbtØmsS, At±lØns‚ Akn v Bbn
´mWv lp°v Pohn®Xv. 29 mw hb n¬ At±lw cNn® ssat{Im{Km^nb,
]Xnhn\p hn]coXambn Cw•ojp`mjbnembncp∂p. Keoentbmhns‚
starry messenger Hcp henb {]]©Øns‚ Nn{XamsW¶n¬ CXv Hcp
sIm®p{]]©Øns‚ Nn{XamWv. H∂v sSekvt°m∏v sIm≠v ImWp∂p,
H∂p ssat{Imkvt°m∏psIm≠pw. tImiLS\, Xqhens‚bpw Nn{X
59

{]Imikn‘p

ie`®ndIns‚bpw, Cu®°Ænt‚bpw LS\ F∂nßs\ ssPhtemI
sØ At±lw hnhcn®p. t^mknepIƒ Hcp ImeØv `qanbn¬ Pohn®n
cp∂ kkyarKmZnIfmsW∂v ]d™p. ssPh h¿§ßfn¬ (Nn{Xie`w)
ImWp∂ h¿Æ sshhn≤yw {]ImiØns‚ ‘Interference’ (Ccphiß
fneqsS reflect sNøp∂ {]Imiw) sIm≠msW∂v At±lw ]co£W
ßfneqsS sXfnbn®p. XcwK\ymbsØ B[mcam°nb Cu \nbaØn¬
XcwKw hißfn¬ \n∂p hißfnte°v (transverse oscillation) Btμm
f\amWv lyqK≥kv ]d™ t]mse push-pull kΩ¿± XcwKa√. Xo
IØptºmgpw izmtkmOzmkØnepw A¥co£Ønse H∂v (C¥y
bn¬ {]mW≥- Ct∏mƒ HmIvknP≥) FSp°p∂p≠v. t¢m°vt^kv ssS∏v
_mtcmao‰¿, Im‰v Af°p∂ guage, sX¿tamao‰dns‚ HcpC\w, diving
bell, sslt{Kmkvt°m∏v F∂nh I≠p]nSn®p. Imemhÿm \nco£Ww
sNbvXp (1st Metereologist F∂v ]dbs∏Sp∂p). F√m I¿ΩØn\p ]n∂n
epw Bflm¿∞amb I¿Ωtijnbp≈ ssI, hnizkvXamb IÆv, Ah
sIm≠v \nco£n°m\pw kXyk‘ambn tcJs∏SpØm\pw D≈ a\ v
F∂nh thWsa∂v At±lw hnizkn®p. {]]© imkv{Xw akvXnjv°w
sIm≠v Is≠ØmØXmbn H∂pw _m°nbn√. AsXms° ]t≠ \S
∂p. C\nbp≈h¿ sNtø≠Xv \nco£n®v tcJs∏SpØemWv F∂v
FgpXn.
1674 ¬ At±lØns‚ Hcp {]`mjWØn¬ F√m BImi tKmf
߃°pw KpcpXzmI¿jWaps≠∂pw, Hcn°¬ EPphmb Hcp efnX
Ne\w XpSßnb Hcp hkvXp t\¿tcJbn¬ ÿncambn Nen°psa∂pw,
as‰mcp i‡nbm¬ XSbs∏´v am{XamWv AXv Zniamdn (deflection) hr
Øw, Fen]vkv apXemb k¶o¿Æ h{ItcJIfn¬ k©cn°p∂sX
∂pw ]d™p. ]ckv]cmI¿jWXzap≈ At\Iw tKmfßfpsS BI¿
jW i‡n, AXv F{XtØmfw ASpØmWv, ZqscbmWv F∂\pkcn®n
cn°pw F∂pw ]d™p. lp°ns‚ 2 masØ supposition \man∂v \yq´s‚
BZysØ Ne\ \nbaambdnbp∂p. 1678 emWv lp°ns‚ FemÃnkn‰n
\nbaw (Hooks law) h∂Xv. 1703 ¬ At±lw \ncymX\mbn. 1670 apX¬
\yq´\v lp°nt\mSv Aa¿jap≠v. {]Imi kz`mhw {]nkßfpw ImNß
fpw sh®v ]Tn®v shfpØ civansb (kqcy{]Imiw) 7 \ndambn ]ncn°p
Ibpw ho≠psamcp {]nkØneqsS ISØn shfpØ civanbm°pIbpw
sNbvXv {]ImiØn¬ k]vXh¿Æhpaps≠∂v \yq´¨ Is≠Ønbncp
∂p. AXn\paptº lp°v AS°w ]ecpw CXpsNbvXncp∂p. t{Imam‰nIv
60

{]Imikn‘p

A_tdj≥ C√mØ Hcp dn^vfIvSn-ßv sSekvt°m∏v (AXn\papºv en
sbmWm¿Uv Un§kv CXv sNbvXncp∂p) \yq´¨ D≠m°n. 1671 ¬ Cu
sSekvt°m∏v e≠\n¬ {Kjmw tImtfPn¬ demonstrate sNbvXp. 11
P\phcn 1672 ¬ \yq´¨ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ fellow Bbn sXc
s™Sp°s∏´p. \yq´≥ {]ImiØns‚ IWkn≤m¥w (Corpuscular
theory) sXcs™SpØ BfmWv (lyqK≥kpw lp°pw XcwK kn≤m¥w
AYhm wave model Dw).
{]mbw IqSnbh\pw IqSpX¬ I≠p]nSpØ߃ \SØnbh\pamb
lp°n\v th≠{X s{IUn‰v sImSp°msX sNdp∏°mc\mb \yq´\v im
kv{X temIw A¿ln°p∂Xnepw _lpaXn sImSp°p∂Xv At±lØn
s‚ Zmcn{Zyw, ]≠v tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbpsS ÿm]I\mbncp∂ Hcmfp
sS the°mc\mbncp∂p F∂ Ah⁄, At±lØns‚ _mlycq]Øn
s‚ sshIeyw Chsbms°bmbncp∂p. CXv ]e¿°psa∂ t]mse tdm
_¿´v lp°n\pw Adnbmambncp∂p. B thZ\ At±lw NnetcmSv ]d
™ncp∂p. HmƒU≥_¿§v CXv s]mSn∏pw sXmßepw sh®v \yq´s\
Adnbn®p. BPoh\m¥ ]I sh°pIbpw, imkv{X clkyw t]mse
]IbpsS clkyhpw BtcmSpw ]dbmsX D≈n¬ sh®ncn°pIbpw sN
øp∂ kz`mhw \yq´\v D≠mbncp∂p. J.G. Crowther Cu c≠p imkv{X
⁄∑msc 2 hmIyØn¬ hnhcn®n´p≠v. “Hooke could not understand
what tact had to do with science..... Newton regarded discoveries as private
property.” \yq´s‚ tZjyw Xo¿°m≥ lp°v hfsc kulrZØn¬

Ab® Hcp FgpØn\v \yq´¨ Ab® adp]Sn c≠pt]cptSbw kz`mh
sØ ImWn°p∂p. kXymt\zjWØn¬ \ΩpsS c≠pt]cptSbpw
At\zjW^ew H∂mhp∂Xpw, \ΩpsS A\menknkv hyXykvXamIp
∂Xpw kam\lrZbcmb imkv{X⁄cmIbm¬ kw`mhyamWv F∂pw
AXn\m¬ tZjyw hnNmcn°cpsX∂pw hfsc hn\oXambn´mWv lp°n
s‚ FgpØv. \yq´s‚ IØn¬ “sZ°m¿Øv sNbvX imkv{Xtkh\
Øn\v Xm¶ƒ ]eXpw IqSpXembn \¬In. {]tXyIn®pw t\¿Ø {]Xe
ØneqsS h¿Æ߃ ISØnb XØzNn¥bv°.v Rm≥ IqSpX¬ h√Xpw
I≠n´ps≠¶n¬ AXv giants s‚ tXmfn¬ Ibdn am{XamWv” F∂mWv.
\yq´s‚ kz`mhw Adnbmhp∂ imkv{XtemIw Cu hm°pIsf
Ht´sd hniIe\w sNbvXn´p≠v.
1. lp°ns‚ I≠p]nSpØßfpsS bYm¿∞ AhImin sZ°m¿
ØmWv.
61

{]Imikn‘p

2. Giant F∂ hm°ns‚ ‘G’ Iym]n‰¬ se‰dmWv. lp°v Dbcw Ip
d™v \s´√n\v hfhp≈ HcmfmWv. X\n°v h√Xpw tamjvSn°Wsa¶n¬
AXv ]≠sØ Giant imkv{X⁄cn¬ \n∂pXs∂ aXn. \nßsft∏mse
icochpw a\ pw ]nKvanbmb Hcp the°mc\n¬ \n∂pth≠ F∂¿
∞w.
Cu FgpØv imkv{XtemIØns‚ ]IbpsS a\»mkv{Xw ImWn
°p∂p.
1674 ¬ ]mcoknse H_vk¿th‰dn t]msem∂v Cw•≠n¬ D≠m
°m≥ tdmb¬ skmssk‰n Xocpam\n®p. CXn\p ImcWw {^m≥kn¬
N{μs‚ ÿncXmcßfpambn _‘s∏´ ÿm\\n¿Æbw IS¬ bm{X
bn¬ kabaf°p∂ Hcp t¢m°v BsW∂ hm¿Ø ]c∂XmWv (Cu
hnhcw C¥y≥ Bkvt{SmWan°v At\I kl{km_vZambdnbmw).
AXn\m¬ N{μNe\Øns‚ IrXyamb tS_nfpIƒ, tcJmwi\n¿Æb
{]iv\w ]cnlcn°m≥ IrXyamb t{ImtWmao‰¿ F∂nh thWw. tPm¨
^vfmwÃoUv (1646-1719) CXn\v \ntbmKn°s∏´p. CXptI´ Nmƒkv c≠m
a≥ IS¬bm{X sNøp∂ cmjv{Ssa∂ \nebv°v {_n´\v t\hntKj¨
klmbn°p∂ F√m ⁄m\hpw thWsa∂pw AXn\v Hcp H_vk¿th
‰dn ÿm]n°Wsa∂pw \nivNbn®p. {Ko\n®vIp∂n¬ CXn\v ÿew \n
¿Æbn®p. 1675 ¬ ^vfmwÃoUpambn FgpØpIpØpIƒ \SØnbncp∂
FUva≠v lmen e≠\nseØn. 27, 21 Unkw_dn¬ 2 {]mhiyw \S∂
N{μ{KlWw \nco£n®p. 21 BKÃn¬ sNmΔsb N{μ≥ ad®Xpw 1676
th\en¬ kqcy\n¬ henb sunspot D≠mbXpw lmen ]Tn®ncp∂p. hS
°≥ BImisØ sSekvt°m∏v D]tbmKn®v ]q¿Æambn k¿tΔ sNø
embncp∂p ^vfmwÃoUns‚ ZuXyw. sX°≥ A¿≤tKmfØnse BIm
iØnse G‰hpw {]Imiap≈ 100 {]ImitKmfßsf ]Tn°¬ lmen
bptSbpw. CXn\mbn A∂v {_n´ojv km{amPyØns‚ G‰hpw sX°p≈
sk‚ v slen\ Zzo]nte°v lmen t]mbn. Hcp km{amPyØns‚ IS¬
k©mcØn\v AXns‚ G‰hpw sXt° A‰Øp\n∂psIm≠v IS¬
k©mcnIƒ°v Bhiyamb coXnbn¬ (sX°≥ kap{ZßfneqsSbmWv
{][m\ IS¬ hym]mcam¿§w) {]ImitKmfßsf land mark B°p∂
k{ºZmbw C¥ybn¬ \n∂mWv {_n´≥ ]Tn®Xv. C¥y≥ Bkvt{SmW
anbn¬ hn{imhkv, ssh{ihW≥, cmhW≥ Imew apX¬ F∂pw,
A∂pw e¶bmWv {][m\ H_vk¿th‰dn ({Ko\n®√, AXn\p ]‰nb
sX∂v {_n´\v AXn\m¬ a\ nembncp∂p). 20 mw hb n¬ ]T\w Dt]
62

{]Imikn‘p

£n®v \hw_¿ 1676 ¬ lmenbpw kplrØv sPbnwkv ¢¿°pw skbn‚ v
slen\ Zzo]nte°p t]mbn. 1678 ¬ sX°≥ \£{XßfpsS Im‰temKv
{]kn≤oIcn®p. ^vfmwÃoUv “Our Southern Tycho” F∂ t]cv sImSp°
bpw sNbvXp. _p[≥ kqcyapJØpIqsS IS∂pt]mIp∂Xv sk‚ v sl
eo\bn¬ sh®v lmen \nco£n®ncp∂p. ]mcemIvkv \nbat`Z {]Imcw
kqcy\nte°p≈ Zqcw Af°m≥ CXv klmbIambn.
bqtdm∏n¬ 17 mw \q‰m≠n¬ \£{X \nco£Ww aq∂p ImcWß
fmemWv XpSßnbXv. 1) IS¬ k©mcØn\v, 2) anen´dn {]m[m\yw, 3)
hym]mc {]m[m\yw.
slthenbkv (P¿Ω≥) ssSt°mbpsS Um‰sb \nco£n®v A\
ssekv sNbvXpsIm≠ncp∂Xv shdpw imkv{XtNmZnXamb Pn⁄mk
bmembncp∂p. lmen Aßs\b√. Z£nWmImiØv lmen ssSt°m
\nco£n® Nne Xmcßsf \nco£n°bm¬ DØcmImiw \nco£n°p∂
slthenb n\v AXpI≠m¬ sIm≈msa∂p tXm∂n. 1678 ¬ lmen
AXb®psImSpØp. slthenb ns‚ kzX{¥\nco£Whpw Um‰bpw
Ctßm´pw In´n. 1679 ¬ lmen Um≥kn§nseØn. 68 hb mb slthen
b v sSekvt°m∏v D]tbmKn°msX \Kv\t\{Xw sIm≠psNbvX \nco
£Ww, AhbpsS IrXyX F∂nh lmensb AXv`pXs∏SpØn. lmen
bpsS kz`mhØn¬ kv{XoIfpamb AhnlnX _‘w Hcp Zu¿_eyam
bncp∂p. lmen sN√ptºmƒ 68 Imc\mb slthenb ns‚ 2 mw `mcy
Fenk_Øbv°v 32 hb mWv. 22 hb mb lmenbpw Chcpw Ahn
lnX _‘Ønte¿s∏´p. slthenbkv acn®p F∂ptI´t∏mƒ lmen
hn[hbv°v Ab®psImSpØXv Xs‚ aq∂pamksØ iºfw sIm≠p
am{Xw hmßm≥ km[n°p∂ hfsc hne]nSn∏p≈ kn¬°v hkv{Xßfm
Wv. 1680/81 ¬ Hcp [qatIXp Zriyambn. e≠\nepw ]mcoknepap≈
F√mh¿°pw Zriyambncp∂p Cu {]Xn`mkw. lmen ]mcokn¬ {InkvXp
akv kmbmlv\Øn¬ Cu [qatIXphns‚ c≠mw hchmWv I≠Xv
(\hw_¿ 1680 \v {]Xy£s∏´v kqcy\SptØ°v Nen®v A{]Xy£ambn]n∂oSv ho≠pw {]Xy£s∏´p. Cu c≠mw hchv). N{μs\ B[mcam°n
N{μtcJmwiw icn°v \nivNbn°p∂ Hcp ]≤Xn°v NpcpßnbXv 18 h¿
jw \nc¥cw \nco£n°Ww. lmen Cßs\ H∂v 2 h¿jØn\IØv
D≠m°nbXv At±lw as‰hnsS \nt∂m ISwhmßn F∂Xn\p sXfnhm
Wv. 1684 ¬ {IntÃm^¿ sd≥, tdm_¿´v lp°v F∂nhcpamb kw`mjW
Øn¬ \n∂v {KlI£yIfpsS Inverse law of attraction lmensb BI¿
63

{]Imikn‘p

jn®p. lp°v sImSpØ Cu sFUnbbpambn lmen \yq´s\ kμ¿in®p.
1684 ¬ lmen h∂v Xt∂mSv, {Kl߃°v kqcy\nte°v BI¿jW
i‡n Ds≠∂pw AXv ZqcØns‚ square \v A\p]mXØnemsW∂pap
s≠¶n¬ Ah D≠m°p∂ curve s‚ BIrXn F¥mIpsa∂v tNmZn®
Xmbn \yq´≥ Xs∂ FgpXnbn´p≠v. AXv Fen]vkmbncn°psa∂v ]d
™t∏mƒ lmen kt¥mjw sIm≠p aXnad∂p. Fßs\ Is≠Øn
F∂ lmenbpsS tNmZyØn\v Rm≥ IW°m°nbXmsW∂v \yq´≥
]d™p. B IW°pIƒ lmen tNmZn®p. ]n∂oSb®pXcmsa∂v \yq´≥
]dbpIbpw sNbvXp.
Cu kw`hamWv AXphsc clkyambn sh® Principia {]kn≤s∏
SpØm≥ \yq´\v ImcWambnØo¿∂Xv. F√mhcpw thKw {]kn≤s∏Sp
Øm\pw t]scSp°m\pw {ian°p∂ imkv{XtemIØv \yq´≥ F¥psIm
≠nßs\ clky kz`mh°mc\mbn? Hcp km[mcW I¿jI IpSpw_
ØnemWt±lw P\n®Xv. ]nXmhv I¿jI kºØpsIm≠v {ItaW
1623 ¬ hqƒkv tXm¿∏v am\¿ kz¥am°n Lord of the Manor Bbn,
CXpw l∂ sFkvIu F∂ `mcy sIm≠ph∂ kv{Xo[\hp (50 ]u≠v
h¿jØn¬) amWv \yq´\p≠mbncp∂Xv. \yq´t\m A—t\m (tdm_¿´v
\yq´≥) FgpXm\pw hmbn°m\pw ]Tn®ncp∂n√. l∂bpsS ktlmZc≥
hneyw ]ptcmlnX\pw tIw{_nUvPv _ncpZ[mcnbpambncp∂p. 1642 ¬
hnhmlm\¥cw , sFkIv \yq´¨ acn°ptºmƒ l∂ K¿`nWnbmWv.
Ahƒ°v {InkvXpakv Zn\Øn¬ P\n® Ip´nbmWv A—s‚ t]cn¬
\maIcWw sNbvX sFkIv \yq´¨. {KntKmdnb≥ Ie≠¿ {]Imcw 8
P\phcn 1642 \v Keoentbm acn®p. 1642 Unkw_¿ 25 \v Pqenb≥ Ie
≠¿ {]ImcamWv \yq´¨ P\n®Xv. {KntKmdnb≥ Ie≠dn¬ CXv 4
P\phcn 1643 BWv. Pqenb≥ Ie≠dn¬ Keoentbm acn°p∂Xv 1641
Unkw_dnepw. 4 P\phcn 1643 De Revolutionibus \v IrXyw 100 h¿jw
Ign™mWv. 1645 ¬ l∂ thsd hnhmlw Ign®p. l∂bpsS amXm]nXm
°ƒ \yq´s\ hf¿Øn. 8 h¿jw GI\mbn AhcpsS IqsS \yq´¨
hf¿∂p. AXn\m¬ kplrØp°sf D≠m°p∂ ioew D≠mbn√. \√
hiw At±lØn\pIn´nb anI® hnZym`ymkamWv. as‰mcp \√hiw 21
mw hb papX¬ \yq´≥ Xs‚ A—s‚ kzØv, AΩbpsS kzØv, c≠m
\—s‚ kzØns‚ Hcp ]¶v F∂nh e`n®v kmºØnIambn \√ \nebn
embn- ]pcpj∑mcpamb√msX \yq´\v _‘ap≠mbn√ (Nne¿ AXns\
thsdmcp XcØn¬ hymJym\n®n´p≠v). 1663-1668 ¬ tIw{_nUvPn¬ sh®p
64

{]Imikn‘p

sNbvX ]co£W \nco£W߃ ]n¬°meØv \yq´s\ {]ikvX\m
°n. \yq´≥ Im¬°pekv I≠p]nSn® ImeØv eo_v\nkpw Im¬°pe
kv I≠p]nSn®p. CXv lp°pamsb∂ t]mse eo_v\nkpambpw \yq´s\
sX‰n®p. Im¬°pekv KWnX{Inb Ffp∏am°p∂p. Hcp {KlØns‚
I£ybnse ÿm\w amdnamdn hcp∂Xn\m¬ (ImewsN√pwtXmdpw) Cu
coXn thWw AXns‚ ÿm\ \n¿ÆbØn\v. C∂sØ imkv{Xw Im¬
°pekv IqSmsX km≤ya√ (Cu Im¬°pe ns‚ C¥y≥ Ncn{Xw
as‰mcnSØv Rm≥ ]d™n´p≠v). N{μs\ Xs‚ I£ybn¬ \n¿Øp∂
Xpw B∏nfns\ X∂nte°p hogvØp∂Xpw `qanbpsS KpcpXzmI¿jW
amWv. CXn\v (Zqcw)2 hpambp≈ _‘w \yq´¨ IW°m°n (1666 ¬
Cu Inverse Square law IW°m°n). 30 hb mhptºmtg°pw {]Imiw,
Im¬°pekv F∂nh kw_‘n® ]T\w At±lw ]q¿Ønbm°nbncp
∂p. KpcpXzmI¿jWsØ°pdn® ]T\w At±lsØ B¬s°anbnte
°p Xncn®p. imkv{X ]T\w, I≠p]nSpØ߃ Ip´n°meØp Ign™p.
IqSpX¬ kabw At±lw B¬s°anbv°mWv sNehgn®n´p≈Xv. 4 mw
\q‰m≠nse AeIvkm{finbbnse Bcnb ns‚ A\pbmbn (Arian)
Bbncp∂p \yq´¨. Cuizcs\ {]tXyI {]Xn`mkambn ImWp∂
CXn¬ tbiphn\v ssZhoIX C√. F∂m¬ CXn\mbn {_qtWmsb
t∏se Np´pIcn°s∏Sm≥ At±lØn\njvSan√mbncp∂p. AXn\m¬
Trinity bn¬ hnizkn°p∂p F∂v (hnizkn°msX) At±lw {]Xn⁄
sbSpØp. \yq´s‚ clky kz`mhØn\v CXpw Hcp ImcWambn- 1674
¬ \yq´\paptº lp°v “action at a distance” F∂dnbp∂ KpcpXzmI¿j
WØn\v N{μt∑ep≈ i‡nsb°pdn®v {]_‘w {]kn≤oIcn®p.
Inverse square law lp°nt‚Xmbncp∂p. 1684 ¬ lmen h∂t∏mƒ \yq
´¨ s]s´∂v DØcw sImSpØXv AXpsIm≠mWv. 1687 ¬ lmenbpsS
\nc¥camb \n¿_‘Øm¬ 3 hmeyØn¬ \yq´s‚ Ncn{X{][m\amb
]pkvXIw ]pdØph∂p. lp°ns\°pdnt®m At±lw sImSpØ insights
s\°pdnt®m H‰ d^d≥kpw \yq´¨ AXn¬ sh®n√.
\yq´¨ Cuizc\v Hcp b{¥w D≠m°pIbpw \nc¥cw \SØns°m
≠pt]mIbpw sNøp∂ ka¿∞\mb Hcp B¿°nsSIvSns‚ CtaPv \¬
In. Hcp Xcw “[¿ΩN{I {]h¿Ø\ kq{X[mc” s\∂ C¥y≥ CtaPv
t]mse. 1687 \ptijw \yq´¨ imkv{X⁄\√mXmbn. 1696 ¬ tdmb¬
an‚ns‚ hm¿U\pw aPnkvt{S´pambn. At\Iw t]sc I≈ \mWy߃
ASn® Ip‰Øn\v ]nSn°pIbpw Xq°ns°m√m≥ hn[n°pIbpw sNø
65

{]Imikn‘p

embn \yq´s‚ tPmen. kvXpXy¿lambn CXp sNbvXXn\v DtZymK°b
‰w In´n. 1705 se ]m¿esa‚ v sXcs™Sp∏n¬ B≥ cmPIpamcn \yq´\v
‘k¿’ ]Zhn \¬In. 60 mw hb nse B sXcs™Sp∏n¬ \yq´¨ tXm
‰p. ]ns∂ At±lw a’cn®n√. \yq´s‚ k¿ ]Zhn 1705 sXcs™Sp∏v
Pbn°m\p≈ Hcp cmjv{Sob Icp\o°ambncp∂p, imkv{XtemIØn\v
\¬Inb kw`mh\Iƒ°p≈ _lpaXnb√ F∂Xv tJZIcamWv.
1703 ¬ lp°v acn®p. B \hw_dn¬ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbpsS
{]knU≠mbn \yq´¨ sXcs™Sp°s∏´p. 1704 ¬ At±lØns‚
Hm]v‰nIvkv {]kn≤oIcn®p. 20 h¿j°mew Xs‚ HutZymKnI I¿Øhyw
\yq´¨ {i≤m]q¿Δw \n¿Δln®p. Chbnsem∂v {Kjmw tImtfPns\
(t_mbv¬, lp°v F∂nhbpsS Nn{Xßfp≈Xpw t_mbv¬ ÿm]n®Xp
amb KpcpIpew) s{Ibn≥ tIm¿´ntebv°v am‰embncp∂p. Cu am‰Øn
\nSbn¬ Fs∂t∂°pambn \jvSs∏´Xv Htc Hcp Nn{XamWv. lp°ns‚
am{Xw!! Ncn{XØn¬ lp°ns‚ Nn{X t]mepw Ahtijn∏n°mXncn
°m≥ {i≤n°Wsa¶n¬ Xo¿®bmbpw lp°v Xt∂°mƒ henb im
kv{X⁄\msW∂ t_m[w \yq´s‚ D≈nep≠mbncp∂ncn°Ww. {]m
bw sIm≠pw {]kn≤nsIm≠pw ]IzXbm¿÷n°m≥ Cu henb imkv{X
⁄s‚ a\ n\mbn√ F∂Xv {it≤bamWv.
Inverse square law {]]©Øn¬ k¿ΔØn\pw _m[IamsW∂
XmWv AXns‚ bYm¿∞ {]m[m\yw. F√m ImeØpw F√m hkvXp°
ƒ°pw AXv _m[IamWv. {]n≥kn∏nbbpsS hb‰m´n (anUvssh^v) F∂v
hnfn°s∏´ lmenbmWv Cu Bibw {]Ncn∏n®hcn¬ apJy≥. 17 mw
\q‰m≠nse {_n´\nse s]mfn‰n°¬ {]iv\ßfnsem∂pw lmen ]s¶
SpØn√. ss__nfnse sh≈s∏m°w, ss__nfnse IW°\pkcn®v
B¿®v _nj∏v Duj¿ IW°m°nb 4004 BC bmWv {]]© krjvSn
Bcw`sa∂ hmZw F∂nhsb°pdn®v ]Tn°bpw Cu XobXn sX‰msW
∂v ka¿∞n°bpw sNbvXp. ISens‚ D∏vckw t\m°n `qanbpsS {]mbw
\n¿Æbn°msa∂p ]d™p. ]≈n°v CsXm∂pw kzoImcyambncp∂n√.
`qanbn¬ hyXykvX `mKßfnse Im¥i‡n hyXykvXamsW∂pw CX
dn™m¬ IS¬bm{X IqSpX¬ kpKaamIpsa∂pw lmen FgpXn. A¥
co£Ønse a¿±t`Z߃, Im‰pIƒ, a¨kq¨ hm]mc°m‰pIƒ, BZy
sØ metereological chart (1686) F∂nh {]kn≤oIcn®p. ISen\Snbn¬
18 ao‰¿ Xmsg (10 ^mØw) tPmen sNøp∂h¿°v (apsØSp°p∂h¿)
Hcp diving bell D]tbmKn°m\p≈ ]co£Ww \SØn. a\pjys‚ acW
66

{]Imikn‘p

\nc°v, AX\pkcn®v C≥jpd≥kv {]oanbw IW°mt°≠Xv AS°w
sNbvXpsh®p. `qanbpsS hnhn[ `mKßfnse \nco£I¿ ip{I≥ kqcy
apJØneqsS k©cn°p∂Xv ImWp∂Xnep≈ hyXymkw sIm≠v ]mc
emIvkv hgn kqcy\nte°p Zqcaf∂p. 1716 \ptijw 1761, 1769 ¬ CXp≠m
hpsa∂v {]hNn®p.
C≥Ukvhmen knhnssetkj\ptijw Xq°°´nIsf Iqe¶j
ambn ]Tn®Xv lmenbmWv. Hcp kz¿Æ°´n AtX hep∏ap≈ •mkv
I´ntb°mƒ 7 Cc´n Xq°ap≠v. AXn\m¬ AXn¬ 7 {]mhiyw {Zhyw
IqSpXep≠mhWw. •mkn¬ 6/7 `mKw iq\yÿm\amhWw (Empty
space) sh≈n kz¿Æw s]mXnbm≥ Cu \nbaw D]tbmKn°mw. kz¿Æw
]qip∂Xv Hcp B‰Øns‚ I\sa¶n¬ 1/100 C©v \ofap≈ Hcp Iyq_v
kz¿ÆØn¬ 2433 aney\ne[nIw B‰w D≠mhWw (CXv an\naw BWv).
1691 ¬ CsXms° {]kn≤oIcn®p. 1693 ¬ `qanbpsS Im¥nI {]Xew
]Tn°m≥ Hcp bm{X XpSßn- CXv IS¬ bm{X°p klmbIamIpsa∂
Xn\m¬ \mhnItk\°v Xmev]cyap≠mbncp∂p. 52 ASn \ofw 18 ASn
hoXn, 89 S¨ tIhp`mcap≈ sNdnb Hcp I∏¬ CXn\mbp≠m°n (tem
Iw Np‰m\pw, kuØv A‰vem‚nIv k©mcØn\pw D]tbmKn°p∂ pink
F∂v hnfn°p∂ C\w I∏¬) G{]n¬ 1, 1694 \v ]pds∏´p. C°meØv
[qatIXphn¬ Xmev]cyambn- AhbpsS elliptical orbit, AhbpsS inverse
square law A\pkcn® kqcy{]Z£nWw F∂nhbpsS ]gb sdt°mUp
Iƒ 2 h¿jsØ Cu bm{XbnemWt±lw ]cntim[n®Xv (FhnsS \n∂v
Bcn¬ \n∂v F∂v hy‡a√). 1682 ¬ I≠ [qatIXp 75-76 h¿jØn
semcn°¬ 3 {]mhiyambn XpS¿®bmbn \nco£n°s∏´XmsW∂t±lw
At∏mgmWdn™Xv. lmenbpsS am¿§ßƒ ‘foul’ BsW∂Xn\m¬
1682 se [qatIXp \∂mbn \nco£n® ^vfmwÃoUv B \nco£W
^ew lment°m \yq´t\m sImSpØn√. 2 h¿jw Ign™v Cu expedition
s]mfn™Xpw \yq´¨ lmensb Xs‚ an‚nse U]yq´n I¨t{Smfdmbn
\nban°p∂XpamWv Ncn{Xw I≠Xv. 1698 ¬ lmen AXpt]£n®p.
HIvtSm_¿ 15 \v Hcp h¿jw \o≠p\n¬°p∂ as‰mcp bm{X°v t]mIm≥
Izo≥ tacnbn¬ \n∂v Iev]\ In´n. A°meØv ]o‰¿ Zn t{K‰v (km¿)
Cw•≠v kμ¿in®p. At±lw I∏¬ \n¿ΩmWsØ°pdn®v ]Tn°m≥
h∂XmWv ({]mbw Ccp]XpIfn¬). 1698 se bm{XbpsS tijw ho≠pw
lmen IS¬bm{X \SØn. 52° S (sXt° Atacn°≥ ap\ºv) hscbp≈
Im¥nIi‡n \nco£n®v 27 BKÃv 1700 ¬ πnauØn¬ Xncns®Øn.
67

{]Imikn‘p

1701 ¬ Cw•ojv Nm\ense thentb‰w ]Tn®p. CXn¬ {^©v XpdapJ
\nco£Ww, AhcpsS {]Xntcm[w F∂nh clky \nco£Ww sNøp∂
clky AP≠ D≠mbncp∂p. 1702 ¬ Izo≥ B≥ lmensb Bkv{Snb
bneb®v tIm´Iƒ (XpdapJsØ) i‡ns∏SpØm≥ \ntbmKn®p. P\p
hcn 1704 ¬ CXn\mbn clky tkh\ ^≠n¬ \n∂t±lØn\p ]Ww
\¬Inbn´p≠v. AXn\m¬ {][m\ambn Nmc∏Wnbmbncp∂p F∂qln
°p∂p. At∏mtg°pw lmen {_m≥Un IpSn®v Swear sNøp∂ Hcp ISen
se Iym]vSs‚ kwkmcw A\pIcn°m≥ XpSßnbncp∂Xmbn ^vfmw
ÃoUv tcJs∏SpØp∂p (Captain Halley ]n∂oSv Dr. Halley bmbn) 1758
¬ 1682 se [qatIXp Xncn®phcpsa∂ lmenbpsS {]hN\w At±lsØ
{]kn≤\m°n.
ln∏m¿° ns‚ \£{X`q]SØnse Arcturus (tNmXn) ÿm\w
AS°w ]e \£{Xÿm\hpw sX‰msW∂v ^vfmwÃoUv tcJs∏SpØn1719 ¬ At±lw acn®t∏mƒ 63 mw hb n¬ B t]mÃn¬ lmen \nban
X\mbn. Aßs\bmWv 18 h¿jsØ N{μ/Xmc \nco£W^ew lmen
bpsS Iønb¬ In´nbXv. 1720 apX¬ 1742 hsc (85 mw hb v) lmen \n
co£Ww \SØn.
1758 {InkvXpakv Zn\Øn¬ {]hNn®t]mse, lmenbpsS [qtaIXp
I≠p. 13 G{]n¬ 1759 \v AXv kqcy\v G‰hpw ASpsØØn- 1761 epw
1769 epw ip{INmcw lmen {]hNn®t]mse 60 H_vk¿th‰dnIfnencp∂v
BfpIƒ \nco£n®p. lmen IW°m°nb kqcy\nte°p≈ Zqcw 153
aney≥ In.ao- B[p\nIcptSXv 149.6 an√y≥ In.ao. Aßs\ acn®v 27
h¿jw Ign™mWv lmen imkv{XtemIØv Ncn{Xw krjvSn®Xv.
1686 ¬ {^m≥knkv hn√Mv_nbpsS {]IrXnimkv{Xw {]kn≤oI
cn®p. tPm¨ td {]IrXnimkv{X (Biology) cwKØv ^nknIvkn¬
\yq´¨ F∂ t]mse alm\mbn Db¿∂p- hn√Mv_n tdbpsS kplr
Øpw kl{]h¿ØI\pambncp∂p. Imƒ ens∂bkv F∂ saUn°¬
tUmIvS¿ kkyßfpsS \maw em‰n\n¬ \n∂v {]mtZinI `mjIfnte
°m°n. 1741 ¬ saUn°¬ {]mIvSokv \n¿Øn ASpØ h¿jw t_m´Wn
bnte°v Xncn™p. 1740 se At±lØns‚ Systema naturae t_m´Wn
bnse \mgnI°√mbn. bqtdm∏n¬ a\pjys\ _tbmfPn°¬ ¢mkn
^nt°j\n¬ BZyambn Dƒs∏SpØnbXv At±lamWv. Nnºm≥kn
pansapians F¶n¬ a\pjy≥ homosapians am{XamWv AXn¬. ens∂
bkv ss__nfnse {]fbsØ \nckn®n√. F∂m¬ AwKoIcn®pan√.
68

{]Imikn‘p

A{Xbpw sNdnb Imew (200 Zn\Øn¬ Ipdhv) \o≠p\n∂ H∂n\v kap{Z
PohnIsf Icbnte°v _lpZqcw ASn®pIb‰n t^mknepIƒ D≠m
°m≥ km[n°n√. Hcp ImeØv `qan apgph≥ PeØn\Snbnembncp
∂ncn°mw. Ipd®p Ipd®mbn h‰nbXmhmw. Aßs\bmhmw kap{Z
PohnIfpsS t^mkn¬ aeapIfn¬ ImWp∂sX∂v At±lw IcpXn.
ss__nƒ A\phZn°p∂ 6000 h¿jtØ°mƒ F{Xtbm ]g°w
`qan°ps≠∂v A\pam\n°p∂X√msX ent∂bkv AXv sXfn®p ]d™v
BcpsS hntcm[hpw kºmZn®n√. C¥ybntebpw ssN\bntebpw {]m
No\ Ncn{X߃ bqtdm∏n¬ In´ns°m≠ncn°bmbncp∂p. slm¿Øpkv
ae_mdn°kv h∂p Ign™ncp∂p. tImwsX Z _t^mWns‚ Historia
naturelle 44 hmfyambn 1749-1804 \nSbnemWv {]kn≤oIcn®Xv. {]IrXn
Ncn{XØns‚ BZysØ B[nImcnI {K\vYamWXv. ]mcokn¬ cmPm
hns‚ s_m´mWn°¬ Km¿U\n¬ 1731 apX¬ kp{]≠mbncp∂p At±
lw. KWnXw, h\kwc£WØn¬ silviculture s‚ ]¶v F∂nh Xmev]cy
ap≈ hnjbßfmbncp∂p.
[qatIXpsh kqcy≥ ]pdwX≈nbXv BWv ]n¬°meØv `qanbmb
sX∂v _t^m¨ IcpXn. AXn\m¬ XpS°Øn¬ `qan DcpInb emh
t]msebmhWw. ]n∂oSv XWpØv Poh\v hfcm≥ km[n®p. AXn\v
ss__nfn¬ ]dbp∂ 6000 sIm√w t]mc. \yq´s‚ {]n≥kn∏nbbnepw
XØpeyamb \nKa\ap≠v. “Dcp°nb Ccpºptemlw t]msebp≈ Hcp
tKmfw- 4000000 ASn hymkap≈ H∂v A{Xbpw Zn\Øne[nIsaSp°pw
H∂p XWpØpIn´m≥. AXmbXv 50000 h¿jØntesd FSp°pw XWp
°m≥!” Nne Ahy‡ ImcWßfm¬ NqSv \o≠p\n¬°p∂ Imew hym
ktØ°mƒ sNdnb A\p]mXØnemhWw h¿≤n°p∂sX∂v Rm≥
A\pam\n°p∂p. icnbmb A\p]mXw Bsc¶nepw ]co£n®v I≠p]nSn
°Ww. \yq´s‚ Cu A\pam\sØ _t^m¨ ]co£n®p. 42964 h¿j
hpw 221 Znhkhpw thWw `qan XWp°ms\∂t±lw IcpXn. `qan°v
75000 h¿jw {]mbaps≠∂pw ]d™p (C∂v 4.5 _n√y≥ h¿jamWv
`qanbpsS {]mbsa∂v IW°m°nbncn°p∂p) 1747 ¬ kqcycivanIƒ
Ipsd IÆmSnIfneqsS ISØnhn´v 200 ASn Zqscbp≈ acsØ (I∏en
s\) Xo ]nSn∏n°p∂ ^pWojycpsS hnZy At±lw sNbvXp ImWn®p
(kndmIyqkn¬ tdma≥ I∏epIsf B¿°nanUnkv Cßs\ IØn®ncp
∂p). Po≥ ^udnb¿ (1768-1830) s\t∏mfnbs‚ D]tZjvSmhmbncp∂p.
^udnb¿ A\menknkv C∂pw IzmkdpIfpsS ]T\Øn¬ imkv{Xw
69

{]Imikn‘p

D]tbmKn°p∂p. `qanbpsS {]Xeta XWpØn´p≈p. D≈v Np´p]gpØ
emhbmWv. 1820 ¬ ^udnb¿ `qanbpsS {]mbw IW°m°nbXv 100
aney≥ h¿jamWv (_t^mtW°mƒ 1000 {]mhiyw A[nIw. C∂tØ
°mƒ 50 {]mhiyw Ipdhv). _t^m¨ Um¿hnt\°mƒ apºv k¿Δ
PohPmehpw H‰ aqeØn¬ \n∂v Evolution, Natural selection sIm≠p≠m
bXmsW∂v ]d™ BfmWv. kv{Xo ]pcpj kwtbmKw sIm≠p≈ {]
P\\sØ°pdn®pw N¿®Iƒ \SØnbncp∂p. tPm¿÷kv Iphnb¿
Comparative Anatomy sb aptºm´p sIm≠pt]mbn- Ihnbpw \mSI
IrØpamIm\m{Kln®v k¿÷\mbnØo¿∂ BfmWv Iphnb¿. amwk
`p°pw kky`p°pamb arK߃°v D≈ hyXymkw At±lw hniZoI
cn®p. t^mknepIƒ ]Tn®p. Iphnbdn\p apºv emam¿°mWv ]mcoknse
\mNzd¬ lnÃdn ayqknbØn¬ Xeh\mbncp∂Xv.
18 mw \q‰m≠n¬ sIankv{Snbn¬ ]ptcmKXn D≠mbn. s_©an≥
{^m¶ven≥ sshZypXnbn¬ ]co£Ww \SØn- Nmƒkv sIutfmw_v
sshZypXnbnepw Im¥i‡nbnepw \SØnb KthjWw c≠pw Inverse
Square law ]men°p∂Xmbn I≠p. s_mtfmKv\bnse A\m‰anÃpw
H_vÃ{SnIvkv s{]m^kdpamb eqbnPn Km¬h\n CeIv{SnIv _m‰dn
I≠p]nSn®p. XhfbpsS amwkt]inbpsS Ne\w I≠mWv Cu D]Ic
Ww D≠m°nbXv. amwkt]inbn¬ ‘sshZypXn’ Ds≠∂t±lw sXfnbn
®p. 1746 ¬ bqf¿ (1707-1783) {]Imiw XcwKhpw, Hmtcm h¿Æhpw hyXy
kvX XcwKthKXbpambn, {]Imiw refract sNøp∂Xns‚ KWnX hni
ZoIcWw X∂p. \yq´s\ t]Sn®v Bcpw CXn\v {]m[m\yw sImSpØn√.
semsamt\mtkhv 1748 ¬ Law of Conservation of mass and energy sIm
≠ph∂p. tXmakv ssd‰v BImiKwKbn¬ Hcp N{Iw t]mse \£{X
ßfp≈Xn¬ H∂mWv kqcys\∂v I≠p. sl¿j¬ bpdm\ ns\ Is≠
Øn. tPm¨ anj¬ BZyambn XtamZzmcßsf°pdn®v ]d™p. {]Imi
Øns‚ thKX km¥amsW∂pw Hcp hkvXp IqSpX¬ `mcap≈sX¶n¬
AXns‚ BI¿jWØn¬ \n∂p hnSm≥ IqSpX¬ thKX thWsa∂p
ap≈ \nbaØn¬ \n∂mWnXv A\pam\n®Xv. 18 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm
\ØnemWnXv. kzX{¥ambn CtX Bibw AtX ImeØv Is≠Ønb
as‰mcmƒ ]nbdn sska¨ emπmkv BWv. {^©v \yq´¨ F∂mWt±
lw Adnbs∏Sp∂Xv.
hymghpw i\nbpw AhcpsS I£ybpw 929 h¿jØnsemcn°te
longterm shift sIm≠v F√mw ]pds∏´nSsØØp∂ {]Xn`mkw D≠m°q.
70

{]Imikn‘p

CXv emπmkv \yq´s‚ {Kmhnt‰j\¬ Xnbdnbnse ]nghmbn Is≠Øn.
t{]m__nen‰n Xnbdn hnIkn∏n®p. emπmkpw tPmk^v em{Kmßpw
KWnX{]iv\߃ N¿® sNbvXncp∂p. G{]n¬ 1788 \v emπmkv FgpXn“kucbqYw Hcp icmicn ÿm\Øn\pNp‰pw oscillate sNøp∂p (Btμm
f\w) AhnsS \n∂v amdp∂n√. amdp∂ps≠¶n¬Øs∂ hfsc hfsc
sNdnb Afhpam{Xw. LS\, KpcpXzmI¿jWi‡n F∂nhbm¬ AXn
s\mcp ÿncXbp≠v. B ÿncX \jvSs∏SpØm≥ ]pdsØmcp i‡n
t° Ignbq. Aßs\ H∂v C∂phsc Is≠Ønbn´pan√.” G‰hpw Ipd
®p \nbaßfm¬ G‰hpa[nIw {]Xn`mk߃ krjvSn°p∂ {]IrXn
bpsS emfnXyw emπmkv FSpØp ]d™p. kucbqYw D≠mbXv s\_p
ebn¬ \n∂msW∂v (Nebular hypothesis) Im‚ns\t∏mse emπmkpw
]d™p.
September 1749 ¬ MD FSpØ tijw Hcn°epw saUnkn≥ {]mIvSo
kv sNømsX PntbmfPnbpsS bqWnt^mant‰dnb ≥ Xnbdn D≠m°nb
BfmWv sPbnwkv l´¨. sIankv{Snbpw Irjnbpambncp∂p CjvShnj
b߃. {]IrXn {]Xn`mk߃°v `qanbpsS apJOmb am‰m≥ 6000
h¿jØntesd thWsa∂pw `qanbpsS DXv`hsØ°pdn® At\zjWw
anYybmsW∂pw At±lw IcpXn. BZyw apXte (a‰p {Kl\£{XmZn
Ifp≈ {]]©w D≠mb apX¬) AXp≠v. AXn\hkm\hpan√. Hcp
Nn{Xie`Øn\v Hcp Znhkw Bbpt  D≈psh¶n¬ cm{Xn AXns\mcp
Catastrophy bmWv. a\pjy\v Hcp lnabpKw Catastrophy bmWv. ]s£
`qanbv°Xv Nnc]cnNnXamb Hcp {]Xn`mkw am{Xw- CXns‚ t]cmWv
Uniformitarian theory. Npcp°Øn¬, {_lvaZn\hpw, tZhZn\hpw, ]nXr
Zn\hpw, `qZn\hpw F∂t]mse Hcp Bt]£nIX! {_lvamhns‚bpw
kucbqYØnt‚bpw Bbp v C¥y°m¿°v Hcp {_lvamfiØnt‚
bpw, \ΩpsS kucbqYØnt‚bpw Bbp mWv. N{μs‚ Bbp mWv
]nXr°ƒ°v. `qanbpsS Bbp nt\°mƒ Ipdhv a\pjymbp v. AXnepw
Ipdhv a‰p arK]£nIƒ°v! CXv C¥ybn¬ IrXyambn IW°m°n
]d™ncp∂p. kkyßfn¬ Bbp pIqSnb Ben\v hensbmcp ÿm\
ap≠v kkyPmXnbn¬! Cu kwKXn bqtdm∏n¬ BZyw AhXcn∏n®Xv
l´≥. a\pjy\v Hcp kp\man, Hcp ZzmcI ap߬, Hcp `qan Ipep°w
h√msØmcp A\p`hamWv. ]s£ `qan°Xv cm∏IepIƒ t]mse Bh¿
Øn®\p`hn°p∂ Hcp Nnc]cnNnX kw`hw. Hcp ]gb P\XbpsS ]q¿
ΔnI ⁄m\kºØv XeapdIfmbn ssIamdp∂h¿°pw AsXmcp {]h
71

{]Imikn‘p

Nn°mhp∂ ]cnNnX kw`hw! kcbphn¬ Atbm≤y apßptºmgpw IS
en¬ ZzmcI apßptºmgpw {iocma\pw {ioIrjvW\pw At£m`ycmbn
cn°p∂Xv Cu ⁄m\hnthI sshcmKy kmwkvImcnI kºØpsIm
≠mWv.
19 mw \q‰m≠n¬ a\pjy\v Cu {]]©Ønep≈ ÿm\sØ°pdn®v
ss__nfn¬ \n∂p hyXykvXamb Hcp coXnbn¬ bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X
⁄¿ Nn¥n°m≥ XpSßn. {]IrXnbpsS sXcs™Sp∏v (natual selection)
Hcp Nn¥mhnjbambn. Nmƒkv Um¿hn\mbncp∂p CXns‚ tI{μ_nμp.
Nmƒkv eb¬, B¬{^Uv d ¬ hmekv F∂nh¿ At±lØns‚ ]m¿
izh¿ØnIfmbn \n∂ c≠p {]apJcmWv. 1766 ¬ HMS tdmw\n F∂
I∏en¬ ]gvk¿ Bbncp∂p ebens‚ apØO≥. ]gvkdpsS tPmen
I∏ente°p th≠ km[\߃ hmßemWv. CXv IqSpX¬ ]WØn\v
]S°∏epIƒ°v (t\hn°v) hn¬°pw. 1778 ¬ At±lw AUvand¬
tPm¨ ss_ds‚ sk{I´dnbpw At±lØns‚ HMS {]n≥kkv tdmb
ens‚ ]gvkdpamWv. Atacn°≥ kzmX{¥ybp≤Øn¬ ss_ds‚
I∏¬∏S°p sNbvX tkh\Øn\v In´nb ss{]kvaWn sIm≠v 500
G°¿ FtÉv kvtIm´ve‚n¬ hmßn. At±lØns‚ aI≥ h°oembn.
(ebens‚ A—≥). 1797 \hw_¿ 14 \v (CXv \ΩpsS s\lvdphns‚
P∑Zn\hpamWv Ft∂m¿°pI) Nmƒkv eb¬ F∂ PntbmfPnÃv P\n
®p. Nmƒkn\v Hcp hb p≈t∏mƒ Cw•≠nse New Forest te°v Ip
Spw_w amdnØmakn®p. AhnsSsh®v Ip´n°meØp Xs∂ kky߃,
sNdnb sNdnb jSv]Z߃ F∂nhsb \nco£n°m≥ Xmev]cyw XpS
ßn. tdm_¿´v t_°vsh√ns‚ Introduction to geology A—s‚ sse{_
dnbn¬ \n∂p hmbn®t∏mgmWv PntbmfPnbn¬ Xmev]cyw tXm∂nbXv.
t_°vsh¬ l´s‚ D≤cWnIƒ Gsd D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. AXn\m¬
l´t‚bpw XpS¿∂v tπs^bdnt‚bpw ]pkvXI߃ hmbn°m\nSbmbn.
HmIvkvt^mUn¬ sh®v hneyw kvanØv F∂ k¿tΔb¿ ]Tn® Cw•≠n
se t^mknepIsfbpw AhbpsS ImetØbpw ]cnNbs∏´p. kvanØv
“^mZ¿ Hm^v Cw•ojv PntbmfPn” F∂dnbs∏Sp∂p. 1815 emWv At±l
Øns‚ PntbmfPn°¬ map {]kn≤s∏SpØnbXv. 1816 ¬ Cu ]pkvX
IØnse ⁄m\hpambn Hcp bqtdm]y≥ Sq¿ \SØn Xncn®ph∂ A≤ym
]I≥ hneyw _°ve‚ v sImSpØ an\dtemfPn ¢mkpIfn¬ \n∂mWv
hnZym¿∞nbmb eb¬ kvanØns\ ]cnNbs∏´Xv. eb¬ bqtdm∏n¬
]ebnShpw kμ¿in®p. IphnbdpsS t^mkn¬ ]T\w ]mcoknse sse
{_dnbn¬ sh®p hmbn®p. At±lØns‚ kvs]knsa≥ tiJcw Pm¿
72

{]Imikn‘p

Un≥ sZ πm‚kn¬ sN∂pI≠p. 21 mw hb n¬ PntbmfPn°¬ skm
ssk‰n Hm^v e≠\n¬ s^t√m Bbn. \nbahnZym¿∞nbmbnØo¿∂
eb¬ 1821 HIvtSm_dn¬ KnUnb≥ ams‚¬ (1790-1852) F∂ k¿÷s\
kskIvkn¬ sh®v ]cnNbambn. At±lw At\Iw Unt\mkdpIfpsS
t^mknepIƒ Is≠Ønb Hcp PntbmfPnÃpambncp∂p. 1822 ¬ \nba
]T\w Xev°mew \n¿Øn eb¬ ]q¿Æambn PntbmfPnbnte°p Xn
cn™p.
Cw•≠nse `qK¿`ineIƒ°v At\Iw hn≈epIfpw hfhpIfpap
s≠∂pw, AXv i‡amb `qanIpep°ßfmhWsa∂pw, B `qan Ipep°
amWv Hcn°¬ ISen\Snbn¬ InS∂ `qansb IS¬\nc∏n\p apIfnseØn
®sX∂pw kvanØv FgpXnbncp∂p. hneyw tImWn s_b¿ B hfhpIƒ
Xm¬°menIhpw hfsc i‡hpamb, `qanbpsS A¥¿`mKØp≈ {]Xn
`mk߃ D≠m°nbXmhm\mWv km≤yX Fs∂gpXn- l´≥ BZysØ
A`n{]mb°mc\mbncp∂p. 1823 emWv eb¬ BZyambn Cw•ojv Nm\¬
IS∂v e≠\n¬ \n∂v 11 aWn°qdn¬ Isebvkn¬ FØp∂Xv (BZy
sØ Ãow I∏en¬). 1825 ¬ Izm¿´¿en sdhypbn¬ {]_‘ßfpw _p°v
sdhypIfpw FgpXm≥ ]_vfnjdmbncp∂ tPm¨ aptd Bhiys∏´p.
CXnep≠mb hnPbw Xs‚ PntbmfPn°¬ kwcw`ßsf ]pkvXI cq]
Ønem°m\p≈ {]tNmZ\w 1827 ¬ eben\p \¬In. 1828 ¬ ]mcokn¬
sN∂v sdmUdn°v ap¿®nksW (1792-1871) I≠p. c≠pt]cpw IqSn a≤y
[cWymgn XocØneqsS hS°≥ C‰en hsc k©cn®p. ]mZzbn¬ \n∂v
ap¿®nk¨ aSßn. eb¬ bqtdm∏ns‚ G‰hpw ASpØp InS°p∂
AKv\n]¿ΔX `qIºtaJebmb knknenbnte°p Xncn®p. F‰v\bn¬
700 ASnbpw AXn\p]cnbpambn Db¿Øs∏´ ISens‚ ASnØ´pw Hcn
SØv Ahsb th¿Xncn®psIm≠v emhbpw At±lw I≠p. t^mkn¬
I°Iƒ 20 ASn Xmsg, AXn∂Snbn¬ _mkmƒ´nIv emh, t^mkn¬
I°Iƒ°p]cn as‰mcp eb¿ emhbpw. F‰v\bpsS ASn`mKw 90 ssa¬
hymkamWv. AXmbXv 90 {]mhiyw emh, Hmtcm ssa¬ hoXw HgpIn
bmte ASnsXm´v apSnhscbp≈ CØcsamcKv\n]¿ΔXØns‚ Dbcw
FØp. F‰v\bpw knknenbpw `qanbnse XmcXtay\ ]pXnb `mKßfm
Wv. AXn\m¬ AhnSsØ kky߃ IqSpX¬ ]gb `mKßfmb B{^n
°, bqtdm∏ns‚ CXc`mK߃ F∂nhnSßfn¬ \n∂v FØnbXmhWw.
Pqsse 1830 ¬ BZy tIm∏n (principles of geology) ]pdØndßn. kvs]
bn\nse ^o¬Uvh¿°n\ptijw P\phcn 1832 ¬ c≠masØ hmfyw
h∂p. 1831 ¬ e≠≥ Inßvkv tImtfPn¬ PntbmfPn sNb¿ h∂p.
73

{]Imikn‘p

eb¬ sImSpØ {]`mjWßfn¬ kv{XoIsf tIƒhn°mcmbn A\ph
Zn®Xv [ocamb Hcp ]pXpabmbncp∂p. ]≈n A[nImcnIƒ ebens‚
‘`qanbpsS {]mb’sØ°pdn® A`n{]mb߃°pw At±lsØ \nban
°p∂Xn\pw FXncmbncp∂p. 1832 ¬ entbmWm¿Uv tlm¿W¿ F∂
PntbmfPnÃns‚ aIƒ tacn tlm¿Wsd hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ah¿°pw
PntbmfPn Xmev]cyambncp∂p. AXn\m¬ B _‘w hfsc sI´pd
∏p≈ Hcp kplrXv_‘hpambnØo¿∂p. Ah¿°p Ip´nIfp≠mbn√.
“2 masØ hmfyØnemWv species s\°pdn®v eb¬ Nn¥n®Xv. Hm
tcm kv]ojokn\pw Hcp anYp\w (pair) AYhm Hcp hy‡n DXv`h ÿm\
amWv. AXn¬ \n∂v Nne Imeßfn¬, tZißfn¬ {]tPmev]mZ\w sIm
≠v, XeapdIfmbn hwi߃ D≠mhpIbpw AhnShnsS, X߃°v tbm
Pn® `qtKmf ÿm\ßfn¬ s]‰ps]cpIn Pohnbv°bpw sNøp∂p--” CXv
t\mhbpsS B¿°ns‚ ImesØ ss__nƒ°YmhinjvSamWv. CXns\
C¥ybn¬ “hwim\pNcnXw” F∂mWv ]pcmtWXnlmk߃ ]dbpI.
Hcp ÿeØv Hcp ImeØp≠mbncp∂ hwi߃, a‰pImeØv B ÿe
Øv \in®Xmbpw, as‰mcnSØv s]‰ps]cpIbpw sNbvXXmbn Cu ]gb
t{ImtWmfPn (hwim\pNcnXw) ]dbp∂p≠v. eb¬ a\pjy\v a‰v Poh
Pmeßtf°mƒ {]mapJyw sImSp°p∂p. `£Ww, a‰v AkwkvIrX
hkvXp°ƒ F∂nhbv°p≈ a’cw sIm≠mWv hwi߃ Nne Ime
Øv Nne tZiØv \in®pt]mIp∂sX∂pw eb¬ ]d™p. 1833 G{]n
en¬ 3 mw hmfyw h∂p. 1875 ¬ 12 mw FUnj≥ h∂Xv ebens‚ acW
tijamWv. 1838 ¬ h∂ At±lØns‚ Elements of geology PntbmfPn
bpsS BZysØ B[p\nI sSIvÃv _p°mWv. BZysØ \√ imkv{X
kmlnXyImc≥ F∂pw eb¬ t]scSpØp. Xs‚ ]pkvXI߃ sIm
SpØ kºmZyambncp∂p At±lØns‚ {][m\ hcpam\w. 1841 ¬ hS
s° Atacn°≥ bm{Xbn¬ \bm{K sh≈®m´w, {]IrXni‡nIƒ, `q
anbpsS ]g°Øn\p ZrjvSm¥amb PntbmfPn°¬ sXfnhpIƒ F∂nh
\nco£n®p. ebens‚ ]pkvXIsØ XpS¿∂v Nmƒkv Um¿hns‚ Origin
of species h∂p. hwißfpsS am‰sØ°pdn®v BZyIme {Ko°p ]fin
X¿ ]d™ncp∂p. 1620 ¬ {^m≥knkv t_°¨, ]n∂oSv KWnX⁄≥
eo_v\nkv, 18 mw \q‰m≠n¬ _pt^m¨ F∂nh¿ ]d™ncp∂p. Imem
hÿmam‰w sIm≠mWnsX∂v Ch¿ ]d™ncp∂p. Um¿hn\pw B¬{^
Uv d ¬ hme n\pw apºv Um¿hns‚ apØ—≥ Cdmkva pw {^©p
Imc≥ Po≥ _m]v‰nsà emam¿°pw 19 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZyØn¬ CXn
s\°pdn®p Nn¥n®ncp∂p. Cdmkvakv Um¿hns‚ A—≥ tdm_¿´v Um¿
74

{]Imikn‘p

hn≥ (1682-1754) F¬Ã¨ {KmaØn¬ \n∂v PpdmknIv ImesØ sπkn
tbmtkmdns‚ t^mkn¬ AhinjvSw Is≠SpØp. tdm_¿´v Um¿hn≥
AXv tdmb¬ skmssk‰n°v Zm\w sNbvXp. AXn\m¬ At±lsØ
tdmb¬ skmssk‰n Hcp ao‰nßn\v £Wn®p. A∂v {]knU≠mbncp∂
\yq´sW tdm_¿´v Um¿hn≥ I≠p. A∂p XpSßnbXmWv Um¿hn≥
IpSpw_Øns‚ t^mkn¬ Iºw. aI≥ Cdmkvakv ¢mknIv ]Tn®p,
Ihnbmbn {]ikvXn t\Sn. tIw{_nUvPn¬ saUnkn\p tN¿∂p. Izo≥kv
tImtfPv A≤ym]I\mb tPm¨ anjens‚ kplrØmbn. _¿anßm
an\v 24 In.ao. hS°v en®v^o¬UnemWv Fdmkvakv {]mIvSokv XpSßn
bXv. Fdmkva ns‚ 3 a°fn¬ tdm_¿´v (1766-1848) am{XamWv hnhmln
X\mbXv. CXnemWv Nmƒkv tdm_¿´v Um¿hns‚ P\\w. 20 mw hb
 n¬ saUnkn≥ ]Tn°ptºmƒ Unk£≥ sNøptºmƒ ssIapdn™v
sk]v‰nkoanb h∂mWv Um¿hns‚ A—s‚ tPyjvT≥ acn®Xv. tdm_¿´v
Um¿hn≥ tUmIvSdmbn. ]s£ c‡w ImWm≥ CjvSs∏´ncp∂n√.

75

{]Imikn‘p

4. Um¿hn\nkw
Cdmkvakv Um¿hns‚ ]pkvXI߃
1789 ¬ Loves of the plants
1792 ¬ The economy of vegetation AYhm s_m´m\n°v Km¿U≥
Ch 2440 hcn IhnXIƒ, 80000 hm°pIƒ, Ahbv°p≈ Ipdn
∏pIƒ tN¿∂XmWv. kkytemIsØ°pdn®mWv.
1794
Zoonomia Vol I (KZyw) (200000 ]Z߃)
1796
Zoonomia Vol II (KZyw) 50 % IqSpX¬ hen∏w
hmfyw I ¬ Evolution kw_‘amb Xs‚ hnNmc߃ KZyØn¬
FgpXnbn´p≠v. Cu ]pkvXIØn¬ IqSpX¬ A≤ymb߃ saUnkn≥,
_tbmfPn kw_‘amWv. a\pjys‚ CSs]S¬ kkyarKtemIØn¬
hcpØp∂ am‰ßƒ At±lw {i≤ns®gpXn- DZmlcWambn IqSpX¬
hnfhpIn´p∂ s\¬hnØn\w hf¿ØpI, IqSpX¬ i‡nbp≈ ]¥b
°pXnc C\sØ D≠m°pI apXembn a\pjys‚ “Ir{Xna sXcs™
Sp∏v.”
amXm]nXm°fn¬ \n∂v Ip´nIƒ°v kz`mh߃ In´p∂Xpw hnhcn
°p∂p. Nne ]£nIƒ ]cn∏p sImØnsbSp°m≥ I´nbp≈ sIm°v
(XØ) apXemb Ahbh߃ natural selection sIm≠mWv kºmZn°p
∂Xv. CXv Ah hwißfnte°v ssIamdp∂p. `qanbnse Poh\v Hscm‰
aqe DXv`hImcWta D≈p F∂t±lw FgpXp∂p≠v. Fdmkvakv IhnX
sj√n, tImfdnUvPv, Io‰vkv, thUvkvh¿Øv F∂nhcpsS kzm[o\ap≈
XmWv. 1796 ¬ tImfdnUvPv Fdmkvakns\ kμ¿in®n´p≠v. “`qan D≠m
bn, a\pjy\p≠mhp∂Xn\v tImSn°W°ph¿jw apºv F√m arKßfpw
Hscm‰ PohX¥phn¬ \n∂p≠mbn. B PohX¥phmWv Pohs‚ BZy
sØ almaqew” F∂v Fdmkvakv FgpXn. Cu BZnaqew krjvSn°m≥
Hcoizc≥ thWw. ]s£ AhnSp∂tßm´p≈ hnImkØn¬ Cuizc\v
76

{]Imikn‘p

]¶n√ F∂mWt±lØns‚ hmZw. 1803 ¬ ]ZyØnsegpXnb The Temple
of Nature Hcp sNdnb ssat{Imkvt°m∏n°v kq£va ssPhIWØn¬
\n∂v k¿ΔPohPmehpap≠mb Ncn{XamWv. 18 G{]n¬ 1802 \v 70 mw
hb n¬ At±lw acn®p.
emam¿°v 1763 ¬ Ahkm\n® 7 yrs war ¬ {^©pssk\yØnep
≠mbncp∂p. Ing°≥ {^m≥knepw saUn‰td\nb\nepw I≠ h\y
PohPmeØn¬ Aßs\ Xmev]cyw h∂p. 1768 ¬ anen´dn PohnXw
Ahkm\n∏n®v ]mcokn¬ Hcp _m¶n¬ tPmen°mc\mbn. saUnkn≥,
t_m´Wn {]`mjW߃ [mcmfw {ihn®p. 10 h¿jØn\Iw cNn® French
Flora {^m≥knse kkyimkv{X⁄¿°v Ãm≥tU¿Uv sSIvÃv _p°v
Bbn. Cu ]pkvXIhpw _pt^mWns‚ ]cnNbhpw sIm≠v A°mZan
bnte°v sXcs™Sp°s∏´p. _m¶v tPmen Dt]£n°m≥ km[n®p.
_tbmfPn, ^nknIvkv, sIankv{Sn, sa‰ocntbmfPn F∂nhbmbncp
∂p CjvShnjb߃. Invertebrates (\s´√n√mØ PohnIƒ) F∂ \maw
emam¿°ns‚ kw`mh\bmWv. G‰hpw efnXLS\bp≈hbn¬ \n∂v
G‰hpw k¶o¿Æ LS\bnep≈hbnte°p≈ hnImkw emam¿°v hnh
cn®p. emam¿°v “Zoonomia” bm¬ {]tNmZn°s∏´ncp∂p F∂pw hy‡n
]camb s]cpam‰Øn¬ t]mepw Fdmkvakv Um¿hn\pambn kmZriyw
D≠mbncp∂p F∂pw Nq≠n°mWn°s∏Sp∂p. emam¿°ns‚ Hcp ]cn
anXn At±lØns‚ `mjbmbncp∂p. Dt±in®Xv hy‡am°m\p≈ Ignhv
At±lØn\p≠mbncp∂n√. 78 mw hb n¬ IÆns‚ ImgvNtijn t]mb
tijamWv 7 hmfyambn (1815-1822) At±lØns‚ ]pkvXIw {]kn≤o
Icn°s∏´sX∂Xn\m¬ CXv Xo¿Øpw icnbmIWsa∂n√.
emam¿°ns‚ 4 \nba߃
1. Poh∂v kz¥amb i‡nbm¬ F√m ssPhicoc߃°pw h¿≤n
°m\p≈ \nc¥chmk\ klPamWv (GItImiØn¬ \n∂v _lp
tImi Pohnbnte°v)
2. Pohnbn¬ ]pXnb Awi߃, ]pXpXmbn A\p`hs∏Sp∂ Bh
iy߃ \nc¥cambnØocptºmgpw, B Bhiy߃ D≠m°p∂ ]pXp
Ne\ßfmepw D≠mhp∂p.
3. AwK߃, AhbpsS IgnhpIƒ F∂nhbpsS hnImkØn\v
AhbpsS \nc¥c D]tbmKhpambp≈ \nc¥c _‘w A\pt]£Wo
bamWv.
77

{]Imikn‘p

4. Hcp hy‡nbpsS PohImeØv am‰wsIm≠v t\SnsbSpØsX√mw
Dev]mZ\ tijnbneqsS ASpØ Xeapdbnte°v ssIamdp∂p.
(Inheritance of acquired characters- CXv _tbmfPn-°en sX‰mWv.
Adnhns‚ ImcyØn¬ am{XamWv t\Snb am‰w- kwkv°mcw- ssI
amdm≥ XeapdIƒ°p IgnbpI.)
CkntUm¿ sP{^n sk‚ v lnebn¿ (1772-1844) emam¿°v ]dbp∂
]pXnb Ahbh߃ D]{ZhIcamb ^eap≠m°p∂ ]£w Ah t\
Snb P¥p°ƒ NØpt]mbn, ]pXnb ]cnXÿnXnbn¬ Pohn°m≥ km
[n°p∂ P¥p°ƒ am{Xw Ahtijn°psa∂p IqSn Iq´nt®¿Øp.
Cu ]ivNmØeØnemWv tUm. tdm_¿´v Um¿hns‚ aI\mbn 12
s^{_phcn 1809 ¬ P\n® Nmƒkv Um¿hns‚ cwK{]htiw. Pqsse
1817 ¬ Xs‚ 8 mw hb n¬, 52 hb pImcnbmb AΩ s]s´∂p≈ Hcp
hbdpthZ\bm¬ acn®Xv Um¿hn\v Xo¿°m\mhmØ ZpxJap≠m°n.
A—≥ acn®pt]mb AΩsb°pdn®v Bcpw Hc£cw ]dbp∂XnjvSs∏
SmsX, PohnXw apgph≥ hnjmZ{KkvX\mbn Ign™pIqSn. ktlmZcn
am¿ ho´p`cWw Gs‰SpØp. ASpØ h¿jw Um¿hns\ t_m¿Unßv
kvIqfneb®p. C°meØv Np‰pap≈ {]IrXnbn¬ Ip´n BIrjvS\mbn.
tPyjvT≥ Cdmkvakv AtX kvIqfnep≠mbncp∂p. c≠pt]cpw IqSn
Hcp sNdnb sIankv{Sn em_d´dn D≠m°n. Fdmkvakv tIw{_nUvPn¬
saUnkn\p tN¿∂p. Um¿hn≥ saUn°¬ ]mcºcyw \ne\n¿Øm\mbn,
tdm_¿´v, c≠masØ aIt\bpw FUn≥_tdmbn¬ saUn°¬ ]T\
Øn\b®p. ihw Iodptºmƒ Um¿hn\v AkpJ߃ D≠mbn. 2 Hm∏td
j\pIƒ I≠tXmsS ]T\w AklyambntØm∂n. t¢mtdmt^mw
Is≠Øp∂Xn\v apºmWXv. Aedn°cbp∂ Ip´nsb k¿Pdn°p hnt[
bam°p∂ cwKw At\I Imew Xs∂ th´bmSnbXmbn Hmt´m_tbm
{K^nbn¬ Um¿hn≥ FgpXn. Zoonomia Um¿hn≥ hmbn®ncp∂p. IS¬
Øoc PohnIfpsS ]T\w, PntbmfPn F∂nhbnte°v kvtIm´njv Iw]m
c‰ohv A\m‰anÃv tdm_¿´v {Km‚ns‚ ¢mkpIƒ Um¿hns‚ {i≤ Xncn
®phn´p. ss{IÃv tImtfPn¬ sh®v tIw{_nUvPv t_m´Wn s{]m^k¿
tPm¨ sl≥kvtem, PntbmfPn s{]m^k¿ BZw skUvPvhn°v F∂n
hcpw At±lsØ BI¿jn®p.
1831 ¬ shbn¬knse ]mdIsf ]Tn°m≥ Hcp PntbmfPn°¬ bm
{X t]mbn Um¿hn≥. AhnsS sh®v ]gb tIw{_nUvPv A≤ym]I≥
tPm¿Pv ]ot°m°ns‚ FgpØpIn´n. HMS _oKnfn¬ Hcp k¿tΔ bm{X
78

{]Imikn‘p

bv°p≈ £Ww. sl≥kvtem CXn\v Um¿hns‚ t]cmWv iq]m¿i
sNbvXncp∂Xv. ]s£ CXns‚ ^≠v kzbw hln°Ww. BZyw A—≥
hnkΩXn®p. 27 Unkw_¿ 1831 \v _oKnfn¬ ]pds∏Sptºmƒ Um¿hn\v
23 hb mbn´n√. 5 h¿jw \o≠p\n∂p Cu temIw Np‰nk©mcw. Nnen
bn¬ sh®v Hcp bYm¿∞ `qIºw ImWm\pw, Ic Dbcp∂Xpw kap{Z
\nc∏n¬ \n∂v HcSn DbcØn¬ kap{ZØnse PohnIƒ \nt£]n°s∏
Sp∂Xp \nco£n°m\pw Um¿hn\v Ahkcap≠mbn. ebens‚ Principles of Geology hmfyw I Xs‚ k©mcØn¬ Um¿hn≥ IqsS sIm≠p
t]mbncp∂p. AXn¬ eb¬ h¿Æn® {]Xn`mkamWv Um¿hn≥ I≠Xv.
ebens‚ IÆneqsS temIw I≠v Um¿hn≥ Dd® bqWnt^mant‰dnb
\mbn. At±lw Xs∂ ]n∂osSgpXn- “Fs‚ ]pkvXI߃ ]IpXn
ebens‚ akvXnjv°Øn¬ \n∂p≠mbXmWv. ebens‚ principles s‚
ta∑ AXv HcmfpsS a\ ns‚ ‘tSm¨’ (tone) am‰n°fbp∂p F∂XmWv”
Xncn®p h∂t∏mƒ aI\p In´nb kzoIcWw A—s\ hnkvabn∏n°bpw
B\μn∏nbv°bpw sNbvXp. Um¿hn\v ebens\ ImWm≥ Ahkcw
In´n.
1839 ¬ 30 mw hb n¬ -Journal of Researches F∂ t]cn¬ Um¿hn
\pw Iym]v‰≥ ^n‰vktv dmbpw _oKvƒ bm{Xm\p`h߃ FgpXnbXv {]kn
≤oIcn®p; Um¿hn≥ tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ -Fellow Bbn; Ikn≥
FΩsb hnhmlw Ign®p. 1842 ¬ Um¿hn≥ `mcytbmsSm∏w sI‚n¬
Xmakam°n.
1837 ¬ Bcw`n® The transformation of species ¬ Um¿hn≥ Uniformitarians/Catastrophist N¿®bn¬ BZytØXns\ A\pIqen®p. 1838 ¬
Um¿hn≥ am¬Øqkns‚ (1766--1834) Principles of Population 6 mw FUn
j≥ hmbn®p. a\pjyP\kwJy Hcp {]tXyI Imebfhn¬ Cc´nbmhp
Ibpw, ASpØ AtX Imebfhn¬ AXns‚bpw Cc´nbmhpIbpw sN
bvXv PymanXobambn hfcp∂ H∂msW∂v am¬Øqkv AXn¬ ]dbp∂p
≠v. A°meØv hSs° Atacn°bn¬ 25 h¿jw tXmdpw Cu Cc´n°¬
\S°p∂p≠v. 25 hb n¬ 4 Ip´nIsf Hcp anYp\w D≠m°nbm¬, Ah¿
25 hb phsc Pohn®v CtX coXnbn¬ {]P\\w \SØnbmemWv Cu
IW°v (Nmƒkv Um¿hn\v 10 a°fmWv). G‰hpw ]Xps° Dev]mZn∏n
°p∂ B\Iƒ t]mepw 4 a°sf D≠m°nbm¬, 750 sIm√w sIm≠v
19 an√y≥ Pohn®ncn°p∂ ]n≥KmanIfpsS “]q¿ΔoI”cmhpw! CX\pkcn®v
1050 ¬ D≈{X B\Iƒ Xs∂ 18 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ HSphnepw D≠mhW
79

{]Imikn‘p

sa∂mWv am¬Øqkns‚ \nKa\w, hwi h¿≤\hv \nb{¥n°p∂Xv
£maw, tcmKw, amwk`p°pIƒ, bp≤߃ (a\pjycpsS ImcyØn¬)
`£WØns‚ Zu¿√`yw, a‰p {]tZißfnte°v amdnØmakn°¬
(Colonisation) F∂nhbmWv. Nnet∏mƒ h‘yX sIm≠pw {]IrXn CXv
\S∏m°p∂p. 19 mw \q‰m≠nse s]mfn‰n°¬ Ct°mWanbn¬ ]mhß
fpw sXmgnemfnIfpw AhcpsS hwih¿≤\hpsIm≠v `£W°Ωn hcp
Øn, “IqSpX¬ Pohn°m\¿lXbp≈ hwi”ßsf _p≤nap´n°p∂h
cmbnØo¿∂Xv am¬Øqkns‚ Cu IW°mWv. F∂m¬ Um¿hn≥ CXn
s\ as‰mcp XcØn¬ I≠p. P\kwJym h¿≤\hv Htc hwiØnse
AwK߃ XΩn¬ \ne\nev]n\mbp≈ Ielw, bp≤w
AXn¬ A¿
ln°p∂hcpsS AXnPoh\w, A¿ln°mØhcpsS hwi\miw.
CXn¬ Struggle for Survival- Um¿hn\v Struggle to reproduce BWv.
Fittest F∂XpsIm≠v Hcp Xmt°m¬∏gpXn¬ Xmt°m¬ t]mse, Hcp
PnKvtkm]knen¬ Hcp IjvWw IrXyambn tNcp∂ t]mse F∂mW¿
∞w. IqSpX¬ k¥XnIsf Dev]mZn∏n°m\p≈ IgnhmWv, hwiw \ne
\n¿Øm\p≈ Ignhv F∂¿∞w. eb¬ CXnt\mS\pIqen®n√. Um¿hn
s‚ Evolution by natural selection Cßs\bmWv D≠mbXv.
PohnXØn¬ \ne\nev]n\pth≠n H´pw _p≤napt´≠n h∂n´n
√mØ HcmfmWv Um¿hn≥. Gsd _p≤nap´nb BfmWv B¬{^Uv
d ¬ hmekv. 21 mw hb n¬ eoÃdn¬ So®dmbncns° At±lw am¬
Øqkns‚ ]pkvXIw hmbn®p. hme n\v G‰hpw CjvSw ]pjv]ßsf
°pdn®v ]Tn°m\mbncp∂p. Hcp km[mcW IpSpw_Øn¬ 9 a°fn¬
8 masØ Ip™mbncp∂p hmekv. sl‚n t_‰vkv (1825-1892) F∂
Entomologist s‚ IqsS {_koense ImSpIfn¬ (1847 \ptijw) 4 h¿
jw hmekv k©cn®p. 1849 ¬ ktlmZc≥ sl¿_¿´v {_koen¬ h∂p.
AhnsSsh®v yellow fever h∂v 1851 ¬ acn®p. aS°bm{Xbn¬ d_¿
Ib‰nb sle≥ F∂ I∏¬ Xo]nSn®v apßpIbpw, G‰hpw \√ kvs]
knan\pIƒ \jvSs∏SpIbpw sNbvXp. 10 Znhkw ISen¬ t_m´n¬ Hgp
In \S∂v 1852 ¬ Zcn{Z\mbn Xncn®phtc≠n h∂p. kvs]kna\pIfn√m
sX FgpXnb “Narratives of Travels in the Amazon & Rio Negro” sNdn
sbmcp hnPbta Bbp≈p. 3 h¿jw IqSn sXs° Atacn°bn¬ Xßnb
tijw aSßnb t_‰vkns‚ kvs]kna\pIsf√mw c£s∏´p.
1854 Hcp imkv{Xkw_‘amb ao‰nßn¬ Um¿hn\pw hme pw
I≠pap´n. F∂m¬ c≠mƒ°pw ]n¬°meØv AXns\°pdn®v H∂pw
80

{]Imikn‘p

Hm¿°m≥ Ign™ncp∂n√. BatkmWnse Hcp Nn{Xie`sØ°pdn®v
hmekv FgpXnbXv hmbn®v Um¿hn≥ hmekn\v IØpIƒ FgpXn. hm
ekns‚ ‘IÃa¿’ Bbn. ^m¿ CuÃnse kvs]kna\pIƒ hmekv
Abbv°pw. Um¿hn≥ hmßpw. 1854 emWv aembv B¿®ns∏emtKmbn¬
hmekv FØp∂Xv. 8 h¿jw sIm≠v hmekv 40 {]_‘w {]kn≤oI
cn®p. kvs]kna\pIƒ \jvSs∏SmsX aSßnhcnIbpw sNbvXp. Hcp
henb hr£Øns‚ imtJm]imJ t]msebmWv hmekv Cshmeyqj
s\ I≠Xv (hwihr£w). 1858 ¬ sameq°mkn¬ sh®v hme n\v ]\n
]nSn®p. At∏mƒ am¬Øqkns‚ ]pkvXIsØ°pdn®pw ktlmZcs‚
acWsØ°pdn®pw hmekv Hm¿Øp. F¥psIm≠v Hcp Xeapdbn¬ Nn
e¿ am{Xw Pohn°p∂p? Nne¿ acn°p∂p? Imemhÿm am‰w sNdp°m≥
Ignhp≈h¿ Pohn°p∂p. a‰p≈h¿ acn°p∂p. Pohn®hcn¬ \n∂v (sh
´nb Iºn¬ \ns∂∂t]mse) ho≠pw hwiw Xfn¿°p∂p. tcmK{]Xn
tcm[ i‡n IqSpXep≈hcmWv Pohn°p∂Xv; thKw HmSp∂hbmWv
amwk`p°pIfn¬ \n∂v c£s∏Sp∂Xv; Cßs\ ‘kz¥w I¿Ω tijn’
bp≈h kzbw c£s∏SpI am{Xa√ kzhwiØns‚ Ignhv h¿≤n∏n°
bpamWv. AXmWv Survival of the fittest F∂v tcmKiøbn¬ InS∂v At±
lw Nn¥n®p. Kme∏tKmkn¬ Um¿hn\pw aembv B¿°ns∏emtKmhn¬
hme pw I≠ ]£nIfpsS ]pXnb tImf\n ]p\c[nhmkw, ]pXnb
Imemhÿbn¬ c£s∏Sp∂hbpsS {]tXyIX, AXn¬ \n∂p≠mhp∂
{]tXyI \h hwi߃ Ch Cu Xnbdnsb XzcnXs∏SpØn. F∂m¬
Ch¿°p c≠pt]¿°pw Cu LS\m am‰ßƒ Fßs\ Hcp hwiØn¬
Hcp anYp\Øn¬ \n∂v a°fnte°v In´p∂p (heritability) F∂dnbn√mbn
cp∂p. ]p√pam{Xw Xn∂p∂ am≥, am\ns\ Xn∂p∂ knwlw, Hcp {]tXyI
C\w ]gsam hnsØm am{Xw Xn∂p∂ ]£n, a\pjy≥ F∂nh¿ Cu
Ignhv BZysØ hwi]nXmhn¬ \n∂v/amXmhn¬ \n∂v kºmZn®p F∂
√msX!
s^{_phcn 1858 ¬ Zo\°nS°bn¬ sh®v Xms\gpXnb {]_‘w
A`n{]mbamcm™psIm≠v hmekv Um¿hn\v Ab®psImSpØp. 18 Pq¨
1858 \v sI‚nse Uu¨ lukn¬ AXpIn´n. ebepw a‰p kplrØp°
fpw t\csØ {]hNn® t]mse, Xs‚ I≠p]nSpØ߃ kzX{¥ambn
I≠p]nSn®p as‰mcmƒ F∂ tjm°v Bbn Um¿hn\v! 10 Znhkw Ign™v
kv°m¿e‰v ^nh¿ sIm≠v sNdnb aI≥ Nmƒkv hdnMv Um¿hn≥ acn®p.
ktlmZc≥ yellow fever ]nSn®p acn®Xns\°pdn®v, kz¥w Zo\°nS°
81

{]Imikn‘p

bnencp∂v hmekv D∂bn® tNmZy߃ ]p{Xs‚ acWw Um¿hn\n¬
‘kXy’ambn A\p`hs∏SpØnbncn°mw. \yq´s\t∏mseb√ Um¿hn≥
kaImeo\\mb Hcp imkv{X⁄t\mSv s]cpamdnbXv. hme ns‚ {]
_‘w Hcp ItØmsS At±lw eben\v Ab®psImSpØp. “Xm¶fpsS
hm°pIƒ icnbmbn. Fs∂ Hcmƒ tXmev]n®p. CXnt\°mƒ hensbmcp
coincidance Rm≥ apºv I≠n´n√. 1842 ¬ FgpXnb Fs‚ am\pkv{In
]vSv kvsI®v hme n\v In´nbncps∂¶n¬, C{Xbpw \√, C{Xbpw {lkz
hpw kXyk‘hpamb Hcp {]_‘w At±lw FgpXpambncp∂n√. CXv
GXp tP¿Æente°pw {]kn≤oIcn°m≥ A¿lXbp≈ H∂mWv.”
F∂m¬ ebepw tPmk^v lp°dpw (1817-1911) sNbvXXv 1844 ¬
h∂ Um¿hns‚ XnbdnbpsS kw£n]vXhpw hme ns‚ {]_‘hpw
tN¿Øv H‰ t]∏dm°n en∂b≥ skmssk‰nbv°v Ab°bmWv. Cu
t]∏¿ {]kn≤oIcn®Xv Charles Darwin & Alfred Wallace F∂ t]cnem
Wv. CXn¬ hmekv ]cn`hn®ns√∂p am{Xa√ kt¥mjn°bpw sNbvXp.
At±lw Xs‚ kn≤m¥sØ ]n∂oSp≈ {]_‘ßfn¬ “Um¿hn
\nk” sa∂v hnfn°pI IqSn sNbvXp. Fs‚ 1858 se B t]∏dmWv
Um¿hns\ sh®p Xmakn∏n°msX Xs‚ amÿ]okv Origin of species
{]kn≤oIcn°m≥ t{]cn∏n®sX∂v ]n∂oSv A`nam\]q¿Δw At±lw
FgpXn. 1859 \hw_¿ 24 \v tPm¨ apsd Um¿hns‚ ]pkvXIw {]kn≤o
Icn®p. 19 G{]n¬ 1882 ¬ Um¿hn≥ A¥cn®p. At±lw Hcn°epw
Xs‚ kn≤m¥sØ°pdn® ]_vfnIv hmZ{]XnhmZßfn¬ ]s¶SpØn√.
hmekv ]n¬°meØv BflobXbnte°p Xncn™p. AXv At±lØn
s‚ BZyIme imkv{X Nn¥sb \in∏n®p. ss__nfn¬ ]dbp∂ t]m
se a\pjy≥ ssZhØns‚ {]tXyI krjvSnbmsW∂pw, a‰p kv]ojo
kn\p ]d™ Cshmeypj\dn \nba߃ a\pjy\p _m[Ias√∂pw
]d™v kz¥w imkv{X\nKa\ßsfØs∂ X≈n∏d™p. 1880 ¬ Um
¿hn\pw tXmakv sl‚n lIvkvenbpw H∏psh®v Ab® kvs]jy¬ \n
thZ\ {]Imcw hnIvtSmdnbm cm⁄n BPoh\m¥w 200 ]u≠v s]≥
j≥ A\phZn®t∏mƒ am{XamWv hme ns‚ Zmcn{Zyw H∂p Xo¿∂p In
´nbXv. 1893 ¬ At±lsØ tdmb¬ skmssk‰n s^t√m Bbn sXc
s™SpØp. 1910 ¬ Hm¿U¿ Hm^v sadn‰v In´n. 1913 \hw_¿ 7 \v tUm¿
sk‰nse t{_mUvÃWn¬ sh®v At±lw A¥cn®p.
tdm_¿´v lp°pw sFkIv \yq´Wpw XΩnepw hme pw Um¿hn\pw
XΩnepap≈ PohnX kmay߃, AhcpsS kmºØnI ÿnXn, hf¿∂
82

{]Imikn‘p

Np‰p]mSv, Htc I≠p]nSpØ߃ Htc kabw kzX{¥ambn I≠p]nSn®
coincidence F∂nh XmcXays∏SpØmhp∂XmWv. \yq´\pw Um¿hn\pw
AhcpsS kp{][m\ {K\vY߃ PohnXmhkm\Øn¬ am{Xw {]kn≤
s∏SpØnb clky kz`mh°mcmWv. F∂m¬ ChcpsS kl{]h¿Ø
Icmb imkv{X⁄tcmSp≈ kao]\w, imkv{XtØmSp≈ kao]\sØ
ImWnbv°p∂XpIqSnbmIbmepw Xo¿Øpw hyXykvXamIbmepw {i≤
A¿ln°p∂p. Um¿hns‚ kao]\amWv imkv{XØn¬ F∂√ F√m
XpdIfnepw kwkvIrX NnØcmb a\pjy¿°v D≠mth≠Xv F∂Xn¬
kwiban√.

83

{]Imikn‘p

5. {]Imiw, AWpkn≤m¥w
1766 ¬ Um¬´≥ P\n°ptºmƒ temIØn¬ imkv{X⁄sc∂v
B[p\nI imkv{Xw hnfn°p∂ 300 t]sc BsI D≠mbn´p≈p. 1800 ¬
At±lØns‚ kn≤m¥w Adnbs∏Sptºmƒ AXv Bbncambn. 1844
¬ At±lw acn°ptºmƒ 10000. 1900 Øn¬ 1,00,000. 19 mw \q‰m≠n¬ 15
h¿jØn¬ imkv{X⁄cpsS kwJy Cc´n®psIm≠ncp∂p. bqtdm∏nse
P\kwJy 1750-1850 ¬ 100 ¬ \n∂v 200 aney\mbpw, {_n´\nse P\
kwJy 1800-1850 ¬ 9 ¬ \n∂v 18 an√y\mbpw h¿≤n®p. P\kwJym h¿
≤\hpw imkv{X⁄hwiØns‚ h¿≤\hpw H∏w \S∂p.
Zcn{ZIpSpw_Øn¬ P\n®v, At∏mØn°cnbmhm≥ ]Tn®psIm≠n
cns°, sIankv{Snbnte°pXncn™v hmXIßfnepw CeIvt{Sm sIan°¬
dnk¿®nepw FØnb BfmWv lw{^n tUhn. ss\{Skv HmIvsskUv
sIm≠v Hm∏tdj\pIsf thZ\mclnXam°mw (anaesthesia) F∂t±lw
]co£Ww sIm≠p sXfnbn®p. imkv{XsØ {]Ncn∏n°m\pw, Irjn
bnepw hyhkmbØnepw {]tbmKn°m\pw At±lw At\Iw lectures
kwLSn∏n®p. tUhnbpsS A≤ym]\coXn, eIvN¿ssì At±lØn¬
\n∂p t\cn´p]Tn® BfmWv Um¬´¨. Um¬´\v AhXcn∏n°m\p≈
{]_‘w eIvN¿ lmfn¬ sh®v Xte∂pXs∂ At ±lsØs°m≠v
tUhn dntlgvk¬ sNøn®p. Hcp aqebv°¬ Ccp∂v tUhn k{i≤w
tI´p. ]ns∂, At{X {]_‘w tUhn hmbn®ptIƒ∏n®p. Um¬´≥ tI´p.
]nt‰∂v 150-200 t]cp≈ kZ n\papºn¬ Um¬´s\s°m≠v AhXcn
∏n®p. Ign™t∏mƒ, IøSn®v A\ptamZn®v t{]m’mln∏n®p.
Hcp imkv{Xm≤ym]I≥ hnZym¿∞nIfpsS Communication/A≤ym
]\ coXn hnIkn∏nt°≠sXßs\ F∂v tUhn amXrI ImWn®p. \m
an∂dnbp∂ At\Iw Elements ([mXp) I≠p]nSn®Xpw t]cn´Xpw tUhn
bmWv. J\nbn¬ D]tbmKn°p∂ kpc£mZo]w At±lw I≠p]nSn®p.
ssat°¬ ^mctU At±lØns‚ kplrØpw ]n≥Kmanbpambncp∂p.
84

{]Imikn‘p

ssl{UP≥

1

kvt{Sm≠nbw

46

Atkm´v

5

_mssc‰v

68

Im¿_¨

5 1/4

Ccpºv

50

HmIvknP≥

7

kn¶v

56

t^mkv^dkv

9

sNºv

56

kƒ^¿

13

Cubw

90

aKv\ojyw

20

sh≈n

190

ssew

24

kz¿Æw

190

tkmU

28

πm‰n\w

190

s]m´mjv

42

sa¿°pdn

167

Nn{Xw 5.1: Um¬´s‚ knw_epIfpw AWp`mchpw
85

{]Imikn‘p

Izm°¿ IpSpw_Øn¬ 1766 ¬ sk]vXw_dnemWv Um¬´s‚ P\\w
(P\\ XobXn tcJs∏SpØnbn´n√). ]nXmhv s\bvØpImc≥, Hcp apdn
s\øm\pw, Hcp apdn Ddßm\pw D]tbmKn°p∂ sNdnb hoSv. 12 mw hb
 n¬ Ip´nIsf ]Tn∏n®pw Farm ¬ ]Wn sNbvXpw Um¬´¨ ]Wap≠m
°m≥ XpSßn. 24 am¿®v 1787 apX¬ acWw hsc metereological \nco£
Ww \SØn IrXyambn FgpXnsh®ncp∂p Um¬´¨. tUmIvSdmhm≥
]Wan√mØXn\m¬ am©Ãdn¬ ss{]h‰v So®dmbpw, sNdnb XpIbv°v
]_vfnIv eIvNdpIƒ sImSpØpw 50 h¿jw At±lw Pohn®p. At±l
Øn\v color blindness D≠mbncp∂p. \oebpw ]n¶pw th¿Xncn®dnbm≥
At±lØn\pw ktlmZc\pw km[n®ncp∂n√. Cu tcmKsØ°pdn®v 31
HIvtSm_¿ 1794 ¬ ams©Ã¿ kmlnXyXØzimkv{X skmssk‰nbn¬
sNbvX {]`mjWamWt±lsØ ams©Ãdn¬ {]kn≤\m°nbXv. If¿
_vssf≥Uv\ ns\ Um¬´\nksa∂v hnfn°m\pw CXv ImcWambn.
Hmtcm [mXphpw AXmXn\v {]tXyIamb AWp AYhm B‰ßfm¬
\n¿ΩnXamsW∂pw H∂ns\ as‰m∂n¬ \n∂v th¿Xncn°p∂Xv AWp
`mcamsW∂pw AWp°ƒ tN¿∂v Compound atoms (Ct∏mƒ molecules)
D≠mhpsa∂pw Um¬´¨ IcpXn. knw_ens\ am‰n Hcp en]n sIm≠v
Ahsb [z\n∏n°p∂ coXn ]n∂oSp≠mbn.
19 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZyØn¬ At‰manIv Xnbdnsb AwKoIcn°m≥
hfsc {]bmkw imkv{X⁄∑m¿°p≠mbn. 1/2 \q‰m≠p Ign™
t∏mƒ sIankv{Snbn¬ AWpkn≤m¥w kzoIcn°s∏´p. Um¬´\v \qdp
h¿jØn\ptijw Ccp]Xmw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZyØn¬ am{XamWv AZr
iyamb B‰w hmkvXhØn¬ D≠v F∂Xn\v sXfnhv In´nbXv. F¶nepw
AWp kn≤m¥w kzoIcn°s∏´Xns‚ sXfnhmbncp∂p 27 Pqssebn¬
1844 ¬ ams©Ãdn¬ sh®v At±lw acn®t∏mƒ 100 hml\߃ AI
ºSn tkhn®psIm≠v \¬Inb ihkwkvImcw (CXv At±lØns‚
Izm°¿ PohnXcoXnbv°v In´nb {_n´\nse BZysØ _lpaXnbp
amWv). tPm¨ _¿tkenbkv, AthmKm¿tUm hneyw {]u´v, s^UdnIv
thmlve¿, Ãm\nkv emthm I∂n mtcm F∂nh¿ Cu ]T\w apt∂m´p
sIm≠pt]mbn. sa≥Ueohns‚ periodic tables D≠mbn. sa≥Ueohn\v
apºv P¿Ω\nbnse tUmIvSdmbncp∂ temX¿ sab¿ CXp I≠p]nSn®n
cp∂p. 1882 se tUhn saU¬ Ch¿ c≠pt]cpw ]¶n´p. 1834 ¬ s^{_p
hcn 7 \v ssk_ocnbbnemWv sa≥Ueohns‚ P\\w. 1906 ¬ At±l
Øns‚ t]cv t\m_¬ kΩm\Øn\v \n¿t±in°s∏´p. H‰ thm´n\mWv,
86

{]Imikn‘p

AXv sl‚n tambn \v (1852-1907) ^vfqdn≥ Is≠SpØXn\v sImSp°
s∏´v sa≥Ueohn\v In´msX t]mbXv. s^{_phcn 2, 1907 \v sa≥Ueohv
A¥cn®p.
hyhkmb hnπhtØmsS “sX¿tam ssU\manIvkv” Hcp imkv{X
ambn hf¿∂p- “F\¿Pn” AYhm Du¿÷sØ°pdn®v BZyambn sP
bnwkv ÷qƒ (1818 -1889) ]dbm\mcw`n®p. At±lw Um¬´s‚
hnZym¿∞n bmbncp∂p. 2 h¿jw bq¢nUmWv Um¬´¨ ÷qfns\ ]Tn
∏n®Xv. CeIvt{Sm amKv\‰nkØnemWv ÷qƒ BZyw ]T\w \SØnbXv.
sshZypXnbpw NqSpw XΩnep≈ _‘w,
F∂ {]_‘w 1841 ¬ tdm
b¬ skmssk‰n {]kn≤oIcn°msX \nckn®p. 1847 ¬ `uXnI {]]©
Øn¬ Du¿÷kwc£W \nbaw (Law of Conservation of energy) F{X
{][m\amsW∂t±lw Nq≠n°m´n. hneyw tXmwk¨ CXv I≠v BIr
jvS\mbn. Ch¿ H∂n®v ÷qƒ-tXmwk¨ C^IvSv I≠p]nSn®p (sd{^n
Ptd‰¿ CX\pkcn®v {]h¿Øn°p∂p). 1848 ¬ hmXIØnse tamfnIyq
fpIfpsS icmicn thKX I≠p]nSn®p. ssl{UPt‚Xv 6225.54 ft/sec.
AXnt\°mƒ 16 Cc´n hep∏ap≠v HmIvknP\v. AXn\m¬ thKX1/4
Ipdbpw (1556.39 ft/sec). hneyw tXmwk¨ (temUv sI¬hn≥) “sI¬hn≥
kvsIbn¬” F∂ absolute scale of temperature I≠p]nSn®p.
{Zhyw AYhm ]nfiw C∂s√¶n¬ \msf \in°psa∂pw {ZhyØn
\v Hcp XpS°hpw Hcp HSp°hpw D≠mtb Xocq F∂pw a\pjyicocw
t]mse `qanbpw kqcy\psa√mw {ZhyamIbm¬ Ahbv°v I¿Ωtijn
\nebv°p∂, Ah \in°p∂ Hcp Imew hcpsa∂pw A∂pw {Zhyw Du
¿÷ cq]Øn¬ Ahtijn°psa∂pw D≈ hfsc hfsc {]mNo\amb
C¥y≥ imkv{X\nKa\Ønte°v 1852 ¬ {]kn≤s∏SpØnb Hcp {]_
‘Øn¬ tXmwk¨ XpS°an´p. CXv ]nev°meØv E=mc2 Bbn at\m
lcamb kq{X, KWnX `mjbn¬ sF≥ssÃs‚ hnPb°pdnbmbn. sl
¿a≥ slw lwt_mƒ´v (1821-1894) CtX \nKa\Øn¬ kzX{¥ambn
FØnt®¿∂ncp∂p. AXn\pw apºv tPm¨ hmt´gvkWpw. (1811-1883)
FUn≥_tdmhn¬ P\n® hmt´gvk¨ Cw•≠n¬ sdbn¬thbn¬ kn
hn¬ F©n\obdmbncp∂p. 1839 ¬ CuÃv C¥ym Iº\n ImsU‰pIsf
]cnioen∏n°m≥ C¥ybnseØn. 1845 ¬ Ct±lØns‚ Hcp {]_‘
Øn¬ (C¥ybn¬ shs®gpXnbXv) Du¿÷w AWp°ƒ°nSbn¬ Ãm‰n
kvSn°¬ \nbaa\pkcn®mWv D≈sX∂pw, F√mØn\pw Htc kv]oU√
D≈sX∂pw, icmicn thKX A\pkcn®mWv AWp°ƒ°nSbn¬ Du
87

{]Imikn‘p

¿÷hym]\sa∂pw FgpXn. C¥ybn¬ \ns∂Ønb Cu {]_‘w Xß
ƒ°pw a\ nemImØ F¥ns\sbms°tbm Ipdn®msW∂p ]d™v
tdmb¬ skmssk‰n X≈n°f™p. C¥ybnse ]camWp kn≤m¥
sØ B[mcam°nb Cu IW°pIƒ icnbmbncp∂p. 1857 ¬ Cw•≠n¬
aSßnsbØnb At±lØns‚ {]_‘߃ {i≤n°s∏SmsX t]mbn.
tXmwkWpw lwt_mƒ´vkn\pw apºmWv Ct±lØns‚ AWpkn≤m
¥w. KpcpXzmI¿jW i‡n sIm≠mWv kqcys‚ NqSv IpdbmsX \n¬
°p∂sX∂t±lw FgpXn. Xs‚ \nKa\߃ {i≤n°s∏SmØXn¬
ZpxJnX\mbncp∂p Cu a\pjy≥. ]s£ 1891 ¬ hm´¿kWns‚ ImWm
Xmb BZysØ am\pkv{In]vSv (1845 se) tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ ]gb
^bepIƒ°nSbn¬ \n∂v I≠pIn´n. 1892 ¬ skmssk‰n AXv {]kn≤o
Icn®p. AXpImWm≥ hmt´gvk¨ Pohn®ncp∂n√ F∂ ZpxJkXyw
Ahtijn°p∂p.
hmXIßfpsS Ne\ \nbaw, AXn¬ Ãm‰nÃn°¬ sa°m\nIvkv,
F∂nhbpsS \nba߃ ]n∂oSv sPbnwkv ¢¿°v amIvkvsh√pw epUv
hnKv t_mƒSvkvam\pw Iqe¶jambn ]Tn®v {]Ncn∏n®p. 1860 ¬ amIvkv
sh¬ hmXIßfpsS Cu KpW߃ hniZambn ]Tn®p. ssI\‰nIv Xnb
dnbn¬ AXv`pXmhlamb t\´w imkv{Xw ssIhcn°pIbmbncp∂p.
ssI\‰nIv F\¿Pn (Net\m¿÷w) AYhm KXobXbpsS thKw hniZo
Icn°p∂ Ãm‰nÃn°¬ \nbasØ Ct∏mƒ amIvks
v h¬-t_mƒSvka
v m≥
Unkv{Sn_yqj≥ F∂v hnfn°p∂p. hneyw HÃvhmƒUv (1853-1932) B‰w
ssk≤m¥nIamb Hcp \ne]mSv am{XamsW∂v iTn®p. t_mƒSvkvam≥
CXns‚ t]cn¬ ]eh´w BfllXym{iaw \SØn. 1900 Øn¬ c£s∏´
At±lw 1904 ¬ Atacn°bn¬ {]`mjW߃ \SØn. Iment^m¿
Wnb bqWnthgvkn‰n Hcp P¿Ω≥ s{]m^kdpsS mixture of maniac
ecstacy and pretentious affectation F∂v Cu s]cpam‰sØ hntijn∏n®p.
1906 sk]vXw_¿ 5 \v t_mƒSvkvam≥ Xqßnacn®p. t_mƒSvkvam\pw
HmÃvhmƒUpw AdnbmØ Hcp kw`hw Xteh¿jw kw`hn®ncp∂p.
B‰Øns‚ hmkvXhnIX sXfnbn°p∂ H∂v. imkv{XNcn{XØnse
AXnImb\mb sF≥ssÃs‚ {]_‘w.
kznkv s^Ud¬ C≥Ãn‰yq´nse sF≥ssÃs‚ A≤ym]I≥ sl
¿a≥ an≥IukvIn (1864-1909) KWnXsØ Ft∏mgpw AhKWn°p∂
lazy dog F∂mWv sF≥ssÃs\ hnfn®Xv. 1905 ¬ sF≥ssÃs‚ BZy
{]_‘Øn¬ B‰ßfpsS hmkvXhnIX ÿncoIcn®p. ]et∏mgpw kq
88

{]Imikn‘p

dn®nse ]co£I¿ B {]_‘Øns‚ Htc Hcp Ipdhmbn Nq≠n°m´n
bXv AXv Xosc {lkzambnt∏mbn F∂msW∂v sF≥ssÃ≥ ]d™n
cp∂p. At∏mƒ Xm≥ Hcp hmIyw IqSn tN¿ØpsImSpØp, ]co£I¿
kΩXn®p F∂mWv IY.
1906 se c≠masØ {]_‘Øn¬ {_uWnb≥ Ne\sØ At±
lw ]cma¿in®p. 1827 ¬ ssat{ImkvtIm∏neqsS ]cmKtcWp°sf ho
£n® s_m´mWnÃv tdm_¿´v {_u¨ (1773-1858) Is≠ØnbXmWv
CXv. {lkzambn, IrXyambn, KWnX]cambpw Ãm‰nÃn°embpw {]iv\
ßsf kao]n°p∂ sF≥ssÃ≥ coXn At±lØns‚ 2 {]_‘ßfn
ep≠v. 1910 ¬ BImiØns‚ \oe\ndw {]ImisØ A¥co£ hmXI
߃ Nn∂n®nXdp∂Xp sIm≠msW∂v FgpXn. \oeshfn®w s]s´∂v
NnXds∏Sptºmƒ Npht∏m a™tbm s]s´∂v NnXdn√. kqcys‚ \oe
shfn®w AXn\m¬ k¿ΔZnibn¬ \n∂pw \ΩnseØp∂p (F∂m¬
kqcy\n¬ \n∂p≈ t\cn´p≈ {]Imiw Hmd©p \ndamWv- AYhm Im
hn \ndw). 1869 ¬ tPm¨ Sn≥U¬ Cu {]Xn`mkw N¿® sNbvXncp∂p
(A¥co£Ønse s]mSn \oesb FSpØp NnXdn°p∂p). s]mSnb√
A¥co£Ønse molecules BWv {]ImisØ NnXdn°p∂sX∂v a‰v
imkv{X⁄¿ ]d™p. BImiØns‚ \oe\ndw sh®v AthmKm¿tUm
ÿnckwJy (constant) IW°m°pIbpw, B‰w, tamfnIyqƒ F∂nhbp
sS DWva sXfnbn°bpw H∂n®p \n¿Δln®p sF≥ssÃ≥. \yq´s‚
Ne\ \nba߃°v t`ZKXn hcpØn sF≥ssÃs‚ Bt]£nIXm
kn≤m¥w. {]ImiØns‚ kz`mhsØ°pdn®v 19 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Adnhn
s‚ ]ivNmØeØn¬ \nt∂ Bt]£nIXsb \ap°v icn°v {Kln°m
\mhq.
1727 ¬ \yq´≥ acn°pwhsc {]ImiØns‚ IWkz`mhØn\mbn
cp∂p ap≥Xq°w. bqf¿ {]Imiw G‰hpw Ffp∏amb EPptcJbn¬
k©cn°psa∂v IcpXn. {]ImiØns‚ hfhv (diffraction), XcwK kz`m
hw F∂nhbpw imkv{X temIw Is≠ØnØpSßnbncp∂p. {KnamƒUn
bpsSbpw lp°nt‚bpw XcwKkn≤m¥w \yq´¨ kzoIcn®n√. bqfdpsS
\nKa\w tPmk^v em{Kmßns‚ (1736-1813) bpw ]n∂oSv Izm≠w {]]©
Øns‚ h¿Æ\bptSbpw {]tNmZ\ambn.
KWnXØn¬ π, e, i apXemb knw_epIƒ bqf¿ BZyambn D]
tbmKn®p. t\cn´v kqcys\ t\m°n 1733 ¬ At±lØns‚ heXpIÆns‚
ImgvN t]mbn. 1746 ¬ {]Imi civanbpw \mZXcwKhpw XΩnep≈ km
89

{]Imikn‘p

ayw Nq≠n°mWn®v {]Imiw XcwK cq]amsW∂pw, kqcy≥ {]ImisØ
ASnbv°p∂ Hcp aWnbmsW∂pw At±lw ]d™p (Sun is a bell ringing
out light). tXmakv bßns‚ U_nƒ …n‰v ]co£Ww {]Imiw XcwK
cq]amsW∂p sXfnbn®p. 2 hb n¬ Cw•ojpw 6 mw hb n¬ em‰n\pw
hmbn®v 16 mw hb n\IØv {Ko°v, {^©v, C‰menb≥, sl{_p, Nm¬Un
b≥, kndnbm°v, kadnb≥, Ad_n°v, t]¿ky≥, Xp¿°n, FØntbm
•nb≥ F∂v 13 `mj ]Tn® anSp°\mbncp∂p tkma¿sk‰n¬ P\n®
bßv. anUn¬ CuÃnse ]gb Ncn{Xw, B¿°ntbmfPn, ^nknIvkv,
sIankv{Sn F∂nhbn¬ Xmev]cyap≠mbncp∂p. 1796 ¬ At±lw saUn
°¬ ]co£ ]mkmbn tUmIvSdmbn. IÆnse amwkt]inIƒ se≥kn
s\s°m≠v t^m°kv sNøn°p∂Xv H∂mwh¿j sshZy hnZym¿∞nbm
bncns° At±lamWv I≠p]nSn®Xv. 21 mw hb n¬ tdmb¬ skmssk
‰nbn¬ s^t√m Bbn. sNdp∏Øn¬Øs∂ CsXms° km[n®Xn\v
tIw{_nUvPn¬ At±lØn\v kXo¿∞y¿ sImSpØ t]cv “phenomenon”. 27 mw hb papX¬ acWw hsc (10 sabv 1829) At±lw saUn°¬
{]mIvSokv sNbvXp. AtX kabw imkv{XØn\v kw`mh\ sNbvIbpw
sNbvXp. H‰ ImcyØnte At±lØn\v ]cmPbw ]‰nbp≈p. 1801-1803
hsc c≠ph¿jw At±lw lecture class sImSp°m≥ {ian®p. \√ Hcp
A≤ym]I\√mØXn\mtem, IqSpX¬ Imcyw Adnbp∂Xn\mtem B
{]`mjW߃ tIƒhn°m¿°v a\ nembn√. At±lØns‚ kw`mh\
Ifn¬,
1. Astigmatism sØ icnbmbn hniZoIcn®p
2. Colour blindness s\ icnbmbn hniZoIcn®p
3. tamfnIyqfpIfpsS hen∏w IW°m°n
4. t^mdn≥ sk{I´dnbmbn tPmen sNbvXp
5. tdmsk‰ stone hmbns®SpØp
6. {]Imiw XcwKamsW∂p sXfnbn®p- Interference phenomenon
]Tn®p
F∂nh Dƒs∏Sp∂p.
‘\yq´s‚ dnßp’Ifn¬ Interference phenomenon D≠v. Nph∂ shfn
®Øn\v 6.5 x 10-7 ao‰dpw hbe‰n\v 4.4 x 10-7 ao‰dpamWv XcwKssZ¿Lyw.
Double slit experiment 1804 ¬ Xs∂bßv ]q¿Ønbm°nbncp∂p. Hcp
hiØp\n∂v as‰mcp hitØ°mWv {]Imi{]kcw. \mZXcwKw longi90

{]Imikn‘p
tudinal push & pull XcwKamWv. \yq´¨ ]d™Xns\Xncmtbm A∏pd

amtbm Bcp ]d™mepw tZjys∏Sp∂ bmYmÿnXnI imkv{X temI
amWv A∂v bqtdm∏nep≠mbncp∂Xv (aXsØt∏mse imkv{XØnepap
≠v bmYmÿnXnI¿!). AXn\m¬ bpßn\v Hcp]mSv iImcw tI´p. AK
kvXn≥ s{^kv\¬ XcwKamXrIbnep≈Xpw diffraction D≈Xpamb {]
ImisØ H‰ …n‰neqsS ISØnhn´v AXns‚ hfhv, AXns‚ ]mXbn¬
Hcp sNdnb kqNn (XS w) ]nSn®m¬ B XS Øn\pNp‰pw XncIƒ
IS¬ a≤yØnse ]mdbv°p Np‰psa∂ t]mse {]Imiw hf™p k©
cn®v B XS Øns‚ {]Xn_nw_Ønep≠m°p∂ diffraction pattern
F∂nh ]Tn®p. s{^kv\ens‚ tamU¬ {]_‘w ]cntim[n® PUvPn
am¿ t]mbvk¨, Po≥ _m]vSnsà _tbm´v, ]nbdn sska¨ emπmkv
F∂nhcmWv. F√mhcpw IWkn≤m¥w A\pIqen°p∂ \yqt´mWnb
∑m¿. ]s£, {^kv\ens‚ tamU¬ sX‰√ F∂v t]mbvk¨ Xocpam\n
®v {]hNn®]Sn Hcp ]co£Ww IΩn‰n \SØnbXn¬ s{^kv\ens‚
tamU¬ icnbmsW∂pIn´n. \yq´¨ G¿s∏SpØnb test of direct experiment am¿§ØneqsSØs∂ \yq´s‚ IWkn≤m¥w sX‰msW∂v,
AXn¬ hnizkn®h¿ Xs∂ am‰nsbgptX≠nh∂p. kvs]Ivt{SmkvtIm∏n,
\£{XßfpsS kvs]Iv{S F∂nh hnIkzcambn h∂p. ssat°¬ ^m
ctU tUhnbpsS AknÂmbncp-∂p. AKv\n]¿ΔX{]tZißfpsS sI
ankv{Sn ]Tn°m\p≈ AhcpsS bm{Xbn¬ teUn tUhnbpw IqsSbp≠m
bXv ^mctUbv°v {]iv\amb IY kckamWv. teUn tUhnbpsS bP
am\Øn/Iqen°mc≥ `mhwsIm≠v ]et∏mgpw tPmen Dt]£n®p t]m
Im≥ hsc ^mctU°p tXm∂n. F∂mepw At±lw ]nSn®p\n∂p. Ce
Ivt{Sm amKv\‰nIv i‡nbnemWv ^mctU {i≤sh®Xv. {]Imisa∂Xn
s\ i‡nbpsS sshZypX tcJIfpsS Iº\w (Vibration of electric line
of force) F∂t±lw hnfn®p. AXns\ hym]n∏n°m≥ ‘CuY¿’ F∂
Hcp km¶ev]nI Pew Bhiyan√ F∂p h∂p. Cu Iº\sØ
‘Radiation’ ({]kcw) F∂p hnfn°bpw AXv IW߃, {Zhyw F∂nh
sb _‘n∏n°p∂p F∂p Is≠ØpIbpw sNbvXp. tUmπ¿ C^IvSv
]Tn® ^nkntbm, s^m°mƒ´v F∂nh¿ {]ImithKX Af°m≥ XpS
ßn. 1862 ¬ 298005 km/sec F∂v IW°m°s∏´p. CXv C∂sØ 299,792.5
km/sec t\°mƒ 1 % hyXymkta D≈p. CXv amIvkvsh¬ kn≤m¥Øn
s‚ apt∂mSnbmbn.
FUn≥_tdmbn¬ P\n® amIvkvsh√n\v 8 hb n¬ AΩ \jvS
s∏´p. A—≥ aI\pambn \√ am\knI _‘w ]pe¿ØpIbpw Adnbm
91

{]Imikn‘p

\p≈ Pn⁄mk hf¿ØpIbpw sNbvXp. Ip´n°meØv amIvkvsh¬
kz¥w DSp∏pw jqkpw Unssk≥ sNbvXv D≠m°nbncp∂p. A{X ^mj
\p≈hbs√¶nepw AtX [cn°q. 16 mw hb n¬ FUn≥_tdm A°m
Zanbn¬ tN¿∂t∏mƒ Cu thjhpw, {KmaoWamb D®mcWssienbpw
I≠v kXo¿∞y¿ C´ t]cv ‘Dafty’ F∂mbncp∂p. amIvkvsh√ns‚
CeIvt{SmamKv\‰nI ]T\w, Colour vision ]T\w F∂nh C∂v \mw D]
tbmKn°p∂ If¿ Sn.hn/Iºyq´¿ tamWn‰dpIƒ, If¿ C¶vsP‰v {]n‚¿
F∂nhbv°v B[mcambn. i\nbpsS dnßpIƒ AkwJyw sNdnb IW
߃ (monolets) BsW∂pw Hmtcm∂n\pw Xs‚ I£ybps≠∂pw am
Ivkvsh¬ I≠p. Cßs\ ssI\‰nIv Xnbdnsb ]Tn°m≥ XpSßn. 20
mw \q‰m≠n¬ amIvkvsh√ns‚ sSIv\n°psh®v (3 Colour photographic
technique + sending image by radiowaves) BWv kvt]kv t{]m_pIƒ
i\nbpsS dnßpIfpsS t^mt´m Ab®Xv. amIvkvsh¬ FgpXnbXn¬
sh®v G‰hpw {][m\amb hcn F∂v Ncn{XImc∑m¿ D≤cn°p∂Xv:“a\pjy¿ hyXykvX a\ÿnXn°mcmWv. AXn\m¬ imkv{X kXy߃
hyXykvX cq]Øn¬ AhXcn∏n°s∏SWw. ÿqecq]hpw \nch[n h¿
Æßfpap≈ Hcp physical illustration Bbmepw icn, kq-£vahpw Ahy
‡hpamb Hcp knwt_mfnIv {]Imi\ambmepw icn, c≠nt\bpw Xpey
coXnbn¬ imkv{XobambnØs∂ IW°m°Ww.”
ÿqeNn{Xßtf°mƒ kXyw kq£vahpw AZriyhpamb, KWnX
knw_epIfm¬ {]Xn]mZn°s∏Smhp∂ ]camWp°fmWv. \macq]m
flI {]]©tØ°mƒ AXn\∏pdap≈ AZriyi‡nbnemWv ]ctam¿
÷w. CXv B[p\nI imkv{Xw sXfnbn®psIm≠ncn°bmWv. \yq´s‚
IW kn≤m¥hpw sX‰msW∂v ]dbpIhø- {]Imiw Nnet∏mƒ IW
ambpw Nnet∏mƒ \mZXcwKambpw A\p`hs∏Sp∂p F∂XmWv icn13 _n√y≥ h¿jw apºv Hcp kvt^mS\Øn¬ \n∂v {]]©ap≠mbn
F∂ hnizmkhpw, C¥ybnse \yqU¬lnbn¬ Km‘nbpsS ihIpSoc
amb cmPvL´v D≠v F∂ hnizmkhpw H∂√. cmPvL´v t]mse sN∂p
I≠v sXm´v Xo¿∏pIev]n°mhp∂ H∂√ Big bang. Cu {]tXyIX ¢m
kn°¬ imkv{XØn¬ \n∂v, Bt]£nIXm imkv{XsØbpw Izm≠w
kn≤m¥sØbpw Adnbptºmƒ imkv{X hnZym¿∞n Adnt™ Xocq.
tamUepIƒ \sΩ Adnbm≥ klmbn°p∂p. ]s£ Ah ]q¿Æ kXy
a√. ]q¿Æ kXyw KWnX kahmIyØneqsS am{Xw {Kln°mw. amIvkv
sh¬ kahmIyw CXmWv sNøp∂Xv. {]Imiw Hcp sshZypX Im¥nI
92

{]Imikn‘p

i‡nbpsS Iº\amsW∂pw {]]©w Hcp sshZypX Im¥nI afieam
sW∂pw Cßs\ \ap°v sXfnbn°m\mhp∂p. hyXykvX i‡nIsfsb
√mw H∂ns‚ hyXykvX `mhßfmbdn™v AXns\ ‘]cmi‡n’ F∂p
hnfn°p∂ C¥y≥ X{¥Øns‚ (X{¥w= methodology) Du¿÷w, \mZ
_nμp kvt^mSw, cminafiew, KWnX]cambpw tPymXnimkv{X]cam
bpw Cu \nKa\Øn¬ C¥y FØnt®¿∂ hgn F∂nh bqtdm]ycpsS
Cu am\knI hf¿®bn¬ (16-20 \q‰m≠phscbp≈ 400 sIm√sØ
imkv{X hf¿®bn¬) ImWmw. `qan°v CsXmcp ]pXnb A\p`ha√.
F{Xtbm XhW D≠mb A\p`hamWv. A{Xtbsd a\pjyhwi߃
ChnsS D≠mbn a¨ad™pt]mbn´p≠v.
amIvkvsh¬ kn≤m¥ßƒ hncn®n´ Nph∂ ]chXm\nbneqsSbm
Wv sF≥ssÃ≥ imkv{XtKm]pcØns‚ ⁄m\]oTØntednbXv. am
Ivkvsh√ns‚ ÿnckwJy (C) {]ImithKXbmWv. \nco£I≥ {]Im
iØn\\pkcn®v Nenbv°p∂Xp KWnbv°m≥ B kahmIyØn¬ km
≤yXbn√. F√m \nco£Icpw Htc {]Imi thKXbmWv KWn°p∂Xv.
CXv icnbmhm≥ hø. \yq´s‚ Ne\ \nba߃°p hncp≤amWXv.
GsX¶nepsam∂t√ icnbmhq. sF≥sÃ≥ amIvks
v h¬ ]d™Xp icn
sb∂pw \yq´¨ ]d™Xp sXs‰∂pw k¶ev]n®psIm≠v (suppose)
Bcw`n®p. ssat°¬k¨-tam¿en ]co£W {]Imcw {]Imi thKX
F√m Znibnepw H∂mWv. ssat°¬k¨ {]ImithKX 299,796 ± 4
Km/s BsW∂p I≠p. (modern 299792.458 Km/s. diff= .458 to 8.458 km/s
hsc)
tPm¿÷v ^n‰vkv sPdmƒUv Cu \nco£WsØ hn]peam°n td
Untbm XcwKßsf ]Tn®p (sl¿´vkn\papºv). ^n‰vkv sPdmƒUns‚
Bibw Dƒs°m≠v 1904 ¬ sl‚nIv temd≥kv Xs‚ kahmIy߃
D≠m°n. temd≥kv-^n‰vkv sPdmƒUv kt¶mNw F∂ t]cn¬ CXv
Adnbp∂p. sF≥ssÃ\v ls \v _nμp CSm\pw t °v Cross CSm\pta C\n
_m°nbp≈p F∂p tXm∂mw. ]s£ sshZypX i‡nbp≈ At\Iw
B‰ßfp≈ Hcp afieØn¬ Ahsb√mw hfsc ASpØphcnI, Ah
bpsS Ne\hpw BI¿jWhpw IqSpI F∂Xv (contraction) A{X Ffp
∏w hniZoIcn°mhX√. amIvks
v h√ns‚ kahmIyØn¬ {]Imi thKX
ÿncamWv. ImeØns‚ kt¶mN hnImkw (ANe\mb \nco£I≥
Af°p∂Xn\\pkrXambn), Nen°p∂ hkvXphns‚ ]nfiØns‚ hn
Imkw F∂nh ]cnKWnt°≠Xp≠v. sF≥ssÃ≥ Hcp hkvXphpw
93

{]Imikn‘p

AXv {]Imi thKXtb°mƒ Ipd™ thKXbn¬ Nen°p∂ ]£w,
{]Imi thKXtb°mƒ thKØn¬ Nen∏n°mhX√ F∂v I≠p ({]Im
ithKXbn¬ AØcsamcp hkvXp A\¥amIpw. AXns\ IqSpX¬
thKw Nen∏n°m≥ A\¥w Cu¿÷w thWw). ]nfiw KXobXsb
B{ibn®ncn°p∂XmWv. AXn\m¬ KXobXbpw ]nfihpw Hcp hi
Øpw Du¿÷w adphiØpambn _me≥kp sNøp∂ kahmIyØn¬
F√m {Zhyhpw AXns‚ KXobXbpw Du¿÷w Xs∂bmWv KXn,
]nfiw, F∂nhbp≈ ‘i‡n’bmb {]]©hpw AXns‚ kq£vtam¿÷
amb {_lvahpw F∂ k¶ev]w Aßs\ kahmIy cq]Øn¬ sF≥
ssÃ≥ H∂m°n.
E=mc2 {]]©Øns‚ {ZhysØ apgph≥ Du¿÷ambnØs∂
I≠p. an≥kvIukv°n KWnX kahmIyw IqSmsX, NXp¿Ωm\ap≈
PymanXnsb ({Xnam\ tZiw + Imew) am{Xw sh®pw ImetZi ss\c¥
cyw ka¿∞n®p. kq£vaambpw, KWnXkahmIyØmepw, ÿqe{]]©
PymanXnbmepw F√mw sXfnbn°s∏´v HcssZzXw B[p\nI imkv{X
Øn¬ DcpØncn™ph∂p.

94

{]Imikn‘p

6. h≥IcIfpsS ÿew am‰w
tdUntbm BIvSnhn‰nbn¬ \n∂v Bt]£nIXm kn≤m¥hpw Izm
≠w ^nknIvkpw D≠mbn. ]nfiw AYhm mass Du¿÷w AYhm
Energy bmbn amdp∂ {]{InbbmWv \£{Xßsf “{]Imiw” sNmcnbp
∂hbm°n \n¬°p∂sX∂v Ch imkv{XsØ t_m≤ys∏SpØn.
GXp imkv{XØnepw hyXykvXm`n{]mbap≈ hy‡nIfpsS ]co
£W߃, Z¿i\߃ F∂nh XΩn¬ AXmXpImeØv Nne Bib
߃°v ap≥Xq°w In´pw- a‰p NneXv hnkvacn°s∏Spw. Imet∏m°n¬
hnkvacn®hsb ]pXnsbmcmƒ ]p\cp÷ohn∏n°pw. N¿®Iƒ ho≠pw
Bcw`n°pw. kt¶mNn°pI, F∂ ]pXnb Bibw (Contraction) bqtdm
∏n¬ Hcp “Catastrophism” amXrIbnemWv kzoIcnbv°s∏´Xv. FtUzUv
kpshkv (Suess 1831-1914) Bkvt{Senb, C¥y, B{^n° F∂nh Hcn
°¬ H∂n®v Hcp henb h≥Ic (C¥ybnse sKmμzm\mem‚ v F∂v
t]cn´p) bmbn sX°≥ A¿≤tKmfØnembncp∂p F∂pw `qanbpsS
XWpØpdb¬ sIm≠v ]¿ΔXßfp≠msb∂pw ]d™p. 1200 In.ao.
`q{]XesØ 150 In.ao. \ofap≈ B¬]vkv B°n am‰m≥ 1200C XWp
∏pthWw. AXnepw IqSpX¬ XWp∏pthWw lnamebhpw tdm°nbpw
B≥Uokpw D≠mhm≥. c≠pImcyw sIm≠v kpsh ns‚ Xnbdn {it≤
bambn.
1) 20 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ BZyw hsc bqtdm]y¿°v `qanbpsS Ncn{XØn
\v Hcp Ãm≥tU¿Uv tamU¬ D≠mbncp∂n√.
2) sKmμzm\ AYhm tKm≠ph\w (IºcmambWØnse sIm∂
h\w) F∂ t]cv G‰hpw {]mNo\amb Icbv°v kpsshkv sImSpØp.
CXv ]n∂oSv h≥IcIfpsS drift kn≤m¥Øn¬ XpS¿∂p- 50 h¿jw ap
ºmWv Continental drift ÿncoIcn°s∏´Xv.
`qanbnse h≥IcIƒ Im¥i‡nbp≈ ASnØdtaemsW∂pw,
Ah Im¥nI Hgp°pIfm¬ hSt°m´p \oßpIbmsW∂pw, `qan BZyw
95

{]Imikn‘p

sNdpXpw sS{Smsl{U≥ BIrXnbp≈Xpambncps∂∂pw, h≥IcIƒ
Hcp Catastrophic hnImkØn¬ th¿s]´t∏mƒ saUn‰td\nb≥ `mK
Øp\n∂v ]pdwX≈s∏´ IjvWamWv N{μ\mbsX∂psams° A`n{]m
bap≠mbn. Um¿hns‚ ]pkvXIw hcp∂Xn\v Hcph¿jw apºv 1858 ¬
Bt‚mWntbm s]√{Kn\n F∂ Atacn°°mc≥ ss__nfns\ Bkv]
Zam°n Hcp tamU¬ sIm≠ph∂p. N{μs\°pdn®v tPm¿÷v Um¿hns‚
(Nmƒkv Um¿hns‚ aI≥) ]d™Xv Hmkva≠v kzoIcn®p. C∂sØ
im¥kap{Zw N{μ≥ th¿s]´pt]mbn `qanbnep≠mb K¿ØamsW∂pw
Aßs\bmWv h≥IcIƒ th¿s]´sX∂pw IcpXn. 1912 ¬ B¬{^Uv
shK\dpsS Continental drift kn≤m¥w h∂p. 1910 ¬ kplrØmb am¿
_¿§v D≠m°nb `q]SØn¬ sXt° Atacn°bpsS Ing°≥ Xochpw
B{^n°bpsS ]Sn™md≥ Xochpw PnKvtkm]kn¬ t]mse tNcpsa∂
t±lw I≠p. 1911 ¬ {_koenepw B{^n°bnepap≈ ]menbt‚mfPn
°¬ kmayw N¿®sNøp∂ Hcp dnt∏m¿´t±lw hmbn®p. Cu c≠p h≥
IcIfpw Hcp ]mewsIm≠v (laud bridge) ]≠v tbmPn®ncp∂ncn°msa
∂mWv dnt∏m¿´n¬ I≠Xv. Aßs\b√, Ah IrXyambn ]ckv]cw
tbmPn®ncn°bmbncp∂p F∂ Bibw shKv\¿°p≠mbn. 1915 ¬ The
origin of Continents and Oceans {]kn≤oIcn®p. 94 t]Pp≈ B ]pkvX
Iw H∂mw temIalmbp≤Ønc°n¬ {i≤n°s∏SmsX t]mbn. 1920
epw 22 epw ]pXnb FUnj\pIƒ h∂p. 1924 ¬ Bkv{Snbbnse {Kmkv
bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ Metereology s{]m^kdmbn. 1930 ¬ {Ko≥em‚n¬
t]mb At±lhpw kplrØpw \hw_¿ H∂n\v (At±lØns‚ 50 mw
P∑Zn\w) ImWmXmbn. ASpØ hk¥ØnemWv {Ko≥em‚nse lna
inJcØn¬ At±lØns‚ icocw I≠pIn´nbXv. …o∏nßv _mKn\I
Ømbncp∂p icocw. kplrØns‚ icocw In´nbn√. tdUntbm BIvSohv
Uot° sIm≠v `qanbpsS {]mbw Af°p∂Xn¬ Xev]c\mbncp∂ B¿
X¿ tlmwkv (1890-1965) 1944 ¬ Principles of Physical geology {]kn≤o
Icn®p. shKv\¿°p ]‰nb ]nghpIƒ Nq≠n°m´ns°m≠v, At±lw tIm
≠ns\‚¬ {Un^vSn\p≈ sXfnhpIƒ \ncØn. h≥IcIƒ ]ckv]cw
th¿s]´Xv ‘Convection’ sIm≠msW∂v tlmwkv IcpXn.
`qanbpsS Im¥nIafiew 1940 hsc bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X⁄¿°v
Hcp a\ nem°m≥ IgnbmØ puzzle Bbncp∂p. hmƒ´¿ FemU¿
(1904-1991) `qanbpsS Im¥nIi‡n `qK¿ØØnep≈ Hcp {]IrXnZØ
amb (B¥c) ssU\mtam sIm≠msW∂v ka¿∞n®p. 1946 ¬ c≠mw
96

{]Imikn‘p

temIalmbp≤w Ign™ DSs\bmWv CXv {]kn≤oIcn®Xv. {_n´ojv
Pntbm ^nknÃv FtUzUv _p≈m¿Uv (1907-1980) `qanbpsS B¥c `m
KØv Dcp°nb Ccpºp Np´p]gpØXmsW∂pw B {ZmhIw Np‰n°dßn
D≠m°p∂ Convection BWv F∂pw ]d™p. 1950 Ifn¬ U.K. \mj
W¬ ^nkn°¬ em_d´dn, e≠\n¬ At±lw Cu ‘ssU\mtam’ {]{In
bbpsS BZysØ kwJymtamU¬ D≠m°m≥ BZysØ CeIvt{SmWn
°v Iºyq´¿ D]tbmKs∏SpØn. At∏mtg°pw, t^mkn¬ Im¥nI
i‡nbpsS ]T\߃ `qanbpsS Im¥nIafieØn\pw, `qanbnse ]¿
ΔX߃°pw Htc ZnibmWv (orientation) Ign™ Hcpe£w h¿jam
bn´v F∂v Is≠Øn°gn™ncp∂p. AKv\n]¿ΔXØnse hn≈epIfn¬
\n∂pw `q{]XeØnep≠mhp∂ hn≈epIfn¬ \n∂pw Hen® emh (Im
¥nI i‡nbp≈Xv) Xs∂bmWv ]¿ΔXßfmbn “magnetised” Bbn
Øocp∂Xv. Hcn°¬ D≠mbn°gn™m¬ Ah¿ B Im¥nI afiew
\jvSs∏SmsX ÿncamb “_m¿ amKv\‰v” t]mse \n¬°p∂p. F∂m¬
{_n´ojnse hnhn[ dnk¿®v {Kq∏pIƒ G‰hpw ]gb ]¿ΔX \ncIfnse
t^mkn¬ amKv\‰nkw C∂sØ PntbmamKv\‰nIv afieØn¬ \n∂v
hyXykvXamsW∂pw CXv, H∂pIn¬ afietam As√¶n¬ ]¿ΔXtam
{ZmhIw {Zhyamb tijw ÿm\w amdnbn´p≠mhWsa∂Xns‚ sXfnhm
bn Ah¿ Nq≠n°m´n. tZth{μ≥ NndIpsh´pw apºv ]¿ΔX߃ CjvSw
t]mse ÿew amdnbncp∂p F∂ ]gb Adnhv Hcn°¬°qSn ]p\cp÷o
hn°p∂ t]msebmbncp∂p Cu I≠p]nSpØw. cmambWØn¬ ssa
\mI ]¿ΔXw l\pamt\mSv Cßs\ H∂p]dbp∂Xv C¥y°mcpsS
]gb PntbmfPn°¬ {]Xn`mkw t\cn´pI≠ A\p`hØn¬ \n∂p≠m
bXmWv. C¥y Hcp ]gb P\XbmIbm¬ AXv `qanbpsS B¿°nssS
∏¬ Hm¿ΩbmWv. Cw•≠n¬ B Hm¿Ω°v imkv{Xobamb Hcp sXfnhp
In´n. am{Xa√, `qanbpsS Im¥nIafiew AXns‚ PntbmamKv\‰nIv
`qXImeØn¬ ]et∏mgpw Z£nW, DØc {[phßfpsS ÿm\w ]e
t∏mgpw am‰nbn´ps≠∂Xn\pw Ah¿°p sXfnhp In´n. CXpw C¥y≥
tPymXnimkv{XØnse Hcp {][m\ ‘hnjb’amWs√m! Cu ]mentbm
amKv\‰nIv sXfnhpIƒ 1960 Ifn¬ h≥IcIfpsS drift F∂ hnjbsØ
hensbmcp N¿®mhnjbam°n. ]¿ΔXßfpsS Im¥nIZni, {]tXyI
Imeßfnse `qanbpsS `qXIme Ncn{XØns‚ en]ntcJ (lines of print)
bmsW∂pw AXvsh®v XmcXays∏SpØptºmƒ shKv\dpsS kn≤m¥hp
ambn IrXyambn HØpt]mIp∂p F∂pw I≠p. CsXms° Icbn¬!
BZysØ temIbp≤w hsc ISens‚ ASnØ´ns\∏‰n ]mivNmXy im
97

{]Imikn‘p

kv{Xw BtemNn®n√. apßn°∏¬ h∂t∏mgmWv ISens‚ ASnØ´v
apgph≥ ]Tn®v map sNbvXv apßn°∏ens‚ HfnØmhfw I≠p]nSn
t°≠ Bhiyw h∂Xv. 1930 Ifn¬ Bcw`n® ]T\w A‰vem‚n°ns‚
\Sphnepw sN¶Sens‚ \Sphnepw \s´√pt]mse \ofØn¬ ISens‚
ASnØ´v Db¿∂p \n¬°p∂Xp I≠p. 1941 ¬ Atacn°bn¬ kv{In∏v
C≥Ãn‰yq´v Hm^v Hmjymt\m{K^nbv° 26 DtZymKÿcpw Hcp sNdnb
I∏epw e£w tUmf¿ ^≠pamWp≈Xv. 1948 ¬ AXv 4 I∏epw 260
DtZymKÿcpw ]Øpe£w tUmfdpambn. ISens‚ ASnØ´mWv `q{]
XeØnse G‰hpw ]pcmX\amb `mKsa∂v Cu dnk¿®v I≠p]nSn®p.
5-10 Intemao‰¿ L\Øn¬ Hcp D]cnXe skUnsa‚ v, AXn\p Xmsg
10 Intemao‰¿ L\Øn¬ `qanbpsS Crust F∂mWv hnNmcn®ncp∂Xv.
F∂m¬ kmºnƒ ]cntim[n®t∏mƒ hnNmcn®sXms° sX‰v. t\¿Ø
Hcp skUnsa‚ v seb¿- AXpw h≥IcIƒ°p hfsc ASpØpam{Xw.
ISeSnbnse ]¿ΔXßsf√mw G‰hpw ]pXnbhbmWv. G‰hpw ]pXnbh
ISens‚ Ridges \v ASpØmWv. AhnsS AKv\n]¿ΔX {]h¿Ø\߃
`q{]XeØn¬ hn≈¬tcJIƒ D≠m°p∂p≠v. Nne ]¿ΔX߃ Dcp
°nb amKva {Zhyambn Dd® DSs\bp≈ G‰hpw ]pXnbhbmWv. kokv
anIv k¿sΔ {]Imcw 5-7 In.ao. am{Xsa `qanbpsS Crust D≈p (Icbn¬
34 In.ao. icmicn. NnebnSØv 80-90 In.ao. hsc I\ap≠v). 1960 ¬ lm
cn sl v (1906-1969) CXns\ “ISens‚ ASnØ´n¬ hym]\”ambn hniZo
Icn®p (“Sea-floor spreading”). Cu tamUe\pkcn®v Mantle ({Zhcq]w)
Xmsg \n∂v apIfntebv°v Dbcptºmgp≈ Convection current sIm≠v
Bgnbn¬ ridges D≠mbn. Mantle bYm¿∞ {Zha√ NqSp≈ •mkv t]mse
bmWv. ISense AKv\n]¿ΔX {]h¿Ø\ØmemWv CXp ]pdtØ°p
hcp∂Xv. dnUvPns‚ CcphiØpw ]c°p∂ CXv, h≥IcIsf ]Xps-°
CcphitØbv°pw AI‰p∂p. ]gb ]¿ΔX߃ (100 an√y≥ h¿jw
apºv) dnUvPn¬ \n∂Isebpw, C∂se D≠mb ]pXnbXv dnUvPns‚
sXm´pamWv. Cu {]{Inbbm¬ h¿jØn¬ 2 sk.ao. IW°n¬ A‰vem
‚nIv kap{Zw hnkvXrXambn hcnIbmWv (tlmwkv hnNmcn®Xns‚ ]Ip
Xn thKXbn¬). tlmwkn\v Biba√msX sXfnhn√mbncp∂p. slÕn
\v IrXyambn Af∂ sXfnhpw IW°pap≠mbncp∂p. tlmwkv ISen
s‚ ASnØ´ns\ Imcyam°msX, Icsb am{XamWv IW°m°nbXv.
slÕv ISens‚ ASnØ´ns‚ ]T\w sIm≠v IcbpsS am‰sØ a\ n
em°n.
98

{]Imikn‘p

I¨sh£≥ Id‚ v NnebnSØv Dbcp∂p, NnebnSØv Xmgp∂p.
im¥kap{ZØns‚ ]Sn™msd A‰Øv t\¿Ø Hcp {IÃv, IqSpX¬
I´nbp≈ h≥IcbpsS {IÃns‚ XmgtØ°v ]Xps° \oßn, Xmsg
bp≈ am‚nente°v AhtcmlWw sNøp∂p≠v. ISense Bgap≈
s{S©pIƒ, `qanIpep°hpw AKv\n]¿ΔXhap≈ ÿe߃ (DZm:P∏m≥) CØcw sSIvtSmWn°v tπ‰v {]h¿Ø\Ømep≈ seafloor
spreading sIm≠mWv. (sSIvtSmWn°v F∂Xv {Ko°p]ZamWv. AXn∂¿
∞w Builder, F∂mWv. sSIvtSmWn°v {]h¿Ø\sa∂m¬ \n¿ΩmW
{]h¿Ø\w). A‰vem‚nIv hnimeambn hcptºmƒ im¥kap{Zw Npcp
ßpIbmWv. CXv Cßs\ XpS¿∂m¬ Atacn°bpw Gjybpw Hcp Im
eØv Hscm‰ henb h≥IcbmbnØocpw. sN¶Sense {]h¿Ø\Øm¬
`qanbpsS {IÃv ]nf¿∂v Atd_nbbn¬ \n∂v B{^n° th¿s]SpIbpw
Ingt°m´p \oßpIbpw sNøpw. At∏mƒ ]≠p≠mbncp∂t]mse
B{^n°bpw C¥ybpw GjybmsIbpw Atacn°bpw IqSnb “]m
©nb” ho≠pw D≠mhpw (C¥y≥ ]pcmtWXnlmk {]Imcw At\I
bpK, a\z¥c, Iev]ImeØv CXv Bh¿Øn®n´p≠v). A‰vem‚n°ns‚
hf¿® Atacn°sb ]Sn™m´p\o°n, AhnsS \qtdmfw an√y≥ h¿jw
apºv D≠mbncp∂ hnimeamb ]kn^n°v t_kn\nte°v D¥nbn´mWv
Iment^m¿Ænbbnse k≥ B≥{Unbmkv t^mƒ´v D≠mbXv. AhnsS
`qanbpsS s{IÃv sIm√Øn¬ GXm\pw sk‚nao‰¿ hoXw ]ckv]cw
Dckn \oßp∂p. CsX√mw `qan F°meØpw Htc tPym{K^n°¬ cq]
ambncp∂n√ F∂p ImWn°p∂p. G‰hpw \√ D]a ISens‚ ASnØ´p
hym]\w hfsc ]Xps° \oßp∂ Hcp I¨thb¿ s_¬´v t]msebm
sW∂XmWv. A\¥ambn AtX Np‰ns°mt≠ Ccn°p∂p. F√mw am
dp∂pImew amdnhcpw Im‰n≥ KXn amdpw
IS¬ h‰n IcbmIpw IcbnXp ISemIpw
IYbnXp XpS¿∂phcpw.
]s£, amdmØ Hcp IW°p≠v. `qan F∂ {KlØns‚ hen∏w,
AXv kqcys\ Np‰p∂ thKw, {`aW]Yw! tPymXnimkv{Xw!! 1962 ¬
tIw{_nUvPn¬ slÕns‚ {]`mjWw tI´ Um≥ sa°≥kn, s{^U
dn°v ssh≥, {UΩ≠v amXyqkv F∂nh¿ PntbmamKv\‰n°v dnthgvkep
Isfbpw, ISens‚ ASnØ´nse hym]\sØbpw _‘s∏SpØn. hm≥
Iqhdn\SpØv hS°pIng°≥ im¥kap{ZØn¬ Pphm≥ Un^p° dnUv
99

{]Imikn‘p

Pn\SpØmWv BZyw amKv\t‰m ao‰¿ sh®v ISens‚ Im¥i‡n k¿tΔ
sNøs∏´Xv. ]ns∂ ]ebnSØpw sNbvXp. ISense ASnbn¬ ]mdIfn
se Im¥i‡n {]hmlw hS°psX°v Znibn¬ hchcbmbn (strips)
´mWv. Hcp hc C∂sØ PntbmamKv\‰n°v afieØns‚ Znisb¶n¬
sXm´SpØXv hn]coX Znibn¬. CXn¬ H∂v Idp∏pw H∂pw shfp∏p
ambn hc®m¬ GXm≠v Hcp ‘_m¿tImUv’ (Bar code) ssien! CXv IS
ens‚ ASnØ´ns‚ hnImk {]{Inb sIm≠mWv F∂v ssh\pw amXyq
kpw ]d™p. AXmbXv, BZyw D≠mhptºmƒ ISens‚ dnUvPn\Sp
sØ Dcp°nb am‚nens‚ Im¥nIX `qanbpsS Im¥nI afiew t]mse
bmWv. `qanbpsS Im¥nIafiew CSbv°nsS ZniamdpIbm¬,
1) amKv\‰nIv kvss{S∏pIƒ, PntbmamKv\‰nIv dnthgvkepIfmbn
HØpt\m°mhp∂hbmWv.
2) slÕv ]d™t]mse dnUvPn\ncphihpw Im¥nIX Xpeyambn
hym]n°p∂psh¶n¬ Im¥nIXbpsS ]mt‰¨ Hcp hiw adphiØns‚
IÆmSn {]Xn_nw_w t]msebmhWw.
slÕnt\mSpw It\Unb≥ Sptkm hn¬ktWmSpw tN¿∂v ssh≥
Cu BibØn¬ IqSpX¬ KthjWw \SØn- A‰vem‚n°nse a≤y
Ønep≈ dnUvPv XpS¿®b√, CSbv°nsS sNdnb dnUvPpIƒ BsW
∂pw, Ch ]et∏mgmbn Iptds» ]m¿izØnte°v BtZiw sNøs∏´ncn
°msa∂pw, H‰ I¨thb¿ s_¬´√, At\Iw I¨thb¿ s_¬´pIƒ
ASpØSpØp InS°pIbmsW∂pw hn¬k¨ IcpXn. `qanbpsS {IÃn
s‚ ÿnc`mKØn\v tπ‰v F∂ t]cp sImSpØXt±lamWv. Seafloor
spreading, h≥IcIfpsS drift F∂nhbm¬ Cu tπ‰v \oßp∂p. 1965 ¬
Ing°≥ ]kn^n°v dnUvPn¬ \SØnb k¿tΔbn¬ AhnSsØ kvss{S
∏pIƒ°v Juan de Fuca Ridge kvss{S∏pItfmSv kmZriyhpw Ah IÆm
Sn {]Xn_nw_w t]msebmsW∂pw I≠p.
_p≈m¿Uv 1964 ¬ tdmb¬ skmssk‰n \SØnb skan\mdn¬
]m©nbbpsS “PnKvtkm]kn¬” ]p\¿ \n¿ΩmWw hfsc H_vPIvSohm
bn, Hcp tKmf{]XeØn¬ Nen°p∂ hkvXp°ƒ°p≈ KWnX \nba
{]Imcw (bqf¿ Xnbdw), CeIvt{SmWnIv Iºyq´¿ hgn \SØn- AXv
IrXyambn shKv\¿ ]d™ t]mencp∂p. CXn\v “_p≈mUv^n‰v” F∂p
]dbp∂p. Um≥ sa°≥knbpw tdm_¿´v ]m¿°dpw 1967 ¬ Cu “tπ‰v
sSIvtSmWnIvk”v sIm≠v ]kn^n°v tπ‰ns‚ Ne\w bqf¿ Xnbd {]Im
cw ]q¿Æambn hnhcn®p. `qIºan√mØ ÿe߃ Aßs\ Ccn°p
100

{]Imikn‘p

∂Xv Ah 6 henb tπ‰pw Hcp Uk≥ sNdnb tπ‰pw tN¿∂v `q{]Xe
sØ s]mXn™ dnPnUv (ÿnc) tπ‰pIfmIbmemWv. tπ‰pIfpsS AXn
¿Øn AYhm A‰ØmWv G‰hptasd PntbmfPn°¬ {]h¿Ø\w \S
°p∂Xv. AXn¿Ønbn¬ \n¿ΩmWhpw kwlmchpw \S°pw. \n¿ΩmWw
AYhm krjvSn ISens‚ dnUvPpIƒ°SpØv ]pXnb IS¬ {IÃv Ccp
hitØ°pw HgpIp∂nSØmWv. kwlmcw Hcp tπ‰v ass‰m∂n\nSbnte
°v 45° bn¬ BtcmlWw sNbvXv amKvabnte°pw {]thin°p∂nSØpw!
CXp c≠pw \S°msX, tπ‰pIƒ ]ckv]cw ]m¿izØnte°v Dckn
Idßp∂ Conservative am¿Pn\pIfpap≠v (DZm: k≥ B≥{Unbmkv ^m
ƒ´v). ]g°ap≈ ]¿ΔXßfpw, ]gb ISeSnØ´pw h≥IcbpsS lrZb
`mKØv ImWp∂Xn\¿∞w sSIvtSmWn°v {]h¿Ø\w ]m©nb h≥
IcIfmbn Xncnbp∂Xn\paptº Ds≠∂pw, CØcw tN¿∂ h≥IcIƒ
]eh´w thdnSpIbpw tbmPn°bpw sNbvXn´ps≠∂pamWv. `qanbpsS
B¥c`mKw hfsc N©eamWv. AXpsIm≠v CXn\nbpw Bh¿Øn
°pw.
1970 ¬ `qanbv°pw AXns‚ PohPme߃°pw t•m_¬ ]cnÿnXn
°pap≈ _‘w a\ nem°m≥ Cu Adnhv a\pjys\ klmbn®p.
B¬{^Uv hmekns‚ ImeØv aembv B¿®ns∏emtKmbn¬ hS°p
]Sn™mdpw sX°pIng°pw D≈ PohPmeßfn¬ {]ISamb hyXymkw
At±lw I≠p. Gjybv°pw Bkvt{Senbbv°pw CS°v \ndsb Zzo]p
IfmWv. t_m¿Æntbm, \yqKn\n apXemb henb Zzo]papX¬ sNdnb
]md hscbp≠v. ChnsS c≠pZnibnepw P¥p°ƒ°v k©cn°m≥ Hcp
XS hpan√. ]s£ t_m¿Æntbm°pw \yqKn\nb°panS°v sX°p ]Sn
™mdp\n∂v hS°pIngt°m´v Hcp tcJ hc®m¬ B tcJbpsS hS°p
]Sn™mdv D≈ arK߃ Gjy\pw, sX°pIng°v Bkvt{Senb\pw,
CSbn¬ (transition zone) c≠pw tN¿∂XpamWv. CXv tπ‰v sSIvtSmWn
Ivkp sIm≠v C∂v hniZoIcn°mw. sKmμzm\m em‚ns‚ sXt° `mKw
th¿s]Sptºmƒ C¥y (Ct¥m-Gjy≥ `mKw) hS°p ]Sn™m´p \oßn.
Bkvt{Senb-A‚m¿´n° Xmsgbmbn. AXn\m¬ Cu c≠nSØpw hyXy
kvX coXnbnep≈ P¥ph¿§w (Imemhÿ hyXymkamIbm¬) D≠m
bnh∂p. ASpØ sSIvtWmWnIv th¿s]Sen¬ Bkvt{Senb-\yqKn\nb
A‚m¿´n°bn¬ \n∂pw th¿s]´v hSt°m´p \oßn GjybpsS ASptØ
°v FØn. Ch XΩn¬ ASpØn´v A[nI Imeambn√. AXn\m¬ “hme
kvtcJ” bv°∏pdw IS∂v ]ckv]cw P¥p°ƒ h¿Æk¶cw D≠m°n
bn´n√. 1924 ¬ Xs∂ shKv\¿ CXv kqNn∏n®n´p≠v (hmekv acn®v 11
101

{]Imikn‘p

h¿jw Ign™v). ]s£ AXv \nivNbambn sXfnbn°s∏´Xv Ct∏m
gmWv.
t•knbdpIƒ, sh≈s∏m°w, {]fbw, lnabpKw F∂nhsb°pdn®v
]pcmX\ Imew apX¬ C∂phsc At\Iw t]¿ hnNmcn°bpw, (A\p`
hn°bpw) FgpXpIbpw sNbvXn´p≠v. `q{`aW]Yw “Ellipse” BIbm¬
h¿jØn¬ NneImew AXv kqcyt\mSSp°pw, NneImew AIepw. `qan
bpsS A£Øn\v 23 1/2 Un{Kn sNcnhp≠v. Cu sNcnhv Xmcmafie
Øn¬ Htc Znibn¬ ({[phw) Xncn™ncn°pw. EXp°fpsS ImcWw
AXmWv.
Pqsse 4: kqcy\n¬ \nt∂‰hpw AIse (anYp\w 20/21)
P\phcn 3: kqcy\n¬ \nt∂‰hpw ASpØv ([\p 20/21)
(CtX‰hpw A\p`hs∏Sp∂Xv `qanbn¬ {Ko\n®ne√ F∂v {i≤n°
Ww. kqcy\n¬ \n∂Ise t]mIptºmƒ SW a¨kqWpw, ASptØ
bv°phcptºmƒ NE agbpw In´p∂ t{Sm∏n°nemWv- e¶ ]≠pImeØv
{Ko\n®ns‚ ÿm\amIbmemWv Cu IW°v Cßs\). kqcy\n¬ \n∂v
`qanbpsS icmicn Zqcw 150 aney≥ Intemao‰dmWv. Cu ZqcØn¬, ta
ev]d™ hyXymkw shdpw 3 % Øn¬ Ipdhp am{XamWv. (147, 150, 153
aney≥ F∂v ±).
Z£nW {[phØn¬ XWp∏pImeØv cm{Xn IqSnbncn°pw. A°m
eØv `qan ]Xps°bmWv k©cn°p∂Xv. th\en¬ `qan Xs‚ I£y
bpsS at‰ A‰Øv FØptºmƒ IqSpX¬ thKXbn¬ k©cn°pw,
At∏mƒ ]I¬ \ofw IqSpw. C°mcWØm¬ \q‰m≠pIƒ Ignbpt¥m
dpw Z£nW {[phw XWpØpdbp∂p. A‚m¿´n°v lnainJcw (icecap)
CXns‚ sXfnhmWv (AtZam¿ tamU¬). CXns‚ hn]coXhpw kw`hn
°p∂p. Idßp∂ ]ºcw t]mse `qan Np‰n°dßp∂tXmsSm∏w CfIp
∂pap≠v. F∂m¬ ]ºcsØ°mƒ F{Xtbm hepXmIbm¬ Cu Cf
°w (Precision of equinox) hfsc aμhpw XmfØnepamWv. {[phXmcØn
te°p≈ A£Øns‚ ZnisIm≠v BImiØn¬ 22000 h¿jw sIm≠v
Hcp ]q¿ÆhrØw CXv hc°p∂p. AYhm 11000 h¿jw apºv EXpN{Iw
adn®mbncp∂ncn°Ww. hS°≥ XWp∏pImew `qan kqcy\n¬ \n∂Iep
tºmgpw ]Xps° k©cn°ptºmgpamhWw. Cßs\ AtZam¿ lnabpK
ßfpsS Bh¿Øn®phcp∂ N{I߃ ]d™p. 11000 h¿jw Z£nW
{[phØnepw ASpØ 11000 h¿jw DØc {[phØnepamWv CX\pkcn®v
lnainJcw. lnabpKmhkm\Øn¬ lnainJcw NqSm¬ DcpIn ]q¿Æ
102

{]Imikn‘p

ambpw ISen¬ tN¿∂v henb XncIƒ hn]coX Znibnse A¿≤tKmf
Ønte°v ASn®pIbdp∂p (1842 se AtZamdpsS ]pkvXIØn\v
Revolution of the sea F∂p t]cv). Cu Xnbdnbn¬ Hcp {[phw XWp°p
tºmƒ H∂p NqSmhpI F∂Xv D≠mhpI hø- am{Xa√ Precision of
equinox 23000 apX¬ 26000 hscbmWv. AXpa√, c≠p {[phßfpw Hcp
h¿jØn¬ kqcy\n¬ \n∂v bYm¿∞Øn¬ Htc Afhv NqSmWv FSp
°p∂Xv. 20 mw \q‰m≠n¬ tdUntbm BIvSohv ]T\w 11000 h¿jw CShn´v
c≠p {[phØnepw Cßs\ amdn amdn lnabpKw h∂Xn\v sXfnhv
I≠n√. Cßs\ AtZamdns‚ tamU¬ sXfnbn°s∏´n√.
Iºyq´dn√mØ A°meØv KWnXw ISemkpw t]\bpw sh®mWv.
hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØv aÆnemWv \o≠ KWnX{Inb (]mSo KWnXw)
sNbvXncp∂Xv. Bhiyw Ign™m¬ AXv ambv®pIfbpw. F∂mepw
e£w h¿jØnsemcn°¬ `qanbpsS I£ybpsS shape elliptical/ more
circular F∂v amdp∂ps≠∂v Cu \o≠ KWnXw sIm≠h¿ I≠p]nSn
®ncp∂p. sIm√Øn¬ BsI NqSv kasa¶nepw, I£y hrØØnemhp
tºmƒ Hmtcm BgvNbpw In´p∂ NqSv h¿jw apgph≥ H∂mbncn°pw.
Elliptical Bhptºmƒ kqcyt\mSSp°ptºmƒ HcmgvNbn¬ IqSpX¬ Nq
Spw, AIeptºmƒ Ipdhp NqSpw In´pw. CXv a\pjy¿ (t{Sm∏n°¬)
Af∂v NqSv, ag, EXp, Im‰v F∂nh t\m°n Irjn sNbvIbpw, AX\p
kcn®v IS¬ bm{X πm≥ sNbvIbpw sNbvXncp∂p.
I£ybpsS shape, Ab\mwiw F∂nh sh®mWv lnabpKsa¶n¬
250000 h¿jw apºv `qanbn¬ lnabpKambncp∂p. 80000 h¿jw apºv
NqSv IqSn. Cu tamUens\ sPbnwkv t{Imƒ tamU¬ F∂p ]dbp∂p
(1821-1890). t{Imfns‚ ImeØv CsXmcp speculation Bbncp∂p. 10000--15000 h¿jw apºv Hcp sNdplnabpKw `qanbn¬ Ahkm\n®n´ps≠∂v
]n∂oSv I≠p]nSn®p. 80000 h¿jw apºv DØc{[phØn¬ G‰hpw
ISpØ lnabpKambncp∂p (t{Imƒ ]d™Xn\v hn]coXw).
lnabpK߃ Bh¿Øn®p≠mbn´p≠v F∂pw, Cu Bh¿Øn
°p∂ Xmfw Bkvt{SmWan°¬ tamUen\m¬ {]hNn°msa∂pw C°m
eØpam{XamWv bqtdm∏n¬ imkv{X⁄¿ a\ nem°nbXv. sk¿_nb
bnse F©n\obdmb anep´n≥ anet¶mhn®v CØcsamcp \o≠ KWnX
{Inb°ptijw “anet¶mhn®v tamU¬” D≠m°n- Xp¿°nIfpsS A[o
\Xbnembncp∂p sk¿_nb- anet¶mhn®v hnb∂bn¬ \n∂v Ph.D FSp
Øv AssπUv amØam‰nIvkv s{]m^kdmbn. s_¬t{KUv bqWnthgv
103

{]Imikn‘p

kn‰nbn¬ ]Tn∏n®p. sNmΔ, ip{I≥, `qan F∂nhbpsS Imemhÿ, Ah
bpsS Bkvt{SmWan°¬ Xmfw sIm≠v `qanbn¬ D≠mhp∂ Imem
hÿm am‰ßƒ F∂nhsb At±lw ]Tn°m≥ XpSßn. tPm¨ {Kn∫n≥
Xs‚ ‘Science, A history’ F∂ {K\vYØns‚ pp 477 ¬ “aq∂p {Klß
fpsS IW°v, Hcp b{¥klmbhpw IqSmsX, shdpw akvXnjv°hpw
s]∂pw ISemkpw sIm≠v” F∂v AXv`pX]q¿Δw ]dbp∂p! 1911 ¬
t]mepw sk¿_nbbn¬ Hcmƒ°v CXp sNømambncp∂p F∂Xn¬
Fs∂t∏msemcmƒ°v HcXv`pXhpan√ (aÆnepw, tÉnepw, Hmebnepw
CsXm∂pan√msX a\°W°mbpw CXne[nIw sNbvXp]g°ap≈ Hcp
P\XbpsS ]mcºcyw D≈Xn\m¬!).
`qan°v kqcy\n¬ \n∂p≈ Zqcw, Hcp {]tXyItZiØns‚ A£mw
iw, B A£mwiØn¬ kqcycivan F{X Un{Knbn¬ ]Xnbv°p∂p
F∂nh sh®mWv Imemhÿ, EXp°ƒ F∂nh \n¿Æbn°s∏Sp∂
sX∂v C¥ybnse km[mcW tPymXnjn°pw, I¿jI\pw, Hmtcm Ip´n
bv°pw Adnbmw! {]tXyIn®pw tIcfØnse! ChnSsØ F√m tPymXn
j{K\vYßfpw CXv N¿® sNbvIbpw KWnX{Inb XcnIbpw sNbvXn´p
≠v. tSmfan apX¬ 20 mw \q‰m≠p hscbp≈ bqtdm]y≥ imkv{XØn¬
C¥ybpambn _‘w ÿm]n°ptºmsgms° CXns\°pdn®v Nn¥mhn
πhap≠mbn´p≠v. `qanbn¬ G‰hpw NqSv e`n°p∂ `qa≤ytcJm `mK
sØ a\pjycpw AhcpsS ssPh sshhn≤ytadnb ]cn-ÿnXnbpw, a¨
kq¨ Im‰pw, AKv\n]¿ΔXßfpw, IS¬t£m`hpw F√mw Ahsc Ch
sb∏‰n t\csØ Nn¥n∏n®p. Cu {]tXyIX `qa≤ytcJm`mKØv
C¥y/e¶; saIvknt°m/s]dp F∂nhnSßfnse kwkv°mcßsf
B[mcam°n ]Tnt°≠ H∂mWv. \n¿`mKyhim¬ saIvknt°m/s]dp
hnse kwkv°mcw C∂n√, AhcpsS imkv{XkmlnXyhpan√. `mKyh
im¬ C¥ybn¬ AXn∂pap≠v. `qanbpsS ]gbNcn{Xw Adnbm≥ Ch
Gsd klmbIamWv.
anet¶mhn®n\ptijw hvfmUnan¿ tIm∏≥ Cu ]T\w XpS¿∂p.
DØcm£mwißfn¬ Ft∏mgpw XWp∏mWv. AhnsS th\¬°meØv
F{X lnaw DcpImsX \n¬°pw? CXv IW°m°nbm¬ lnabpKØns‚
Xmt°m¬ NqSpIpd™v XWpØpd™v th\enemWv, tla¥Øne√
F∂v t{Imƒ Nn¥n®Xn\p hn]coXambn tIm∏≥ Nn¥n®p. 80000 h¿jw
apºv lnabpKw ITn\ambXpw 10000-15000 h¿jw apºv lnabpKw Ah
km\n®Xpw At∏mƒ s]s´∂v hniZam°mw. saet¶mhn®v `qanbpsS
aq∂v A£mwißfn¬ (55°,60°,65° N) NqSv IW°m°n. CXv Bkvt{SmW
104

{]Imikn‘p

an°¬ Xmfhpw ]gb lnabpKhpambn HØpt\m°n. tIm∏\pw shKv
\dpw AhcpsS “Climates of the Geological Past” ¬ Cu Bib߃°p
{]Nmcw \¬In. 1930 ¬ 8 hyXykvX A£mwißfnse NqSns‚ hyXym
khpw Cu NqSn\v ASpØ 8 h¿jØn¬ DØc{[phØnse lna]mfn
Fßs\ {]XnIcn°psa∂pw {]kn≤oIcn®p. 1941 ¬ Canon of Insolation
and Ice age Problem F∂ ]pkvXIhpw 1952 ¬ Hm¿Ω°pdn∏pIfpw {]kn
≤oIcn®p. 1958 Unkw_¿ 12 \v saet¶mhn®v A¥cn®p. 1970 ¬ saet¶m
hn®v tamU¬ hfscb[nIw ]cnjv°cn°s∏´v, CeIvt{SmWnIv Iºyq´
dpIƒ ]cntim[n®v Nn√dsX‰pIƒ \o°n hfsc IrXyambnØo¿∂pISen\Snbnse skUnsa‚ns\ tdUntbm BIvSohv, Pntbm amKv\‰nIv
{]{InbIfm¬ Imew IrXyam°n AhnsSbp≈ PohPmeßfpsS kv]o
jnkv, I°, iwJv Chbnse HmIvknP≥ sFtkmtSm∏v ]T\w Af
°p∂ NqSpsh®v AhbpsS PohnXImew, F∂nhsbms° \S∂p. 1976
¬ kb≥kv tP¿Æen¬ Cu ]cnjv°cn® tamU¬ {]kn≤oIcn®p.
hyXykvX A£mwißfnseØp∂ kqcys‚ NqSv XΩn¬ sNdnb
hyXymkta D≈p. F¥psIm≠mWv `qan Cu sNdnb hyXymkØn\p
t]mepw C{X sk≥kn‰ohv Bbn {]XnIcn°p∂sX∂ tNmZyw imkv{X
temIØn\p≠mbn. Cu tNmZyw ho≠pw h≥IcIƒ ]ncn™ Xnbdnbn
te°p Xncn®p.
`qanbpsS km[mcW kz`mhw lnaw C√mØ AhÿbmWv. ({[ph
Ønepw hfsc Db¿∂ ]¿ΔXØnepw HgnsI). NqSp≈ ISsemgp°pIƒ
{[phØnseØp∂ Imewhsc, {[phØn¬ F{X Ipd®p kqcy{]Imiw
In´nbmepw Ipg∏an√; NqSp≈ ISsemgp°v ISen¬ lnaw D≠mhp∂Xv
XSbpw. F∂m¬ Nnet∏mƒ Hcp A¿≤tKmfw aney≥ h¿jtØmfw
XWpØpd™pInS°p∂ Ncn{Xw `qan°p≠mbn´p≠v. s]¿anb≥ Im
eØv 20 an√y≥ h¿jw \o≠ CØcsam∂v 250 aney≥ h¿jw apºv
Ahkm\n®tXbp≈p. CXns‚ hniZoIcWw h≥IcIƒ Hcp {[ph
`mKtØ°v \oßp∂XmWv. Cßs\ \oßptºmƒ Xmsgbp≈ A£m
wi`mKØp\n∂p≈ NqSp≈ ISsemgp°ns\ Ah \n¿ØpIsbm XS 
s∏SpØpIsbm sNøpw. am{Xa√ Cßs\ \oßnb h≥Ictbm h≥Ic
bpsS `mKtam lnaw hoWv XWpØpd™v hensbmcp lna]mfn D≠mhm
\p≈ ASnØdbmbnØocpw. A‚m¿´n° CXn∂pZmlcWamWv.
s]¿anb≥ lnabpKw Ign ™t∏mƒ NqSp≈ ISsemgp°v ho≠pw
{[phØnseØn. 200 aney≥ h¿jw NqSp≠mbn. C°meØv Znt\mkdp
105

{]Imikn‘p

Iƒ Pohn®p. ho≠pw 55 aney≥ h¿jw apºv lnabpKap≠mbn. 10 aney≥
h¿jw apºv t•knbdpIƒ D≠mbn. BZyw Aemkv°bnepw ]ns∂
A‚m¿´n°bnepw. 5 aney≥ h¿jw apºv C∂p≈Xnt\°mƒ henb
lna]mfn D≠mbncp∂p. c≠p {[phØnepw t•knbdpIfp≠mbn. DØc
{[phØn¬ Icb√ Arctic ISemWv. AXn\p Np‰pap≠mbncp∂ Ic
Continental drfit sIm≠v ISense NqSp≈ ASnsbmgp°ns\ XS™Xm
WnXn\pImcWw. {Ko≥em‚ns‚ km∂n≤yw Kƒ^vkv{Soans\ Ingt°m
´v deflect sNøp∂Xn\m¬ AXv {_n´ojv sF¬kv, N.W bqtdm∏n\mWv
NqSp \¬Ip∂Xv. DØc{[phØn¬ Icbm¬ Np‰s∏´ Hcp IS¬, th\
en¬ DcpIp∂ lnaw Ch Bkvt{SmWan°¬ XmfØn\v A\pIqeambn
{]h¿Øn°p∂p- 5 aney≥ h¿jambn `qan Cßs\ 2 {[phØnepw
lnasØm∏nbpambn \n¬°bmWv. F∂m¬ c≠p {[phØnepw Ic,
IS¬ F∂nhbpsS tPym{K^n°¬ LS\ thsdbpamWv.
Hcp lnabpKw e£w h¿jamsW∂mWv Ct∏mƒ k¶ev]w. CSbv
°nsS 10000 h¿jw Interglacial Imehpw. CXp icnbmsW¶n¬ Hcmbnc
tam c≠mbnctam (Hcp]s£ AXn\paptºm) ho≠pw lnabpKpw XpS
ßmdmbn. s]m´mknbw, B¿tKm¨ tdUntbm BIvSohv ]T\w sIm≠v
3.6 aney≥ h¿jw apºv Hcp lnabpKap≠mbt∏mƒ a\pjys‚ ]q¿Δo
I¿ Ings° B{^n°bnse Great Rift Valley bn¬ Xmakn®ncp∂p. DNA
(molecular clock) sh®v a\pjy\pw Nnºm≥knbpw sKmdn√bpw H‰ ]q¿
ΔoI hwiØn¬ \n∂p≠mb 3 imJbmWv (The first ChimpanzeePenguin. London-2001). C°meØv \nh¿∂p \S°m≥ a\pjy\p km
[n®p. Cu {]mNo\ tlman\nkns\ (3-4 aney≥ h¿jw apºv) a\pjy\m
°nbXn¬ Hcp ]¶v Imemhÿ°v D≠mbncp∂ncn°Wsa∂mWv A\p
am\n°p∂Xv. `qa≤ytcJm`mKØv lnabpKa√, ag In´mXmbn, h\߃
C√mXmhemWv {]XnIqe Imemhÿ. h\an√mXmbm¬ `£Ww Ipd
bpw. At∏mƒ _p≤n hnIkn® h¿§w kaXeØnte°p \oßn Irjn
XpSßpw. ]pXnb ImemhÿItfmSv {]XnIcn°m\pw ]pXnbpXv ]pXn
bXp ]Tn°m\pw IqSpX¬ kuIcyw t{Sm∏n°¬ ImemhÿbnemWv.
A\h[n ImesØ A\p`hkºØpsIm≠p am{Xsa Bkvt{SmWan,
AXn\p≈ KWnXk{ºZmbw, AXns\ {]mtbmKnI PohnXØn¬ D]
tbmKn°pIbpw Hcp P\Xsb apgph≥ ]Tn∏n°pIbpw sNøp∂ Kpcp
Ipe k{ºZmbw F∂nh Bhnjv°cn°m\mhq. CXv CuÃv B{^n°
bn¬ D≠mbn√. C¥ybn¬ D≠mbn. B{^n°bpw C¥ybpw HcpIm
eØv H∂mbncp∂ ‘]m©nb’ ImeØp≠mb ]q¿ΔoIs‚ DNA B{^n
106

{]Imikn‘p

°bnepw Gjybnepw c≠pcoXnbnemWv hf¿∂Xv. B{^n° Ccp≠
`qJfiambn Ccp∂ ImeØv C¥ybnse a\pjy≥ Ht´sd imkv{X
߃ ]Tn®pw ]Tn∏n®pw hf¿∂p Ign™p.
hwiw hfcp∂Xv t£{XØn¬ (hb¬, kv{Xo) hnØv (_oPw)
hnX®mWv. a\pjy≥ Irjn XpSßnb ImeØv apX¬ CXn\v Htc hm°m
Wv D]tbmKn®ncp∂Xv. tIcfØn¬ CXn\v sXfnhmbn Hcp kpdnbm\n
]ZsØ°pdn®v C∂sØ amXr`qanbn¬ tUm. Pn.Fkv. {^m≥knkv,
Xet»cn (Unkw_¿ 18, 2008) FgpXnbncn°p∂Xv ckIcambncn°p∂p.
Nn¥m¿lhpw! kpdnbm\nIƒ tIcfØn¬ h∂t∏mƒ ChnSsØ \nba
{]Imcw Irjnÿehpw AXnt\mSp tN¿∂ Xmak ÿehpamWv sIm
SpØncp∂Xv. Irjnÿew hnØp\Sm≥. Xmak ÿehpw hnØp \Sm≥
Xs∂; hwihnØv \Sm≥. AtXkabw Hcp \m´p°q´Øns‚ ({Kmaw)
apJy\pIogn¬ Irjnk{ºZmbsØ°pdn® F√m Adnhpw- Imemhÿ,
hnØn\w, am¿°‰v, EXp°ƒ AS°w- t\Sp∂ Hcp ]T\k{ºZmbØn
s‚ IpSn∏≈n°qShpw Hcp ]cºcmKX Irjn°mc\v Ahs‚ hoSmWv.
t£{Xw (tZhmebw), {Kmaw, \m´p°q´w, Irjn F∂nhbpsS Hcp irwJ
ebmbncp∂p C¥ybpsS `cWbqWn‰pIƒ. {^m≥kokns‚ Ipdn∏nse
Nne Imcy߃:1. t]m¿®pKokv anj\dnam¿ hcpwapºv sshZnI ]cnioe\w \¬
Ip∂ ÿm]\߃ tZhmebßtfmSv tN¿∂mWv \SØnbncp∂Xv.
2. skan\mcn F∂ em‰n≥ hm°n\v hnØp]mIp∂ CSw F∂¿∞w.
aebmfØn¬ Rm‰Sn apX¬ hnØp]mIn apf∏n®v ]dn®p \SmdmIpthmfw
D≈ ]cnNcWamWv A¿∞am°p∂Xv.
3. hnØp ]mIp∂ ÿew, hnXbv°p∂ ÿew, DXv]mZn∏n°p∂
ÿew Fs∂ms°bmWv skan\mcnbv°p≈Xv.
4. skan\mcnbpw skan\mdpw Htc em‰n≥ ]ZØn¬ \n∂p≠mbn.
hnZymkº∂cmb hy‡nIƒ Hcp {]tXyI hnjbsØ∏‰n IqSpX¬
Adnhpt\Sm≥ Hc≤ym]Is‚ Iogn¬ ]Tn°p∂XmWv skan\m¿.
5. ]pcmX\ skan\mcnIƒ°v a{ZkvX, aev]m≥, hoSv, ]´ØphoSv
Fs∂ms°bmbncp∂p t]cv. aev]m≥ kpdnbm\n hm°mWv. Kpcp, BNm
cy≥, hn⁄m\n F∂¿∞w.
At±lw ]dbmsX hn´Xv Cw•ojn¬ ska≥ F∂ hm°pw (hnØvip¢w) em‰n\nse Htc aqeØn¬ \n∂p≠mbn. hoSv F∂ skan\mcnbpw
107

{]Imikn‘p

\mSv F∂ \m´p°q´amb tImtfPpw tN¿∂v, Hcp {]tXyI hnjbsØ
(Irjn, hym]mcw, ssIsØmgn¬, IeIƒ, `cWw, Imam¿∞ [¿Ω
tam£w) hnNmcw sNøm≥ Hcp {_lvatZbamb t£{XØn\SpØv tbm
Kw sNbvXncp∂ C¥y≥ KpcpIpe k{ºZmbØns‚ ]pcmX\ IpSn∏≈n
°qS amXrIbmWXv. Cßs\, h\Øn¬ \n∂v {KmaØntebv°ndßnb
‘slman\nUv’ F{XImew N¿® \SØnbn´mhWw Hcp \mKcnIXbpw
IS¬ IS∂ I®hShpw F√mw Is≠ØnbXv? BC 7000 apX¬ CXpc≠pw
C¥ybnep≠v. hmkvt°mUKmabv°p tijsa bqtdm∏nep≈p. B{^n°
bn¬ D≠mhmsX, B{^n° A⁄Xbnem≠pInSs° C¥ybn¬ C{X
bpw ]ptcmKXn D≠mbn´v kl{km_vZ߃ Ignt™ (C¥ybpamb
IS¬am¿§w Is≠Ønb tijw) bqtdm]y≥ imkv{XØn\v \thm∞m
\ap≠mbp≈p F∂Xv AXn\m¬ Cu ]ivNmØeØn¬ t{Sm∏n°¬
]cnÿnXn, ISsemgp°pIƒ, a¨kq¨ Chsh®p ]Tnt°≠XmWv.
CXmWv Fs‚ kpNn¥nXamb A`n{]mbw. a\pjycminbpsS `qapJØv
D≈ km∂n≤yw ISsemgp°v, Bkvt{SmWan°¬ {Kl/\£{X Xmfw,
AX\pkcn® Imemhÿmam‰w- Chsb B{ibn®mWv. ISsemgp
°mWv h≥IcIsf Hgp°p∂Xpw, a’yßsf HcnSØp\n∂v as‰mcn
SØp sIm≠pt]mIp∂Xpw, IS¬k©mcnIsf B hgnbpw Im‰ns‚
KXnbpw t\m°n, BImitKmfßfpsS klmbØm¬ temIw Np‰n
k©cn∏n°p∂Xpw. Cßs\ C¥ybnse a\pjy≥ I∏en¬ temIw
Np‰nbXmbn thZØn¬ D≠v. C¥ybnse B¿°ntbmfPn°¬ sXfnhp
Ifpw CXn∂\pIqeamWv. ]ns∂ _m°nbp≈ ⁄m\w C¥y°mcpsS
KWnXimkv{Xw, Bkvt{SmWan F∂nh ]cntim[n®m¬ hy‡ambn
e`nbv°pw. Cu hgnbmWv Rm≥ Ip´n°meØv k©cn®Xv. sshZyw,
t_m´Wn, kpthmfPn F∂nhbn¬ t\Snb _ncpZ߃ ]gbXpw ]pXn
bXpw, ]uckvXyhpw, ]mivNmXyhpamb imkv{XßfpsS XmcXay ]T\
Øn\v Fs∂ klmbn®n´p≠v.
t{_mKven, XcwK Iº\߃, \mZ{]]©w
1899 ¬ sP.sP. tXmwk¨ CeIvt{Sm¨ I≠p]nSn®p. 1895 \hw_¿
8 \v bmZrivNnIambn´v hn¬slw tdm≠vP≥ X-td I≠p]nSn®p. sl‚n
s_Izd¬, amcnb kvt¢mtUmhvkv° AYhm aZmw Iyqdn F∂nh¿
tdUntbm BIvSnhn‰n G¨Ãv dqX¿t^m¿Uv B‰Øns‚ LS\ F∂nh
I≠p]nSn®p. ÿqe{]]© ]T\Øn¬ \n∂v kq£va{]]©Ønte°v!
α, β, γ tdUntbj\pw AXns‚ kz`mhhpw sSIvt\mfPnsb am‰nadn®p.
108

{]Imikn‘p

1932 ¬ NmUvhn°v \yqt{Sm¨ I≠p]nSn®p. CStØm´pw hetØm´pw
Xncnbp∂ sFtkmtSm∏pIsf°pdn®v a\pjys‚ imkv{Xt_m[w DW
¿∂p- amIvkv πm¶v Du¿÷Øns‚ Izm≠ AYhm Du¿÷ IWßfp
sS tamU¬ cNn®p. πm¶ns‚ am¿§Øn¬ \n∂v hyXykvXambn t_mƒ
Svka
v ms‚ t{]m__nenÃn°v am¿§ØneqsS {]ImiØns‚ Izm≠߃
]Tn°epw sshZypX Im¥nI {]kcWw {]h¿Øn°p∂Xv ]ckv]cm{i
bXzan√mØ kzX{¥amb Du¿÷IWnIIfneqsSbmsW∂v Is≠
ØpIbpw sNbvXp. 1926 ¬ Cu {]ImiIW߃°v t^mt´m¨ F∂v
\maIcWw sNbvXp. {]Imiw H∂pIn¬ XcwKamtbm (double slit experiment) As√¶n¬ sNdnb IW{]hmlamtbm (Photo electric effect) s]
cpamdp∂p F∂v B[p\nI imkv{Xw a\ nem°pIbmbncp∂p. Nn°m
tKm bqWnthgvkn‰nbnse tdm_¿´v an√n°≥ sF≥ssÃs‚ \nbaw
sX‰msW∂v ÿm]n°m≥ ]co£Wamcw`n®p. F∂m¬ \o≠ ]co£
WØn\ptijw sF≥ssÃ≥ ]d™Xv icnbmsW∂mWv At±lw sX
fnbn®Xv. CXn\nSbn¬ πm¶v ÿncm¶w (h) 6.57 x 10-27 BsW∂pw sX
fnbn®p. 1921-22 ¬ sF≥ssÃ\pw 1923 ¬ an√n°\pw t\m_¬ tPXm°
fmbn. BZysØ Izm≠w tamU¬ B‰Øn\v D≠m°nbXv \o¬ t_m¿
BWv (Ct∏mƒ Rutherford-Bohr model F∂v hnfn°p∂p). temIbp≤
ImeØv a≥lm´≥ s{]mPIvSns‚ D]tZjvSmhmbncp∂Xpw, B‰w
t_mw_v (\yq¢nbm¿ ^nj≥ sIm≠v) D≠m°nbXpw Ct±lamWv. eqbn
Zn t{_mKven 2 kahmIyßfn¬ \n∂mcw`n®p.
1) E = hv
2) E = pc
p = momentum of photon
e = Speed of light

Cu c≠p kahmIyw tN¿Øm¬
3) hv = pe
or p = hv/e

emwU (λ) bmWv sshZypXIm¥nI {]kcØns‚ XcwKssZ¿Lyw.
λ = v/e
∴ pλ = h

AYhm Hcp IWØns‚ momentum x AXns‚ XcwKssZ¿Lyw
BWv πm¶ns‚ ÿncm¶w (constant).
109

{]Imikn‘p

t{_mKvenbpsS B‰w amXrIbn¬ CeIvt{SmWpIƒ XßfpsS
I£yIfn¬ XcwKamXrIbn¬ ]mºv k©cn°pwt]mse kz¥w hmep
hngpßn k©cn°bmWv (Ref: AarXtPymXn. tUm. kph¿W \me∏m´v).
CeIvt{SmWpIfpsS hyXykvXamb Du¿÷߃ Cu XcwKßfpsS
hyXykvX ‘lm¿tamWnIvkp’Ifmbn (Hcp X{¥ohmZyØnse X{¥n
ao´p∂ t]mse) Ccn°p∂p. Cu \mZXcwKw IrXyambn tNcptºmtg
LS\ icnbmhq. Cu {]_‘w hmbn® sF≥ssÃ≥ hfsc \√ work.
]s£ CsXmcp KWnXw sIm≠p≈ kq{XamWv F∂v ]d™p. 1927
¬ 2 hyXykvX ]co£Wßfn¬ CXv sXfnbn°s∏´p. ]co-£Ww
\SØnb tUhnkWpw tXmwkWpw 1937 ¬ t\m_¬ kΩm\w In´n.
sP.sP. tXmwkWv CeIvt{Sm¨ IWamWv F∂v sXfnbn®Xn\pw, At±
lØns‚ aI≥ tPm¿Pv tXmwkWv CeIvt{Sm¨ XcwKamsW∂p sXfn
bn®Xn\pamWv. c≠pt]¿ ]d™Xpw icnbmbncp∂p. imkv{XØn¬
Aßs\bmWv.
t{_mKvenbpsS {]_‘w sF≥ssÃ≥ hnNmcn®t]mse shdpsamcp
KWnX°fnbmbncp∂n√. temIØn¬ k¿ΔhkvXp°ƒ°pw Hcp ssZzX
kz`mhw (dual nature) D≠v- Hcp XcwK kz`mhhpw (kq£va\mZ {]]
©w) Hcp IWkz`mhhpw (IWmZs‚ ]camWpkz`mhhpw) D≠v F∂
]gsbmcp kn≤m¥Øn\v ]pXnb imkv{Xw I≠ G‰hpw \√ sXfnhm
bncp∂p. πm¶ns‚ tIm¨Ã‚ v Xosc sNdpXmbmepw, KXobX (momentum) ]nfiw (mass) A\pkcn®ncn°bmepw Hcp km[mcW hkvXphn
s‚ (a\pjy icocw, ssPhicocw, ]md°√v, hoSv, ]¥v etc.) XcwK kz
`mhw \mw Adnbp∂n√. {]ImiØn\v Aßs\b√. t^mt´mWn\v
]nfiw C√. XcwKkz`mhw hkvXphns‚ ]nfiw πm¶ns‚ ÿncm¶
tØmSp katam Ipdthm BIptºmtg {][m\amIp∂p≈p. AXmbXv,
1) tamfnIyqfpIfpw AXn∂p]cnbp≈ {Zhyhpw Cu kz`mhw Im´p
∂n√.
2) B‰ßfn¬ (AWp) AXp≠v.
3) t{]mt´m¨, \yqt{Sm¨ ChbpsS kz`mhw hnhcn°m≥ CXv Iq
Sntb Xocq.
4) AWphn\v ]pdØmbmepw AIØmbmepw CeIvt{SmWns\ a\
 nem°m≥ Cu kz`mhØns‚ ⁄m\w AXym¥mt]£nXamWv.
ssZ\wZn\ C{μnb{]Xy£m\p`hØn¬, C{μnb klmbw sIm≠v
Adnbmhp∂ H∂√ CeIvt{Sm¨. ImWmt\m sXmSmt\m H∂pw Ignbn√.
110

{]Imikn‘p

kahmIyw ImWmt\m, KWnX tamUepIƒ D≠m°mt\m {ian°mw.
Ah, \tΩmSv hyXykvX ]cnÿnXnbn¬ CeIvt{Sm¨ Fßs\ {]h¿
Ønbv°pw, Nnet∏mƒ \mZXcwKambpw Nnet∏mƒ IWcq]ambpw (\mZ
{]Imi cq]w) AsXßs\ ImWs∏Spw Fs∂ms° kwhZn°p∂ KWn
XkahmIyßfmWv. Ahbn√msX AZriyi‡nIsf Adnbm\mhn√.
CXmWv Izm≠w sa°m\nIvkns‚ Xm{¥nIhpw KWnX]chpambn inh
i‡nIsf kaoIcn°p∂ kahmIyclkyw. F¿hn≥ jvtdmUnwK¿
t{_mKven°p]n∂mse CeIvt{SmWn\v XcwKkahmIyw cNn®p.
sh¿W¿ sslk≥_¿§nt‚Xv Hcp Du¿÷ehen¬ \n∂v as‰m∂nte°v
Izm≠w Nm´w NmSp∂ ]m¿´n°nƒ (IWw) tamUembncp∂p. t]mƒ Un
dm°v (1902-1984) AWphn¬ CeIvt{SmWns‚ {]h¿Ø\w hniZoIcn
°m≥ hfsc \√ Hcp KWnX\nbaw sIm≠ph∂p (aq∂masØ, ]q¿Æ
amb Izm≠w Xnbdn). CXn¬ BZysØ 2 XnbdnIfpw Dƒs°m≠Xmbn
sXfnbn®p. Ah c≠pw KWnX]cambn equivalent BsW∂v ka¿∞n
®p (AXmbXv c≠p _nμp°ƒ XΩnep≈ Zqcw Hcmƒ ssaenepw as‰m
cmƒ In.ao‰dnepw Af°p∂p. ]s£ Zqcw H∂pXs∂). sslk≥_¿§n
s‚ uncertainty principle Cu XcwKIW ssZzX `mhsØ kw_‘n
®mWv.
Hcp hkvXphns‚ ÿm\hpw AXns‚ KXobXbpw Htc kabØv
IrXyambn ]dbm\mhn√ F∂XmWXv. ÿm\w icnbv°p I≠m¬ KXo
bX sX‰pw. KXobX I≠m¬ ÿm\w sX‰pw (tPymXnimkv{XØnepw,
]camWp kn≤m¥Ønepw CXv _m[IamWv). CXv \ΩpsS Afhpb{¥
ßfpsS A]cym]vXX, _p≤nbpsS A]cym]vXX ChsIm≠p am{Xa√.
\ΩpsS \nco£Ww sIm≠pXs∂ \mw CeIvt{SmWns‚ ]mX amdp∂
XpsIm≠mWv. Hcp CeIvt{SmWnt\m, Hcp a\pjyt\m Xs‚ ÿm\w
FhnsSbmsWt∂, ASpØ \nanjw FhnsS t]mIpsas∂m Adnbn√.
1927 ¬ sslk≥_¿Kv FgpXn:- We cannot know, as a matter of Principle,
the present in all its details. h¿Øam\w AdnbmsX `qXw (history) Fß
s\ Adnbpw? `mhn (future) Fßs\ \nb{¥n°pw? CeIvt{SmWns\t∏m
se \n lmbcmWv AhnsS G‰hpw Adnhp≈ B[p\nI imkv{X
⁄¿ t]mepw!
CeIvt{Sm¨ Xs‚ I£ybnemsW¶n¬ ÿm\Øn¬ A\nivNnX
Xzap≠v. {`aW]YØns‚ CcphiØpamImw, XcwKcq]amImw. F∂m¬
tI{μØn¬ (Nucleus) ]Xn®m¬ ÿm\w kp\nivNnXambn; KXobXbpw
111

{]Imikn‘p

\nivNnXambn. At∏mƒ uncertainity XØzw sX‰mhpw. F∂m¬ G‰hpw
sNdnb electron orbit. AWphn¬ AXnkq£vaambn uncertainty principle
sX‰n°msX Ccn°pw. B‰Øns‚ hep∏w \nivNbn°p∂XpXs∂ Izm
≠w sa°m\nIvkn¬ Uncertainty Principle BWv.
x2=4 F∂Xn\v 2 {]iv\]cnlmcap≠v
1) x = 2
2) x = -2

(2)2 = 4
(-2)2 = 4

+ve charge (Photon)
-ve charge (electron)

1932, 33 ¬ Imƒ B≥tUgvk¨ tImkvanIv civanbn¬ Is≠Ønb
+ve Nm¿Pp≈ t]mknt{Sm¨ F∂ B‚n CeIvSvtdm¨ UndmIv Hcp
clooud chamber ¬ Ir{Xnaambn krjvSn®p. Hcp IWØn\v Hcp B‚n
IWw- matter \v antimatter.
“_nw_{]Xn_nw_mflI {]]©w” kXyamsW∂v AtXmsS hy
‡ambn.
\yq¢nb nse \yq{S¬ Nm¿Pv IWßsf thmƒ^vKmMv t]mfnbm
Wv \yqt{Sm¨ F∂v hnfn®Xv. _o‰ XcwKØns‚ Unt°bn¬ CeIvt{Sm
tWmsSm∏w Chbpw {]kcn°p∂p. CeIvt{SmWn¬ \n∂pw, \yqt{SmWn¬
\n∂pw D≈ Du¿÷ØpI constant (ÿncw) BWv. B¬^ Uot°
bn¬ KmacivanbpsS `mKamWv _o‰ Uot°bn¬ t]mfnbpsS \yqt{SmWn
\v. ]s£ AXns‚ ssI\‰n°v F\¿Pn amIvknaamWv. Kmacivanbnse
t^mt´m¨ t]mse AXv Izmss≠kvUv A√. {]_ei‡nIƒs°m∏w
Zp¿∫eßfmb \yq{Snt\mafiew F‚nt°ms^¿an hnhcn®p (\yq{Sn
t\m F∂m¬ sIm®p\yqt{Sm¨ F∂¿∞w). 1950 Ifn¬ am{XamWv \yq
{Snt\m AwKoIcn°s∏´Xv. Hcp \yq{Snt\m civan kaqlsØ 3000 {]Im
ih¿jw I\ap≈ Hcp Cub`nØnbneqsS ISØnhn´m¬ Ahbn¬
]IpXnsb am{Xw CubØns‚ B‰Øns‚ \yq¢nb v ]nSns®Sp°pw.
{]]©hpw PohPmeßfpw \Ωfpw B‰ßfm¬ \n¿ΩnXamWv.
B‰ßfn¬ t{]mt´m¨, \yqt{Sm¨, CeIvt{Sm¨ ChbmWp≈Xv. Ah
H∂n®p\n¬°p∂Xv {]_ei‡nIfmemWv. AXn¬ Zp¿∫ei‡nbpsS
{]h¿Ø\Øm¬ _o‰ Uot° kw`hn°pw. B¬^ IW߃ ]pdw
X≈s∏Spw. \yq¢nb n\p ]pdsØ CeIvt{Sm¨ taLØn¬ CeIvt{Sm
WpIƒ sshZypX Im¥nI i‡nIfm¬ AXmXnSØp \n¬°p∂p. Ah
bv°v Nne {]tXyI Du¿÷mhÿIfnse Ccn°m≥ Ignbq.
CXv Hcp henb ÿqe {]]©Øn¬, henb {Zhyßsf ÿm\Øp
\n¿Øp∂ KpcpXzmI¿jW i‡nbv°p XpeyamWv. t{]mt´m¨, \yqt{Sm
112

{]Imikn‘p

¨, CeIvt{Sm¨, \yq{Snt\m F∂v 4 FÆw + AhbpsS B‚n ]m¿´n°n
fpIƒ ({]Xntema/{]Xn_nw_ IW߃) + sshZypXIm¥nI i‡n,
Zp¿∫ei‡n, {]_ei‡n, KpcpXzmI¿jW i‡n F∂v 4 hn[w i‡n
Iƒ- Cu 12 FÆw sIm≠v \ΩpsS C{μnb߃°v a\ nem°m≥
Ignbp∂ k¿Δ hkvXp°tfbpw, \£{Xw F¥psIm≠p {]Imin°p
∂p, `£Ww hb‰n¬ Fßs\ Zln°p∂p, ssl{UP≥ t_mw_v Fß
s\ s]m´p∂p, Hcp lnaIWw Fßs\ I´]nSn®v Ben∏gamIp∂p apX
embn F√mhn[ ⁄m\tØbpw {Klnbv°mw. {]]©sØ (C{μnb
thZyamb \macq]mflI kzcq]sØ) \macq]߃°XoXamb kq£va
{]]©⁄m\w sIt≠ Adnbm\mhq. Izm≠w CeIvt{Sm ssU\manIv
kn¬ kn≥ C‰ntdm sSmsam\mK (1906-1978), Pqenb≥ jznwK¿ (19181994), dn®m¿Uv s^bv≥am≥ (1918-1988) F∂nh¿ {]apJcmWv. 1965 ¬
aq∂pt]¿°pw t\m_¬ kΩm\w In´n.
2 Nm¿÷p≈ IW߃ (2 CeIvt{Sm¨ As√¶n¬ Hcp CeIvt{Sm
Wpw Hcp t{]mt´mWpw) tNcptºmƒ Ah kwtbmKn°p∂Xv t^mt´m¨
]ckv]cw ssIamdnbmWv. t^mt´m¨ ssIamdnb IW߃ Un^vfIvSv
sNbvXv ]pXphgnbn¬ t]mIp∂p. t^mt´m¨ ssIamdnb tijap≈
Cu {]Xn{]h¿Ø\w (]ckv]cw repulsion) BWv Inverse square law
Bbn ImWp∂Xv. CXv QED bn¬ \n∂v kzm`mhnIambn D≠mhp∂p.
{]_e Zp¿∫e i‡nIfpw Cßs\Øs∂ t^mt´m¨ ssIam‰w sIm
≠v hnhcn°mw. CeIvt{Sm amKv\‰nkhpw Zp¿∫ei‡nbpw H∂m°n
Ct∏mƒ sshZypX Zp¿∫e ]ckv]c {]h¿Ø\sa∂v hnfn°p∂p≠v.
KpcpXzmI¿jWhpw {Kmhnt‰m¨ F∂ IWßfpsS ssIam‰amWv (C
Xns‚ ]q¿Æ tamU¬ C\nbpw h∂n´n√). CeIvt{SmWns‚ Im¥nI
aplq¿Øw am{Xw {i≤n®m¬ QED bpsS IrXyX sXfnbn°mw. 1920 ¬
UndmIv CXns‚ aqeyw H∂msW∂v IW°m°n. 1.00115965221 ± 4 BWv
CXns‚ aqeyw. C∂Xv 1.00115965246±20. Xnbdnbpw ]co£Whpw IqSn
0.00000001 %- s^bv≥am≥ ]d™Xv \yqtbm¿°pw temkm©ekpw
IqSn Zqcw Af∂t∏mƒ a\pjys‚ Hcp apSnbngtbmfw hyXymkw h∂p
F∂v ]dbp∂ t]mse F∂mWv. Keoentbmhn¬ \n∂pw \yq´Wn¬ \n
∂pw imkv{Xw Ht´sd k©cn®pIgn™p. ]s£ AhcpsS Npaen¬
IbdnØs∂bmWv k©mcw \S∂n´p≈Xv.
20 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ c≠mw]IpXnbn¬ k_v At‰manIv IWßfpsS
Hcp \htemIamWv \mw ImWp∂Xv. t{]mt´mWpw \yqt{SmWpw Izm¿°p
113

{]Imikn‘p

IfmemWv \n¿Ωn®ncn°p∂Xv. 21 mw \q‰m≠nemIs´ Chsb√mw Iº\w
sNøp∂ X{¥nIƒ (Vibrating strings) {]Xn`mkØneqsS am{Xsa {Kln
°m\mhq F∂ XØzØnepw! Cu AXyKm[amb X{¥oIº\Ønem
Wv, AXnkq£vahpw AXntemehpamb \mZ{_lvaØnemWv \ΩpsS
ÿqe{]]© clkyw.

DNA
ssPh h¿§Øn¬ G‰hpw k¶o¿ÆLS\ a\pjyt‚XmWv. \Ωp
sS icocØnse P\nXIßfnemWv hwihr≤n, hwißfneqsS kz`mh
߃ ssIamdp∂ {]{Inb F√mw \S°p∂Xv. icocØns‚ Building
Blocks Bb Aaot\m BknUpIfneqsS t{]m´o\pw DNA bpw ]gb
LS\bn¬ Bh¿Øn®v krjvSn°p∂Xpw AXpXs∂. k¿Δi‡amb
Cu LS\ (kq£vaw) Cs√¶n¬ k¶o¿Æamb a\pjyicocw C{]Im
cw \ne\n¬°pambncp∂n√. RNA (dnt_m \yq¢nbn°v BknUv), AXn
s‚ HmIvknP≥ \o°nb DNA (UnHmIvkn-dnt_m \yq¢nbnIv BknUv)
ChbpsS ]g°w k¿Δ ssPh h¿§ßfptSbpw ]g°amWv. Ch G‰hpw
efnXLS\bp≈ sshd pIfpsS icocØnepap≠v. sshd pIƒ H∂p
In¬ RNA As√¶n¬ DNA sshdkv Bbncn°pw.
\man∂v HIV/AIDS sshd ns\°pdn®v t_m[hm∑mcmWv. Cu ssh
d pIfpsS {]mbw 85 aney≥ h¿jamWv. HIV sshdkv ss{]ta‰pIfn¬
ImWp∂ “se‚nsshdkv” BWv. Iment^m¿Wnbbnse Ãm≥t^m¿Uv
bqWnthgvkn‰n Ch aUKmkv°dnse ‘seaq¿’ C\Øn¬s]´ sNdp
Ipcß∑mcn¬ hfsc ]t≠ Ds≠∂p Is≠Øn. Cu C\w IpcßpIƒ
C¥ymkap{Z Zzo]pIfn¬ am{Xw ImWp∂hbmWv. F∂m¬ Ch ]pcm
X\ImeØpXs∂ D≠mb Hcp AIDS-like F∏nsUan°psIm≠v CayqWn
‰n t\SnbhbmWv. Ahbn¬ Cu sshdkv Ds≠¶nepw Ahbv°v tcmK
an√. Ah AXm¿°pw ]I¿ØpIbpan√. 14 aney≥ h¿jambn Cu
sshdkv seaqdpIfn¬ \ncp]{Zhnbmbn Ccnbv°p∂p≠v.
F∂m¬ B{^n°≥/aUKmkv°¿ IpcßpIfn¬ ImWp∂ CtX
sshdkv Ipd®pIqSn ]Icm≥ km≤yX h∂ H∂mWv. CXv Hcp aney≥
h¿jambn a\pjycn¬ D≠v. ]s£ GXm≠v Hcp \qdph¿jambnt´
D≈p AIDS tcmK e£Ww a\pjycn¬ ImWm≥ XpSßnbn´v. Atacn°
bnse \mjW¬ A°mZan Hm^v kb≥kv hnNmcn°p∂Xv aUKmkv°
dpw B{^n°≥ ap\ºpw IqSn _‘w hntOZn°s∏´ 14 an√y≥ sIm√
114

{]Imikn‘p

Øn\n∏pdØv, 14 an√y≥ h¿jambn aUKmkv°dn¬ IpcßpIƒ°v Cu
sshd ps≠∂mWv.
85 an√y≥ h¿jambn kn‘pkap{Z Zzo]Øn¬ \ncp]{Zhambn
Ccp∂ Hcp sshd v, 14 an√y≥ h¿jambn aUKmkv°dnepw \ncp]{Zh
ambncp∂ Hcp sshd v, Hcp an√y≥ h¿jambn a\pjy\n¬ IS∂pIqSn
\ncp]{ZhImcnbmbncp∂ Hcp sshd v Hcp \qdph¿jØn\Iw C{Xtb
sd D]{ZhImcnbmbnØo¿∂sXßs\? B tNmZyØn\pØcw ]ns∂
sbmcn°¬ ]dbmw. AXv Xo¿Øpw sshZyimkv{X]camb N¿®bmWv.
ChnsS P\nXIØns‚ {]mbw, `qanbpsS {]mbØnte°p IqSn hnc¬
Nq≠p∂p F∂v ImWn°pIbmWv Fs‚ e£yw. 85 an√y≥ h¿jw
apºv C¥ybnepw CXc C¥y≥ kap{Z Zzo]pIfnepw seaq¿ C\Øn
ep≈ Ipcß\ps≠¶n¬ Cu `q`mKØn\v AXne[nIw ]g°w thW
sa∂p Xo¿®.
AWp°ƒ, ]camWp°ƒ, RNA, DNA Chsbms° kq£vahkvXp
°fmWv. AhbpsS {]h¿Ø\w GXm\pw efnX \nbaßfm¬ hnhcn
bv°mw. Ahsb XmcXays∏SpØnbm¬ a\pjy≥ k¶o¿Æ \nbaß
fp≈ Hcp ÿqehkvXphmWv. ]s£, kucbqYw, AXn\∏pdsØ
At\I tImSn {_lvamfi߃ F∂nhtbmSpIqSnb {]]© LS\
tbmSv XmcXays∏SpØnbm¬ a\pjy≥ Hcp sNdnb CeIvt{SmWn\p
XpeyamWv.
A\¥a⁄mX ah¿Æ\obw
Cu temItKmfw Xncnbp∂ am¿§w
AXn¶seßms≠mcnSØncp∂p
t\m°p∂ a¿Øy≥ IYsb¥p I≠p!
\me∏m´p \mcmbW tat\m≥ F∂ Ihnbpw sslk≥_¿§v F∂
imkv{X⁄\pw AhnsS Hcp`mj Xs∂ kwkmcn°pw. \Ωƒ Hcp Ce
Ivt{Sm¨ kZriw h¿Øam\hpw `qanbpw `mhnbpadnbmsX \n¬°pIbm
Wv. Cu {XnImesØ Adnbm≥ {ian°¬- {]hNn°m≥ {ian°¬AXn\mbn \nco£Ww, ]co£Ww, \nc¥cw {i≤m]q¿Δw a\\w, ]q¿
ΔoIcmb imkv{X⁄¿ ]d™sX√mw ]Tn°¬, Aßs\ Bh¿Ø\m
flIamb [¿Ωimkv{XN{I {]h¿Ø\Øn¬ Xt‚Xmb Hcp ]¶v hln
bv°¬- C{Xtb imkv{XØn\¿∞ap≈p. ‘Ft‚XmWv Ahkm\ hm
°v’ F∂ Dd∏v Hcp imkv{XNn¥bv°pw D≠mhpIhø. CXdnbemWv
G‰hpw henb imkv{Xhpw, aXhpw, XØzNn¥bpw.
115

{]Imikn‘p

{]]©sØ apgph≥ AZriyamb Hcp Du¿÷ambn ImWptºmƒ
(B[p\nI `mjbn¬ Energy, ]gb kwkvIrX `mjbn¬ {_lvaØns‚
i‡nkzcq]w- ]cmi‡n) i‡n, AXns‚ hn`qXnbmb ÿqe {]]©w
(mass- energy F∂ AssZzXw) F∂v efnXamb \nbaØm¬ AXns\
Ffp∏w hymJym\n°mw. ChnsS \n∂v IWmZs‚ ]camWpkn≤m¥Øn
se∂ t]mse ]camWpkwtbmKØm¬ AWp, AWpkwtbmKØm¬
tamfnIyqƒ F∂ coXnbn¬ B[p\nI imkv{Xw Nn¥n°m≥ XpSßnb
t∏mƒ Imcy߃ Ipsd°qSn efnXambn hymJym\n°m≥ km[n®p.
]s£ kwlmci‡nbpw krjvSni‡nbpw IqSp∂tXmsSm∏w “ÿnXn”
AYhm kwc£Wi‡n Ipd™pIpd™p h∂p.
k¶o¿ÆLS\bp≈ ]nfiØnemWv a\pjyPohnXaS°w At\
Iw ssPh h¿§ßfpsS ÿnXn. B ÿnXn sshZypXIm¥nI afie
ßfnepw ]ckv]cap≈ KpcpXzmI¿jWØnepw A[njvTnXamWv. tamfn
IyqfpIsf hn´pt]mImsX H∂n®ptN¿Øp\n¿Øp∂ sshZypX i‡n
bv°,v Hcp ]nfiØnse tamfnIyqfpIsf \in∏n°p∂ KpcpXzmI¿jW
i‡ntb°mƒ 1036 {]mhiyw i‡n IqSpw. Cu 36 ]qPyap≈ Zimwi
i‡n XØzamWv “Hcpa”, kvt\lw F∂nhtbmsS {]IrXn hkvXp°
sf AtX]Sn “ÿnXn” sNøn®v kwc£n®v \n¿Øp∂Xv. F√m B‰ß
fpw H∂n®p \n¬°ptºmƒ Hmtcm B‰hpw \yq{S¬ BWv. sshZypXn
C√. Hcp ]pXnb B‰w Cu ]nfiØnte°p h∂ptNcptºmƒ D≈nte
°p henbv°p∂ KpcpXzmI¿jW i‡n Hmtcm B‰Ønepw h¿≤n°p
∂p (c≠p kwkv°mcw- c≠p hy‡n- c≠p imkv{Xw tNcptºmgpw
CXp≠mhpw).
Hcp {]tXyI km{μXbp≈ tKmfØn¬ ]nfiw A¿≤hymkØn
s‚ Iyq_ns‚ A\p]mXØnemWv. F∂m¬ KpcpXzmI¿jW i‡n
Inverse square law {]Imcw Ipdbpw. ]nfiØns‚ A¿≤hymkØns‚
`mKØp\n∂v ]d™m¬ {]XeØns‚ KpcpXzmI¿jWw, 2/3 `mKw
sshZypXni‡n t\Sp∂p (gains), AYhm 36 F∂v t\csØ ]d™
i‡nXXzw 54 F∂ kwJybpsS (18 x 3) 2/3 BWv. 1054 B‰ßƒ
H∂n®v Hcp ]nfiambm¬ KpcpXzmI¿jWw ap≥Xq°w t\Spw, Aßs\
tamfnIyqfpIƒ th¿s]Spw. hn`mKobX D≠mhpw. DZmlcWambn 10
B‰w, 100 B‰w, 1000 B‰w F∂nßs\ B‰ßfp≈ hkvXp°sf k¶
ev]n°pI. Hmtcm∂nepw AXn\p apºsØ°mƒ 10 {]mhiyw IqSpX¬
B‰ap≠v. 24 masØ hkvXphn\v Hcp ]©kmc°´ (cube) tbmfw hep
116

{]Imikn‘p

∏ap≠mhpw. 27 masØ hkvXp Hcp henb kkvX\ Pohntbmfhpw. 54
matØXv hymg{KltØmfw hep∏w, 57 matØXv kqcyt\mfw! kqcy
\n¬ BI¿jW i‡nbm¬ B‰ßƒ t]mepw kwlcn°s∏´v, \yq¢n
b pw kzX{¥ CeIvt{SmWpIfpw tN¿∂ πmkvatb D≈p. CXns‚
(Cu Zimwi k{ºZmbØns‚) temKcnXvanIv A\p]mXØn¬ Hcp a\p
jy≥ Hcp ]camWphn\pw Hcp \£{XØn\pw HØ a≤yØnemWv
ÿm\w ]nSn®n´p≈Xv (positions). 39 mw hkvXp 1 In.ao. hymkap≈
Hcp ]mdbmbncn°pw. ]©kmc Iyq_n\pw Cu ]mdbv°pw a≤yØnem
Wv a\pjys‚ size. Cu Hcp XeamWv Um¿hn\pw At±lØns‚ ]n≥
KmanIfpw ]T\hnt[bam°nbXv (Evolution & Natural Selection). ]s£
\ΩpsS k¶o¿ÆX Ipsd°qSn KmVamb sIan°¬ XeØn¬, Poh
s‚ B[mcamb DNA bnemWv. B Xew Um¿hn≥ ]Tn®n´n√. 20 mw \q
‰m≠nse imkv{Xw DNA bptSbpw Izm≠w ssU\manIvknt‚bpw im
kv{XamWv. 1859 ¬ {]kn≤oIcn® Um¿hns‚ Origin of species 20 mw \q
‰m≠nse tdUntbm BIvSnhn‰n ]T\w sIm≠v Um¿hns‚ Evolution
\S°m\mhiyamb {]mbw `qan°ps≠∂v \nkvX¿°w sXfnbn®p Ign
™p. Hcp Xeapdbn¬ \n∂v as‰m∂nte°v kz`mhw ssIamdp∂sX
ßs\ F∂v IrXyambn hnhcn°m≥ Um¿hn\p Ign™ncp∂n√. AXv
20 mw \q‰m≠n¬ sXfnbn°s∏´Xv P\nXI ]co£WßfneqsSbmWv.
Cu hnjbsØ°pdn®v 1868 ¬ (Variation of animals & plants under
domestication F∂ A≤ymbw) Um¿hn≥ kqNn∏n®n´p≠v. At±lw
“Pangenesis” F∂ ]Zw D]tbmKn®p. pan F∂ {Ko°p]ZØm¬, icoc
Ønse Hmtcm tImiØns‚ ]¶pw genesis F∂ ]ZØm¬ Dev]mZ\hp
amWt±lw Dt±in®Xv. Hmtcm tImihpw sNdnb sNdnb IW߃ (sK
Ωyqƒ F∂v Um¿hn≥) icocØnse Dev]mZ\tImißfmb AfiØn
epw ip¢tImiØnepw FØn°p∂p, AXv ASpØ Xeapd°v ssIam
dp∂p F∂t±lw ]d™n´p≠v (]s£ CXv C¥y≥ Bbp¿tΔZØn¬
BC 500 ¬ kp{ipX kwlnXbnepw D≠v. Hcp ]pXnb Adnh√). c≠p
t]¿ kwtbmKn°ptºmƒ c≠pt]cpsS kz`mhhpw Ip´nbv°p In´psa
∂pw Bbp¿tΔZØnep≈ t]mse Um¿hn≥ FgpXn. ]s£ CXns‚
A¿∞w Um¿hn≥ icn°p {Kln®ncp∂n√. kp{ipX kwlnXbnep≈
t]mse imkv{Xoba√ Um¿hns‚ hniZoIcWw. Dbcap≈ kv{Xobpw,
Dbcw Ipd™ ]pcpj\pw D≠mIp∂ Ip´nbv°v AhcpsS Dbc߃
Iq´nbXns‚ \Sphnep≈ (Intermediate) Dbcw F∂v Aimkv{Xob coXn
117

{]Imikn‘p

bnemWv. hmkvXhØn¬ Cßs\ ]dbp∂Xv Natural Selection F∂
BibØn\v ISIhncp≤amsW∂v Um¿hn≥ BtemNn®n√. {]IrXn
bv°v sXcs™Sp°m≥ ssPh sshhn≤yw thWw. Cu ]d™ coXn
bn¬ Ip´nIfp≠mbm¬ hfsc Npcpßnb ImewsIm≠v H´pw sshhn≤y
an√mØ bp\nt^mw P\X (Hcp tamtWmIƒ®¿ t]mse) D≠mhpw. ]n
s∂ {]IrXnbv°v sXcs™Sp∏v Fßs\? F¥n\v? Cu Nn¥ h∂
t∏mƒ ]eh´w Xs‚ hcnIƒ am‰nsbgpXn Um¿hn≥ emam¿°nb≥
Nn¥tbmSSpØp.
tImißsf°pdn® Adnhv ssat{Imkvt°m∏v h∂tXmsS h¿≤n®p.
tPm¨ KpUvkdns‚ (1814-1867) tImiw as‰mcp tImiØn¬ \nt∂ P\n
bv°q F∂ Bibw dqtUmƒ^v ^n¿lu (1821-1902) 1858 se Xs‚ hn
JymXamb Die Cellular Pathologie F∂ {K\vYØneqsS (Omnis acellulae
acellulae) {]kn≤am°n. _¿en\n¬ ]tYmfPn s{]m^kdmbncp∂p Ct±
lw. sk√pem¿ ]tYmfPnbpsS ]nXmhmbn Adnbs∏Sp∂p. sshZy im
kv{XØn¬ Hcp tcmKsa∂Xv Hcp tImiØnt‚tbm, tImikaqlßfp
sStbm {]XnIqe ]cnÿnXnItfmSp≈ {]XnIcWamsW∂ Adnhv
A∂papX¬ hf¿∂ph∂p. ^n¿lu,
1) Germ theory of Infection \v FXncmbncp∂p.
2) Evolution by natural selection \pw FXncmbncp∂p.
3) Reich stag ¬ tkh\w sNøptºmƒ Hmt´mthm¨ _nkvam¿°n
s‚ FXncmfnbmbncp∂p.
4) 1879 ¬ t{Smbnse sles‚ \Kcw (tlmadpsS ]pkvXIØnep
≈Xv) B¿°ntbmfPn J\\w sIm≠v I≠p]nSn®p.
1870 Ifn¬ Sea urchin ]T\ßfn¬ Afihpw ip¢tImihpw tNcp
∂Xpw ssat{Imkvt°m∏ns‚ klmbØm¬ imkv{X⁄¿ (sl¿a≥
t^mƒ, Hmkv°m¿ sl¿´vhnKv) t\cn´pI≠v sXfnbn®p. 1879 ¬ hm¬Ø¿
^vsfanßv tImitI{μØn¬ \mcpt]msebp≈ Nne hkvXp°ƒ \ndap
≈ dye hens®Sp°p∂Xv {i≤n®p. Ch ]n∂oSv “t{Imatkmw” F∂v hn
fn°s∏´p. 1880 ¬ t{Imatkmw Cc´n°p∂Xpw 2 ]pXnb tImiØnte°v
ssIamdp∂Xpw (tImihn`P\Øn¬) I≠p. HmKÃv shbvkvam≥ (18341914) t{ImatkmaneqsSbmWv kz`mh߃ XeapdIfnte°v ssIamdp∂
sX∂v Ak∂nKv≤w {]kvXmhn®p. \ΩpsS icocØns‚ tamfnIyqfm¿
LS\sb CXv \n¿Æbn°p∂p- Aßs\ ÿqe kz`mhßtfbpw.
118

{]Imikn‘p

kq£vaLS\bmWv {_lvamfiØnse∂ t]mse ]nfimfiØnepw
ÿqeLS\sb \n¿Æbn°p∂Xv. Ahy‡amWv hy‡{]]©sØ \n
¿Æbn°p∂Xv F∂¿∞w. CXp{]Imcw Um¿hns‚ ]m≥P\nknkv icn
b√. ]pdsØ {]tNmZ\߃ (]cnÿnXn) Hcp Xeapdbn¬ \n∂v hyXy
kvXamb Hcp Xeapdsb s]s´∂p≠m°psa∂ emam¿°nb≥ Bib
hpw sX‰mWv. ]pdØp\n∂p≈ tdUntbj≥ tImißfn¬ mutation
hcpØmw, AfitImi ip¢tImi DNA sb hyXykvXam°mw F∂v
]n∂oSv sXfn™p. F∂mepw CXv shbvka
v ms‚ hmZsØ \ncmIcn°m≥
]cym]vXa√. AØcw s]s´∂p≠mhp∂ am‰ßƒ tImiØns‚tbm
hy‡nbptStbm acWw D≠m°p∂p. AØcw hy‡nIfn¬ \n∂p≠mb
]pXnb XeapdIƒ ]cnÿnXntbmSv CWßmsX thKw \in°p∂p.
AXn\m¬ ÿncambn CØcw am‰ßƒ ssIam‰s∏´v kq£n°s∏Sp
∂n√.
U®v s_m´m\nÃv lyqtKm Unhvdnkv (1848-1935) kkyßfn¬ CtX
coXnbn¬ ]T\w \SØnb HcmfmWv. 1889 ¬ (Um¿hn≥ A¥cn®v 7 h¿
jØn\ptijw) Unhvdnkns‚ Intra cellualar Pangenesis F∂ ]pkvXIw
h∂p. kkyßfnse heredity ssIamdp∂ hkvXp°ƒ°v ]m≥P≥ AY
hm ]m≥Po≥ Fs∂mcp t]cpw sImSpØp. ]n¬°meØv sshkvams‚
bpw a‰p≈hcptSbpw I≠p]nSpØßfpsS shfn®Øn¬ ‘]m≥’ Dt]£n
°s∏´p. ‘Po≥’ (P\nXIw) F∂ t]cv kzoIcn°s∏´p. 1909 ¬ Um\n
hn¬slw sPmlm≥k¨ BZyambn ‘Po≥’ F∂ ]Zw {]tbmKn®
hy‡nbmWv. sP\n‰nIvkns‚ ]nXmhv {KnK¿ sa≥U¬ BWv. Unhvdn
kns‚ ImeØpXs∂ hneyw t_‰vk¨ CtX ]T\߃ \SØpIbpw
‘sP\n‰nIvkv’ F∂ ]Zw {]tbmKn°bpw sNbvXncp∂p. 1899 ¬ Xs‚
{]_‘w {]kn≤oIcn°pw apºv In´mhp∂ F√m d^d≥kpw X∏nbt∏m
gmWv Uohvdnkv Xm≥ ]d™sX√mw X\nbv°paptº {KnK¿ sa≥U¬
]d™n´ps≠∂dnbp∂Xv. 1865 ¬ Xs∂ 2 {]_‘ambn AXv sa≥U¬
AhXcn∏n®ncp∂p. 1900 ØnemWv Unhvdnkns‚ {]_‘߃ hcp∂Xv.
BZytØXn¬ ({^©p`mj) At±lw sa≥Uens\ ]cma¿in®n√c≠matØXn¬ (P¿Ω≥ `mj) At±lw sa≥Uens\ Gsd hmgvØn.
“Law of segregation of hybrids” sa≥Uens‚ I≠p]nSpØamsWs∂
gpXn. 1900 ¬ Øs∂ P¿Ω\nbn¬ Imƒ tImd≥kv, Bkv{Snbbn¬
FdnIv skbvsk\°v F∂nhcpw CtXt]mse Cßs\ Htch¿jw Htc
I≠p]nSpØw \SØnb aq∂pt]¿, XßfpsS ap≥Kmanbmbn Hcmsf
119

{]Imikn‘p

Cu I≠p]nSpØØn\hIminbmbn {]Jym]n®Xv (At±lw At∏mtg
°pw acn®ncp∂p) BcmWv Xßfn¬ apº≥ F∂ X¿°w Hgnhm°m\m
sW∂v Hcp {][m\ Ncn{X]mThpw imkv{X⁄cpsS Cu IY Xcp∂p≠v.
sa≥U¬ sshZnIthjw [cn® Hcp {KmaoW I¿jI≥ am{Xambn
cp∂n√. \∂mbn s{Sbn\nßv In´nb Hcp imkv{X⁄\pw IqSnbmbncp∂p
F∂v A∂pw C∂pw imkv{XtemIw Hm¿°mdn√. Xms\¥mWv sNøp∂
sX∂v \∂mbdn™p Xs∂bmWt±lw ]co£Ww \SØnbncp∂Xv.
_tbmfPnbnte°v imkv{Xobamb kao]\w sIm≠ph∂hcn¬ At±
lw ap≥]¥nbnemWv. Bkv{Xnbbnse samdmhnbbn¬ P\n® sPm
lm≥, sshZnI\mbt∏mƒ s{KK¿ F∂ \maw IqSn kzoIcn®p. Hcp
Zcn{Z I¿jI IpSpw_Øn¬ P\n® B _p≤nam\mb Ip´nbv°v bqWn
thgvkn‰nbn¬ ]Tn°m≥ ]Wap≠mbncp∂n√. 1843 ¬ Xs‚ hnZym`ymkw
XpScm≥ a‰pam¿§an√m™mWv At±lw aTØn¬ tN¿∂Xv (sk‚ v
tXmakv aTw- {_q¨). AhnSpsØ Xeh≥ kn\n¬ {^m≥kv \m∏n\v
Xs‚ aTw Hcp _p≤nPohn tI{μambn Db¿ØWsa∂pw AhnsS aTØn
s‚ 4 NpacpIƒ°∏pdw Io¿Øn ]cØp∂ Hcp kkyimkv{X⁄≥,
Hcp Bkvt{SmWa¿, Hcp ^ntemk^¿, Hcp Itºmk¿ F∂nh¿ D≠m
hWsa∂pw B{Klap≠mbncp∂p. Zcn{Zcpw _p≤nam∑mcpamb Ip´nIsf
CXn\mbn At±lw Xs‚ aTØn¬ tNcm≥ t{]cn∏n®ncp∂p. 1851 ¬ 29
mw hb n¬ sa≥U¬ hnb∂ bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ tNcptºmƒ {In
kvXy≥ tUm]vf¿ AhnsS ^nknIvkv s{]m^kdmWv. 2 h¿jamWv
aTØn¬ \n∂v ]T\Øn\v kabw sImSpØncp∂Xv. AXn\Iw Experimental Physics, Statistics & Probability, sIankv{Snbnse Atomic Theory,
Plant Physiology F∂nh At±lw ]Tn®p. Un{Kn FSp°e√, \∂mbn
Adnhpt\Sn \√ A≤ym]I\mbn aTØnte°v 2 h¿jØn\Iw Xncn®p
hcembncp∂p At∫m´mb \m∏ns‚ Bhiyw. AXv IrXyambn sa≥
U¬ \S∏m°n. 1856 ¬ At±lw Xs‚ ‘]b¿h¿§’ßfnse sldnUn‰n
]T\w XpSßn. 7 h¿jw XpS¿®bmbn \nco£n®p. aTØnse tXm´Øn¬
35 ao‰¿ x 7 ao‰¿ ÿew CXn∂p≈Xmbncp∂p.
28000 sNSnIfn¬ 12835 FÆw k{i≤ \nco£WØn\v ]m{X
am°n (At±lØns‚ Ãm‰nÃnIvkv ]cnNbw hfsctbsd CXn\v klm
bIambn). Hmtcm sNSnbpw Hcp a\pjys\t∏mse, Hcp hy‡nbmbn´pw,
Hmtcm∂ns‚bpw ]n≥KmanIƒ Hcp a\pjyhwi hr£ambpw ]Tn®Xv
AXphscbp≈ _tbmfPnÃpIfn¬ \n∂v At±lsØ hyXykvX\m
120

{]Imikn‘p

°p∂p (a‰p≈hcmcpw A{X imkv{Xobambncp∂n√). CXn\v Hmtcm sNSn
anYp\ßsf (2 sNSn) hy‡nIfmbn IW°m°n H∂nse ]cmKw kz¥w
ssIsIm≠v as‰m∂n¬ FØnbv°pIbpw, a‰p sNSnIfnse ]cmKw
AXn¬ hogmsX Im°pIbpw, Xm≥ sNøp∂Xns‚sb√mw sdt°m¿Uv
k{i≤w tcJs∏SpØpIbpw sNtø≠Xp≠mbncp∂p. CsX√mw Xs‚
A≤ym]\, ]utcmlnXy DØchmZnØ߃ IrXyambn \n¿Δln®p
sIm≠pXs∂ sa≥U¬ sNbvXp.
as‰mcp Imcyw ]et∏mgpw BfpIƒ hnkvacn°p∂Xv, sa≥Uen
s‚ ]co£W߃ ^nknknÃpIfptSXpt]mse B¿°pw Bh¿Øn®p
sXfnbn°mhp∂ coXnbnembncp∂p F∂Xpw, Xs‚ KthjW ^eß
sf A\ssekv sNøm≥ At±lw IrXyamb Ãm‰nÃnIvkv am\Zfiw
kzoIcn®ncp∂p F∂XpamWv. sa≥Uens‚ ]T\Øn¬ an\pØ
(smooth) hnØp≈Xpw, ]cpØ (rough) hnØp≈Xpamb c≠p sNSnI
sf S, R F∂v \maIcWw sNbvXp. SS, RR, SR F∂ 3 Xcw kwtbmK߃
Ch 2 sIm≠p≠mhmw. Hcp sNSn AYhm hy‡nbpsS ÿqeicocw/
kz`mhw (phenotype) AXns‚ kq£vakz`mhamb Pot\mssS∏v sIm
≠mWp≠mhp∂Xv. RR sNSn ]cpØ hntØ D≠m°q. SS sNSn an\pØ
hnØpw. ]s£ SR F∂ k¶ckq£va cq]Øn\v c≠pw D≠m°mw.
]s£ Cu A\p]mXw ]IpXn R, ]IpXn S F∂√. R s\ Xg™v S am
{Xw phenotype BIp∂Xns\ S tUman\‚ v, R dn  nhv F∂v sa≥U¬
hnfn®p. RR kkyßfn¬ \n∂p≠mb XeapdIsf SS kkyßfn¬ \n
∂p≠mb XeapdIfpambn sa≥U¬ h¿Æk¶cw \SØn. 75 % ]pXnb
Xeapdbv°v S phenotype, 25 % R phenotype F∂p I≠p. CXn∂pImcWw
RS, SR F∂ c≠phn[a√msX Ip´nIƒ D≠mhm≥ hø F∂Xpw, CXp
c≠pw Equivalent BsW∂XpamWv. ASpØ Xeapdbn¬ 4 Pot\mssS∏v
hcpw (RR, RS, SR, SS). CXn¬ RR am{Xw ]cpØ hnØp≠m°pw.
CXns\ ASpØ Xeapd (t]c°p´n) bnte°v
sa≥U¬
sIm≠pt]mbn. AXn\∏pdw At\Iw
SS
RR
XeapdIfntebv°pw- t{Imatkmanep≈ P\nXI
߃ kz`mhw XeapdIfnte°p ]Icp∂p F∂pw
t{Imatkmw Hcp anYp\w (pair) Btb Ccn°q
SR RS
F∂pw ASpØ Xeapdbnte°v H∂v A—s‚
t{Imatkmapw H∂v AΩbpsS t{ImatkmapamWv
RR SS SR RS ssIamdp∂sX∂pw C∂v \ap°dnbmw. am{Xa√
121

{]Imikn‘p

hnØptImißfn¬ Cu ssIam‰thfbn¬ Nne `mK߃ ]ckv]cw
ssIamdp∂ps≠∂pw (c≠p t{Imatkmw XΩn¬) Adnbmw. 42 mw
hb n¬ sa≥U¬ CsX√mw ]dbptºmƒ tI´ncp∂ _tbmfPnÃpIƒ
At±lØns‚ kn≤m¥w H‰ A£cw a\ nem°nbn√- 1868 ¬ kndn¬
{]m≥kv \m∏v acn®p. sa≥U¬ aTØns‚ A≤y£\mbn. 46 mw hb n¬
At±lØns‚ ]pXnb aX]camb Uyq´nIƒ IqSn. ]gb tXm´hpw AXn
se imkv{X \nco£Whpw, A\menknkpw {]_‘hpw Hs° Dt]£n
t°≠nh∂p. 1884 P\phcn 6 \v At±lw A¥cn®p.
20 mw \q‰m≠n¬ sa≥U¬ kn≤m¥ßƒ ho≠pw D≤cn°s∏´p.
t{Imatkmw, Po≥ F∂nhbpsS I≠p]nSpØtØmsS tamfnIyqfm¿
kq£vaehen¬ sa≥U¬ kn≤m¥ßfpsS imkv{XobX imkv{X tem
Iw Xncn®dn™p. tdm_¿´v an√n°≥ sF≥ssÃ≥ kn≤m¥sØ F∂
t]mse sa≥U¬ kn≤m¥sØ kwibtØmsS ho£n® BfmWv
Atacn°bnse tXmakv l≠v tam¿K≥. Ct±lw Drosophila F∂ Fruitfly bn¬ ]co£Ww \SØn sa≥Uens‚ \nbaw kkytemIsØ
Nne efnX KpWßsf am{Xw kw_‘n°p∂ kvs]jy¬ \nbaßfm
sW∂pw PohtemIØn\p apgph≥ AXv kmam\yambn _m[Ias√∂pw
Is≠Øn (1933 ¬ t\m_¬ ss{]kv In´n). t{Umtkm^ne F∂m¬
a™pXp≈nbpsS ImapIs\∂¿∞w. No™fnbp∂ ]gßfnse boÃv
BWv (dew A√) Chsb ]gØnte°v BI¿jn°p∂Xv. sa≥Uen\v
ASpØ Xeapd ]bdns\ \nco£n°m≥ Hcp h¿jw Im°Ww. 1/8
C©v \ofap≈ t{Umtkm^ne Hcp]£Øn¬ (2 BgvN- 14-15 Zn\w)
Hcp ]pXnb Xeapd P\n∏n°pw. Hcp s]¨ t{Umtkm^ne Htc kabw
At\Iw ap´bnSpw. AXn\v 4 tPmSn t{Imatkmw am{Xsa D≈p. AXn
\m¬ F√mwsIm≠pw sldnUn‰n ]Tn°m≥ Ffp∏amWv Chbn¬. 4
tPmUn t{Imatkman¬ 3 tPmSn Htc t]mencn°pw. Hcp tPmSn enwK
\n¿Æbw sNøp∂XmWv. ChbpsS BIrXn hyXymkap≠v. Chsb X
F∂pw Y F ∂pw hnfn°p∂p. sa≥U¬ \nbaw A\pkcn®v XX, XY,
YY F∂v Ch ssIamdpIbn√. XX (kv{Xo), XY (]pcpj≥) F∂v c≠v
coXntb D≈p. AXmbXv Hmtcm hy‡nbpw (kv{Xobpw ]pcpj\pw) Xs‚
AΩbn¬ \n∂v Hcp ‘X’ Dƒs°m≈p∂p≠v. ]s£ A—\n¬ \n∂v kzo
Icn°p∂ X (A—ΩbpsS X), Y (A—≥, apXentßm´p≈ Y) F∂nh
A\pkcn®mWv Hcp hy‡nbpsS kv{Xo]pcpj enwK\n¿Æbw \SØp
∂Xv.
122

{]Imikn‘p

DZmlcWambn F∂n¬ D≈ 2X ¬ Hcp X \me∏m´v AΩnWnbΩ
bptSXmWv. at‰ X Fs‚ A—\n¬ \n∂v, A—Ω Imfn]pdbØp Ip™n
°p´nbΩbpsS Po\mWv. Fs‚ ktlmZc\nse X \me∏m´v AΩnWnbΩ
bptSXmWv. Ahs‚ Y A—≥ Imfn]pdbØp sI.Pn. IcpWmIc tat\m
\n¬ \n∂v In´nb, At±lØns‚ ]nXmhv ]øØp tKmhnμtat\ms‚
P\nXIamWv. CXmWv tam¿Ks‚ dnk¿®ns‚ kmcw. CX\pkcn®v Hcp
{]tXyI ^ot\mssS∏v D≠mhm≥ ]pcpj\v Xs‚ X t{Imatkman¬
AXns‚ Po≥ D≠mbm¬ aXn (DZmlcWw ]q®°Æv). Hcp kv{Xobv°v
c≠v X epw (alleles) CXps≠¶nte AXp≠mhWsa∂p≈p. t{Imatkm
apIfn¬ \qen¬ apØptIm¿Ø t]msebp≈ P\nXIßsf tam¿K≥
Is≠Øn. ssewKntImev]mZ\Øn¬ P\nXIßfpsS Cross over,
Recombinations Is≠Øn. Aßs\ t{Imatkmanse P\nXI mapping
]Xps°∏Xps° km≤yambn. 1915 ¬ tam¿K\pw kl{]h¿ØIcpw
The mechanism of Mendelean Heredity {]kn≤oIcn®p. 1926 ¬ tam¿Ks‚
The theory of the gene h∂p. 1945 Unkw_¿ 4 \v Iment^m¿Wnbbn¬
sh®v At±lw \ncymX\mbn.
At\Imbncw XeapdIfneqsS C{]Imcw D≈ P\nXI ssIam‰
ßfm¬ am{Xsa Hcp `q`mKØv ssPh sshhn≤yw km≤yamIq F∂mWv
tam¿Ks‚ ]T\w ImWn°p∂Xv. ssPh sshhn≤yap≈ t{Sm∏n°¬
ag°mSpIƒ, At\Ihn[w a\pjyhwi߃ hkn°p∂ C¥y, Ahsb
sb√mw ¢mknss^ sNbvXv t]cv sImSp°m\pw t{ImtWmfPn sh®v
hwihr£w hcbv°m\pw ChnSsØ Ejnam¿ Im´nb ipjvIm¥n F∂n
ßs\ ]eXpw Cu imkv{X]ivNmØeØn¬ ‘anØv’/]mK\nkw/h¿§
hnthN\w apXemb ]Xnhp]Z߃°∏pdØv Hcp P\XbpsS ]g°w,
A\p`hw, AXn¬ \n∂p≠mb imkv{XhnthIw F∂ coXnbn¬ hnebn
cpØs∏tS≠hbmWv. ]cnÿnXntbmSnWßn Pohn°m≥ ssewKntIm
ev]mZ\w \SØp∂ PohnIƒ°v km[n°p∂Xns‚ clkyhpw CXneS
ßnbncn°p∂p (Biodiversity bn¬)- a\pjy\n¬ Ahs‚ ÿqe kz`mhw
(phenotype) \n¿Æbn°m≥ 30000 P\nXIßfp≠v. CXn¬ 93 % tlmtam
sskKkv (Hcp tPmSnbnse 2 FÆhpw Hcpt]mse) BWv, F√m a\pjy
cnepw. 7 % sl‰ tdm sskKkv. Cu hyXykvX AeoepIƒ “ayqt´j≥”
sIm≠p≠mbhbmWv. Ch ^ot\mssS∏n¬ henb am‰w hcpØm≥
]cym]vXa√. ]cnÿnXntbmSv tbmPn®pt]mIp∂ ayqt´j≥ am{Xw \nc
¥camhp∂Xn\m¬ 7% ¬ Ipdhp hcp∂ Cu ayqt´j≥ AeoepIƒ
123

{]Imikn‘p

\ne\n∂Xn\¿∞w AXv Hcp natural selection BsW∂mWv. 2000 tPmSn
P\nXI߃ hyXykvXamb 2 alleles ¬ (2)2000 hn[Øn¬ 2 hy‡nIƒ
XΩn¬ hyXykvX ]pe¿Ømw. CXv Hcp Bkv{SmWan°¬ kwJysb
t∏mepw tXmev]n°p∂XmWv. Htc AfiØn¬ \n∂ph∂ 2 Identical
twins A√msX, as‰mcp tPmSn a\pjycpw F√mhn[Ønepw Hcp t]mencn
°m≥ {]IrXnbn¬ ssewKntImev]mZ\w A\phZn°p∂n√. Frederich
Meiseler (1844-1895) saUnkn≥ ]Tn®v en]vknKnse ^nkntbmfPn hn`m
Kw Xeh\mbncp∂ Hcp _tbmsIanÃmWv. At±lØns‚ A≤ym]
I≥ dqtUmƒ^n¿tlmhns‚ AknÂmbncp∂Xn\m¬ tImißsf°p
dn®v ]Tn°p∂Xn¬ Xev]c\mbncp∂p. anj¿ shfpØ c‡mWp°sf
]Tn°m≥ XpSßn. t{]m´o\pIfmWv sskt‰mπmkØnse∂v anj¿
I≠p]nSn®p. AXphsc Bcpw sNømØ, H∂v At±lw \n¿Δln®Xv
sskt‰mπmkØn¬ \n∂v Hcp tISp]mSpw IqSmsX \yq¢nb ns\ th¿
Xncns®Sp°emWv. \yq¢nb ns‚ LS\ t{]m´o\√, \yq¢nbn≥ BsW
∂pw CXn¬ Im¿_¨, ssl{UP≥, HmIvknP≥, ss\{SP≥ F∂nhbm
Wv (a‰v ssPh tamfnIyqfpIsft∏mse) D≈sX∂pw I≠p. am{Xa√
AXn¬ Ht´sd “t^mkv^dkv” Ds≠∂pw! tizXc‡mWp°fn¬ am{X
a√, F√m tImißfnepw Aßs\bmsW∂t±lw I≠p]nSn®p. _mkv
sebn¬ s{]m^kdmbt∏mƒ ‘kmƒa¨’s‚ ip¢tImisØ At±lw
]Tn®p. Hcp sperm Hcp \yq¢nb v am{XamWv. sskt‰mπmkan√. AXn\v
BsI D≈ Hcp sXmgn¬ ]‰nb HcfisØ Is≠Øn, ASpØ Xeap
dbv°p≈ _oPmhm]w am{XamIbm¬ sskt‰mπmkw Bhiyan√. Xs‚
Dev]Zm\ t£{XØnte°v ssat{K‰v sNøp∂ kmƒaWpIƒ Ht´sd
sperm D≠m°p∂p. CXn\mbn icocØnse H´\h[n a‰ptImi߃,
t{]m´o\pIƒ F∂nhsb D]tbmKn°p∂p. \yq¢o≥ At\Iw Aavf߃
D≈ Hcp henb tamfnIyqfmsW∂v Cu ]T\Øn¬ I≠ AXns\ \yq
¢nbn°v BknUv F∂v ]p\¿\maIcWw sNbvXp. F∂m¬ IqSpX¬
_tbmsIankv{Snbn¬ {i≤n® At±lw CXneqsSbmWv sldnUn‰n ssI
amdp∂sX∂dn™n√. 1885 ¬ Hmkv°m¿ sl¿´vhn§mWv CXv ]d™Xv.
1896 ¬ Atacn°≥ _tbmfPnÃv FUva≠v hn¬kWpw CXv Xncn®dn
™p. C∂v DNA bpsS LS\ F√mh¿°pw Adnbmw. Hcp ]©`qX
dnt_mkv (Hcp ]©kmc- 4 C, Hcp HmIvknP≥ B‰w, OH aqeIfn¬),
Hcp t^mkvt^‰v {Kq∏v ([mcmfw t^mkv^dkv D≈Xv), t_kpIƒ (Kzm
\n≥, AUn\n≥, sskt‰mkn¬, ssXan≥, bpdmkn¬- G, A, C, T, U).
124

{]Imikn‘p
Ribose, Pentagon AXn\v RNA F∂ t]cp\¬Ip∂p. Hcp HmIvkn
P≥ B‰w IpdhmbXn\v DNA F∂v t]cv. RNA bn¬ G, A, U, C; DNA
bn¬ G, A, C, T. s{^kv {Kn^nØv F∂ {_n´ojv ssat{Im_tbmfPnÃv
(1881-1941) \yqtamWnb D≠m°p∂ _mIvSocnbIsf°pdn®v (pneumococci) ]Tn°ptºmƒ Hcp {]Xn`mkw I≠p. c≠pXcw \yqtamtIm°
 n¬ H∂v amcIw, H∂v amcIa√. amcIamb \yqtamtIm° ns\ NqSp
sIm≠v sIm∂v B extract IpØnsh®m¬ Fenbv°v \yqtamWnb ]nSn
°p∂n√. ]s£ AtX extract, amcIa√mØ Poh\p≈ \yqtamtIm°
 ns‚ IqsS an{inXam°n IpØnsh®m¬ amcIamb \yqtamWnb ]nSn
°p∂p. 1944 ¬ HmkvhmƒUv Bshdn, tImfn≥ a¢ntbmUv, a¢n≥ a°m
¿Øn F∂nh¿ {Kn^nØns‚ 1928 se ]co£WØn¬ ]dbp∂ tcmK
ImcWw Hcp ‘sIan°¬’ A√, Hcp t{]m´o≥ A√, ]s£ DNA bmWv
F∂v ]d™p. F¿hn≥ Nm¿Km^v t]∏¿ t{Imat‰m{K^n, G.V. kvs]Ivt{Sm
kvt°m∏n apXembh D]tbmKn®v Hcp species ¬ DNA bpsS Composition H∂mWv; ]s£ as‰mcp species ¬ LS\°v am‰ap≠v F∂pw,
F{X species Dt≠m A{Xbpw Xcw DNA bpw D≠v F∂pw ]d™p,
Kzm\n≥, AUn\n≥ purine IpSpw_Ønepw sskt‰mkn≥, ssXan≥ ]ncn
anUn≥ IpSpw_Ønepw s]´ t_kpIfmWv
1) Hcp kmºnƒ DNA bnse BsI purine (G+A) BsI ]ncnanUn
t\mSv (C+T) XpeyamWv.
G+A = C+T

2) A bpsSbpw T bpsSbpw XpeyamWv.
A=T

3) AXpt]mse G = e
1950 ¬ N¿Km^v \nbaw F∂ t]cn¬ {]kn≤oIcn® Cu \nba
߃ ]n¬°meØv DNA bpsS U_nƒ slenIvkv LS\ I≠p]nSn°p
∂Xnte°v \bn®p.
CXn\nSbn¬ X- ray Hcp sshZypX Im¥nI XcwKamsW∂pw AXn
\v {]ImiØn¬ \n∂p≈ hyXymkw AXns‚ sNdnb XcwKthKXbm
sW∂pw Adn™pIgn™ncp∂p. Hcp {InÃen¬ X- ray ]Xn°ptºm
gp≈ Diffraction pattern a\ nembn°gn™ncp∂p (Bragg's Law). en\kv
t]mfnßpw temd≥kv {_mKpw XΩn¬ CtX I≠p]nSpØw (Pauling's
rule) BcmZyw F∂ X¿°ambn 1950 hsc \o≠p. CsX√mw DNA
125

{]Imikn‘p
structure I≠p]nSn°m≥ ]ivNmØesamcp°n. {_mKns‚ A\pbmbn
Ifn¬ s]´ hneyw AkvXvs_dn X-ray Xallography t{]m´o\pIfnte°v
(Haemoglobin, myoglobins) hym]n∏n®v Ah \o≠ irwJem cq]Øn¬
(Polypeptide chain) H∂v H∂nt∑¬ aS°nsh®v ]¥pcq]Ønem°nbh

bmWv F∂p I≠p. t]mfnßv Cu irwJesb {Xnam\Øn¬ ]Tn°m≥
XpSßn. 1951 ¬ At±lØns‚ {Kq∏v Cu H∂nt∑¬ aS°nsh® irwJe
hmkvXhØn¬ \qepIƒ ]ncn®v Ibdp≠m°nb t]mse Hcp helix BWv
F∂v ]d™p. Cu NpcpfpIsf Aßs\ \n¿Øp∂Xv ssl{UP≥
t_m≠pIfmsW∂pw I≠p. Izm≠w sIankv{SnbpsS ssk≤m¥nIamb
Adnhn¬ Cu ∝ slenIvkv ÿm\w t\Sn. e≠≥ InMvkv tImtfPn¬
saUn°¬ dnk¿®v Iu¨kn¬ \¬Inb [\klmbtØmsS Hcp Sow
apt∂dnbncp∂p. AhnSsØ Xeh≥ tamdnkv hn¬°n≥kv kv{Xobm
sW∂ ImcWw ]d™v tdmken‚ v {^m¶vens\ Xg™Xv I≠p]nSp
Øw sshIn®p (DNA bpsS X-ray diffraction photographs tdmken‚ v
BZyta FSpØncp∂p). Cu a’cßfm¬ sPbnwkv hmSvkWpw {^m≥
knkv {In°n\pw InMvkv tImtfPnt\°mƒ apºv XßfpsS tamU¬
AhXcn∏n°m≥ km[n®p (Cambridge). 1944 ¬ Schrodinger HmSv tN¿∂v
What is life Fs∂mcp ]pkvXIw Crick FgpXnbncp∂p. A∂v Hcp t{Ima
tkmw \mcns\ an aperiodic Xal F∂mWv jvtdmUnwK¿ hnfn®Xv. AXn
s‚ elaborate, coherent meaningful design {i≤n®ncp∂p. Morse code
t]mse A£cw sIm≠v Information Xcp∂ Hs∂∂v a\ nem°nbncp
∂p. ]s£ Morse code ¬ Hcp IpØpw hcbpamWv. ChnsS 3 knw_ep
Iƒ 10 s‚ {Kq∏pIfm°n 88572 hyXykvX A£cw/AYhm en]n D≠m
°msa∂v FgpXnbncp∂p. t]mfnßns‚ tamU¬ 3 \mcv ]ncn®XmWv
F∂dn™t∏mƒ {In°pw hmSvkWpw kt¥mjn®p. ImcWw B tam
U¬ ip≤h¶ØamsW∂v t_m≤yw Xs∂. ]s£, AhcpsS G‰hpw
\√ t^mt´m{Km^pIfnsem∂v AhcdnbmsX FSpØXpw, Nm¿Km^v
Xs∂h∂v {In°n\v hnkvXcn®p ]d™psImSpØ chargaff \nbaßfpw,
s{^Udn°v {Kn^nØns‚ acpaI≥ tPm¨ {Kn^nØns‚ klmbhpw
IqSnbmWv \man∂dnbp∂ ‘hmSvk¨ {In°v tamU¬’ DNA bv°v Ds≠∂
dn™Xv. tdmken‚ns‚ U_nƒ slenIvkv tamU¬ {]kn≤oIcn°m\n
cn°ptºmfmWv tIw{_nUvPn¬ \n∂v AXn\paptº Cu tamU¬ {]kn
≤oIcn®Xv. CXn\p ImcWambXv, en\kv t]mfnßns‚ aI≥ ]o‰¿
t]mfnßv (Research student) 1953 P\phcn. 1953 ¬ hmSvkWpw {In°n\pw
126

{]Imikn‘p

Xnc°n´v Im´ns°mSpØ t]mfnßns‚ 3-helix model BWv. AXv t\m
_¬ ss{]kv X´nsbSpØXv tdmken‚ v {^m¶ven\n¬ \n∂mWv!
1990 ItfmsS a\pjy¿ 98.4% P\nXIw sKmdn√/Nnºm≥knIfpambn
]¶nSp∂p F∂dn™p. _m°n 1.6% am{XamWv At∏mƒ \ΩpsS “am\ho
bX”- as‰√mw “IpcßØ”amWv. 4 an√y≥ h¿jw apºmWv Cu Ipc
ß≥ ]q¿Δ hwiØn¬ \n∂v 1% P\nXIhyXymkap≈ \Ωƒ D≠mbXv.
]ns∂ Cu P\nXIØnsem´v am‰w h∂n´pan√. C{Xbpw sNdnb Hcp
(kq£va) hyXymkw C{Xbpa[nIw _mlyhyXymkw (phenotype) D≠m
°n F∂Xv Hm¿°pI. Cu 1% s‚ hyXymka√msX ‘Pmw_hm≥’, ‘l\p
am≥’ apXembhcpsS aqehwihpambn a\pjy\v hyXymkans√∂v cmam
bWØnepw kqN\bnt√? cq]Øn¬ Ipcß\pw I¿Ωtijnbnepw
_p≤nbnepw imkv{X⁄\pw kwKoX⁄\pamb l\pams\ Evolution
tImWnbn¬ FhnsSbmWv shbvt°≠Xv?

127

{]Imikn‘p

7. sF≥ssÃ≥, sF≥ssÃ\p tijw
_p≤nsb°pdn®v ]dbptºmƒ tPymXnimkv{XsØ°pdn®v ]db
Ww. FUva≠v lmenbpsS ImetØbv°v k¿tΔbn¬ D]tbmKn°p∂
Δ knÃw sh®v {Kl\£{XmZnIfpsS Zqcw Af°m≥ bqtdm]y¿ ]Tn®n
cp∂p (C¥ybn¬ CXns‚ ]g°w ]dtb≠Xn√s√m). Hcp ÿeØv
t]mImsX AXns\ Af°m≥ \ofw Adnbmhp∂ Hcp t\¿tcJbpsS
2 A‰Øp\n∂v thWw AXns\ ImWm≥. ]ns∂ {XntImWanXn sh®v
PymanXn Af°mw. Cßs\ N{μs‚ Zqcw 384400 In.ao. 1671 ¬ {^©v
Kn\nbnencp∂v Isb\nbpw ]mcoknencp∂v Imkn\nbpw sNmΔsb ho£n
®p. Aßs\ sNmΔbntebv°p Zqcw Af∂p.
Im n\n°v kqcy\pw `qanbpw XΩn¬ Zqcw = 140 aney≥ In.ao.
Ct∏mgsØ value -= 149.6 aney≥ In.ao.
C¥ybnse ]gb value =150.
1761, 1769 ip{Is‚ transit I≠ lmen kqcy≥-`qanbpsS Zqcw 153
aney≥ In.ao. F∂p IW°m°n. ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ Nnet∏mƒ
CXpw D]tbmKn°p∂p≠v. `qan 6 amkØnsemcn°ƒ kqcys‚ Hcp
hiØp\n∂v adphitØ°v 300 aney≥ In.ao Zqcap≈ Hcp tcJbpsS
A‰tØ°v \oßp∂p. F∂m¬ Cu c≠‰Øp\n∂p t\m°nbmepw ÿnc
Xmcÿm\Øn\v am‰an√. AtXkabw Hcp hnc¬ ssIZqcØn¬ ]nSn®v
Hmtcmtcm IÆmbns]mØn t\m°nbm¬ hncens‚ ÿm\w (Zqscbp≈
hkvXp°fpsS background ¬) \oßnbXmbn tXm∂pw (parallax). Hcp
parsec F∂p ]d™m¬, Hcp Au (Astronomic unit AYhm kqcy\pw `q
anbpw XΩnep≈ Zqcw) \ofap≈ Hcp baseline tcJbpsS c≠‰Øp
\n¬°p∂ \nco£I¿°v, BImiØnse Hcp Nm]JfiØn¬ (arc)
ImWp∂ Hcp sk°‚ v ÿm\am‰wsIm≠v Af°mhp∂ \£{XØn
te°p≈ ZqcamWv.
128

{]Imikn‘p

Hcp \£{Xw \Ωn¬ \n∂v Hcp ]m¿sk°v ZqscbmWv F∂p ]d
™m¬, 300 aney≥ In.ao. (150+150) F∂ `qanbpsS I£ybpsS hymk
Øns‚ CcphiØp\n∂p t\m°ptºmƒ AXn\v 2 sk°‚ v ÿm\
{`wiw ImWWw []u¿Æan N{μ≥ 3 an\p´v (Arc s‚) AYhm 1/2 Un
{KnbmWv Cu tImWnI AIew. AXmbXv B¿°ns‚ Hcp sk°‚ v=
1/30 s‚ 1/60 = 1/1800.
∴1/1800 BWv N{μs‚ BImiØnse BsI hoXn]
efnXamb PymanXn {]Imcw Hcp ]m¿sk°v Zqscbp≈ Hcp \£
{Xw 3.26 {]Imih¿jw AIsebmWv. AYhm \Ωn¬ \n∂v kqcyt\
°mƒ 206,265 {]mhiyw AIse. F∂n´pw, `qanbpsS kqcytI{μoIrX
amb Ne\Øm¬ C{Xbpw ÿm\{`wiw (parallal) \£{X߃ ImWn
°p∂n√. AXpsIm≠mWhsb ÿncXmcafiew F∂p IW°m°p
∂Xv. CsXms° bqtdm]y≥ imkv{Xw a\ nem°p∂Xv C¥ybpambn
]cnNbs∏´ 16 mw \q‰m≠n\ptijamWv. C¥ybnse ]gb Bkvt{SmW
an{K\vYßfnse√mw Cu Adnhns‚ Awißfpw, ]q¿Æhnhchpw, hnhn[
imkv{X⁄cpsS hnhn[ Imeßfnse \nco£W^eßfpw A`n{]mb
t`Zßfpw ImWmw (C¥ysb Is≠ج- hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m
¥nIbneqsS. NBS, Kottayam- 2nd Ed. 2000, Dr. Suvarna Nalapat).
OmtμmKy D]\njØn¬ _IZm¬_y≥ ip\I XmcØns‚ \nco
£Ww \SØp∂Xpw AXn\p≈ i¶c`mjyhpw kp[mkn‘p (DC
Books- 2003 Ed., Dr. Suvarna Nalapat) hn¬ ]d™p. ip\I≥ AYhm
kndnbkv `qanbn¬ \n∂pt\m°ptºmƒ G‰hpw {]Imiap≈ XmcamWv.
CXns‚ Zqcaf°m≥ {InkvXy≥ lyqK≥kv {ian®p. Hcp hkvXphns‚
{]Imiw AXns‚ ZqctØmSv Inverse A\p]mXØnemWv (Inverse
proportion to square of distance). kqcy{]Imihpambn XmcXays∏SpØn
bm¬ kqcyt\°mƒ 27664 {]mhiyw AIsebmWv Cu \£{Xsa∂v
lyqK≥kv ]d™p. kqcy≥ ]Iepw kndnbkv cm{Xnbpw ImWp∂Xn
\m¬ Cu XmcXayw {]bmkamWv. AXn\m¬ sPbnwkv s{KKdn (16381675) {Klßfpambn XmcXays∏SpØn (C¥y°m¿ sNbvXXpt]mse).
CXv Aev]w k¶o¿Æamb KWnXamWv. ImcWw kqcy\n¬ \n∂v {Kl
ØnseØp∂ {]Xn^en∏n°s∏´ {]Imiw F{Xam{Xw Ipd™n´p≠v
F∂pIqSn AdnbWw (kqcyshfn®w Cßs\ `qanbnseØptºmƒ Ipd
bp∂Xv C¥ybn¬ {KlWkabØv IW°m°pw. kqcy{]ImiØn\v
‘kw⁄’ F∂pw kqcys‚ {]Imiw Ipd™v {KlØn¬ {]Xn^en°p
129

{]Imikn‘p

∂Xn\v ‘Omb’ AYhm \ng¬ F∂pamWv C¥ybn¬ t]cp ]d™ncp
∂Xv). 1668 ¬ 83190 Au kndnb nte°p≈ Zqcsa∂v IW°m°n. CXn
s\ ]n∂oSv \yq´¨ ]cnjv°cn®v Hcp aney≥ Au F∂v \n¿Æbn®p. \yq
´¨ acn®v ]n∂sØ h¿jw ]pdØndßnb System of the world (1728)
F∂ At±lØns‚ {K\vYØn¬ CXv ImWmw. kndnb ntebv°v C∂v
IW°m°s∏´ncn°p∂ Zqcw 2.67 ]m¿skIv BWv. AXv 550,000 Au
BWv (C¥ybnepw amenbnse Xpw_pIvXphnse ss{S_epIƒ°nSbn
epap≈ IW°pIƒ ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ImWpI).
Cßs\ ]mcemIvkv sh®v \£{XØnte°p≈ Zqcw KWn°W
sa¶n¬ BZyw Hcp \nco£I≥ sNtø≠Xv Xm≥ \n¬°p∂nSØp\n∂v
(`qanbnse Hcp _nμp) BImi`mKsØ \£{XkaqlßfpsS ÿm\w
(position) \nivNbn®v IrXyamb Hcp Stellar map D≠m°pIbmWv. CXm
Wv cminN{Isa∂v C¥ybn¬ hnfn°p∂ ÿncXmcafieØns‚ \n¿
ΩmWØn\p ]n∂n¬ {]h¿Øn®sX∂dnbptºmƒ C¥y≥ Bkvt{Sm
WanbpsS ]g°w \n¿Æbn°mas√m. CØcsamcp \£{X Ie≠¿
bqtdm∏n¬ ^vfmw ÃoUv D≠m°n. 1830 ¬ am{XamWv hfsc sNdnb
]mcemIvkv ÿm\t`Zw IqSn IrXyambf∂v Xmcßfnte°p≈ Zqcw
bqtdm]y≥ imkv{Xw I≠p]nSn°p∂Xv. 1830 \ptijw \£{Xßsf
°pdn® imkv{Xob \nco£Ww At\Iw ]mivNmXy imkv{X⁄¿
sNbvXp. ]s£ Ah¿ X߃°v IqSpX¬ {]Imiap≈sX∂p tXm∂nb
\£{Xßsf am{Xw \nco£n°bmbncp∂p. 1838 ¬ s{^Udn°v hns√w
s_ ¬ BZyambn \£{XØnte°p≈ Zqchpw \£{XØns‚
parallax \n¿Æbhpw BZyambn imkv{XtemIØn\v t_m[n∏n®p. h¿j
߃ Ignbptºmƒ BImiØn¬ ÿeam‰w kw`hn°p∂ (Proper
motion D≈) 61 knKv\n (61 cygni- CXv ss]Xmals‚ [\njvTw \£{X
kaqlØnse HcwKamWv) bpsS ]mcemIvkv 0.3136 sk°‚ /v Arc F∂pw
Zqcw 10.3 {]Imih¿jw F∂pw \nivNbn®p. C∂v B[p\nI imkv{Xw
3.4 ]m¿skIv, AYhm 11.2 {]Imih¿jw F∂mWv \nivNbn®n´p≈Xv.
1832 ¬ s_ en\p aptº tXmakv sl≥tUgvk¨ kuØv B{^n°
bnencp∂v B¬^ skt‚mdnbpsS ]mcemIvkv \nivNbn®ncp∂p. Cu
\£{Xw cm{Xn BImiØn¬ ImWp∂ {]Imi Xmcßfn¬ 3 ma\mWv.
1 sk°‚ v/Arc Parallax (]n∂oSv 0.76 sk°‚ v F∂m°n) sh®v 1.3 ]m¿
sk°v, 4.3 {]Imih¿jw AIse F∂t±lw \n¿Æbn®p. ]s£ 1839
¬ Cw•≠n¬ Xncns®Ønbtijsa {]kn≤oIcn®p≈p. 3 \£{X߃
130

{]Imikn‘p

]ckv]cw Np‰n°dßp∂ ∝ skt‚mdn kqcy\v G‰hpw ASpØp≈ Xm
camWv. G‰hpw A[nIw ]mcemIvkv D≈XmWv. s{^Udn°v thm¨kv{Sp
th sk‚ v ]ot‰gvkv s_¿§nencp∂v thK (∝ entd) sb Af∂p. At±
lØns‚ IW°v hfsc A[nIambnt∏mbn. C∂v thKbpsS ]mcemIvkv
0.2613 sk°‚ v/Arc, Zqcw 8.3 ]m¿sk°v (27 {]Imih¿jw) BWv. kq
cy\n¬ \n∂v G‰hpw AIsebp≈ πqt´m F∂ {KlØn¬ \n∂v 7000
{]mhiyw AIsebmWv kqcys‚ G‰hpw ASpØp InS°p∂ \£{Xw!!
C{Xbpw hnkvXrXamb \£{XafiesØ IrXyambn Hcp \£{X
kaqlØn\v 13°20' sh®v, IrXyambf∂v ÿm\w, AXns‚ ]mcemIvkv
\nbaw, Zqcw, {KlafieØns‚ I£y, Zqcw, N{μI£y, Ne\w, {K
lW\nbaw, [qamZn]©Isa∂ [qatIXphns‚ k©mc]Yw, IqSmsX
At\I \£{XßfpsS {]tXyI \nco£Ww ([ph≥, k]vX¿jn, ip
\I≥, hknjvTXmcw, I]neXmcw, {Xni¶p, Acp‘Xn apXembh DZm
lcW߃) F∂nh Ncn{XmXoX ImeØp sNbvXmWv \man∂p Im
Wp∂ cminafiesa∂ C¥y≥ kwhn[m\w Ncn{XmXoX ImeØv
KWnXw, \nco£Ww Ch sIm≠v Ejnam¿ D≠m°nbXv. AXns\ 16
mw \q‰m≠n\ptijw bqtdm]y≥ imkv{XØns‚ sSIvt\mfPn A\pZn\w
]co£n®v icnsh®psIm≠ncn°bmWv (C¥ybn¬ AXns‚ {]mYanI
XXz߃ AdnbmsX hna¿in°p∂hcpw, AXns\ Xebnte‰n ]qPn°p
∂hcpw IqSn hcnIbpw!).
lyqK≥kpw s{KKdnbpw \yq´\pw ip\IXmcØns‚ {]Imiw I≠p
]nSn®mWv ZqcØnseØnbXv. Xncn®v Zqcadnbmsa¶n¬ {]Imiw (absolute
magnitude) IW°m°pIbpw sNømw. CXpc≠pw C¥ybn¬ sNbvXncp
∂Xmbn hcmlanlnct‚bpw ]ctaizct‚bpw {K\vYßfn¬ ImWmw.
\Ωn¬ \n∂v 2.67 ]m¿skIv Zqscbp≈ ip\IXmcw kqcyt\°mƒ {]
Imiap≈XmsW∂v \yq´¨ Adn™ncp∂n√. 19 mw \q‰m≠n¬ Xmcß
fpsS ÿm\w t^mt´m{Km^n°v tπ‰pIfp]tbmKn®v sdt°mUpsNbvXv
]mcemIvkv Ffp∏Øn¬ Af°m≥ km[n®p. AXn\papºv \Kv\t\{Xw,
sSekvt°m∏v ChbmWv D]tbmKn®ncp∂Xv. 1900 ¬ Cßs\ BsI 60
]mcemIvkpIfmWv Af∂ncp∂Xv. 1950 ¬ 10000 \£{XßfpsS Zqcw
Af∂p. 20 mw \q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm\Øn¬ ln∏m¿t°mkv F∂ km‰
sse‰v hgn 120000 \£{XßfpsS ]mcemIvk,v (0.002 arc sec; IrXyambn)
Af∂p. sSIvt\mfPnbmWv imkv{XsØ bqtdm∏n¬ CXn\p klmbn
®Xv. C¥y≥ imkv{XØn\v Cu ‘sSIvt\mfPn’ C√mbncp∂p. ]s£,
131

{]Imikn‘p

akvXnjv° {]h¿Ø\Øn¬ Ah¿ bqtdm]y≥ imkv{XtØ°mƒ
F{Xtbm ap∂nembncp∂p F∂v B[p\nI imkv{X Ncn{Xhpw, bqtdm
]y≥ tImf\nIƒ D≠mb ImeL´ØnemsW∂Xv hnIkzcambsX∂
kXyhpw sXfnbn°p∂p. AXv imkv{XNcn{XØns‚ kz`mhamsW∂
Xn\m¬ AXn¬ AXv`pXs∏Sms\m∂pw C√Xm\pw. tSmfanbn¬ \n∂v
sF≥ssÃ≥ hsc Fßs\ bqtdm]y≥ Ncn{Xw hnIkn®p! AXpt]m
setb D≈p Hmtcm {]mhiyhpw C¥ybpambn ]cnNbs∏Sptºmƒ bqtdm
∏n\p≠mb hnImkw. c≠p kwkv°mcßfpsS kwtbmKw sIm≠p≠m
bXmWv AsX∂v a\ nem°nbm¬ B¿°pw kp∏ocntbmdn‰n tImwπ
Ivkpw th≠, C≥^ocntbmdn‰n tImwπIvkpw th≠.
\£{X-ßfpsS {]Xn_nw_w, AhbpsS kvs]Iv{Sw F∂nh t^m
t´m{Km^nIv sSIv\n°v hgn ÿncambn kq£n°m≥ km[n®tXmsS B[p
\nI tPymXnimkv{Xw 20 mw \q‰m≠n¬ A`qX]q¿Δambn hf¿∂p. \£
{XßfpsS ]nfisØ°pdn®v ip\IXmcw apXemb ss_\dnIfneqsS
am{Xsa Duln°m\mhq (C¥ybn¬ ip\I al¿jn, hknjvT al¿jn
XpSßnbh¿ C{]Imcw X߃ \nco£n® ss_\dnIfpsS t]cn¬ Adn
bs∏Sp∂hcmWv- Sirius, Mizar). ss_\dnIfpsS Zqcw tImWnI AIe
Øn¬ Af∂v AXns\ tcJmcq]Ønte°v (linear distance) am‰Ww.
Hcp ss_\dn as‰m∂ns\ Np‰p∂ thKX AhbpsS {]ImiØns‚
kvs]Iv{SØnep≈ “tUm]vf¿” C^IvSpsIm≠v imkv{X⁄¿ a\ n
em°n. \Ωn¬ \n∂v Zqtc°pt]mIp∂ hkvXp Nph∏pw (red shift) ASp
tØ°phcp∂ hkvXp \oebpw (blue shift) hkvXphns‚ thKXbv°\p
krXambn ImWn°pw. CXpw, {Kl߃ kqcys\ Np‰p∂ t]msebmWv
\£{Xw \£{XsØ Np‰p∂sX∂ sIπdpsS {Kl\nbahpw sh®v
\£{XØns‚ ]nfiw Adnbmw. sIankv{Snbv°v periodic table t]mse
Bkvt{Sm ^nknIvkn\v ]ca{][m\amb sl¿´vkv{]Mv- d ¬ Nn{Xw,
\£{XßfpsS h¿Æhpw {]Imihpw _‘s∏SpØns°m≠v D≠mbn.
tIm∏≥ lmK\nencp∂v imkv{X]T\hpw KthjWhpw XpSßnb sl¿
´vkv{]Mv Imƒ jzm¿´vkvssN¬Uns‚ IqsS s\X¿em‚nte°v t]mb
BfmWv. 1919 ¬ AhnsS sseU≥ bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ s{]m^kdpw
1935 ¬ sseU≥ H_vk¿th‰dn UbdIvSdpambn. 1944 ¬ dn´b¿ sNbvXv
sU≥am¿°n¬ h∂v imkv{XKthjWw XpS¿∂p. 1967 HIvtSm_¿ 21
\mWv acn®Xv. At±lw Hcp AsaNzdmb ImeØmWv {]kn≤amb
Xs‚ ‘Ub{Kw’ D≠m°nbXv. sl‚nt\mdnkv d ¬ Atacn°bn¬
132

{]Imikn‘p

P\n®p. 1911 ¬ {]n≥kvS¨ bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ Bkvt{SmWa¿ Bbn.
AhnsS sh®v kzX{¥ \nco£WØm¬, sl¿´vkv{]Mv Is≠Ønb
AtX _‘w (h¿Æhpw \£{XØns‚ {]Imihpw XΩn¬) Is≠
Øn {Km^v cq]Øn¬ AhXcn∏n®p. temIØns‚ c≠‰Øncp∂v, c≠p
\nco£I¿ Cßs\ H∂pXs∂ kzX{¥ambn, Htc ImeØv I≠p]nSn
®p (HR F∂v AhcpsS t]cns‚ BZym£cØn¬ Cu {Km^v Adnbs∏
Sp∂p). 1947 ¬ dn´b¿ sNbvX d ¬ 1957 s^{_phcn 18 \v {]n≥kvSWn¬
acn®p. ChcpsS Nn{Xw Hcp Colour magnitude Nn{XamWv. Bkvt{SmWan
bn¬ magnitude AYhm {]Imiw AXns‚ h¿Æhpw NqSpw XΩnep≈
_‘amWv. \oebpw shfp∏pw \£{X߃°v Ft∏mgpw AXoh {]Im
iap≠v. Nph∏pw Hmd©pw NneXv {]Imin°pw, NneXv aßn°mWpw
(Hert sprung). Hcp \£{XØns‚ ‘h¿Æ’sØ Bkvt{SmWanbn¬
\n¿ΔNn°p∂Xv, hyXykvX XcwKssZ¿LyØn¬ Ah {]kcn∏n°p∂
Du¿÷ambn´mWv; CXv {]Imiw ]pds∏Sphn°p∂ \£{X{]XeØn
s‚ NqSns\bpw {Kln∏n°p∂p.
(h¿Æw = Du¿÷w = NqSv.
h¿Æw = XcwKssZ¿Lyw
F∂ Cu Adnhns‚ ]g°w “\mZh¿Æm”flnIbmb {]IrXn, {]]
©w F∂nhbpsS ⁄m\Øn¬ C¥ybnse tPymXnimkv{X⁄¿ {]I
Sn∏n®n´p≠v. ]s£ AXv sXfnbn°m≥ sSIvt\mfPn a\pjyh¿§Øn\v
Ct∏mtg In´nbp≈p.)
Black body radiation s‚ KpW߃ sh®v Hcp \£{X {]XeØnse
NqSv 2 As√¶n¬ 3 XcwKssZ¿Lyw am{Xw Af∂m¬ \n¿Æbn°mw.
NqSv F¥pXs∂bmbmepw, \£{XØns‚ {]Imiw (absolute magnitude)
\£{Xw {]kcn∏n°p∂ Du¿÷Øns‚ e£WamWv. Nne Nph∂
Xmc߃ hfsc hepXpw {]ImihØpamWv; ]s£ XWpØhbmWv.
sNdnb Hcp \£{Xw \oetbm shfpt∏m Bbm¬ \√ {]Imiap≠mhpw.
kqcy≥ Hcp sNdnb Hmd©p\£{XamWv. kqcys‚ AtX hep∏ap≈
NqSp≈ Hcp \£{XtØ°mƒ (CØcw sNdnb Hmd©p\£{X߃)
{]Imiw IpdhmWv; kqcys‚ A{XXs∂ NqSp≈ Hcp henb \£{X
tØ°mƒ {]Imiw IpdhmWv. \£{XßfpsS h¿Æhpw {]Imihpw
HR Ub{KØn¬ {Km^v cq]Øn¬ ImWn®m¬ CXns‚ I¿Æ`mKØn
s‚ Hcp henb ]´taemWv A[nI \£{Xßfpw. Cu ]´bpsS Hc‰Øv
kqcyt\mfw hymkap≈ NqSp≈ henb \£{X߃; sNdnb, XWpØ,
133

{]Imikn‘p

{]Imiw Ipd™h at‰ A‰Øpw- kqcy≥ (average star) Cu {][m\
koIz≥kns‚ a≤yØn¬ hcpw. aßnb sNdnb, NqSpIqSnb \£{X
߃ (sh≈°p≈≥) {][m\ koIz≥kn\p Xmsgbpw henb, XWpØ,
{]Imiap≈h (Nph∂ `oa≥) apIfnepw hcpw. Cu Ub{KamWv BZy
sØ Bkvt{Sm ^nknknÃv Bb B¿X¿ FUnßvSsW, \£{XØn
s‚ ]nfiw (mass), ÿm\w (Position) F∂nhbpsS _‘w \n¿ΔNn
°m≥ klmbn®Xv. 1913 hsc {Ko\n®v H_vk¿th‰dnbn¬ tPmen sNbvX
At±lw 1914 ¬ tIw{_nUvPn¬ Bkvt{SmWan s{]m^kdpw bqWnth
gvkn‰n H_vk¿th‰dnIfpsS UbdIvSdpambn. At±lØns‚ KpWß
fn¬ NneXv ChnsS FSpØp ]dbs´.
1) \√ Hcp \nco£I≥ (Observer)
2) \√ ssk≤m¥nI≥ (Theorist)
3) \√ `cWm[n]≥ (Administrator)
4) {][m\ imkv{X kXy߃ \√ `mjbn¬ Hcp henb t{imXr
hrμtØmSv {Kln∏n°m\p≈ kwthZ\ i‡n (FgpØphgnbpw {]`mj
Ww hgnbpw). sF≥ssÃs‚ Xnbdnsb \√ Cw•ojp`mjbn¬ t]m∏p
essdkv sNbvXXv At±lamWv. 20 mw \q‰m≠n¬ At±lw Bkvt{SmW
anbv°p sNbvX kw`mh\Ifn¬ cs≠Æw F∂pw Hm¿Ωn°s∏Sp∂p.
1) FUnMvS¨ Hcp Izm°¿ Bbncp∂p. bp≤Øn\v FXncmbncp∂p.
1915 ¬ _¿en≥ A°mZanbn¬ sh®v At±lw sF≥ssÃ≥ Xnbdnsb
°pdn®p sNbvX {]`mjWw ASpØ h¿jw {]kn≤oIcn°ptºmƒ
P¿Ω\nbpw {_n´\pw XΩn¬ bp≤w \S°pIbmWv. sF≥ssÃ≥ Xnb
dnbn¬ {]hNn°s∏´ H∂v- ZqcXmcßfn¬ \n∂p≈ {]Imiw kqcyt\m
SSp°ptºmƒ hfbpw- AXn\m¬ BImiØn¬ B \£{XØns‚
ÿm\w amdp∂Xv `qanbnse \nco£I≥ ImWpw. CXv ]co£n®dnbm
hp∂Xv Hcp {KlW kabØmWv. 1919 ¬ Hcp {KlWap≠mbn. AXv
bqtdm∏n¬ Zriyambncp∂n√. 1917 ¬ tdmb¬ Bkvt{SmWan°¬ skm
ssk‰n {_koen¬ \n∂pw, B{^n°bpsS ]Sn™md≥ XocsØ {]n≥
kns∏ Zzo]n¬ \n∂pw Cu {KlWw ho£n®v t^mt´m{Kms^Sp°m≥
c≠p kwLsØ Ab°m≥ Xocpam\n®p. A∂v i‡cpw sNdp∏°mcp
amb F√mhcpw bp≤Øn\p t]mIWsa∂v {_n´ojv Kh¨sa‚ v \nbaw
]mkm°nbncp∂p. 34 hb p≈, i‡amb icocap≈ FUnMvSsW
({_n´s‚ Aaqeyamb imkv{X⁄\mIbm¬) Hgnhm°Wsa∂v im
kv{X⁄∑m¿ B`y¥chIp∏n\v \nthZ\w Ab®p. Aßs\ Hgnhm°n
134

{]Imikn‘p

bns√¶nepw, Xm≥ bp≤Øn\v FXncmIbm¬ X\n°v bp≤Øn¬ \n∂v
Hgnhv thWsa∂v FUnMvSs‚ \ne]mSv B`y¥chIp∏ns\ sNmSn∏n®p.
F¶n¬ Izm°¿ kplrØp°fpsS IqsS Irjn∏Wnbnte°v FUnMv
S¨ Xncn®pt]mIWsa∂mbn Ah¿. FUnMvS¨ AXn\p Xømdmbncp
∂p- F∂m¬ {^m¶vssUk¨ (Astronomer Royal) B`y¥c hIp∏ns\
kao]n®v sF≥ssÃs‚ {]hN\w ]co£n°m\p≈ Kh¨sa‚ v kwL
Øn¬ FUnMvS¨ AwKamIbm¬ Xocpam\w ]p\x]cntim[n®p. Aß
s\ sF≥ssÃ≥ kn≤m¥w icn F∂p Xocpam\n® {KlW \nco£I
kwLØns‚ Xeh\mbn FUnMvSsW temIw F∂pw Hm¿°m\nSbmbn.
2) H.R Ub{KØn¬, sabn≥kzoIz≥kn¬, kqcyt\°mƒ 25 Cc´n
]nfiap≈ \£{Xw kqcyt\°mƒ 4000 Cc´n {]Imiap≈XmWv. D≈n
te°p≈ KpcpXzmI¿jWØn\v FXncmbn B¥ca¿±w \£{Xw D≠m
°p∂p. IqSpX¬ ]nfiap≈hbv°v KpcpXzmI¿jWw IqSpIbm¬ IqSp
X¬ B¥ca¿±ap≠mhWw. AXn\v IqSpX¬ C‘\w D]tbmKn®v IqSp
X¬ NqSv D≠m°Ww. Cu Nn¥bneqsS FUnMvS¨ Hcp \nKa\Ønse
Øn- F√m sabn≥koIz≥kv \£{XßfpsSbpw B¥cnIXm]w H∂m
Wv (mass F¥mbncp∂mepw). AsXmcp Inbuilt Thermostat t]mse {]h¿
Øn°p∂p. Hcp hmXI]nfiw kz¥w `mcØm¬ Npcpßptºmƒ AI
Øv NqSpIqSpw- KpcpXzmI¿jtWm¿÷w NqSmbn amdpw. Hcp {In‰n°¬
Xm]\ne FØnbm¬ ]ns∂ Cu sX¿tamÃm‰v Hcn°epw Ahkm\n
°mØ (a\pjys‚ Ãm≥tUUn¬- {]]© Ãm≥tUUne√) Du¿÷w
Xcp∂ Hcp tI{μambnØocpw. AXmbXv kqcyt‚bpw \£{XßfptS
bpw Bbp v 19 mw \q‰m≠nse imkv{X⁄¿ hnNmcn® t]mse tdUnbw
sIms≠m∂pa√, k_v At‰man°v (AWphns\°mƒ sNdnb ]camWp)
F\¿Pn (Du¿÷w) sIm≠mWv. \£{XØnse Du¿÷kw`cWn ]c
amWp Du¿÷amWv. CXv \£{XØn¬ am{Xa√ k¿Δ hkvXp°fnepw
D≠v (E=mc2). Cu kw`cWn Ahkm\n°n√. AXns\ a\pjy\v F{X
thWsa¶nepw D]tbmKs∏SpØmw. `qanbpsS Du¿÷w kqcy\n¬ \n∂m
Wv. 15 _n√y≥ h¿jtØbv°v \nc¥cw Du¿÷w sImSp°m\p≈{X
Du¿÷kw`cWn Ct∏mƒ kqcy\nep≠v (1920 ¬ FUnMvS¨ {_n´ojv
Atkmkntbj≥ t^m¿ AUvhm≥kvsa‚ns‚ hm¿jnI ktΩf\
Øn¬ CXp]d™p. At±lw XpS¿∂p:-) Hcp loenbw AWp 4 ssl{U
P≥ AWp°fpsS kahmbamWv. AhnsS 1/120 ]nfiw \jvSamhp∂p≠v.
ssl{UPs‚ AWp`mcw 1.008; loenbØnt‚Xv 4 am{Xw- `mcw/]nfiw
\in°pIb√, Du¿÷ambn amdpIbmWv. AXn\m¬ ssl{UP\n¬
135

{]Imikn‘p

\n∂v loenbw D≠mhptºmƒ D≈ Du¿÷w \ap°v IW°m°m≥
Ignbpw. Hcp \£{X]nfiØn¬ 5% ssl{UP≥ B‰w loenbambm¬
D≠mhp∂ NqSpXs∂ [mcmfw aXn `qanbpsS BhiyØn\v (FUnMv
S¨ IWmZkn≤m¥w sXfnbn°p∂p).
kqcy≥ BImiKwKbn¬ Hcp km[mcW \£{XamsW∂pw {]]
©Øn¬ BImiKwK hfsc \n mcamsW∂pw At∏mƒ am{XamWv
bqtdm]y≥ imkv{Xw AwKoIcnbv°m≥ XpSßp∂Xv. [h¿Æw, {]Imiw,
h¿Æ{]Imi߃ sIm≠v \n¿Æbn°p∂ Zqcw, F∂nh Xcp∂ HR
Ub{Kw t\m°n {]mtbmKnIambn \nco£n°p∂h¿ Hm¿t°≠Xv \£
{Xw Nnet∏mƒ A¥co£Ønse s]mSn (kwkvIrXØn¬ cP v- ctPm
KpWw) sIm≠pw Nph∂p ImWmw F∂mWv. CXv Redshift A√.] Km¿
§y≥, hknjvT≥ apXembhcpsS tPymXnimkv{X {K\vYßfn¬ F{X
tbm apºv h∂ {]]© kwhn[m\w 20 mw \q‰m≠n¬ Aßs\ \ΩpsS
B[p\nI imkv{Xw Xncn®dnbm\mcw`n®p. A¥co£Ønse cP p
sIm≠p≠mhp∂ {]iv\w ]cnlcn°m≥ Htc Znibnep≈ \nch[n \£
{Xßsf t\m°n ]Tn°Ww. Hcp tImkvan°v Zqcam\w thWw. CXn\p≈
{iaw C¥ybn¬ `qa≤ytcJm`mKØpw AXn∂p Xmsgbp≈ sX°≥
N{IhmfØn¬ (Xe IpØs\- DØc{[phØn\p hn]coXw) sNbvX
h¿ IuinIs\∂ hnizman{X≥, injy≥ {Xni¶p, AKkvXyap\n, `mcy
tem]ap{Z F∂nhcmWv. C¥ybpsS IS¬ IS∂p≈ hym]mc _‘
Øn¬ sX°≥ N{IhmfØns‚ ]T\w AXn{][m\ambncp∂p (CXv
bqtdm∏n\v A{]m]yamb H∂mbncp∂p hmkvt°mUnKma°v apºv). Ncn
{XØns‚ Bh¿Ø\ßfnsem∂v, HR Ub{Kw h∂ AtX ImeØv,
FtUzUv ]n°dnßns‚ (1846-1919) Iogn¬ sX°≥ N{IhmfØnse
\£{X]T\w XpSßnbncp∂p F∂XmWv. At±lØn\v lm¿hmUn
te°v ‘s]dp’hnencp∂v \£{Xho£Ww \SØn, Im‰temKv Ab®ncp
∂Xv ktlmZc≥ hneyw ]n°dnßv (1858-1938) Bbncp∂p. s]∂pw IS
emkpw sh®v XSn® eUvPdpIfn¬ hrØnbmbn \£{Xÿm\w, {]Im
iw F∂nh tcJs∏SpØn t^mt´m{Km^n°v tπ‰pklnXw D≈ Im‰tem
KpIƒ D≠m°m≥ Hcp]mSp klmbnIƒ thWw. A[nIw ]Ww sImSp
°msX In´Ww. A°meØv bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X⁄¿ kv{XoIsf _u
≤nI {]h¿Ø\Øn\psIm≈mØhcmbn IcpXnbncp∂p. iºfan√m
sXbpw sNdnb Iqenbv°pw {]h¿Øn°m≥ Xømdp≈ Hcp kv{Xo kwL
sØs°m≠mWv ]n°dnßv Cu _rlØmb Im‰temKv D≠m°n®Xv.
136

{]Imikn‘p

Chcn¬ Nne kv{XoIƒ Bkvt{SmWanbn¬ icn°pw Xmev]cyw D≈h
cpw _p≤nbp≈hcpamsW∂v a\ nem°nb ]n°dnßv Ahsc dnk¿®n
\v t{]m’mln∏n°bpw A∂phsc ]pcpj∑m¿°pam{Xw {]thi\ap≠m
bncp∂ A°mZanIv temIØnte°v {]thin∏n°bpw sNbvXp. 1895 ¬
iºfan√mØ hf≠nbdmbn lm¿thUv bqWnthgvkn‰nbpsS dnk¿®v
kwLØn¬ tN¿∂v t^mt´m{Km^nIv t^mt´msa{Sn hn`mKw Xehnbmbn
Øo¿∂ sl≥ssd‰ kzm≥enbmhn‰v (1868-1921) ChcnsemcmfmWv. sX
°≥ N{IhmfØnse \£{Xßsf ]ecpw ]eImeØmbn \¬Inb
t^mt´m{Km^nIv tπ‰pIƒ t\m°n sFU‚nss^ sNøm\pw, GsX¶n
epw Xmcw AXns‚ ÿm\tam h¿Æsam {]Imisam amdnbn´pt≠m
F∂pw t\m°n XmcXayw sNbvXv tcJs∏SpØm\pw Bkvt{SmWanbn¬
Xev]ccmb ChscbmWv ]n°dn-ßv NpaXes∏SpØnbncp∂Xv. Aßs\
AKkvXy]Xv\n tem]map{Zsbt∏mse, sX°≥ N{Ihmfw ]Tn°p∂
Soan¬ bqtdm∏nepw Hcp A`n\h tem]map{Zbv°v ÿm\ap≠mbn.
F¥psIm≠mWv XmcØns‚ am‰w?
1) Hcp ss_\dn XmcambXpsIm≠v. \Ωƒ ImWp∂Xv Hcp ss_
\dn at‰Xns‚ ap∂neqsS IS∂pt]mIp∂ Hcp {KlWambncn°Ww.
\£{X]nfiw ]Tn°m≥ ss_\dnIfpsS ]T\w IqSntb Xocq. hkn
jvT\pw Acp‘Xnbpw t]mse (hS°≥ BImiw) kndnb pt]mse
kZm H∏w k©cn°p∂ AKkvXys‚ ss_\dn, sX°≥ {[phØnse
k]vX¿jn F∂nh CXn\p klmbn°p∂p.
2) B¥cLS\bnse am‰Øm¬ kz`mth\ \£{XØns‚ {]Im
iØn¬ am‰w hcp∂Xv. CØcw \£{Xw hnIkn°bpw kt¶mNn°bpw
sNøp∂Xv Hcp {]tXyI XmfØn¬, ImeØn¬, Bh¿Øn®mh¿Øn
®mWv. CX\pkcn®v {]Imiw amdnamdnhcpw. sk^nbnUv {Kq∏nse sU
¬´ sk^nbn CØcsam∂mWv (21 mw hb n¬, acn°p∂Xn\v 2 h¿jw
apºv, 1784 ¬ Cw•ojv Bkvt{SmWa¿ tPm¨ KpUvdn°mWv Cu \£{X
sØ ho£n®v CXv a\ nem°nbXv). sk^nbnUv {Kq∏nse Nne \£
{X߃ 1-2 ZnhkØnepw NneXv 100 ZnhkØnepw Cßs\ am‰w ImWn
°pw.
s]dphn¬ \n∂b® t^mt´m{Km^nIv tπ‰n¬ sNdpXpw hepXpamb
2 amK√m\n°v taL߃ I≠p (C∂h an¬°nth KmeIvknbpsS 2
km‰sse‰v KmeIvknIfmbdnbp∂p). sNdnb amK√m\nIv taLØnse
137

{]Imikn‘p

(SMC) sk^nbnUpIƒ, {]Imiap≈h, hfsc ]Xps°bmWv Cu
N{Iw ]q¿Ønbm°p∂sX∂v enbmhn‰v F∂ h\nXm Bkvt{SmWa¿
a\ nem°n. 1908 ¬ Ah¿ AXp dnt∏m¿´v sNbvIbpw 1912 HmSpIqSn
Cu {]ImisØ Hcp amØam‰n°¬ t^m¿apebm°n am‰m\p≈ 25
sk^nbUpIfpsS Um‰ SMC bn¬ \n∂v tiJcn°bpw sNbvXp. SMC
bnse F√m \£{Xßfpw \Ωn¬ \n∂v XpeyZqcØnemsW∂pw
(Uk≥-\qdv {]Imih¿jw) CXv `qanbn¬ \n∂p≈ Zqchpambn XmcXay
s∏SpØptºmƒ sNdnb iXam\w am{XamIbmemWv C{Xbpw sNdnb
Hcp a߬ am{Xambn \ap°\p`hs∏Sp∂sX∂pw Cu tamtU¨ tem
]map{Z a\ nem°n. SMC bnse sk^nUv Xmc߃, AhbpsS Imew
F∂nhbpsS _‘sØ Ipdn°p∂ KWnX\nbaw (]≠v tem]map{Z
tem]map{Zmkq{Xw AYhm temkp Is≠Ønbt]mse) Is≠Øn. 3
ZnhkØn¬ Hcn°¬ aßpIbpw {]Imin°bpw sNøp∂ Hcp sk^nUn
s‚ {]Imiw, 30 ZnhkØn¬ Hcn°¬ aßn {]Imin°p∂Xns‚ 1/6th
am{XamsW∂XmWv Cu \nbaw. F√m skt^mbnUpIfpw \Ωn¬ \n
∂v kaZqcamIbm¬, CtXt]mse skt^mbnUvkv ]ckv]cw _‘s∏
´ncn°bmWv. C\n, \ΩpsS sXm´SpØp≈ Ht∂m ct≠m sk^nUpIfp
sS absolute magnitude \n¿Æbnt°≠ ]Wnbpw, a‰p sk^nbnUpIƒ,
AhbpsS Zqcw F∂nh sehn‰ns‚ period-luminosity \nbaw (Ime-{]Im
i\nbaw) sh®v IW°m°p∂ ]Wnbpta _m°nbp≈p.
1913 ¬ Hertz sprung G‰hpw ASpØ sk^nUnte°p≈ Zqcw Af
∂ncp∂p. CX\pkcn®v 10000 ]m¿sk°v (30000 {]Imi h¿jw) BWv
SMC bnte°v Zqcw. ]pXnb IW°n¬ 52000 ]m¿sk°v (1,70,000 {]Imi
h¿jw). c≠p sk^nUpIƒ 1000 {]Imih¿jw AIsebmsW¶nepw
CXv .6 % hyXymkta, (\Ωn¬ \n∂h°p≈ ZqcØns‚) D≈p. BImi
KwKbnse \£{XßfpsS ZqcØn¬ am{Xa√, {]]©Øns‚ apgph≥
]T\Ønepw sk^nUv kvsIbn¬ {][m\amWv. BImi KwKbv°∏pd
tØ°p≈ {]]©sØ At\zjn°ptºmgmWv, sk^nUpIƒ {]]©
Ønse \ΩpsS (`qanbptSbpw AXnse a\pjyt‚bpw) ÿm\sØ
\ap°v icnbv°v a\ nem°nØcnI. FUvhn≥ lp_nfpw (1889-1953)
an¬´¨ lpakWpw (1891-1972) CXn\v XømsdSpØp.
BImiKwK 100000 ]m¿sk°n¬, \Ωn¬ \n∂v 10000 ]m¿sk°v
(30000 {]Imih¿jw) AIse ]c∂pInS°p∂p. lm¿tem jm]ven (18651972) Cu Zqcw GXm≠v icnbv°f∂p (modern- 8000-9000 parsec). ]s£
138

{]Imikn‘p

KmeIvknbpsS hymkw 28000 ]m¿skIv F∂v sX‰mbpw Af∂p. kqcy
s\ BImiKwKbpsS Hc‰sØ, hfsc A{][m\amb HcwKambn jm
]ven a\ nem°n. At\Iw kvss]d¬ s\_pte KmeIvkn D≈ Hcp
]pXnb {]]©w imkv{XØn\papºn¬ Xpd∂p. At∏mƒ {_lvamfi
߃ thsdbpw D≠v F∂dn™p. M31 Fs∂mcp kvss]d¬ s\_pe
(B≥t{UmaoU kaqlØns‚ Znibn¬) sb lp_nƒ \nco£n®p. B≥
t{UmaoU 700000 ]m¿sk°v AIsebmWv. At\Iw s\_peIfn¬
At±lw sk^nUpIsf \nco£n®p. F√m ZniIfnepw At\Iw _n
ey≥ {]Imih¿jw Zqcw ]c∂pInS°p∂ \nch[n {_lvamfißfp≈
sX∂v hknjvT kwlnXbn¬ hknjvT\pw Km¿§kwlnXbn¬ Km¿§y
\pw h¿Æn® {_lvaIm\\amb {_lvamficq]w lp_nƒ Z¿in®p.
1990 ¬ sk^nUv Um‰ D]tbmKn®v (Hubble space telescope se)
At\Iw KymeIvknIfpsS Zqcw Af∂p. s\_ptebnse h¿Æt`Zw
Af∂ shtÃm …n^¿ (1875-1969) Hcp s\_pebn¬ 36 Nph∏pw 2 \oe
bpw I≠p- a‰p Nne¿ Nne s\_peIfn¬ 4 Nph∏pam{Xw I≠p (\oe
C√). A[nIw s\_peIfpw \Ωn¬ \n∂Ite°v \oß∂XpsIm≠p≈
Doppler effect BWnsX∂v {Kln®p. lp_nfpw lpamkWpw …n^dpsS
Um‰ ]Tn®p. Ct∏mƒ \mw lp_nfns‚ \nbaambn Cu Red shift s\
Adnbp∂p. Red shift Af∂m¬ Hcp KmeIvknbpsS Zqcw \ap°v IW
°m°mw. lp_nfns‚ I≠p]nSpØØn\p≈ hniZoIcWw InS°p∂Xv
sF≥ssÃs‚ Bt]£nIXm kn≤m¥ØnemWv (kmam\yØn¬).
Acceleration, gravity F∂nh XΩn¬ hyXymkans√∂v sF≥ssÃ≥
{Kln® (Bern se Patent office ¬ Ccn°ptºmgmWs{X Cu Bibw
BZyw DZn®Xv). Cu c≠p {]Xn`mkßtfbpw, hntij Bt]£nIXm
kn≤m¥tØbpw, (\yqt´mWnb≥ sa°m\nIvkns\bpw) H‰ ]mt°
Pmbn \¬Ip∂ kahmIyamWv sF≥ssÃ≥ At\zjn®Xv.
kvs]jy¬ XnbdnbpsS ASnØd taemWv 10 h¿jw sIm≠v sF≥
ssÃ≥ P\d¬ Xnbdn Db¿ØnbXv (1905-1915 hsc). 1912 ¬ Xs∂
Hermann Min Kowski bpsS kvs]jy¬ Xnbdn (]c∂ NXp¿Ωm\ tZi
ImeØnt\°mƒ \√Xmbn) sF≥ssÃ≥ kzoIcn®ncp∂p. am¿sk¬
t{Kmkvam≥ (1878-1936) CXn∂mhiyamb PymanXn 19 mw \q‰m≠nse
KWnX⁄≥ Riemann (1826-1866) s‚ {K\vYßfneps≠∂v ]d™p
sImSpØp. hf™ {]XeßfpsS PymanXn (t\m¨ bq¢nUnb≥) At±
lØns‚ {K\vYØnep≠v. Imƒ s{^Udn°v tKmkv (Gauss. 1777-1855)
139

{]Imikn‘p

t\m¨ bq¢nUnb≥ tPymsa{Snbn¬ Nn¥n®n´p≠v. `qa≤ytcJbpsS Ccp
hiØpap≈ tcJmwi tcJIƒ (kam¥c tcJ) {[phØn¬ tbmPn
°p∂ {]Xn`mkw Adn™n´p≠v. 1854 ¬ sdbvam≥ CXns\ hnIkn∏n
s®SpØp. 1867 emWv sdbvams‚ {K\vYw Cw•ojnte°v hneyw ¢nt^mUv
F∂ {_n´ojv KWnX⁄≥ X¿÷a sNbvXXv. tZiØns‚ hfhns\,
kaXeØn¬ \n∂pb¿∂p\nev°p∂ Ip∂nt\mSmWv Ah¿ XmcXay
s∏SpØnbXv. sF≥ssÃ≥ as‰mcp hn[ØnemWv CXv hniZoIcn®Xv.
kqcy≥ apXembh ]nfiw km{μo`hn®XmWv. Ah Hcp ]c∂ {_lvam
fiØn¬, ImetZiØn¬ sNdnb IpgnIƒ D≠m°p∂p F∂v. ¢nt^m
Uns‚ D]a sF≥ssÃ≥ P\n°p∂Xn\v 9 h¿jw apºmWv h∂Xv
(sF≥ssÃ≥ \nbaw hnhcn®n´p≈ hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nI
bv°v Xnt_m´ns‚ Cw•ojp X¿÷a h∂Xv sF≥ssÃ≥ P\n°p∂Xn
\v 10 h¿jw apºpw!). 1879 ¬ sF≥ssÃ≥ P\n® h¿jw At±lw acn
°pIbpw sNbvXp. kqcymZnIƒ D≠m°p∂ IpgnIfpsS hen∏w, AXn
\m¬ {]Imiw hfbp∂Xv F∂nh IrXyambn {]hNn°m≥ AXn\m¬
‘ssdam≥’ {K\vYw klmbIambn. 1919 ¬ {KlWw t\m°n FUnßvS¨
{]hN\w icnbmsW∂v sXfnbn®p. ImetZi ss\c¥cysØ ]nfi
tØmSpw, Ah XΩnep≈ _‘amb KpcpXzmI¿jWtØmSpw Cßs\
sF≥ssÃ≥ P\d¬ XnbdnsIm≠v CW°n. ]nfiw ImetZitØmSv
Fßs\ hfbWsa∂p ]dbp∂p. ImetZiw ]nfitØmSv Fßs\
Nenbv°Wsa∂pw! 1917 ¬ sF≥ssÃs‚ kn≤m¥Øn¬ ANeamb
Hcp {]]©Øn\v ÿm\ap≠mbncp∂n√. Imew Ignbptºmƒ, tZiw
kt¶mNn°tbm hnIkn°tbm sNøp∂ Hcp N©e {]IrXnbmWv.
F∂m¬ A∂v Km¿§ykwlnXbnse {_lvamhns\ t]msebmbncp∂p
sF≥ssÃ≥. A∂sØ bqtdm]y≥ imkv{Xhpw. BImiKwKbv°∏pd
sØmcp {]]©sØ Adn™ncp∂n√. BImiKwKbmsW¶n¬
kt¶mN hnImk߃ ImWn°p∂pan√. …n^dpsS I≠p]nSpØ߃
sF≥ssÃ≥ Adn™ncp∂n√. AXn\m¬ ANeamb Hcp {]]©sØ
{]Xn\n[oIcn°p∂ emw_vU (λ) F∂ Bkvt{SmWan°¬ constant
sF≥ssÃ≥ Xs‚ kahmIyØn¬ tN¿Øp (CXv hmkvXhØn¬ sX
‰msW∂v ]ns∂ sXfn™p). djybn¬ AeIvkm≠¿ {^oUvam≥ CXv
sh®v bqWnthgvkns‚ hyXykvX tamUepIfp≠mhmsa∂v I≠p. s_
¬PnbØn¬ \n∂v sesabvØdpw CXpt]mse sNbvXp.
lyq_nƒ \nbaw apºv {_lvamfiw sNdpXmbncps∂∂pw, ]n∂oSv
hnIkn®p F∂pw sXfnbn°p∂p. Aßs\sb¶n¬ {]]©Øn\v Hcp
140

{]Imikn‘p

BZn (P\\w) D≠v. 1930 ¬ FUnßvS¨ AS°w CXv hnizkn°m≥
Iq´m°nbn√. tdma≥ ImØen°v ]ptcmlnX≥ _¬Pnb≥ imkv{X
⁄≥ tPm¿Pv sesabvØ¿ CXns\ ]q¿Æa\t msS A\pIqen®p.
BZna AWp AYhm Hcp tImkvanIv Afiw (kwkvIrXØn¬
lncWy K¿`w) k¿Δ ]nfihpw km{μoIcn® Hcp tI{μw, AXns‚
kvt^mSw F∂ Xm{¥nI tamU¬ (_nKv_mMv) Hcp `oa≥ ^nj≥ t_mw
_ns‚ amXrIbn¬ At±lØns‚ Nn¥bn¬ ]p\¿P\n®p. s{^Uvt^m
bvens‚ (1915-2001) bpw sl¿a≥ t_m≠n, tXmakv tKmƒUv F∂nhcp
sSbpw steady state tamU¬ 1940 Ifn¬ {]NmcØn¬ h∂p. 1950-60 I
fn¬ CXv _nKv_mMv Xnbdnbv°v FXnsc \ne\n∂p. tdUntbm Bkv
t{SmWan {]]©w amdns°m≠ncn°bmsW∂pw, KmeIvknIƒ°v hm¿
≤Iyw _m[n°bmsW∂p sXfnbn®psIm≠ncp∂p. 1990 ¬ {]]©Øn
s‚ hnImkw (10 % uncertainty) Af∂p. (Hubble space telescope) 20 mw
\q‰m≠ns‚ Ahkm\w {]]©Øns‚ {]mbw 13 _ney¨ -16 _ney\n
Sbv°msW∂v Aßs\ Xocpam\ambXv. `qantb°mƒ, G‰hpw ]gb
\£{XtØ°mƒ AXn\v {]mbap≠v (85 aney≥ h¿jambn Hcp AIDS
sshdkv kn‘pZzo]Ønse seaq¿ IpcßpIfneps≠∂ I≠p]nSp
Øw- 2008 teXv - tN¿Øpsh®v hmbn°pI.
{]]©Øns‚ {]mbw IW°m°nb Cu {]{Inb hfsc {][m\
amb Hcp I≠p]nSpØamWv. CXv P\d¬ Xnbdn Hm^v dnte‰nhn‰nbpw
^nkn°¬ \nbaßfpw ÿqe{]]© amXrIbnemWv sNbvXXv. \£
{XßfpsS {]mbw Izm≠w sa°m\nIvkpw ^nkn°¬ \nbaßfpw sh®v
G‰hpw kq£va {]]©amXrIbnepw! _nKv_mMn¬ D≠mb BZyXmcw
AYhm G‰hpw hr≤XmctØ°mƒ hr≤amWv, ]gbXmWv {]]©w.
AXpsIm≠mWv CXv {][m\sa∂v ]dbp∂Xv.
Kmtam, At±lØns‚ injy≥ B¬^¿, F∂nh¿ tN¿∂v tPm¨
tlm]v°n≥kn¬ sh®psNbvX Hcp ]co£W ^ew Physical journal
¬ h∂t∏mƒ KmtambpsS ]gb kplrØv s_sØbpsS t]cpw IqSn
Kmtam tN¿ØXv, B¬^, _o‰, Kma F∂v hcm\mWv. 1948 G{]n¬ 1
\v AXp hcnIbpw sNbvXp. B {]_‘w _nKv_mMv tImkvtamfPnsb
Hcp Izm≠nt‰‰ohv imkv{Xam°n Db¿Øn. Cu {]_‘sØ B¬^,
_o‰, Kma t]∏¿ F∂p hnfn°p∂p. _nKv_mMv ImesØ NqSp]nSn®
tdUntbj≥ C∂pw {]]©Øneps≠∂pw Hcp red shift Bbn BZy
sØ tcJIfpsS γ, x tcJIfpsS XcwKssZ¿LysØ, sshZypX Im
141

{]Imikn‘p

¥nI kvs]Iv{SØns‚ tdUntbm `mKtØ°v ]cØp∂ps≠∂pw B¬
^dpw sl¿am\pw ka¿∞n®p. Cu background radiation Ct∏mƒ 5 k
(-268°C) BsW∂pw CXmWv backbody radiation F∂pw ]d™p. 1950
Ifn¬ Kmtambpw Cu \nbaw AwKoIcn®p. CØcw Zp¿∫e tdUntbm
\mZ߃ F√m ZniIfn¬ \n∂pw e`n®psIm≠ncp∂p. 1960 ¬ 3 k NqSn¬
CØcw k¿Δhym]nbmb \mZw k¿ΔZniIfn¬ \n∂pw hcp∂Xv \yq
sP¿knbnse s_¬ em_d´dnbnep≈h¿ {i≤n®p (s]≥knbmkpw
hn¬kWpw). {]n≥kvS¨ bqWnthgvkn‰nbnse Jim Peebles Cu {]Xn`m
ksØ hniZam°p∂ {]_‘w 1965 ¬ {]kn≤oIcn®p. 1978 ¬ s]≥kn
bmkn\pw hn¬kWpw t\m_¬ ss{]kv In´n (B¬^dn\pw sl¿am\pw
In´nbpan√).
COBE km‰sse‰v (1992 ¬) 2.725 k NqSn¬ tImkvanIv ssat{Im
thhv tdUntbj≥ I≠p]nSn®p. Aßs\ 13 _n√y≥ h¿jw apºv Hcp
Bigbang ¬ {]]©ap≠msb∂v sXfnbn°s∏´p. ]ns∂ _nKv_mMv
AKv\ntKmfØn\IsØ Ahÿ krjvSn°m\p≈ {iaßfmbn.
5th century AD bn¬ {Koknse GX≥knse A\IvktKmdkv GtKm
kvs]m´manbv°SpØv Hcp meteorite hogp∂Xp I≠p. AXv CcpºpI´
]gp∏n®t]msebncp∂p. AXns‚ DXv`hw kqcy\n¬ \n∂msW∂pw kq
cy≥ CcpºpsIm≠p≠m°nbXmsW∂pw At±lw IcpXn. 20 mw \q‰m
≠n¬, hfsc Ipd®v tdUnbØns‚ Uot° aXn kqcys\ {]Imin∏n
°m≥ F∂dn™t∏mƒ kqcys‚ _m°n`mKw `mcap≈ [mXp°fmhm
sa∂v Bkvt{SmWa¿am¿ IcpXn. 1928 ¬ skknenb s]bv≥ kvs]Ivt{Sm
kvt°m∏n sh®v \£{X߃ ssl{UP≥ sIm≠p≠m°nbXmWv
F∂p I≠p. 99 % loenbhpw ssl{UP\pamWv \£{Xßfn¬ F∂v
]n∂oSdn™p. \£{Xßfnse \yq¢nbm¿ ^yqj\v Ccpºphscbp≈
F√m [mXp°fpw ssl{UP≥, loenbw Chbn¬ \n∂p≠m°mw (]c
amWp kahmbØm¬ temlap≠mIp∂Xv IWmZ≥ hnhcn®Xv Xmc
Xays∏SpØpI). {]]©Øn¬ G‰hptasd ImWp∂ [mXp°ƒ CHON
(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen). CØcw [mXp°ƒ \£{X߃
krjvSn®v kq∏¿ t\mh kvt^mS\ßfneqsS space ¬ hym]n∏n°p∂p.
Pohs‚ krjvSnbn¬, Cu 4 [mXp°fmWv {][m\w. {]]©Ønse
AXnkm[mcW [mXp°fmemWv a\pjys\ D≠m°nbn´p≈Xv (\mw
{]IrXnbmWv). AXpsIm≠pXs∂bmWv ssPhhpw AssPhhpw Hs°
D≠m°nbncn°p∂Xv.
142

{]Imikn‘p

imkv{Xsa∂Xv hfsc hy‡n]camb Hcp I¿ΩamWv. AXv Io¿
Ønbvt°m ]WØnt\m A√, {]]©Øn¬ F¥p \S°p∂p F∂dnbm
\p≈ Pn⁄mk sIm≠v sNøp∂ H∂mWv. AXn\m¬ imkv{X⁄∑m
sc AhcpsS I≠p]nSpØØnte°v \bn® kmlNcy߃ imkv{X
Ncn{XØn¬ {][m\amWv. HcmfpsS Hcp t^mt´m I≠XpsIm≠v Abm
sf Adnbm\mhn√. AXpt]msebmWv imkv{XNcn{Xhpw. ]q¿Æambdn
bm≥ imkv{X]cnNbhpw imkv{X⁄]cnNbhpw tN¿∂m¬ IqSpX¬
klmbIamIpw. imkv{Xw hy‡n]camb I¿ΩamsW¶nepw, hfsc
\njv°mahpw kXyk‘hpamIbm¬ hy‡n_‘߃°v ÿm\an√m
ØXpamWv. imkv{X⁄cn¬ ]Ibp≈hcpw, h´∑mcpw Hs°bp≠mbn
´p≠v. Hcp ImesØ imkv{Xw ASpØ Xeapd anØv F∂v ]d™v
X≈n°fbpIbpw AXn\SpØ Xeapd imkv{Xsa∂p sXfnbn°bpw
sNbvXn´p≠v. imkv{XØnse ⁄m\tkm]m\w H‰bSnbv°v a\pjy≥
NmSn°bdnbX√. ASnsh®Snsh®v kmhImiw \S∂pIbdnbXmWv.
imkv{XsØ a\pjycmWp≠m°nbXv. a\pjysc imkv{Xw D≠m°pI
b√. AXn\m¬ imkv{XNcn{Xw a\pjyNcn{XamWv. Ãmens‚ ImeØv
sshcp≤ymflI `uXnIhmZØn\v FXncmWv sa≥Uens‚ kn≤m¥
sa∂p ]d™v ssek≥tImhns‚ hfs®mSn® sP\n‰nIvkv h∂p. CXv
tkmhnb‰v Irjnk{ºZmbØn¬ hn\miIcamb am‰w hcpØn. sa≥U
ens‚ sP\n‰nIvkv kXyamIbm¬ Ah\hs‚ CjvS{]Imcw hfs®mSn
°m\mhn√. CXpXs∂ Keoentbmhnt‚bpw ]≈nbptSbpw Imcyhpw.
C∂v \mw imkv{XØns‚ alm AssZzXw Adnbp∂p. ]s£,
CXv C∂mZyamb√ a\pjycminbpsS akvXnjv°Øn¬ t_m[ambpZn
®Xv F∂ Adnhv \sΩ hn\oXcm°pw. AtXkabw, B[p\nI sSIvt\m
fPn B Adnhns\ ]p\cp÷ohn∏n®v AXns\ \ap°p sXfnbn®pXcp∂
a\pjys‚ I¿ΩtijnbmIbm¬ AXns\ X≈n∏dtb≠ Bhiyan√.
]gbXnt\bpw (`qXw) ]pXnbXnt\bpw (h¿Øam\w) Adn™mte hcpw
XeapdIƒ°pth≠n Fs¥¶nepw sNømt\m Ahsc ]Tn∏nbv°mt\m
D≈ A¿lX \ap°v ssIhcnIbp≈p.
1543 apX¬ C∂phsc D≠mb B[p\nI imkv{XNcn{XamWv Chn
sS Gg≤ymbßfn¬ X∂Xv. ]gbXnt\bpw ]pXnbXnt\bpw Adn™pw
ka\zbn®pap≈ Fs‚ ‘almAssZzX’ bm{Xbn¬ {]ÿm\{Xbw, jUv
Z¿i\߃, `‡nimkv{X߃, {]mNo\ tPymXnimkv{X, Bbp¿tΔZ
k{ºZmb߃ F∂nhtbmsSm∏w, t_m´Wn, kpthmfPn, saUn°¬
143

{]Imikn‘p

]T\w, apXemb ssPhimkv{XßfpsS (modern science) _ncpZßfpw
^nknIvk,v sIankv{Sn _tbmsIankv{Sn F∂nhbpsS ]cnNbhpw D≠m
bXn\memWv Cu ka\zbw km≤yambsX∂v A\pkvacn°p∂p.
ew_\w, he\w apXebmhbptSbpw [qatIXp apXemb {]IrXn
{]Xn`mkßfptSbpw {]mNo\X, AXv NpcpßnbXv hcmlanlncs‚
Imew apX¬ ]ctaizcmNmcys‚ Imew hsc (1000 h¿jw) bqtdm]y¿
imkv{Xw hnIkzcamhpw apºv Fßs\ \ne\n∂ncp∂p F∂pIqSn ]d
™mse imkv{Xw A\pkyqXamb Hcp XpS¿®bpw Hcmh¿Ø\hpam
sW∂v t_m≤yamhq. hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nI t\csØ Cu
{]{Inbsb kqNn∏n®psIm≠v Rm≥ ]Tn°pIbp≠mbn (NBS AXns‚
2 FUnj≥ Cd°n). hcmlanlnc≥ Xs‚ ]q¿ΔoI¿ [qatIXphns\
Fßs\ XcwXncn®p, Xms\ßs\ \nco£n®p F∂v _rlZvhcmlo
kwlnXbn¬ ]dbp∂p≠v. At±lØns‚ metereological \nco£W
߃ Ct∏mgpw [mcmfw KthjW km≤yXIƒ D≈hbmWv. AXn\m¬
_rlZvkwlnXbpsS BZysØ 51 A≤ymbßfpsS hymJym\hpw, ]c
taizcmNmcys‚ {KlW \nco£Wßfpw Iq´n Cu imkv{X Ncn{X
Øn¬ Dƒs∏SptØ≠Xp≠v. 1543 ¬ B[p\nI imkv{Xw XpSßp∂
Xn\papºv C¥ybnse imkv{Xw F¥mbncp∂p, Fßs\bmbncp∂p
F∂dnbp∂Xn\v CXv klmbIamIpw. AD 1360-1455 hscbmWv ]cta
izcmNmcy≥ tIcfØn¬ Pohn®ncp∂Xv. 1543 ¬ B[p\nI imkv{Xmcw`
Øn\v 88 h¿jwapºv! AXn\m¬ Bkvt{SmWanbpw AXv ]Tnt°≠,
\nco£nt°≠, tcJs∏SptØ≠ coXnbpw Bcv Bsc ]Tn∏n®p F∂
Xn¬ bmsXmcp X¿°hpw hcm≥ km≤yXbn√. hcmlanlncs\t∏mse
tPymXnimkv{XØn¬ A∂phscbp≈ kn≤m¥ßƒ t{ImUoIcn®v
FgpXnb BfpIfpw A°meØv bqtdm∏nep≠mbncp∂n√. Xnt_m´n\pw
a‰pw hcmlanlncs\ a\ nem°m\mhm™Xv Xnt_m´v sF≥ssÃs\
t]mse Hcp imkv{X⁄\√mØXpsIm≠pam{XamWv. Hcp imkv{X
⁄s‚ `mj as‰mcp imkv{X⁄\v thKw a\ nemhpw. \Ωsf t]m
ep≈ km[mcW°m¿°v A{X s]s´∂p a\ nemhn√. AsXmcp henb
Ip‰a√. A⁄X Ip‰a√. AXns\ Adnbm\pw ]cnlcn°m\pw ho≠pw
ho≠pw ⁄m\w t\Sn imkv{X tKm]pcØn¬ BtcmlWw sNøm\pw
D≈ Xmev]cyw, {i≤, I¿Ωtijn CsXms° GXv A⁄t\bpw
]finX\m°pw. ]s£ AXn\v Xmev]cyhpw {i≤bpw IqSntb Xocq.
{i≤mhm≥ e`tX ⁄m\w F∂v {ioIrjvW≥ `KhZvKoXbn¬ shdpw
144

{]Imikn‘p

hm°v ]d™X√. Rms\∂ a\pjyPohn Cu alm{]]©Øn¬ \n m
cØn¬ \n mc\mb Hcp ]camWpXpeyamWv. ]s£, B ]camWphn
s‚ D¿÷w IqSn tN¿∂XmWv Cu alm{]]©Øns‚ Du¿÷w. Rm
s\∂ Hcp PeIWw Cu almhn⁄m\ kmKcØn¬ \n mcamWv.
]s£, AXpIqSn tN¿∂XmWv Cu hn⁄m\kmKcw. AXn\m¬,
Fs‚ Kpcphpw ]q¿ΔoI\pamb {io \me∏m´p \mcmbW tat\m≥ Fgp
Xnb t]mse, Cu A\¥amb temItKmfØn¬ ‘IYbdnbmsX’ B´w
ImWp∂ a\pjyPohnXØn¬,
“sIev]‰sX¶nepw F≥ Iøpw sN√mbvIn¬
As∏mtg \nivNew ImeN{Iw”
F∂ khn\bamb I¿ΩtijntbmsS Hmtcm a\pjy\pw Ah\h
s‚ ]¶v \njv°maw \n¿Δlnt® Xocq. Cu {K\vYcN\ B I¿Ωkn‘p
hntebv°,v AXns‚ Xs∂ Hcp IWsØ A¿∏nbv°p∂ Xo¿t∞mZIw!

145

{]Imikn‘p

8. PKZoiv N{μt_mkv (1858-1937)
Cu bm{Xbn¬, bqtdm]y≥ C¥y≥ imkv{Xßsf ka\zbn∏n®
Htc Hcp C¥y≥ imkv{X⁄s\ ]cma¿in°msX, AtX ka\zbmfl
Iamb AssZzXw I¨ap∂n¬ ImWp∂ F\n°v Cu Ncn{Xw Ahkm\n
∏n°m\mhn√. {_n´s‚ KthjW ]co£WmflIamb imkv{XbpKw
Bcw`n® tdmb¬ C≥Ãn‰yq´v Hm^v kb≥kv {]h¿Øn°m≥ XpSßnb
ImeØpXs∂ t_mkv Cu AssZzXw apt∂m´psh®ncp∂p. F∂m¬,
C∂v imkv{Xw AtX coXnbn¬ apt∂m´p \oßptºmgpw t_mkns‚
t]cv B imkv{XNcn{XØn¬ \mw I≠n√; ImWp∂n√. C¥y≥ anÃn
knksa∂pw, CXv imkv{Xas√∂pw ]d™v At±lsØ A∂pw C∂pw
B[p\nI imkv{Xw ^nknIvkn¬ \n∂v Xgbp∂p; shdpw πm‚ v ^nkn
tbmfPnÃv B°n°fbp∂p. tUhnbpw ^mctUbpw tXmakv sl‚n
FIvke
v nbpw imkv{XØns‚ alna tdmb¬ skmssk‰nbn¬ DZvt_m[n
∏n°ptºmgmWv, 5000 \mgnI Xm≠n C¥ybnse _wKmfn¬ \n∂v (sIm
¬°Ø) Hcp P\phcn amkw sh≈nbmgvN sshIpt∂cw, 1897 ¬ e≠
\n¬ tdmb¬ C≥Ãn‰yq´nse AwKßsf A`nkwt_m[\ sNøm≥
t_mkv sN∂ndßnbXv. Xm≥ Xs∂ I≠p]nSn® At\Iw D]IcWß
fpsS klmbtØmsS At±lw sshZypX XcwKßfpsS ZriyKpW߃
(optical properties) AhnsS at\mlcambn AhXcn∏n®p ImWn®p. C∂v
tdUntbm XcwK߃ F∂dnbp∂ sshZypX Im¥nI XcwKßfmbn
cp∂p {]`mjW hnjbw. c≠p hyXykvX imkv{X߃ (`uXnI im
kv{Xw, ssPhimkv{Xw) Hcp Interdisciplinary coXnbn¬ AhXcn∏n®v
ssPh/AssPhßfpsS hyXymkw ÿqeXeØnte D≈p F∂pw kq
£va XeØn¬ Cs√∂pap≈ AssZzXw ]co£WØneqsS ImWn®
B[p\nI bpKØnse BZysØ C¥y≥ imkv{X⁄≥ am{Xa√, BZy
sØ temI imkv{X⁄≥ IqSnbmbncp∂p t_mkv. B[p\nI C¥y
bn¬, B[p\nI imkv{Xkt¶Xa\pkcn®v, ]ucmWnI C¥y≥ im
kv{XtØbpw AXns‚ AssZzXtØbpw AhXcn∏n® At±lØns‚
146

{]Imikn‘p

{]Xn`sb Dƒs°m≈m≥ A∂sØ bqtdm]y≥ imkv{Xw hf¿∂n´p≠m
bncp∂n√. am{Xa√, `cn°p∂hcpw IqSpX¬ _p≤nbp≈hcpamb sh
fpØhtc°mƒ, `cn°s∏Sp∂hcpw _p≤niq\ycpamb IdpØh¿°v
D≠mhm≥ km≤yXbn√ F∂ AUvan\nkvt{S‰ohv XeØnse “hnZym
`ymk t_m[w” A∂v \ne\n∂ncp∂p. kp{_tXmZmkv Kp]vX (Oxf.
University, Press 1999- Jagdish Chandrabose, The Indian response to
Western Science) F∂ {K\vYØn¬ tZiImeßfpw, s]mfn‰nIvkpw,

A∂sØ kaql kwkv°mchpw am{Xa√, KthjWw sNøm\p≈ ku
Icyw hsc t_mkn\v FXncmbncp∂p F∂mWv CXns\∏‰n FgpXnbn
´p≈Xv. 20 kvIzb¿ ASnbp≈ sNdnsbmcp apdnbnembncp∂p At±lØn
s‚ em_d´dn (hnimeamb em_d´dnbpw Infra structure Dw In´nbmepw
H∂pw {]h¿Øn°mØ imkv{X⁄cmWv C∂v cmjv{SØns‚ iºfw
hmßp∂hcn¬ ]IpXnt]¿!). F∂n´pw kz¥ambn D]IcW߃ D≠m
°n, \nc¥cw ]co£Ww \SØn t_mkv. At±lØns‚ D]IcW߃
C¥y≥ \maw hln°p∂hbmbncp∂p. DZm: {]Imiw Af°m≥ tXtPm
ao‰¿. Ip©\w (Contraction) Af°m≥ Ipt©mao‰¿. tdUntbm XcwK
ßfpsS Ncn{XØn¬ \n∂v F∂n´pw t_mkns‚ \maw XpS®p\o°s∏
Sm≥ (lp°nt‚Xv \yq´≥ sNbvXXpt]mse) hy‡n]chpw, a’cmSn
ÿm\Øn¬ XnI®pw Aimkv{Xobhpamb Nne D]Pm]߃ sIm
≠mWv.
1902 emWv t_mkv amwkt]inIƒ, kky߃, temlmZnIfmb
AssPh hkvXp°ƒ F∂nhbpsS {]XnIcW߃ Hcpt]msebmI
bm¬ ssPhw, AssPhw F∂ c≠v Dƒ∏ncnhpIfpsS AXn¿ØntcJ
C√mXmhp∂p F∂v sXfnbn°m\mcw`n®Xv. Cu ssPhmssPh sshhn
≤y߃°nSbnse km[¿Ωyw AYhm Hcpa \ap°v ImWm\mhmØ
sshZypX Im¥nI XcwKßfpsS {]h¿Ø\amsW∂v A∂pXs∂
t_mkv ]d™p. 1902 ¬ sF≥ssÃ≥ kn≤m¥w (]nfihpw Du¿÷
hpw Ne\hpw kzoIcn°p∂Xv) h∂p Ign™ncp∂ns√t∂m¿°Ww. AZr
iyamb Cu XcwKi‡nsb C¥y≥ imkv{Xßfn¬ D≈ AtX\maw
(Abhyakthe- Ahy‡Øns‚ _wKmfn D®mcWw) sNm√n t_mkv hn
fn®p. C∂sØ ssk_¿ s\‰nIvkv ]nd∂ncp∂n√. t_mkv Xs‚ Ime
Øn\v apt∂ k©cn°bmbncp∂p. B[p\nI tdUntbmhns‚ {]o-lnÃ
dnbpw, sshZypX Im¥ kn≤m¥ßfpw, Bkvt{Sm ^nknIvknse alm
ssZzXsa∂ grand unification kn≤m¥hpw t_mkv krjvSn°pIbmbncp
∂p. C∂v _tbm ^nknIvkv hnIkn®pIgn™Xn\m¬ \ap°v t_mkn
147

{]Imikn‘p

s‚ A`n{]mbØn¬ sshcp≤ysam∂pw ImWm\mhn√. t\m¿_¿´v ss]
\dpsS ssk_¿s\‰nIv XnbdnbpsS ap≥Kman Ft∂ tXm∂p. ]s£
1902 ¬ bqtdm]y≥ imkv{X⁄¿°v AXv hnizkn°m≥ {]bmkambn
cp∂p. I√pw sNSnbpw arKhpw a\pjycpw Fßs\ Htc DXv`h-ÿm\Øp
\n∂phcpw? temlw apX¬ a\pjys‚ \mUohyqlw hsc F√m‰nep
ap≈, Htc coXnbnep≈ sshZypXIm¥nI XcwK߃ A∂v Ah¿°v
kzoIcn°m≥ km[n®n√. 1902 apX¬ t_mkv FgpXnb Hmtcm {]_‘
hpw Cu almssZzXw sXfnbn°m\mWv. At±lsØ A\pIqen°p∂
hscbpw {]XnIqen°p∂hscbpw A∂v t_mtkm^nen°pIsf∂pw
t_mtkmt^m_n°pIsf∂pw hnfn®ncp∂p. t_mkns‚ imkv{Xw im
kv{Xa√, Bƒ´¿t\‰ohv imkv{XamWv, t_mkv Hcp lapsed scientist
(ss__nfnse hoW amemJ t]mse) BWv, A√ Hcp anÃnIv BWv
Fs∂ms° ]eamXncn ]d™v At±lØns‚ imkv{XsØ Ah¿ Xcw
XmgvØn. ]s£, Hcp anÃnIv [ym\w sIm≠mWv kXyw Is≠Øp∂Xv.
t_mkns‚ kXyw Is≠Øen¬ [ym\w am{Xa√ D≠mbncp∂Xv. XpS
¿®bmb \nco£WßfpsS ^eap≠mbncp∂p, AXn\mbn Xm≥ Xs∂
]d™p≠m°n®v Xm≥ Xs∂ cq]Iev]\ sNbvX At\Iw b{¥ßfpw
D]IcWßfpw D≠mbncp∂p (t_mkns‚ Bhiya\pkcn®v Hcp ]mc
ºcy IpSpw_Ønse Icphm\mWv Ch D≠m°nbncp∂Xv). AXns\
AhKWn®mWv Cßs\ Hmtcm∂v ]d™p≠m°nbXv.
krjvSn]cX (Creativity) Hcp {]Xn`mimenbpsS (genius) e£W
amWv. IhnXbmbmepw, kwKoXambmepw, D]IcWambmepw, Nn{Xambm
epw inev]ambmepw, imkv{Xkn≤m¥ambmepw, KWnX XØzambmepw,
sSIvt\mfPnbmbmepw AXnse krjvSn]cX {]Xn`bmbn a\ nem°
Ww. Hmtcm afieØnepw krjvSn]cXbv°v AXnt‚Xmb X\nabp≠v.
Cu X\na Hcp hy‡nbpsS Nn¥bpsS KpWamIbm¬, {]Xn` a\pjy
s‚ hnNmc i‡nbpsS {]Xn^e\amWv. t_mkns‚ {]Xn`bn¬
C¥y≥ imkv{XßfpsS kzm[o\hpw, B[p\nI imkv{XØns‚ kzm
[o\hpw tN¿∂p krjvSn® A]q¿Δamsbmcp {]Xn`mk¶e\ap≠mbn.
AXns\ Ing°pw ]Sn™mdpw th≠{X Xncn®dn™n√. hncp≤ßsf∂p
tXm∂n°p∂hbn¬ sshcp≤yw Cs√∂pw, Zzμz߃°pw A∏pdsØ
{]]©Øns‚ AssZzXØn¬ ssPhhpw AssPhhpw H∂msW∂pw
BZyw ]mivNmXyimkv{XØns‚ `mjbn¬, ]mivNmXytZiØpsN∂v
AhtcmSv kwhZn® C¥y≥ imkv{X⁄≥ (Hcp]s£ Ahkm\tØ
bpw!) t_mkmbncp∂p.
148

{]Imikn‘p

\hw_¿ 30, 1858: \q‰ºXv h¿jwapºv, e≠\n¬ en∂b≥ imkv{X
Øns‚ ao‰nßv \S∂ h¿jw, 1857 se BZysØ C¥y≥ hnπhØn\p
sXm´SpØ h¿jw- AXmWv t_mkns‚ P∑Zn\w. {_n´ojv C¥ybn¬
aPnkvt{S´mbn tPmen sNbvXncp∂p A—≥. 11 hb phsc {KmaØnse
]mTimebnemWv t_mkv ]Tn®Xv. aI≥ BZyw kz¥w `mjbpw kwkv
°mchpw ]Tn°Wsa∂mbncp∂p A—s‚ tamlw. I¿jIcpw km[mcW
°mcpw Ip´nIsf Ab°p∂ _wKmfn ]mTimebn¬ AXn\m¬ tN
¿Øp. A∂sØ kl]mTnIfn¬ \n∂mWv Xm≥ {]IrXnkvt\lw ]Tn
®sX∂v ]n∂oSv t_mkv FgpXnbn´p≠v. 1869 ¬ t_mkv sIm¬°Øbn
se s_¬Pnb≥ sPkyq´pIfpsS sk‚ v tkhntbgvkn¬ tN¿∂p. 1880
¬ sIm¬°Ø bqWnthgvkn‰nbn¬ \n∂v _n.F. ]mkmbn. ]n∂oSv
saUn°¬ hnZym`ymkØn\mbn e≠\n¬ t]mbn. sIm¬°Øbn¬
sh®v In´nb Imem Akm¿ Unk£≥ lmfnse K‘ßfm¬ A[nI
cn®p. AXn\m¬ sshZy]T\w \n¿Øn. sshZyimkv{XØns‚ \jvSw
{]IrXnimkv{XØns‚ em`ambn. 1884 ¬ tIw{_nUvPn¬ \n∂v {]IrXn
imkv{XØn¬ _n.F. t\Sn. 1883 ¬ e≠\n¬ \n∂v imkv{XØn¬
as‰mcp _ncpZhpw. 1885 ¬ sIm¬°Øbnse {]knU≥kn tImtfPn¬
At±lw ^nknIvkn¬ BZysØ C¥y≥ s{]m^kdmbn \nbanX
\mbn. CXv A∂sØ _wKmfnse Director of Public Instruction Bbn
cp∂ k¿ B¬{^Uv t{Im^vSn\v H´pw CjvSambn√. 40 h¿jw apºv
sa°msf {]`p C¥y°m¿°v imkv{Xw ]Tn°ms\m {]tbmKn°ms\m
Adnbns√∂v ]d™n´ps≠∂mbn t{Im^vSv. {]knU≥kn tImtfPv {]n
≥kn∏mƒ anÿ tSmWnbpw CtX A`n{]mb°mc\mbncp∂p. ChcpsS
c≠pt]cptSbpw FXn¿∏p≠mbn´pw, Cu A`n{]mbtØmSv tbmPn∏n√m
Xncp∂ dn∏¨ {]`p (ssht{kmbv) t\cn´nSs]´mWv t_mkn\v B ÿm
\w sImSpØXv. 1887 ¬ a{Zmkv saUn°¬ tImtfPnse hnZym∞n\nbm
bncp∂ A_emZmkns\ hnhmlw sNbvXXn\m¬, Hcn°¬ Dt]£n®
saUn°¬ s{]m^j≥ At±lØns‚ PohnXØnte°v ho≠pw IS∂p
h∂p. A_emZmkv tZi_‘p NnØcRvP≥ Zmkns‚ Ikn≥ Bbn
cp∂p.
kwKoXØns‚ D]a:
{]Imihpw sshZypX Im¥nI XcwKßfpw, Zriyhpw AZriyhp
amb {]Imiw F∂nhbpsS KpW߃, Ah H∂pXs∂ F∂ \nKa\w,
sshZypXn Im¥nI XcwKw {]Imicivan t]mseØs∂ {]h¿Øn°p∂p
149

{]Imikn‘p

F∂Xn\v D]IcW߃ sh®psIm≠p≈ sXfnhv- CsX√mw hfsc
Zo¿Lamb \nco£W߃°ptijamWv t_mkv AhXcn∏n®n´p≈Xv.
sh≈nbmgvN P\phcn 29, 1897. tdmb¬ C≥Ãn‰yq´n¬ k¿ sPbnwkv
{In°vS≥ {_uWnbpsS A≤y£Xbn¬ 550 imkv{X⁄∑mcpsS ap
∂n¬ CeIvt{SmamKv\‰nIv tdUntbj≥, t]mfssdtkj≥ F∂nhsb
Xs‚ D]IcW߃ sh®v hniZoIcn®tijw t_mkv Hcp kwKoX]c
amb D]a {]tbmKn®p. Hcp henb sshZypX kwKotXm]IcWsØ
k¶ev]n°pI. AXn\v hyXykvXamb BImi\mZ߃ D≠m°msa∂p
k¶ev]n°pI. G‰hpw XmgsØ X{¥n Hcp sk°‚n¬ H‰ Iº\w
am{Xw D≠m°p∂p. CXv 186000 ssa¬ \ofap≈ henb HcmImi XcwK
amWv. AXn\p apIfnesØ XcwKw Ipd®pIqSn hepXv... AZriyamsbm
cp lkvXw Cu X{¥nIsf {IaØn¬, AXnthKw kv]¿in°p∂p. {ipXn
XcwK߃ IqSn°qSn hcpw. BImikn‘p Cßs\ At\I XcwK߃
D≠m°ptºmƒ, t\m°n\n¬°p∂ a\pjy≥ (observer) B XcwK Ne
\w ImWp∂n√, AZriyamIbm¬. ]s£, Hcp {]XyI XcwKssZ¿Ly
saØptºmƒ Ah\v Hcp NqSv A\p`hs∏Sp∂p. CXmWv Infrared radiation. CXn\ptijw Ah≥ Nph∏ph¿Æhpw a‰v Zriyh¿Æßfpw (7
\ndw- Visible light- C{μNm]w) ImWp∂p. {ipXn XcwKw hfsc Db¿∂
ÿmbnbnseØptºmƒ ]ns∂bpw \ap°Xv AZriyamIp∂p; Ahy‡
amIp∂p. AhnsS ho≠pw Ccp≠ iymah¿Æw am{Xw. Ahy‡amb
B AZriy{]Imi XcwKßsf (Infrared & Ultraviolet) bmWv Rm≥
]Tn°p∂Xpw \n߃°nt∏mƒ ImWn®pX∂Xpw. a\pjys‚ C{μnbß
ƒ°v visible light XesØ am{Xsa Adnbm\mhq. AXn\∏pdØp≈Xv
Ahy‡amWv. ]q¿Æamb {]]©sØ C{μnbw sIm≠pam{Xw AXn
\m¬ Adnbm\mhn√. AXv kwKoX imkv{XØn¬ Hcp kzcw am{Xw
]Tn°p∂ t]msebmWv; A]q¿ÆamWv. 7 kzchpw tNcmsX kwKoX
imkv{Xan√. AXpt]mse C≥{^msdUpw, Aƒ{Smsshe‰pamb AXo
{μnb {]ImisØ°qSn AdnbmsX, shdpw C{μnbthZyamb {]]©
sØ Adnbmsa∂p ]dbp∂Xv A]q¿Æ ⁄m\amWv. CXmbncp∂p
t_mkns‚ ktμiw.
CXns\{Xtbm h¿jw Ign™mWv sF≥ssÃ≥ Xs‚ Xoh≠nbp
sS D]abn¬ 186000 F∂ AtX kwJy Xs∂ {]ImithKXbmbn D]
tbmKn®Xv. Xs‚ {]kwKw t_mkv Cßs\bmWv Ahkm\n∏n®Xv.
“Rm≥ hcp∂ cmPyw HcpImeØv a\pjys‚ hn⁄m\sØ G‰hp
tasd hnIkn∏n®XmWv. AXv ]≠mWv. Ct∏mƒ ]mivNmXytemIw
150

{]Imikn‘p

AtXs‰SpØncnbv°bmWv. Hcp Imew hcpw. ]uckvXy¿ CXv ho≠pw
Gs‰Sp°p∂ Imew. A∂v Ing°pw ]Sn™mdpw Cu alØmb A\p
{KlsØ H∂n®v apt∂m´p sIm≠pt]mIpw.” s_¿en\nepw ]mcoknepw
]cyS\w \SØn Cu Bibw apt∂m´psh®v 1897 ¬ C¥ybn¬ Xncns®
Ønbt∏mƒ t_mkns\ ImWm≥ HcpIpe \o¿amXf∏q°fpambn Hcmƒ
At±lsØns‚ ho´nseØn. cho{μ\mY SmtKm¿.
am¿®v 16, 1900 Øn¬ t_mkv SmtKmdn\b® FgpØn¬ Xs‚ Kth
jW ^eambn ssPhw, AssPhw F∂ hyXymkw C√mXmbn Fs∂gp
Xnbn´p≠v. ssPhw, AssPhw XΩn¬ am{Xa√, imkv{Xhpw IhnXbpw
(kmlnXyw) XΩnepw HcssZzXw At±lw I≠p. “Htc hy‡nbn¬
F∂v imkv{Xobhpw ImhymflIhpamb {Kmlyi‡n {]Xy£s∏Sp∂p
thm At∂ {]]©Ønse G‰hpw henb Ihnbpw imkv{X⁄\pw
P\n°pIbp≈p” F∂t±lw SmtKmdns\gpXn. Aßs\ kw`hn°mØ
ImetØmfw Ihnbpw imkv{X⁄\pw A]q¿ÆamWv. Ihnbpw im
kv{X⁄\pw {ian°p∂Xv, kwhZn°m\mhmØ H∂ns\ kwhZn°m
\mWv. a‰p≈h¿ ImWmØXv Ihn ImWp∂Xv lrZbw Im≠pw k¶
ev]w sIm≠pamWv- imkv{X⁄∑m¿ a‰p≈h¿ ImWmØ {]Imiw
ImWp∂p, tIƒ°mØ \mZw tIƒ°p∂p, Ahbn¬ \n∂v AZriy ktμ
iw kzoIcn°p∂p. c≠pt]cpsSbpw Z¿i\w C{μnb߃°XoXamb
H∂mWv. B XesØ Ihn Oμ psIm≠pw Xmfw sIm≠pw hrØw
sIm≠pw kwhZn°p∂p. imkv{X⁄¿ C{μnbmXoXambXns\ C{μnb
XeØnse “sshJcn” bnte°p sIm≠ph∂v hniZoIcn°m≥ {ian
°p∂p. “Ahy‡” XeØn¬ Ihnbpw imkv{X⁄\pw klbm{XnI
cmWv (CXv AtXImeØv Pohn® BƒUkv lIvkvenbpsS \n¿ΔN\
Øn¬ \n∂v ISIhncp≤amWv; XnI®pw `mcXobamWv). EtKzZØnepw
AssZzX thZm¥Ønepw X{¥{K\vYßfnepw tbmKimkv{XØnepw
D≈ Hcp Z¿i\amWnXv. F∂m¬ ]q¿ΔnIcpsS Cu Z¿i\߃ X\nbv°v
a\ nembXv Xs‚ \nc¥c KthjW ]co£WßfneqsS, B[p\nI
imkv{X kt¶XØneqsSbmsW∂v t_mkv ]d™n´p≠v. kmwJym,
sshtijnI Z¿i\ßfn¬ t_mkn\v ]cnNbap≠mbncp∂pthm F∂v
\ap°dnbn√. D≠mbncp∂ncn°mw F∂\pam\n°mw. At±lw ]d™
t]mse Ihn a\ pw imkv{X a\ pw tN¿∂ H∂v BC 3000 Øn¬ Po
hn® hymk\p≠mbncp∂p. AD 5 mw \q‰m≠n¬ Pohn® CuizcIrjvW
ImfnZmk\p≠mbncp∂p. 8 mw \q‰m≠n¬ i¶cmNmcy¿°p≠mbncp∂p.
]ns∂ taev]Øq¿ \mcmbW `´Xncnbv°pw D≠mbncp∂p.
151

{]Imikn‘p

t_mkns‚ Xmev]cyw imizXamb hkvXphnemWv. \izcambsX
√mw B imizXamb Du¿÷Øns‚ hyXykvX `mhßfmIbm¬, im
izXsØ Adn™m¬ \izcsØ Adnbmw. {_lvasØ Adn™m¬
{]]©sØ Adnbmw. E F∂p ]d™m¬ ]nfihpw KXobXbpw Xs∂
bmsW∂p ]d™ sF≥ssÃ≥ t_mkns‚ ]n≥KmanbmWv, ap≥Kman
b√, Cu A¿∞Øn¬.
P∑\m, hf¿∂ Np‰p]mSpIfmepw P\nXI ßfmbpw, kmlnXy
Ønepw, kwKoXØnepw, tPymXnjØnepw XØzimkv{XØnepw, cmjv{S
]p\¿ \n¿ΩmW {]h¿Ø\ßfnepsams° Xmev]cyw P\n®hfmWv
Rm≥. t_m´Wn, kpthmfPn, saUnkn≥, ]tYmfPn F∂nhbnep≈
_ncpZ, _ncpZm\¥c ]T\߃ Cu Xmev]cytØmSp tN¿∂Xn\memWv
F\n°v t_mkns\°pdn®p ]dbmsX imkv{XNcn{Xw Ahkm\n∏n°m
\mhns√∂v tXm∂nbXv. Ing°pw ]Sn™mdpap≈ IdpØhcpw shfpØ
hcpamb a\pjy¿ F∂ hyXymkw, ssPhhpw AssPhhpw H∂mb
{]]©mssZzX kwhn[m\Øn¬ Hcp hyXymkamtWm? Cu AssZzXw
C∂pw a\pjy¿ Nn¥nt°≠XmWv. aXw, PmXn, h¿§w, [\w, enwKw,
`mj, kwkv°mcw, I£ncmjv{Sobw apXembhbpsS t]cn¬ hnLSn®p
\n¬°p∂hcpw, hnLSn∏n°p∂hcpamb F√m a\pjy¿°pambn Cu
“{]Imikn‘p” AhXcn∏n°ptºmƒ Hcp {]m¿∞\tb D≈p. im¥hpw
kam[m\]q¿Æhpamb Hcp PohnXw C\n hcp∂ Xeapdbvs°¶nepw
sImSp°m≥ Ah¿s°√mw tXm∂tW F∂v. AXn\v Cu AssZzX
ktμiw D]Icn°tW F∂v!!
kØzw bØZv ]cm`ym a]cnIe\tXm
\n¿Ωew tX\ XmhZv
`qssX¿ `qtX{μnssbkvtX h]pcnXn _lpix
{iqbtX hymkhmIyw;
X’zOXymZyZOmZnX]ckpJ NnZvK¿` \n¿`mkcq]w
Xkvan≥ [\ymcat¥ {ipXnaXna[ptc
kp{Ktl hn{Ktl tX.
\njv°t\z \nXy]q¿tÆ \nch[n]cam\μ ]obqj cqt]
\n¿√o\mt\Iap‡mhen kp`KXta
\n¿Ωe{_lvakn‘u
152

{]Imikn‘p

It√mtem√mkXpeyw Jep hnaeXcw
kXyamlpx kvXZmflm
Ikvamt∂m \njv°fkvXzw, kIf CXn\
hNkvXzXv Iemtkzh `qa≥!
(\mcmbWobw)
A¿∞w: kØn¬ \n∂v hyXykvXambhtbmSv kº¿°w C√msX,
(A]cnIe\ambn) AXoh \n¿Ωeamb kmXznI {]ImiØn¬ \n∂v,
AXn\m¬Øs∂ \n¿ΩnXamb `qtX{μnb߃ (light energy bn¬ \n∂v
velements) BWv AhnSpsØ ({_lvaamb hnjvWphns‚) icocsa∂v
hymk≥ ]eh´w ]d™n´p≠v F∂v tIƒ°p∂p. kzOXzØm¬, bm
sXmcmhcWhpw IqSmsX, kpJambpw, NnZvK¿`Øn¬ hnfßp∂ cq]am
bpw (ssNX\yw AYhm {]ImiØns‚ \ncmhcW, \ncXnib cq]w),
{ipXn°pw aXnbv°pw (tIƒ°m\pw a\\w sNøm\pw) a[pcambpw kp
{Klambpw D≈ B at\mlc hn{KlØn¬ (hntitjW {Kln∏n°p∂
aq¿Øn) [\ymflm°ƒ \nc¥cw can°p∂p. AXv \njv°ºamWv (Iº
\w, Ne\w D≈ {]]©w Bcw`n°p∂Xn\pw aptº D≈ Iº\clnX
hkvXp). \nXy]q¿Æhpw \nch[n ]cam\μ ]obqj cq]hpamWv.
AXn¬ \n¿eo\amb At\Iw apØpaWnIfpsS Iq´amb {_lvamfi
ßfm¬ kp`KXa amWv (sF≥ssÃ≥ ‘Ipgn’Ifmbn°≠Xns\ taev]
Øq¿ {_lva kap{ZØn¬ ebn® apØpaWnIƒ D≠m°nbXmbn Im
Wp∂p). B \n¿Ωe {_lvakn‘phn¬ It√meßfpsS D√mkØn\p
XpeyamWv hnaeXcamb kXz߃ (k¿Δ hkvXp°fpw) F∂v alØp
°ƒ Adnbp∂p. Cßs\ \njv°f{_lvaambpw kIf {]]©ambpw
(ANeamb AKm[ kap{Zambpw, AXnse N©eamb XncbSnbmbpw)
A\p`hs∏Sp∂Xv \ns‚ Ie Xs∂ F∂v ]dbs∏Sp∂p.
{_lvaw = {]]©w x (KXobX)2
E = mc 2
CXv IhnXbnse imkv{Xw! imkv{XØnse IhnX!

153

`mKw c≠v

anlntcm]tZiw
({ioaZv hcmlanlncmNmcy{]WoXm
hmcmlo (_rlXv) kwlnXm)

anlntcm]tZiw
({ioaZv hcmlanlncmNmcy{]WoXm
hmcmlo (_rlXv) kwlnXm)

k¥Xw anlnc\mfl tim`bpw
kz¥amw a[p sImXn® h≠n\pw
N¥am¿∂cpfn \n¬°ptamate
l¥! [\yanl \ns‚ PohnXw
(Ipamc\mims‚ \fn\n)

BapJw
F´mw hb n¬ Rm≥ BZyambn {]kn≤oIcn® {K\vYØns‚
t]cv ‘Xmac∏q°ƒ’ F∂mbncp∂p. “anlnc” s\∂ kqcytZh\v Bfl
tim` \¬Ip∂ Xmac∏qhv! Hcpƒhnfn t]mse “]©kn≤m¥nI” Fs‚
D≈n¬ {]Imin®t∏mƒ AsXmcp bmZrivNnI kw`hsat∂ IcpXnbp
≈q. F¶nepw “hcml”aq¿Ønbmb kqcy\mcmbWs‚ lkvX߃
F∂n¬ ad™ncp∂ “hmKvtZhn”sb ImcWPe[nbn¬ \n∂v Db¿Øn
sbSp°p∂ A]q¿Δ {]Xn`mkw Rm≥ A\p`hn®dn™p. Hcp kqcy
civanbpsS H‰s°mºnt∑¬ Hcp cXv\w t]mse {]]©w Dbcp∂Xv
Fs‚ lrZbkmKcØn¬ \n∂pXs∂bmbncp∂p.
]ns∂, Btcm ]d™Xp tI´p, \me∏mS≥, Xs∂ “hcmlanlnc
s‚ am\k]p{X”s\∂v kzbw hntijn∏n®n´ps≠∂v. Aßs\ am\k
]p{Xs‚ am\k]p{Xnbmbn Rm≥! ]©kn≤m¥nI \me∏mSs‚ {K\vY
tiJcØn¬ \n∂v F\n°v e`n® \n[nbmWv. At±lw hmbn® tlmc,
iqe]mWnhmcnbcpsS Iønep≠v. At∏mƒ hcmlanlncs‚ aq∂ma
sØ IrXntbm? am\k]p{Xs\∂v kzbw hntijn∏n®ncps∂¶n¬ B
IrXnbpw \me∏mSs‚ Iøn¬ D≠mbncp∂ncn°Wat√m. ]co£bv°v
“hn´`mKw ]qcn∏n°m≥” {ian°p∂ Ip´nsbt∏mse Rm≥ B {K\vYsØ
ImØncp∂p.
Hcn°¬ _memaWnbΩsb ImWm≥ FdWmIpfØp sN∂
t∏mƒ AhcpsS ]p{Xn tUmIvS¿ kptemN\ ]d™p: “k¿tΔmZb”
Hgnbv°ptºmƒ Ipsd ]pkvXI߃ In´n. hfsc ]gb Hcp kwkvIrX
{K\vYap≠Xn¬. AΩmhs‚bmsW∂p tXm∂p∂p. kph¿Æbv°v th
tWm?
Fs∂°mØv \o≠ \m¬]Ønc≠p h¿jw (AΩma≥ acn® 1954
apX¬ 1996 hsc) X] psNbvX B ]pkvXIw HSphn¬ Fs∂ Is≠
Øn. apcmZm_mZpImc\mb ]finXkpJm\μ an{ibpsS ]p{X≥ ]fin
Xhc≥ _etZh{]kmZv Pn an{ibpsS lnμn `mjbnep≈ X¿÷atbm

{]Imikn‘p

SpIqSn, t_mws_bn¬ {iosh¶ntSizc Ãow {] n¬ ASn®v tkmacmP
{ioIrjvW Zmk≥ {]km[\w sNbvX ]Xn∏v; kwhXv 1997; iIw 1862
¬ CdßnbXv!
Ct∏mƒ {InkvXph¿jw 1997; iIw 1919; kwhXv 2054- Rm≥ Cu
{K\vYsØ aebmfoIcn°pIbmWv.
Ah¥n \nhmknbmbncp∂ BZnXyZmks‚ ]p{X\mbncp∂ hcml
anlnc≥ kz]nXmhn¬ \n∂pw k¿Δimkv{Xßfpw A`ykn®tijw
“I]n∞” \KcØn¬ sN∂v kqcy`Khms\ X] psNbvXp. tPymXnjv
aXn D≈n¬ {]Imin® At±lw tPymXnjØns‚ aq∂p kv°‘ßsf
aq∂p {K\vYßfm°n hncNn®p. GXp hn⁄m\ imJbv°pw AXnt‚
Xmb Hcp “X{¥w” ({]mtbmKnI ]cnNbw, KWnX]chpw Xm¿°nIhp
amb ASnØd) thWw. {]ImiØns‚ imkv{Xamb “tPymXnj”Øns‚
‘X{¥’amWv ]©kn≤m¥nIm X{¥w. AXv ip≤amb KWnX Xm¿
°nI _p≤nbmWv. (Logical mathematical intelligence) {]IrXn {]Xn`m
k߃ kaqlØn\v Fs¥√mw hn[Øn¬ tZmjw hcpØpw, Fs¥√mw
hn[Øn¬ KpWw hcpØpw F∂v Bcm™dnbemWv tPymXnjØns‚
c≠masØ {]h¿Ø\afiew. C{]Imcw, kaql߃°pw cmjv{Sß
ƒ°pap≈ s]mXp^e{]hN\amWv _rlZvhmcmlokwlnX. CXn¬
{]]©Ønse kakvX {]Xn`mkßtfbpw ]cma¿in°p∂p. Interpersonal intelligance F∂v hnfn°p∂ kajvSn _p≤ntbmSpIqSn hm\
\nco£Whpw, {]IrXn\nco£Whpw \SØp∂h¿°v CXn¬ Ht´sd
{Kln°m\p≠v. aq∂matØXmWv Atlmcm{Xcq]amb Imew hy‡n
PohnXØn¬ hcpØp∂ ZiIfpw Zim^eßfpw Dƒs∏´ tlmc. CXv
km[mcW°m¿°nSbn¬ {]Nmcap≈ Hcp imJbmWv. \qtdm \q‰n Ccp
]tXm h¿jw \o≠p\n¬°p∂ {lkzamb a\pjymbp ns\°pdn®pw
AXnse A\p`hßsf Ipdn®pw am{Xw thhemXns∏Sp∂ `qcn]£°m
tcmSp≈ ImcpWyw sIm≠p am{XamWv BNmcy∑m¿ Cu kvI‘sØ
cNn®Xv. X{¥sa∂ ip≤imkv{XtØbpw, kwlnX F∂ “kaqlØn
s‚ `mhn”tbbpw At]£n®v “tlmc”bpsS {]m[m\yw sNdpXmsW
¶nepw, Hmtcm hy‡nbv°pw Ah\hs‚ PohnXw {][m\ambncn°bm¬
AXn\v Xo¿®bmbpw {]m[m\yw I¬]n°msX hø. Intrapersonal intelligance D≈ Hcmƒ°p am{Xta kzbw inhi‡n kmackyw t\Sm\pw,
\√ Interpersonal _p≤nbpw, inter personal _‘ßfpw ÿm]n®v kaql
\∑ Dd∏phcpØm\pw Ignbq. KoXbpw D]\njØpIfpw a‰pw AXn\p
158

{]Imikn‘p

≈XmWv. i_vZimkv{XØns‚ Hcp `mKamb tPymXnjhpw as‰mcp hn[
Øn¬ AXn\pXs∂bmWv {ian°p∂Xv. Ab\Øns‚ hm’cnIKXn
A\pkcn®v ln∏m¿° ns‚ ImeØp\n∂v (AD 147) 431 h¿jw ap
ºmWv (BC 284) hcmlanlncs‚ Imesa∂v lnμn`mjyImc≥ IW°m
°p∂p. AXn\v 1676 h¿jw apºv _n.kn. 1960 ¬ BWv ]cmics‚
Imesa∂pw. _etZh {]kmZPn Cßs\ ]dbp∂p.
“Bt«jØns‚ tijm¿≤Øn¬ I¿°nSIØn¬ Z£nWmb\
hpw [\njvTmZnbn¬ aIcØn¬ DØcmb\hpw Bcw`n°p∂p. {]mNo\
Ab\w GsX∂v Adnbn√ F∂p hcnInepw, Ab\w amdp∂Xns‚ hn[n
Adnbmsa¶n¬ Imew KWn°mw. kqcy≥ DZn°ptºmgpw AkvXan°p
tºmgpw ZqcsØ Nnlv\߃ (\£{Xw, N{μ≥, {Kl߃ F∂nh)
GsXms°bmWv H∏w ImWp∂sX∂v \nco£n®dnbWw. tI{μØns‚
IoeIØns‚ (tI{μPzmebpsS) _rlXvafieØns‚ OmbbpsS
\nbX Nnlv\ßfm¬ {]thi\hpw \n¿§a\hpw \nco£n®dnbWw”.
kqcy≥ I¿°nSIØn¬ {]thin®p. [\njvTmZnbnseØn Fs∂m
s° \nco£n°p∂Xv {][m\ambpw kqcys‚ AkvXa\ thfbnepw
DZbthfbnepw IqsS ImWs∏Sp∂ \£{Xkaqlßsf t\m°nbn´m
Wv. kqcytI{μamb as‰mcp kqcytXP mbn Du¿÷sØ k¶¬]n
°pI. B Du¿÷Øns‚ _rlXvafieamWv {]]©w. ‘_rlv’ [mXp
hn¬ \n∂mWv ‘{_lva’ ]tZmXv`hw. ‘{_lva’sa∂ ‘NnØn’s‚ _rlXv
afieØns‚ OmbIƒ (\ngepIƒ) am{XamWv \£{Xkaql߃
F∂ \nbX Nnlv\߃. B \nbX Nnlv\ßsf \nco£n®n´mWv, (sh
dpsX Znhkw FÆnbn´√) [\njvTmZnbn¬ {]thin®p F∂pw, Hcp cm
inbn¬ \n∂v as‰m∂nte°v \n¿§an®p F∂pw a‰pw \mw ]dtb≠Xv.
As√¶n¬ as‰mcp hgnbp≠v. kqcyN{μmZnIfn¬ ]Xn°p∂ CXc
hkvXp°fpsS (N{μ≥, `qan) Omb t\m°nbn´v kqcyÿm\w ]dbmw,
{Im¥n t`Z\ _nμp ÿm\tØbpw ]dbmw. ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ CXv
BNmcy≥ hy‡am°nbn´p≠v. hcmlanlncs‚ SoImImc\mb `t´m¬
]e≥ ]q¿ΔmNmcy\mb ]cmics‚ ]cmicokwlnXbnse EXzhÿm
hnjbamb hN\ßsf SoIbn¬ D≤cn°p∂p≠v.
[\njvTmZyw ]ujvWm¿≤m¥w Ncx inincx
hk¥x ]ujvWm¿≤mXv tcmlnWym¥w
kuaymZmt«jm¿≤m¥w {Kojvax
{]mhrVmt«jm¿≤mXv lkvXm¥w
159

{]Imikn‘p

Nn{Xm≤ymXv tPyjvTm¿≤m¥w icXv.
tlat¥m tPyjvTm¿≤mXv {ihWm¥w.
[\njvTØns‚ BZnapX¬ tchXnbpsS ]q¿Δm¿≤w hsc inincw;
tchXnbpsS tijm¿≤w apX¬ tcmlnWnbpsS tijw hsc hk¥w;
arKinc ns‚ BZnapX¬ Bt«jØns‚ ]q¿Δm¿≤whsc {Kojvaw;
Bt«jØns‚ tijm¿≤w apX¬ lkvXØns‚ tijw hsc h¿j
Imew. Nn{XmZn apX¬ tPyjvTbpsS ]q¿Δm¿≤w hsc icXv°mew. tPy
jvTbpsS tijm¿≤w apX¬ {imhWØns‚ tij]cy¥w tla¥
Imew.
cminN{IsØ 27 \£{X`mKambn hn`Pn°p∂p. Hmtcm `mKØn\v
Hmtcm \£{XkaqlsØ 13 Awiw 20 Ietbmfw hym]vXnÿm\w
\n¿Æbn®v sh®ncn°p∂Xv \nc¥c\nco£W ^eambn´mWv. hk¥
ImeØn¬ cminN{IØns‚ GXpÿm\ØmtWm kqcy≥ \n¬°p∂Xv,
B kacm{XZn\amWv hnjphw. tajcminbpsS BZnbn¬ tchXn tbmK
Xmcw (piseium) BWv Cu kacm{X_nμp. kqcykn≤m¥ {]Imcw
tchXn cminN{IØns‚ 359° 50' IebnemWv ÿnXn sNøp∂Xv. {_lva
Kp]vX≥ tchXn 360 Un{Knbn¬ tajmZnbn¬ ÿnXnsNøp∂Xmbn tcJ
s∏SpØp∂p. AXmXp ImeL´ßfnse tPymXnjnIƒ \£{XßfpsS
{[phI A£mwimZnIƒ bYmÿm\Øv {]Imin∏n°mdp≠v. Xmsg
sImSp°p∂ kqNnIbn¬ ]cmics‚ \ncq]W{]Imcap≈ cminN{I
Ønse kakvX EXpÿm\߃ ImWpI.
Bcw`w
283°. 20'.
353°. 20'.
53°. 20'.
113°. 20'.
173°. 20'.
233°. 20'.

tijw
353°. 20'.
53°. 20'.
113°. 20'.
173°. 20'.
233°. 20'.
293°. 20'.

EXp
inincw
hk¥w
{Kojvaw
h¿jw
icXv
tla¥w

Ab\w
DØcmb\w

Z£nWmb\w

hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØv IrXyw 270° apX¬ ininc EXp Bcw`n
®ncp∂p. AXmbXv aIcw H∂mw Un{Kn apX¬ (aIcw 1) DØcmb\w
Bcw`n®ncn°p∂p. 13°. 20' hyXymkamWv ]cmict‚bpw hcmlanlnc
t‚bpw Ime߃°p XΩn¬ D≈Xv. as‰mcp hn[Øn¬ ]d™m¬
Ab\am‰w Cu c≠p tPymXnjnIfpsS PohnXIme߃°nSbn¬ 13°.
160

{]Imikn‘p

20' k©cn®ncn°p∂. kacm{XnZnh_nμp, {Im¥n]mX_nμp Fs∂ms°
]dbp∂Xns‚ {`aWw AYhm Ab\am‰w CXpXs∂bmWv. ]mivNm
Xy¿ {Im¥n]mXØns‚ hm’cnIKXn 5011 hnIe F∂v \nivNbn°p∂p.
CX\pkcn®v 1676 h¿jamWv ]cmic\pw hcmlanlnc\pw CSbnep≈
Imew.
D÷bn\nbn¬ c≠p hcmlanlncmNmcy∑m¿ Pohn®ncp∂p. Ah
cn¬ c≠mas‚ ImeamWv AD 427. BZysØ anlncs‚ ImeamWv Chn
sS KWn°p∂Xv. hwKtZi]©mwKØn¬ 1915 iIh¿jmcw`Øn¬ Ab
\w 20--54-36 hnIebmWv. AYhm, hcmlanlncs‚ kabØv ]d™
AwiØn¬Øs∂bmWv Bcw`n°p∂Xv. h¿Øam\ImesØ cminI
fpsS \n¿ÆbØn¬ \n∂v cminbptSbpw amkØnt‚bpw kw_‘w
e`n°pw. Ab\mwiIØn\v, cminIfn¬ tbmKw sNbvXpt\m°nbm¬
h¿Øam\Ime kqcys\ kv]jvSambn kn≤n°pw.
hwKtZi]©mwKØnse EXp:{]mbw

Bcw`w

EXp

a¥hyw

10 ]ujw
10 amLw
10 ^m¬Kp\w
10 ssN{Xw
10 sshimJw
10 tPyjvTw
10 BjmVw
10 {imhWw
10 `m{Z]Zw
10 Bizn\w
10 Im¿ØnIw
10 am¿§inc

aIcw
Ipw`w
ao\w
tajw
Ej`w
anYp\w
I¿°nSIw
knwlw
I\y
Xpemw
hrivNnIw
[\p

inincw

DØcmb\w

hk¥w

{Im¥n]mXw

{Kojvaw
h¿jw

Z£nWmb\w

icXv

{Im¥n]mXw

tla¥w

hm’cnIKXn 54 hnIe Fs∂SpØn´mWv, 1394 h¿jØn¬ hcml
kqcykn≤m¥ßƒ°p XΩn¬ 421 iIh¿jßfpsS hyXymkw _wKm
fnse ]©mwK KWI¿ Is≠ØnbXv. `mcXtZiØns‚ hen∏w Imc
Ww (c≠v A‰Øp≈ \nco£I¿°v A\p`hs∏Sp∂ EXpt`ZØnt‚
161

{]Imikn‘p

bpw kqtcymZbmkvXabmZnIfpsS kabhyXymkØnt‚bpw ^eam
bn´v) c≠v Ab\mwi߃ ChnsS \S∏nep≠v. (1) 22°-53' (2) 22°-37'.
_wKmfnse ]©mwK KWIcn¬ sh®v G‰hpw ip≤ambsX∂v
lnμn`mjy°mc≥ IcpXp∂Xv _m]qtZhimkv{XnbptSXmWv. CX\pk
cn®v _etZh{]kmZvPnbpsS ImeØv Ab\mwiw 22°.7'.24'. {Im¥n]mX
Øns‚ hm’cnIKXn 501 hnIe F∂v ÿnckwJybmsbSpØv KWnXw
sNøp∂]£w, 1592 h¿jw apºmhWw hcmlanlncImew. (iIh¿jw
270 ¬, kwhXv 405 ¬.)
an{itZisØ hnJymX tPymXnjnbmb ln∏m¿°kv Cßs\ tcJ
s∏SpØp∂p. “Fs‚ ImeØv Nn{Xm\£{Xw {Im¥n]mX _nμphn¬
\n∂v ]ivNna`mKØv 6 Awiw amdn\n∂ncp∂p”. lt ƒ 1750 ¬ Nn{X
{Im¥n]mX_nμphns‚ 20 Awiw 24 Ie]q¿Δ`mKØmsW∂p tcJs∏
SpØp∂p. hyXymkw 26° 24'- AYhm 1897 h¿jw. AXmbXv ln∏m¿°
kns‚ Imew F.Un. 147 BWv.
AD 147 ¬ Nn{X cminN{IØn¬ 174° bnemWv. kqcykn≤m¥ Ime
Øpw hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØpw AXv 6 Un{Kn ]q¿Δ`mKØmWv. AY
hm, {Im¥n]mXhpw Nn{Xbpw 180 Un{Knbn¬ H∂n®v CWßnbncp∂p.
Ab\Øns‚ hm’cnI KXn A\pkcn®v ln∏m¿°kn\v 431 h¿jw
apºmhWw hcmlanlnct‚bpw kqcykn≤m¥Ønt‚bpw Imew F∂v
CXpsIm≠v kn≤n°p∂p.
kqcykn≤m¥Ønsebpw hcmlanlncs‚ ImetØbpw \£{Xm
hÿm\߃ H∂pXs∂bmWv. kqtcym]mkI\mb hcmlanlnc≥ Xm≥
Xs∂ \n¿Ωn® tPymXnimkv{X {K\vYØn\v kqcykn≤m¥sa∂v
t]cn´XmImsa∂v lnμn `mjy°mc≥ kwibn°p∂p. hcmlanlncs‚
]nXmhv BZnXyZmk\mIbm¬ At±lamtWm kqcykn≤m¥Imc≥
Fs∂mcp kwibhpw D∂bn®n´p≠v. hcmlanlnc≥ Xs‚ ImeØv
\nehnencp∂ A©p kn≤m¥ßfn¬ H∂mbn kqcykn≤m¥sØ FSp
Øp ]dbp∂Xn\m¬ Cu kwib߃ ASnÿm\clnXßfmWv.
hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØn\papºv At\Iw EjnamcpsS kqcykn≤m¥
߃ \nehn¬ D≠mbncp∂p (_rlZmcWytIm]\njØnse hwi]c
ºcbn¬ ]cmics\ ImWpI). _rlXvPmXIØn¬ Xs‚ ]q¿Δkqcn
Ifmb ]Xns\m∂pt]sc hcmlanlnc≥ A\pkvacn°p∂p≠v. Ah¿
{IaØn¬ (ab≥ apX¬ ]rYp bi phsc) C{]ImcamWv (ab≥ Ct∏mƒ
Atkmckv Zzo]pIƒ F∂v hnfn°s∏Sp∂ `q`mKØv Pohn®ncp∂ BfmWv).
162

{]Imikn‘p

1. ab≥
4. i‡n
7. hnjvWpKp]vX≥
10. Pohi¿Ω

2. bh\≥
5. kXy≥
8. tZhkzman
11. ]rYpbi v

3. aWn∞≥
6. _en
9. kn≤tk\≥

`mcXtZiØnse EjnamcptSXmb kayIv imkv{XamWv tPymXn
jw. AXv tæO∑mcmb bh\≥am¿°p e`n®t∏mƒ Ah¿t]mepw ]qPnX
cmbn, BZcWobcmbnØo¿∂p; At∏mƒ ]ns∂ ssZhhnØpIfmb Zzn
P∑mcpsS Imcyw ]dbm\pt≠m? F∂mWv Cu ]Xns\m∂p ]q¿Δkqcn
Isf ]cma¿in°ptºmƒ hcmlanlnc≥ ]dbp∂X.v
]mcknIcmPyØv {InkvXph¿jw 534-580 ¬ Pohn®ncp∂ Hcp “_q
Pp¿ KptNtatlc” F∂ cmPmhns‚ t]cnt\mSv anlnc]Zw tN¿Øp
ImWp∂p. Cu cmPmhv hnjvWpi¿Ωs‚ ]©X{¥w ]m¿knbnte°p
X¿÷a sNbvXn´p≠v. ]©X{¥Øn¬ hcmlanlncs‚ t]cv ]dbp∂p
≠v. AXn\m¬ ]©X{¥Øn\p apºmWv hcmlanlncs‚ Imew.
kqcykn≤m¥Øntebpw {_lvaKp]vXs‚ kn≤m¥Øntebpw
\£{Xmhÿm\߃ ]´nIbn¬ ImWpI.
\£{Xw
(\£{X
kwJy)

Iev]nX
cq]w

kq.kn {_.Kp. A
{[phI {[phIw £mw
]q¿Δ
iw
]›naw

\£{Xmcw`
Øn¬ \n∂v
tbmKXmc
bpsS Zqcw

Aiz\n (3)
`cWn (3)
Im¿ØnI (6)
tcmlnWn (5)
aIocw (3)
B¿{Z (7)
]p\¿Δkp(4)

XpcwKapJw
tbm\n
£pc
iISw
lcnWapJw
cXv\w
KplmKrlw
(hn√v)
_mWw
N{Iw
KplmKrlw

80

8

10 N

48 N

20

20

12 N

40 S

37-30

37-28

40-30 N

65 S

49-30

49-28

40-30 S

57 Equat

63

63

10 S

58 N

]pjyw (7)
Bt«jw(5)
amLw (4)

67-20

67

11 S

4 Equator

93

93

6N

78 S

106

106

N

76

109

108

7S

94 Equator

129

129

0N

54 S

163

a≤yw

{]Imikn‘p

]q¿Δ
^m¬Kp\n(2)
DØc ” (2)
lkvXw (5)
Nn{X (1)
kzmXn (1)
hnimJw (4)
A\pcm[w (4)
tPyjvTw (3)
aqew (11)
]q¿Δm
jmVw (4)
DØcm
jmVw (2)

144

147

12 N

46 N


lkvXw
apØv, Zo]w
{]hmfw
tXmcWw
_en
Ip¥ew
t{Im[nX

155

155

13 N

50 N

170

170

11 B

60

180

183

205

40

188

188

37 N

74

213

212.5

130 N

78 N

224

224-5

1-44 S

64 Equator

229

229-5

4S

14 Equator

241

241

8-30 S

6 East

254

254

50-30 S

43

lkvXn
hnemkw

260

260

5S

265

60 N

A`nPnXv(3)

{XntImWw 266-40

{ihWw (3)

{Xnhn{Iaw

270

278

30 N

[\njvSw (4)

arZwKw

290

290

36 N

iX`njw(100) hrØw

320

320
0-18 S
0-20 S

0.30 S

(]q¿ΔmjmV
Øns‚ a≤y
\£{Xw)
(]q¿ΔmjmV
tij D÷ze
\£{Xw)
(DØcmjmV
Øns‚ tij
a≤yaw)
({imhWØn
s‚ tij]mZ
]ivNnaw)
80 D÷zew

]q¿Δ`{Z
]mZw (2)
DØc`{Z
]mZw(2)
tchXn(32)

bafw

336

326

240 N

36 N

337

337

26 N

22 N

apcPw

359.50

360

30

79 S

164

{]Imikn‘p

Nne {][m\ \£{XßfpsS {[phIm£mwi߃
\£{Xw

kqcy
kn≤m¥w

{_lva kn≤m¥ {Kl
Kp]vX≥ km¿Δ
emLhw
`ua≥

AKkvXy≥ (Canopus)

{[phIw 90 87
A£mwiw 770-SE

85-5

80

76 S

80-87-S

ep_v[I≥ (Sirius)

8040-S

86
40-S

84-76
40 S

80

AKv\n, th[ v (Tauri)

52
8N

52
8-14

57-48N

43

58-36
31 N

56

30 N

52
30-49

57
37 N

57
37-30

56-53
31 N

56

180
3

180
9

180
3

183
39 N
3N

{_lvalrZbw (Capella) 52
{]Pm]Xn (sU¬´m
HmdnKn (Delta Aurigi)
B]kztk B]x
(Delta virginis)

kmIev] kwlnXmaX{]Imcw k]vX¿jnIfpsS A£mwi߃:{IXp
]pel≥
A{Xn
AwKnck≥
hknjvT≥
acoNn
]pekvXy≥

55
50
56
57
60
60
50

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

{_lvaKp]vXs‚ ImeØv Nn{X 183° bnemWv ÿnXn sNøp∂Xv.
kqcykn≤m¥ ImeØn¬ \n∂v 3° hyXymkw.
hcmlanlnc\n¬ \n∂v 215 h¿jw Ign™mWv (iIw 421) {_lva
Kp]vX≥ Pohn®Xv. CXv c≠mw hcmlanlncs‚ ImehpamWv.
Bcy`´\p apºv Ab\mwiIhnjbambn bmsXm∂pw `mcXob¿°v
165

{]Imikn‘p

Adn™ncp∂n√ Fs∂mcp ]£ap≠v. ]p\¿hnNn¥\w sNtø≠ Hcp
]£amWnXv. F{]Imcw h¿jØns‚ ]cnamW hnjbØn¬ \ΩpsS
tPymXnjnIƒ GIaX°mc√mXncn°p∂pthm, AXpt]mse Ab\mwi
IhnjbØnepw Ah¿ Htct]mseb√ hnNmcn°p∂Xv. ]cmicmZnIfmb
apJy tPymXnimkv{X⁄∑m¿s°√mw Ab\mwiIhnjbw Adnbmw.
hknjvT kn≤m¥`mjyØn¬ hnjvWpN{μ≥ {Im¥n]mXØns‚ ]cn[n
bpsS ]cn{`aWsØ°pdn®v hy‡ambn ]d™n´p≠v.
Bcy`SaXw:- Hcp Iev]Øn¬ 4320000000 h¿jØn¬ 1582237500000
\£{X߃ DZn°p∂p; AYhm 1582237500000 Zn\߃ D≠v. {_lva
kn≤m¥Øn¬ “]cnh¿Øm JNXpjvSb icm_v[nckKpWbaZzn
hkpXnYbx” F∂p≠v. 158223645000-0 \£t{XmZbw Ds≠∂v kmcw.
{_lvakv^pSkn≤m¥Imc\mb {_lvaKp]vX≥ ]dbp∂p:“{_lvtam‡w {KlKWnXw alXmImte\ bXvkzeo`qXw
A`n[obtXkv^pSw XXvPnjvWpkpX{_lvaKp]vtX\.
tb ⁄m\]SemcpZpZrtim \y{lmlymZzZ¥n kn≤m¥mXv
tXjmw bpKmZnt`Zmt[ytZmjmkvXm≥ {]h£yman.
NXzmcn iq\ym\n ]©thZ ckmKv\nba]£mjvSitcμhx I¬t]\ {]Xn \£t{XmZbmXv-”
CX\pkcn®v 1,582,236,450,000 F∂ {_lvakn≤m¥Ønse \£
t{XmZbkwJysb {_lvakv^pSkn≤m¥w AwKoIcn°p∂p. `mkv°cm
Nmcy\pw Cu h¿j]cnamW, \£{Xmhÿm\mZnIsf kn≤m¥ intcm
aWnbn¬ AwKoIcn°p∂p. kqcykn≤m¥Øns‚ `mjyImc∑mcmbv
Ad_napJy∑mcpw, Nne tPymXnjnIfpw Ab\Øns‚ N]emhÿsb
I¬]\ sNbvXn´p≠v. AXns\ Jfin®psIm≠v `mkvIcmNmcy≥ hm
k\m`mjyØn¬ C{]Imcw FgpXp∂p.
“btZyha\p]e_vt[m]nkuckn≤mss¥x XzmKa
{]amtWy\ `KW]cn[nhXv IYwssXt\mIvXIx”
`mkvIc≥ tNmZnbv°bmWv:- ‘kqcykn≤m¥ ImeØmWv Ab
\mwiw kzoIcn°s∏´sX∂v Xm¶ƒ ]dbp∂p. Aßs\sb¶n¬, \£
{XN{IØns‚ ]cn[n {`aWw sNøp∂p F∂v BKa{]amWw D≠mbncp
∂n´pIqSn, B°mcyw Ft¥ kqcykn≤m¥w ]dbm™Xv?’ Cu tNmZyw
Xs‚ ImeØv Pohn®ncp∂ tPymXnjnItfmSmWv tNmZn°p∂Xv; kqcy
kn≤m¥tØmS√. ImcWw \£{XN{IØns‚ ]cn[n ]cn{`aWsØ
kqcykn≤m¥w ]dbp∂p≠v.
166

{]Imikn‘p
“{XnwiXv IrtXzm bptK `m\mw N{Iw{]mIv ]cnew`tX
XZvKpWmZv`Znss\`nIvXm[ypKWm[yZhm]ytX
Xt±m kv{XoLv\m Zim]vXmwimhnt⁄bm Ab\m`n[m”.
Hcp almbpKØn¬ 600 (30 x 20) \£{XN{I߃. A`nejnX
Zn\w (Al¿§Ww) D≈ h¿jsØ 600 sIm≠v KpWn®v, bpKØns‚
`qZn\w sImt≠m, h’cw sImt≠m lcn®v In´nbXns\ `pPam°n, 3
sIm≠v KpWn®v, 10 sIm≠v lcn°pI. At∏mƒ In´p∂Xv Ab\mwi
amWv.
Cu t«mIØns‚ A¿∞hpw teJhpw PUneamWv. kpKaamb
H∂ns\ {]Imin∏n°m≥ C{Xbpw {]bmkw F¥ns\Sp°p∂p? A¶
KWnXimkv{XØn¬ Cu coXn A`nejWoba√. Ab\mwi\ncq]W
Øn\mbn tPymXnjnIƒ D]tbmKn°p∂ as‰mcp t«mIap≠v:“bptKjSviXIrtXzm ln`®{Iw {]mIvhnew`tX
XZvKptWm `qZnss\¿ `IvtXm [ypKtWmf b\tJNcx”
CXns\ Cw•ojpIm¿ Cßs\ [cn®p:- Multiply Ahargan (no. of
mean solar days for which calculation is made) by 600 and divide the
product by seven days in a yug; of Quotient taken sine and multiply by 3
and divide by 10 to get ayanamsha.
1st Sloka

1997 h¿jw

1997 x 600 = 1198200

`qZn\w=1997 x 366 = 730902
100
600
39
1198200
=
=
=1
61
366
61
730902
2nd Sloka
X x 600
= Quotient
7
Qx3
Sine of
10
If x = 366
366 x 600
219600
=
= 31371
7
7
167

3
7

{]Imikn‘p
sine of 31371 = 0.8100508021
0.8100508021 x 3 = 0.2430152406
10
sine 1 = 0.8414709848
0.8414709848 x 3
10
= 0.2524412954
0.2430152406 \pw, 0.2524412954 \pw CSbn¬ FhnsStbm Hcp
_nμphmWv Ab\mwiw.
0.2524412954 0.2430152406
0.0094260548

Cu c≠v methods XΩnep≈ hyXymkw 0.0094260548 am{XamWv.
]cmicaX{]Imcw Hcp Iev]Øn¬ \£{XN{Iw 581709 {]mhiyw
Nenbv°p∂p; Bcy`´aX{]Imcw 578159 {]mhiyhpw. Chbv°v {]Xn
h’c Ab\w {IaØn¬ 52-3, 52-1 F∂nßs\bmWv. kqcykn≤m¥
Øn\v AXv 54 hnIebmWv. ]cmicokwlnX{]Imcw Ab\N{Iw taj
cminbpsS 27 Awiw ]q¿Δhpw ]ivNnahpw, Cu c≠p _nμp°fpsS
a≤yahpambn Du™memSns°m≠ncn°bmWv. ]cmics\ ]n≥XpS¿∂v
‘ZiKoXnI’bn¬ 27° F∂p]dbp∂ Bcy`S≥ ‘BcymjvSiXnI’bn¬
24° F∂p]dbp∂p. kqcykn≤m¥hpw hcmlanlnc\pw 27° Un{Kn F∂m
Wv FSp°p∂Xv. apºp≠mbncp∂ 27° bn¬ \n∂v (maximum Zqcw)
Ct∏mƒ 3° Ipd™v 24° bnemWv Ab\sa∂mWv Bcy`S≥ Dt±in°p
∂sX¶n¬, Bcy`S\v 215 h¿jw apºmWv hcmlanlnc Imew (iI
h¿jmcw`Øn\v 9 h¿jw apºv). _m_p A]q¿Δ N{μ≥ Bcy`S≥
bp[njvTnc∂v 1700 sIm√w Ign™mWv P\n®sX∂v IcpXp∂p. tImƒ
{_q°ns‚ A`n{]mbØn¬, {Kokn¬ _oPKWnXw BhnjvIcn®
Untbm ^m‚kv F∂ imkv{X⁄s‚ kaImeo\\mWv Bcy`S≥
(AD 319). ]q\m \nhmknbmb {ioam≥ _meKwKm[c XneI≥ “Hmdn
tbm¨” F∂ {KŸØn¬ thZ{]amWyw t\m°nbn´v Ab\Øns‚
Ne\mhÿ KWnX aX{]Imcw Aip≤amsW∂v sXfnbn®n´p≈
hy‡nbmWv.
168

{]Imikn‘p

tPymXnjØnse {]mNo\amb Km¿§ kwlnXsb hcmlanlnc≥
]e{]mhiyw _rlXv kwlnXbn¬ ]cma¿in°p∂p≠v. K¿§ kwlnX
bv°v Cw•ojp ]cn`mj cNn® Im¿Æv F∂ A≤ym]I≥ _n.kn 44
emWv AXns‚ Imesa∂v IcpXp∂p. K¿§ al¿jn ]dbp∂p:“XX kmtIXam{Iay ]©mem≥ aYpcmwkvXYm
bh\m ZpjvShn{Im¥m{]m]vky¥n Ipkpa≤zPw
XXx ]pjv]]ptc{]m]vtX I¿±ta {]YntXlntX
BIpem hnjbmx k¿tΔ`hnjy¥n\ kwibx”
ZpjvS hn{Im¥cmb bh\KWw kmtIXhpw ]m©mehpw aYpc
bpw B{Ian®v Ipkpa≤zP\mb ]mSeo]p{XcmPmhns‚ Bÿm\sØ
ØnbXv, ta\μ¿°v 144 h¿jw apºmWv F∂mWv Im¿Æv kmbvhv Icp
Xp∂Xv (K¿§ \maw ]e Ejnamcpw hln®ncp∂p F∂v {i≤n°pI).
Km¿§, ]mcmico kwlnXIƒ Ab\ \n¿ÆbØnepw Ab\Øns‚
ip`mip` h¿Æ\Ønepw Htc A`n{]mbw ]pe¿Øp∂hbmWv (Km¿§y,
]mcmicy∑m¿ ip¢bPp¿tΔZ, IrjvW bPp¿tΔZ imJIfnse Kpcp
]cºcIfn¬ s]Sp∂p. “IrjvW sshcmPw”, “kp[mkn‘p” apXemb
Fs‚ D]\njZv hymJym\߃ ImWpI).
]cmicobØn¬,
bYm{]m]vtXmsshjvWmhm¥ apZMvam¿t§ {]]ZytX
Z£ntWf t«jw hmalm`bmb
F∂p ImWptºmƒ Km¿§ kwlnXbn¬
bZm\nh¿ØtX {]m]vXx {imhnjvTm apØcmbt\
Bt«jmw Z£ntWmf {]m]vXkvXmhZznZym≥ almZv`bw
F∂p ImWmw. [\njvTw apX¬°v DØcmb\hpw, Bbneyw apX
¬°v Z£nWmb\hpw BWv F∂v CXn¬ \n∂v Adnbmw. ]cmicobw
]g°tadnbXmsW∂v AXns‚ Oμ pXs∂ sXfnbn°p∂p≠v.
{Im¥n ]mXØns‚ ]cn[nbpsS ]cn{`aWw hknjvT kn≤m¥Øn
epw AXns‚ hnjvWpN{μ `mjyØnepw ImWmw. {Im¥n]mXw Hcp
Iev]Øn¬ 189411 {]mhiyw ]cn{`aWw sNøp∂Xmbn hknjvT
kn≤m¥ `mjyw IcpXp∂p. AXn\m¬ {]Xnh¿jw 60.03 hnIebmWv
Ab\w. ln∏m¿° pw tSmfanbpw CtX A`n{]mbw ]dbp∂p≠v. ln∏m
¿° v 85 h¿jØn¬ Hcwiw {Im¥n ]mX{]mbsa∂pw, tSmfan 100
h¿jØn¬ Hcwisa∂pw ]dbp∂p.
169

{]Imikn‘p

kn≤m¥ intcmaWnbn¬ `mkv°cmNmcy≥ ]dbp∂p:hnjvTphXv {Im¥hebtbmx kw]mXx{Im¥n]mXkymXv
XZv`KWx kutcm‡mhykvXm AbpX{Xbw Ievt]
Ab\Ne\w XZp‡w ap⁄emss[yx k Ghmbw
XXv ] t£XZv`KWx Ievt] tKmMvK¿Ør \μtKmN{μmx
hnjphhpw {Im¥n afiehpw H∂mhp∂XmWv {Im¥n ]mXw
(hnjphØn¬ {Im¥n hebw kw]Zn°p∂Xv {Im¥n]mXw). kqcy
kn≤m¥{]Imcw AXns‚ `KWw 3000. Ab\ Ne\hpw {Im¥n]mX
hpw H∂p Xs∂bmWv. apZvKe {_mlvaW¿ (]m©me∑m¿) Hcp Iev]
Øn¬ Ab\Øns‚ 199669 `KWw F∂v IW°m°nbncp∂p. kn≤m¥
intcmaWnbn¬ Ejoizc∑mcmb apZvKe∑m¿°v 20 x 30000= 600000 F∂
{IaØn¬ 5909 hnIebmWv In´nbXv.
60 h¿jØn¬ 1° F¶n¬
600000 h¿jØn¬ = 10000°
10000° = 27.77 {`aWw
27 ]q¿Æ{`aWw + .77/27 `mKw
18600 h¿jØn¬ 310° Nen°ptºmƒØs∂ {Im¥n]mX_nμp 50°
]nt∂m´p Nen°bm¬, 18600 h¿jwsIm≠v BsI 360° ]q¿Ønbmhpw.
Cu 50° Bcy`S ]cmicob߃ 52-1, 52-3 F∂v \n¿Æbn°p∂p. Ah
sb°msfms° ]g°w IqSnb ss]Xmal kn≤m¥w 18300 h¿jØn¬
Ab\w {IaoIcn°s∏Sp∂Xmbn IcpXp∂p.
366 x 100 h¿jØnemWv ss]Xmals‚ Ab\ {IaoIcWw.
2
366 Znhkw hoXap≈ 60 h¿jØn¬ = 1°
(21960 Al¿§WØn¬) = 1°
18300 h¿jØn¬ (6697800 Al¿§Ww) = 305°
cminN{IØn¬ 305 -mw Un{Kn ]q¿Δ `{Z]mZw- tchXn tbmKXmc
bn¬\n∂v 26°-27° ZqcØn¬ sh®v Ab\{IaoIcWw (]q¿Δ `{Z]mZØn
\pw Im¿ØnIbv°pw CSbnep≈ 52 apX¬ 53 Un{Kn). C{Xbpw Ffp∏
hpw klPhpamb Hcp ImcyamWv Ab\mwi KW\w. Zr°¿Ωw (observation) sIm≠v Ab\w (deelination) kwkvIrXw sNbvsXSpØv \£{X
kv^pSw ImWWw. AX√msX, PUneamb KWnXam¿§w am{Xw Ah
ew_n®v Ab\mwiØ¿°hpw, ]©mwKØ¿°hpambn \S°p∂Xv ip≤
170

{]Imikn‘p

a≠ØcamWv. {[ph\£{X kv^pSw t]mepw Cßs\ Zr°¿Ωw sIm
≠v sNømw.
{_lvaKp]vXmZn`nx kzev]m¥cXzm∂x IrXx kv^pSx
ÿnXy¿≤ ]cnteJmZu KWnX KX Ghln
\£{XmWmw kv^pSm Gh ÿncXzmXv ]TnXmx icmx
Zr°¿ΩWmbt\ ss\jmw kwkvIrXmivN XYm{[phmx
iIm_vZw 444 ¬ Ab\mwimcw`sa∂v Ipdn® tPymXnjnIfpsS
aXhpw Ab\w 60 h¿jØn¬ 1° apt∂m´p t]mIp∂p F∂pXs∂bmWv.
AhcpsS kt¶Xw CXmWv:itImthZm_v[nthtZm\x jjvTn `IvtXm f b\mw iIx
tZbmkvtX Xpchukv]jvtS NceKv\mZnkn≤tb
`mkvIcmNmcys‚ ‘I¿ÆIpXqle’Øn\papºv, ]e tPymXnjn
Ifpw Ab\mwiØ¿°wsIm≠v h´w Xncn™ncp∂p (C∂sØt∏mse).
I¿ÆIpXqlew iIh¿jw 1105 ¬ FgpXs∏´p. AXn¬ Ab
\mwiw 11 F∂p X∂ncn°p∂p.
(60 h¿jØn¬ 1° F¶n¬ 11° = 660 h¿jw Fs∂SpØv 1105 iIh¿j
Øn¬ Ab\mwimcw`w IW°m°p∂hcmWv ]chrØn tPymXnjn
Iƒ). `mkv°cmNmcyaXw kaoNo\ambn \mw a\ nem°mØXp sIm
≠mWv ]chrØntPmXnjnIƒ°v Cu sX‰p ]‰p∂Xv. `mkIc≥ Fgp
Xp∂Xv, Ab\mwiIw Ipsd Ignbptºmƒ, BZnbn¬ D≠mbncp∂ Ah
ÿ (\ncb\w) b√msX, kmb\mhÿ sh®v Imew KWn-°p∂Xns‚
kmwKXyw C√Xmhp∂p. \£{X߃, ÿnc߃ (fixed) Bbn Ne\
clnX߃ (\ncb\߃) Bbn `qanbnse \nco£I\v ImWs∏Sp∂p.
Htc thKXbn¬ hnIkn°p∂ {]]©Øn¬ Ccn°p∂ `qanbpw \£{X
ßfpw XΩn¬ kZm ÿncZqchpw ÿncÿm\hpw Bbn (Co-ordinates)
Xocp∂p. AXn\m¬ kmb\ KWnXta sNømsX, Zr°¿Ω sIm≠p am
{Xw kv^pS߃ km[n°p∂p. `mkv°c≥ Xs‚ Zr°¿Ωw sIm≠v 211
Awiw {`aWw kw`hn®ncn°p∂Xmbn IW°m°n. `mkv°c\papºv
Zr°¿Ω kwkv°mcw sNbvXpsIm≠v D÷bn\n¬ hkn®ncp∂ tPymXn
jnIfpsS Hcp enÃv l≠¿ \¬Ip∂p≠v. CXn¬ c≠masØ hcmlan
lnc\mWv _rlZv kwlnXm I¿Ømhv (^m¬Kp\ykv ZzoXobmb akn
Xmbmw Kpcu Znt\, hkzjvSmjvSantX imtI IrtXbw hnhrXn¿Ωbm
F∂v Cu {KŸØn¬ ImWmw).
171

{]Imikn‘p

hcmlanlncmNmcy≥ I
iIw
122
hcmlanlncmNmcy≥ II
iIw
421
{_lvaKp]vX≥

550
`t´mev]e≥

890

939
tiztXmev]e≥
hcpW`´≥

962
t`mPcmP≥

964
`mkv°c≥

1072
IeymWN{μ≥

1101
t`mPcmPs‚ Hcp inem en]nta¬ 919 kwhXv 749 iIm_vZw F∂p
ImWp∂p≠v. AXn∂¿∞w, `mcXh¿jØn¬ Hcp t`mPcmP≥ am{Xa√
D≠mbn´p≈Xv F∂pam{XamWv. C°mcyw {Kln°msX, Ncn{X ]pcpj
∑mcpsS Ime\n¿Æbw \SØp∂Xpw alma≠ØcamWv.
iXm\μ≥ 1021 iIm_vZØn¬ cNn® “`maXn” Hcp ip≤IcW
{KŸamWv, ]©kn≤m¥nIsbt∏mse. AXn¬ C{]Imcw ImWmw:\Xzm apcmtcivNcWmchnμw
{ioam≥ iXm\μ CXn{]kn≤x
Xmw `maXoinjylnXm¿∞aml
imtIholot\iin]£ssJtI
imtIm\hm{ZoμpIrim\pbp‡x
Ite¿`hXy_vZKtWmhyXoX
hnb≥\t`m temN\ thZlo\x
imkv{Xm_vZ]nfix IYnXx k Ghx
IrXbpKmw_chlv\n `n cpRvPntXm
KXIenx Ine hn{Iah’cmx
iclpXmi\N{μhntbmPnXm
`hXn imI Cl £nXn afite
AY {]]t£yanlntcm]tZimXv
XXvkqcykn≤m¥kawkamkmXv
imkv{Xm_vZ]nfikzciq\y ZnLv\
kvXm\mKv\nbpIvtXmjvScmssX¿ hn`‡x
tb kzmJn thZm_vZ KtX bpKm_vtZ
Znthym‡nXx {io]pcptjmØaky
{ioam≥ iXm\μ Camw NImc
kckzXo i¶ctbmkvX\qPx
172

{]Imikn‘p

CXv I≠v Hcp kmbvhv iXm\μs‚ KpcphmWv hcmlanlncs\∂pw
AXn\m¬ hcmlanlnc≥ iIh¿jw 1060 ¬ Pohn®ncp∂p F∂p “ÿm
]n®n´p≠v”. Cu KW\ kXyamsW¶n¬, Rm\pw “anlntcm]tZimXv”
FgpXp∂p; Fs‚ Kpcphpw hcmlanlnc≥! hcmlanlncs‚ Imew {In
kvXph¿jw 1997! ImeclnXamb H∂ns\ ImeØn¬ At\zjn°p∂
hcmWv \Ωsfms°! hntZinIƒ am{Xa√ kztZiobcpw AXy¥PUne
amb Imcy߃ FgpXn∏nSn®n´p≠v. tIih kwh’cs‚ ]p{X\mb
KtWi ssZh⁄≥ 1442 iIh¿jØn¬ cNn® {KlemLhw AYhm
kn≤m¥clkyw AXn∂pZmlcWambn´v lnμn `mjy°mc≥ FSpØp
]dbp∂p≠v.
0 to 13° 20'
13° 20' to 26° 40'
26° 40' to 40°
40° to 53° 20'
53° 20' to 66° 40'
66° 40' to 80°
80° to 93° 20'
93° 20' to 106° 40'
106° 40' to 120°
120° to 133° 20'
133° 20' to 146° 40'
146° 40' to 160°
160° to 173° 20'
173° 20' to 186° 40'
186° 40' to 200°
200° to 213° 20'
213° 20' to 226° 40'
226° 40' to 240°
240° to 253° 20'
253° 20' to 266° 40'
266° 40' to 280°
280° to 293° 20'

AizXn
`cWn
Im¿ØnI
tcmlnWn
aIocw
B¿{Z
]pW¿Xw
]qbw
Bbneyw
aIw
]qcw
D{Xw
AØw
Nn{X
tNmXn
hnimJw
A\ngw
Xrt°´
aqew
]qcmSw
D{XmSw
XncpthmWw
173

{]Imikn‘p
293° 20' to 306° 40'
Ahn´w
306° 40' to 320°
NXbw
320° to 333° 20'
]qtcmcp´mXn
333° 20' to 346° 40'
D{X´mXn
346° 40' to 360°
tchXn
1 Yr = 40' back
In 20 years = 13° 20' (Hcp \£{Xmh[n)

27 \£{Xmh[n°v = 540 h¿jw
1080 h¿jw = 54 \£{Xmh[n
108 h¿jw = 5.4 \£{Xmh[n
or

69° 20' ]n∂nte°v (XncpthmWw)
216 h¿jw - /10.80 (A\ngw)
324 h¿jw - /16.2 (D{Xw)
432 h¿jw - 21.6 (]pW¿Xw)
540 h¿jw - 27.0 (`cWn)
346 apX¬ 13° 20' Ign™m¬ 359° 20' Bbn. _m°n 40'
540 x 27 =14580 Yr-¬ ho≠pw AizXnbn¬
Total = 29160 Yr
AizXn (taSw 1° ) ao\Øns‚ Ahkm\ _nμphn¬ BZy {`aW
Øn\ptijw Bcw`n°p∂p.
Jw AYhm BImisa∂p \mw hnfn°p∂ Du¿÷afieØnse
Hcp sIm®p_nμp am{XamWv \ΩpsS kucbqYw. kmb\Imew B
sIm®p _nμphns‚ Ne\sØ°pdn®v `qanbnencn°p∂ \nco£Is‚
{`aamWv. Ab\mwi KWnXw kucbqYØns‚ Ab\am‰ØneqsS,
_rlZv afieamb Du¿÷afieØns‚ \ncb\amb Ahÿsb
{Kln°m\p≈ Hcp am¿§w am{XamWv. EXp°ƒ ]ckv]c_‘Øm¬
AN©eßfmWv. H∂ns\ØpS¿∂v {IaØn¬ as‰m∂phcpw. CXmIs´
\£{Xßsf B[mcam°n \nco£Ww sNbvXv Adnbmhp∂XmWv.
EXp°ƒ°v ÿm\w amdmw. ]s£, cminN{IØn\v ÿm\am‰an√. AXp
t]mse, cminN{IØnse cminIƒ ]ckv]c_‘Øm¬ AN©eß
fmWv. tajw Ign™m¬ Ej`a√msX I∂ntbm [\pthm hcn√. cmin
Isf \£{X ÿm\w sIm≠pXs∂ \nco£n®dnbmw. BImisa∂
174

{]Imikn‘p

Du¿÷ afieØn¬ kucbqYhpw \£{Xafiehpw Hcp _nμphn¬
\n∂v as‰mcp _nμphnte°v ]cnkv]μw kw`hn®mepw, AhbpsS ]mc
kv]cyØn\v Nm©eyan√; \ncb\amWv.
C{Xbpw BapJambn Ipdnbv°p∂Xv Ab\mwisØ°pdn®p≈
At\Iw `n∂m`n{]mb߃ Ct∏mgpw ]©mwKKWI¿°nSbn¬ s]m¥n
tIƒ°p∂XpsIm≠mWv. emlncntbm cmat\m icnbmb Ab\mwiw
Xcp∂Xv F∂p X¿°n°p∂h¿ Hcp `mKØv, Ab\mwisØ am‰n ]p
Xnb Ab\mwiw ÿm]n°Wsa∂p hnizkn°p∂h¿ Hcp `mKØvkmb\a√msX \ncb\w C√ F∂v hmin ]nSn®v AXmWv imkv{Xob
sa∂p IcpXp∂h¿ Hcp `mKØv. c≠pw Co-ordinates s‚ ss\c¥cyw
sIm≠p kw`hn°p∂ Inertia F∂ \ncb\XzsØ hnkvacn®psIm
≠p≈ Cu X¿°ßƒ dnte‰nhnÃn°v Izm≠w ^nknIvkns‚ Bhn¿
`mhØn\ptijhpw kw`hn®psIm≠ncn°p∂p F∂sXmcXv`pXamWv.
\ncb\ImeØns‚ _rlZvtXtPm afieØn¬ kmb\Imew Hcp ap
lq¿Øtam IWtam am{XamWv. B IWØn¬, B ssNX\y _nμp
hn¬ {XnIme߃ ASßnbncn°p∂pap≠v.
_rlZv kwlnXsb {i≤sh®p ]Tn®m¬ a\pjy¿°v {]tbmP\
{]Zamb At\Iw Imcy߃ {Kln°mw. F∂ncp∂n´pw AXns\mcp
`mjmSoI C√ F∂ Ipdhp ]cnlcn°m\mWv _etZh{]kmZ an{i
lnμn`mjyw cNn®Xv. At±lØns‚ A{KP\pw kp{]kn≤ hnZzm\pamb
Pzmem{]kmZ an{i {KŸØns‚ ip≤n]{Xw Xømdm°n. `t´mev]es‚
kwkvIrXSoIbpw _wKmfn¬ {]IminXamb ]©m\\ X¿°cXv\s‚
SoIbpw {ZmhnU tZiØn¬ {]IminXamb AcptWmZb SoIbpw ]cn
tim[n®mWv an{imPn Xs‚ lnμn `mjyw Xømdm°nbn´p≈Xv. CXp
hmbn®v GsX¶nepw Hcp hy‡nbpsS lrZbØn¬ ⁄m\Øns‚
k©mcw kw`hn®m¬ Xs‚ ]cn{iaw k^eambn IcpXpsa∂v an{imPn
]dbp∂p≠v. tZmssjIZr°pItfmSv tKmkmbn XpfkoZmkPnbpsS hcn
Iƒ D≤cn°p∂p.
tP]ctZmjeJlnw klkmJn
]clnX[rX D≥sI a\amJn
]c AImPeKnX\p ]cnlcln
Pnanlna D]eIrjn ZmcnKcln
lcnlcbicmtIi cmlpsk
]c AImPeKnklk _mlpsk.
175

{]Imikn‘p

tZmssjIZr°pItfmSv AX√msX as‰m∂pw ]dbm\n√. imkv{Xo
bamb Nne \nKa\߃ ChnsS FSpØp ]dbm≥ Rm≥ B{Kln°p∂p.
1. `uXnI \nco£Wßsf Nn´s∏SpØn {IaoIcn®v imkv{X temI
Øn\v kzoImcyamb kn≤m¥ßƒ cq]oIcnbv°p∂Xn\v a\pjy\v
Htc Hcm[mcw bp‡nbp‡w Nn¥n°m\p≈ IgnhmWv.
2. ssPh hkvXp°fn¬ sstPthm¿÷Øns‚ {]h¿Ø\w, {_
lvamfiØnse∂t]mse, kt¶mN hnImk cq]ØnemWv. kt¶mN
hnImkßsf∂ hn]coXi‡nIfpsS k¥penXmhÿbmWv Btcm
KyØn\v \nZm\w.
3. GXp hkvXphnepw {Zhyw, A¥co£w, Du¿÷w F∂nh ASßn
bn´p≠v. Du¿÷ØmemWv hkvXphns‚ LS\bpw {]hrØnbpw [¿Ω
hpw \nb{¥n°s∏Sp∂Xpw \nivNbn°s∏Sp∂Xpw.
4. k¿Δ {]]©hkvXp°fpw {Iah¬°rXamb coXnbn¬ Htc
amXrIbn¬ {]h¿Øn°p∂p.
5. A¥co£tØbpw {ZhytØbpw X∂n¬Øs∂ Dƒs°m≠ncn
°p∂ “Du¿÷w” ]pdØp\n∂v ssPh icocØnte°pw, ssPhicoc
Øn¬ tImiØn¬ \n∂v tImiØnte°pw, Hcp tImiØn¬ \n∂v,
as‰mcp icocØnse tImiØnte°pw ({]P\\thfbn¬) {]hln®p
sIm≠ncn°p∂ ss\c¥cyamWv {]]©sa∂v \mw ]dbp∂Xv.
\ΩpsS “Ct°mknÔØns‚ auenILSIamb kky{]IrXn
t¢mtdm^n¬ F∂ \nXylcnX hkvXphn¬ kuccivan hogptºmƒ
D≠mhp∂ “CeIvt{Sm¨ {Sm≥kv^¿” sIm≠mWv t^mkvt^‰v t_m≠p
Ifn¬ Du¿÷w kw`cn°∂Xv. a‰p ssPhh¿§ßƒ°mhiyamb Du¿
÷w Ahbn¬\n∂p e`n°p∂p. t¢mtdm^n√ns‚ Cu {]tXyItijn°v
B[mcw Hcp {]tXyI {IaØneSp°nb Aant\m BknUpIfmWv.
tamfnIyqfpIƒ, B‰ßƒ F∂nhbpsS {Iaamb kwhn[m\amWv ssP
hhpw AssPhhpamb hkvXp°ƒ°v AhbpsS {]tXyI kz`mhw \¬
Ip∂Xv. tkmUnbw AtamWnbw dknta‰v {InÃen¬ eqbn]mkvN¿
Is≠Ønb “C\m‚ntbm tam¿^nkw” Xs∂bmWv Aant\mBknUp
Ifn¬ ImWp∂ khyhpw A]khyhpw Bb hn\ymkcoXn. CtX
khyhpw A]khyhpamb _nw_{]Xn_nw_ßsf {]]©LS\bnepw
\mw ImWp∂p. F≥tdm∏nbpw dnYhpw (EXw!) IqSpX¬ IqSpX¬ a\ n
em°pwtXmdpw ssPhhpw AssPhhpamb Xe߃ XΩnep≈ hyXymk
ßfpw t\¿Øpt\¿Øn√mXmhp∂Xv kzbw A\p`hn®dnbmdmhpw.
176

{]Imikn‘p

Hcp Aka sS{Smsl{Us‚ tI{μØn¬ ÿnXnsNøp∂ Im¿_¨
B‰amWv _nw_{]Xn_nw_mflIXzap≈ “C\m‚ntbm tam¿^p”Ifp
sS krjvSn°p ImcW`qXsa∂pw, {]Xetam ÿnctI{μtam C√mØ
Cu Im¿_¨ B‰w Ft∏mgpw ]cnkv]μn®psIm≠ncn°bmsW∂pw
[cn°ptºmƒ Hcp “ssUdIv” IWØns‚ ]cnkv]μhpw {]]© {]h¿
Ø\coXnbpw a\ nem°m≥ Ffp∏w km[n°pw. Cu ‘EX’Øn\p Imc
Wsa¥v F∂ tNmZyw kz`mhnIambn a\ n¬ DXv`hn°p∂p. B[p\nI
imkv{Xw CXn\pØcw ImWm≥ {ianbv°bmWv. {]]©Ønse k¿Δ
IWßtfbpw s^¿antbm¨, t_mtkm¨ F∂v c≠n\am°n Xncn°mw.
t{]mt´mWpw CeIvt{SmWpw \yqt{SmWpw s^¿antbmWpIfmWv. t_m
tkm¨ Hcp t^mt´mWmWv. thmƒ^v KmMv t]mfn ]dbptºmse, Hmtcm
s^¿antbmWn\pw AtX {Zhyam\hpw hn]coXamb Nm¿÷pw kv]n∂pw
D≈ Hcp B‚ns^¿antbm¨ D≠mhWw; CeIvt{SmWn\v Hcp t]mkn
t{Sm¨ IqSntb Xocq. Hcp s^¿antbmWpw Hcp B‚ns^¿antbmWpw
XΩn¬ Iq´nap´ptºmsgms° Ah ]ckv]cw kwlcn®psIm≠v AXy
[nIw Du¿÷w Dev]mZn∏n°pw. s^¿antbmWpIsf ]ckv]cw _‘n
°p∂ i‡nbmWv t_mtkm¨. Cu c≠phn[ i‡nIsfbpw Izm≠w
^o¬Uv XnbdnbpsS kn≤m¥ßƒ°\pkrXambn _‘n°p∂ kq∏¿
kna{Sn, kna{Sn {Sm≥kvt^m¿taj≥ XnbdnIƒ C∂p \ap-°p≠v. Ch,
Hcp \qdp h¿jw apºv amIvkvsh¬ kn≤m¥ßƒ CeIvt{Sm amKv\‰nk
tØbpw {]ImitØbpw GIoIcn®Xpt]mse Hcp ]pXnb “AssZzX”
kn≤m¥w P\n∏n®p.
1974-se Pqenbkvsh ns‚ kna{Sn {Sm≥kvt^m¿taj≥ kn≤m¥
sØ Cßs\ Nn{XoIcn°mw.
+ t]mknt{Sm¨

+ t]mknt{Sm¨

t^mt´m¨

t^mt´m¨

t^mt´m¨
- CeIvt{Sm¨

- CeIvt{Sm¨

Hcp s^¿antbmWns\ t_mtkmWmbpw adn®pw am‰mw. ]pXpXmbn
D≠mb s^¿antbmWns‚ ÿm\w hyXykvXambncn°pw. ]s£ AXv
]gbXn¬ \n∂v cq]Øntem LS\bntem `n∂a√. A¥co£Øn¬
177

{]Imikn‘p

AXn\p kw`hn® “]cnkv]μ”amWv Hcp ]pXnb krjvSn°v ImcWambn
Øo¿∂Xv. ]cnWmaw AYhm am‰a√, ]cnkv]μw AYhm A`nhy‡n
bmWv k¿§{]{Inb°v B[mcsa∂ i¶cs‚ A`n{]mbw Xs∂bm
WnXv. Cu ]cnkv]μsØ ]cnamWw (Afhv) AYhm {]amWw sIm≠v
Af°m\p≈ Hcp imkv{Xob{iaw am{XamWv `mcXobs‚ tPymXnjw.
tPymXnjamb _rlZvafieØn¬, tPymXn ns‚ A`nhy‡nIfmb
\macq]{]]©ßfpsS ]cnkv]μhpw AhbpsS kt¶mNhnImkßfp
amWv tPymXnjØns‚ hnjbw.
{]]©sØ°pdn® lyq_nfns‚ ÿnchmIyw (Hubble's Constant);
tZiw AYhm kvt]kn¬ sFtkmt{Sm∏nkhpw, Imesa∂ NXp¿∞
am\w tNcptºmƒ Ass\tkmt{Sm∏nkhpw Im´p∂ tImkvtamfPn°¬
XØz߃, amIkvsh¬-temd≥kv-s
- sUdmIv kahmIy߃, Hcp kn.hn.
ss_\dn (cataclysmic binary) bn¬ sh≈°p≈\n¬ (white dwarf) \n
∂p≈ \yqt{Sm¨ XmcØns‚ DXv`hw- Chsbms° CtX EXØns‚
Xs∂ {]Imi\ßfmWv. IWhpw {]XnIWhpw t]msebmWv {]]©
hpw {]Xn{]]©hpw. IW{]XnIW߃s°∂t]mse, {]]©{]Xn
{]]©ßƒ°pw kw`hn°p∂ ]cnkv]μw ]pXnb k¿§Øn\p ImcW
amhp∂p. c≠p{]mhiyw Bh¿Øn°s∏Sptºmƒ krjvSn°s∏Sp∂
{]]©{]Xn{]]©ßƒ BImiØn¬ ]cnkv]μw kw`hn°p∂ Htc
Hcp _nμphns‚ (B _nμp `qanbmImw, a\pjy\mImw, kucbqYamImw,
\£{XtemIßfmhmw) ]p\¿krjvSnIƒ am{XamWv. Cu {]]©w
AXns‚ Xs∂ amXrIbn¬ ho≠pw ho≠pw “bYm]q¿Δw” krjvSn°
s∏Sp∂p F∂ EtKzZhmIysØ tPymXnimkv{Xw (]gbXpw ]pXnbXpw)
AwKoIcn°p∂p. k¿Δhpw X∂nte°v Dƒhen°bpw ]pdtØ°v {khn
∏n°bpw sNøp∂, Acq]sa¶nepw k¿Δcq]Øn\pw D]m[nbmb,
ssNX\yabhpw kzbw ]q¿Æhpamb H∂ns‚ “kz`mh”amWv A`n
hy‡n AYhm k¿§w.
krjvSn kzbw ]q¿Æamb H∂ns‚ B¥ckz`mhamsW∂v KuU
]mZImcnIbpw, kvt^mShpw \nchbhhpw Acq]hpamb \nXyi_vZam
Wv {_lvasa∂v i¶cs‚ k¿ΔZ¿i\kw{Klhpw ]dbp∂p. B[p\nI
imkv{X kt¶XßtfmSv Chbv°p≈ XmcXayw D]\njvZ`v mjyßfnepw
“eoe” F∂ imkv{X{KŸØnepambn Rm≥ hnhcn®pIgn™XmWv.
thZt\{XamWv tPymXnjw. AXns‚ ]cae£yw thZZ¿i\amWv. AXn
s\ hnkvacn°msX thWw tPymXnjnIƒ Nn¥n°m\pw {]h¿Øn°m\pw.
178

{]Imikn‘p

tPymXnjw F\n°v IÆmWv. Rm≥ thZw Z¿in® Fs‚ Dƒ°Æv!
B “am¿§”sØ h¿Æn°p∂ IrXnIƒ am{XamWv F\n°v ]©kn≤m
¥nIbpw _rlXvkwlnXbpw! e£yw {_lvam\p`hw am{Xw! “Hcmƒ
X∂n¬Øs∂ kakvX{]mWnIfpsS Pohi‡ntbbpw B[mc`qantb
bpw AKm[XetØbpw AdnbpIbpw ImWpIbpw sNøp”∂sX∂v `mc
Xob Z¿i\Øn¬ Fkv. cm[mIrjvW≥ hntijn∏n® {_lvakm£mXv
°mcw.

179

hnjbm\p{IaWnI
1. {KtŸm]\b\w
2. ssZh⁄e£Ww
(kwh’c kq{Xw)
3. BZnXyNmcw
4. N{μNmcw
5. cmlpNmcw
6. `uaNmcw
7. _p[Nmcw
8. _rlkv]XnNmcw
9. ip{INmcw
10. iss\ivNcNmcw
11. tIXpNmcw
12. AKkvXyNmcw
13. k]vX¿jnNmcw
14. Iq¿Ωhn`mKw
15. \£{Xhyqlw
16. {Kl`‡n
17. {Klbp≤w
18. N{μ{Kl kamKaw
19. {Klh¿j ^ew
20. {Kl irwKmSIw
21. K¿`e£Ww
22. K¿`[mcWw
23. {]h¿jWw
24. tcmloWotbmKw
25. kzmXntbmKw

26. BjmVotbmKw
27. hmXN{Iw
28. ktZymhrjvSn e£Ww
29. Ipkpa eX
30. k‘yme£Ww
31. ZnKvZmle£Ww
32. `qan Iºe£Ww
33. D¬°me£Ww
34. ]cnthj e£Ww
35. C{μmbp[ e£Ww
36. K‘¿Δ \Kc e£Ww
37. {]Xnkqcy e£Ww
38. ctPm e£Ww
39. \n¿LmX e£Ww
40. kky PmXIw
41. {Zhy\nivNbw
42. A¿≤Imfiw
43. C{μ[zP kw]Xv
44. \ocmP\ hn[n
45. JRvP\ Z¿i\w
46. DXv]mX e£Ww
47. abqc Nn{XIw
48. ]pjykv\m\w
49. ]´ e£Ww
50. JUvK e£Ww
51. AwKhnZy

{iox
AY hnZzZzc hcmlanlncmNmcyhncNnXmhcmlo _rlZv kwlnXm(`mjmSoIm klnXw)

A≤ymbw 1

{KtŸm]\b\w
1. PbXn PKXx {]kqXn¿Δnizmflm klP`qjWw \`kx
{ZpX I\IkZrim ZiiXabqJamem¿®nXmx khnXmx
2. {]Yaap\n IYnXahnXY ahtemIy{KŸhnkvXckym¿∞w
\mXn eLp hn]pe cN\m`ncp[yXx kv]jvS a`n[mXyw.
PKØns\ {]khn®h\pw, hnizmflmhpw, \` ns‚ klP`qjW
hpw, I\IkZriamb ]Øpw \qdpw abqJameIfm¬ A¿®nX\pamb
kqcy≥ Pbn°p∂p. {]Yaap\nbm¬ ]dbs∏´Xpw, kXysØ Z¿in®pw,
{KŸßsf hnkvXcn®pw, Ip‰a‰ coXnbn¬ kv]jvSambn cNn°s∏´Xpw
Bb imkv{XsØ AXn eLph√msXbpw AXn hn]pea√msXbpw
Rm≥ cNn°p∂p.
\` n¬ F{]Imcw AXns‚ kzm`mhnI `qjWamb kqcy\mcmb
W≥ {]Imin®v, PKØns\ P\n∏n°p∂pthm, AXpt]mse lrZbmIm
iØn¬ Bflkqcy≥ {]⁄bmbn {]Imin°ptºmƒ {KŸkrjvSn
kw`hn°p∂p F∂v kqN\.
3. £nXnX\b Znhkhmtcm \ ip`IrZnXnbZn]nXmal t{]m‡x
IpPZn\a\njvSanXn hmtImf{X hntitjm\r ZnhyIrtX.
]nXmal≥ FgpXpIbp≠mbn “£nXnX\b hmktcm\ip`IrXv”
F∂v (sNmΔbv°v awKfs\∂p t]cps≠¶nepw AXv awKfIca√ F∂v).
tPymXnjnIƒ AXns\ IÆS®v A\pIcn®v “IpP≥ A\njvSImcn”
bmWv F∂v ]d™psImt≠ Ccn°p∂p. Cßs\ ]dbp∂Xn¬ hnti
jn®v F¥p imkv{XobXbmWp≈Xv F∂mWv hcmlnanlncs‚ BZy
sØ tNmZyw. sNmΔ AawKfImcn F∂ tPymXnjm‘hnizmksØ
hcmlanlnc≥ tNmZyw sNøp∂p.
4. ap\nhncNnX anZanXnb®nc¥\w km[p\a\pP{KŸnXw
Xptey¿t∞f£c t`Zm Za{¥tIIm hntitjm‡nx
ap\namcm¬ FgpXs∏´sX√mw km[phmWv; a\pjyhncNnXamb
sXm∂pw km[ph√ F∂mWv Nnc¥\ hnizmkw. a{¥ßfpsS Imcy

{]Imikn‘p

Øn¬ AXv icnbpamWv. a{¥ßf√mØ {]tbmP\ imkv{XmZnIfn¬,
Xpeym¿∞ap≈Xpw, A£ct`Zw (`mjm t`Zw) am{Xap≈Xpamb hmIy
ßfn¬ C{]Imcw H∂v km[p, as‰m∂v Akm[p F∂p ]dbp∂Xn¬
F¥v hntijamWp≈Xv F∂v c≠masØ tNmZyw.
5. A{_lvamZn hn\nx krXamtemIy {KŸhnkvXcw {Iaix
{InbamWI tasshXXv kamktXm f tXmatamkvXmlx
{_lvamhn\p tijw D≠mb imkv{Xßfnse√mw A\mhiyamb
{KŸhnkvXmcw I≠phcp∂p. AXn\m¬, Fs‚ D’mlw AXns\
kwt£]n®p ]dbp∂Xn∂mWv.
6. BkoZax InteZw X{Xm]mw ssXPtk `hsZzsa
h¿`qiIte {_lvahnizIrZtfif¿° cmin\b\x
{]]t©mev]Øn°papºv Xa mIp∂ ImcWPeØn¬ (B B]
 n¬) ssXPkamb Afiw D≠mbn (lncWyK¿`w F∂ Afiw).
hnizIrØmb B {_lvamfiØn¬ Jw, `qan F∂ c≠p IeIƒ
D≠mbn; A¿°cminbmIp∂ \b\w sXfn™p.

Xtamcmin

Afiw
Jw
kqcy≥
`qan

cmin, A¿°cmin apXemb ]Z߃ {i≤n°pI. tXtPmcmin
F∂m¬ tXP ns‚ kap{Zw. (Pecmin- Pekap{Zw) Irjn°m¿°v
cminaÆns‚ {]tXyIX Adnbmw. Hcp Ipgn Ipgn°m\mbn aÆv \o°w
182

{]Imikn‘p

sNbvXp Ign™v, B \o°w sNbvX aÆp apgph\mbn D]tbmKn®mepw
IpgnXo¿°m\mhmsX _m°nhcpw. Hcn°epw ]qcn∏n°m\mhmsX InS
°p∂, Ft∏mgpw “A\¥tij”ambn Ahtijn°p∂XmWv cmin-cmin
N{Iw, cmin afiew, A¿°cmin- Ahkm\n°mØ tXP ns‚ kap{Z
߃ BWv Ch; A\¥amb NntZm¿÷ kmKc߃...
7. I]nex {][m\ aml{ZhymZo≥ IW`qKkyhnizky
Imew ImcWtatI kz`mh a]tc PpKpx I¿Ω.
{]]t©mev]Ønsb°pdn®v hn`n∂ imkv{X⁄cpsS A`n{]mb
߃ AhXcn∏n°p∂p. {]mNo\ kmwJym]≤XnbpsS D]⁄mXmhmb
I]ne≥ ‘aqe {]IrXn’ F∂ ‘{][m\’Øn¬ \n∂v hnizw DXv`hn®p
F∂p ]dbp∂p. {ZhyßfpsS IWßfmWv hnizImcWsa∂v IWmZ
\pw ]dbp∂p. Nne¿ ImeamWv {]]©krjvSn°p ImcWsa∂v ]dbp
∂p; a‰p Nne¿ kz`mhamWv F∂p ]dbp∂p; C\nbpw Nne¿ I¿ΩamWv
ImcWsa∂v IcpXp∂p (Cu hyXykvX ]≤XnIsf D]\njZv`mjy
Øn¬ hnkvXcn®p {]Xn]mZn®ncn°bm¬ ChnsS Rm≥ Bh¿Øn
°p∂n√).
8. XZeaXn hnkvXctcW {]kwK hmZm¿∞ \n¿ÆtbmfXnalm≥
tPymXn imkv{XwKm\mw h‡hym \n¿Ætbm {XbYm.
Ahsb hnkvXcn®p {]kwKn®v A¿∞\n¿Æbw sNøm≥ ChnsS
apXncp∂n√. tPymXnimkv{XØns‚ AwKßsf ]dbm≥ am{XamWv
ChnsS \nivNbn®n´p≈Xv.
9. tPymXnimkv{X at\It`Zhnjbw kv°μ{Xbm[njvTnXw
XXvIm¿kvt\ym]\bky\maap\n`nx k¶o¿ØytX kwlnXm.
kv°tμf kvan≥ KWntX\Ym{KlKXn kvX{¥m`n[m \kvXzku
tlmcmt\ymwf Khn\nivN bivN IYnXx kv°μ kvXrXotbmf]cx
tPymXnimkv{Xw At\I t`Zhnjbhpw aq∂p kv°μßfn¬ A[n
jvTnXhpamWv. B aq∂p kv°μ߃ kwlnX, X{¥w, tlmc F∂nh
bmWv. kwlnXbn¬ tPymXnj imkv{X hnjbßsf F√mw kºq¿Æ
ambn h¿Æn°p∂p. KWnXhpw {KlKXnbpw h¿Æn°p∂XmWv X{¥w.
aq∂masØ kv°μamb tlmc AwKßsf \nivNbn®v ]dbp∂XmWv
(P∑w, bm{X, hnhmlw apXembh).
183

{]Imikn‘p

10. h{Im\ph{ImkvXatbm Zbm [ymkvXmcm{KlmWmw
IctW atbm‡mw
tlmcm KXw hnkvXcXivN P∑bm{Xmhnhmsslx
kl]q¿Δap‡w
h{Iw, A\ph{Iw, DZbw, AkvXabw, Xmcm{Kl IcWw F∂nh
bpw (]©kn≤m¥nIm X{¥w t\m°pI) P∑w, bm{X, hnhmlw F∂nh
bpw (tlmc t\m°pI) Rm≥ hnkvXcn®p ]d™pIgn™p. Cu {]
kvXmhØn¬ \n∂v ]©kn≤m¥nIbpw tlmcbpw cNn®tijw Ah
km\amWv _rlXv kwlnX hcmlanlnc≥ cNn®sX∂v a\ nem
hp∂p. tPymXnjØns‚ aq∂p kv°μ߃ hnkvXcn®p {]Xn]mZn°em
bncp∂p At±lØns‚ Dt±iw.
11. {]iv\{]Xn{]iv\ IYm{]kwKm≥
kzevt]m]tbmKm≥ {Klkw`hmivN
kwXyPy^¬ Kp\nN kmc`qXw `qXm¿∞
a¿ss∞x kIssex {]ht£y.
Km¿§ykwlnXbn¬ Kpcphpw injy∑mcpw D∂bn°p∂ {]iv\
߃, {]Xn{]iv\߃, At\Iw IYIƒ, {]kwK߃ F∂nhbp≠v.
Ahsbm∂pw “{Klkw`hØn\v” ({Kln°pI F∂ kw`hw- “Event
of grasping a new knowledge”- Hc¿∞w; {KlßfpsS Dev]Øn c≠ma
sØ A¿∞w) t\cn´v {]tbmP\ap≈hb√. AXn\m¬ Ahsb XyPn®v
kmc`qXhpw, `qXm¿∞hpamb A¿∞sØ kIetØbpw ChnsS ]d
bp∂p.
CXn {iohcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv
kwlnXmbmw D]\b\m≤ymbx {]Yax

184

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 2

ssZh⁄e£Ww
(kwh’c kq{Xw)
A¿°cminbmIp∂ “thZ\b\w” sXfn™p F∂v tPymXntjm]
\b\m≤ymbØn¬ ]d™p. AXns‚ XpS¿®bmbn´mWv kwh’c
kq{Xw ]dbp∂Xv. AYmXx kwh’ckq{Xw hymJymkymax
1. X{X kwh’tcmf `nPmXx
{]nbZ¿it\m hn\oX thjx kXyhmK\kqbIx
kax kpkwltXm]NnXKm{Xk‘nchnIeivNmcpIcNcW \J \b\ Nn_pI Z¿i\ {ihWeemS {`qØamwtKm h]pjvam≥ Kw`otcmZmØtLmjx {]mbx icocmImcm\ph¿Ønt\mlnKpWmivN tZmjmivN `h¥n.
C\n kwh’ckq{Xw hymJym\n°mw F∂v Kpcp injyt\mSv ]d
bp∂ ssien hr≤kp{ipX kwlnXbn¬ ImWp∂XmWv. AXn\m¬
CXv hcmlanlnc≥ Km¿§kwlnX F∂ Nnc ]pcmX\ {KŸØn¬
\ns∂SpØXmhmw.
]n∂oSv kwh’cw P\n®p (kqcy≥ P\n®t∏mƒ EXp°fpw amk
ßfpw D≈ kwh’c cq]amb kmb\Imew P\n®p. kwh’c t_m[w
BcpsS {]⁄bn¬ BZyambn A¶pcn®pthm, B {]Ya tPymXnjnbpw
kwh’c≥ Xs∂! Ahs‚ ]cºcbn¬ s]´hsc√mw kwh’c∑m¿
Xs∂!). kwh’c≥ Fßs\bp≈h\mWv! Ah≥ ImWp∂h¿s°m
s° {]nbZ¿i\\mWv; efnX hkv{X߃ [cn® hn\oX thj\mWv;
kXyhm°pw A\kqb\pamWv; kahpw kpkwlXhpamb AtcmKZrV
Km{XØn¬ k‘nIfpw, sshIeyan√mØ NmcpIcNcW \J\b\ß
fpw, apSnbpw ]√pw ImXpw s\‰nbpw, ]pcnIhpw inc pw D≈h\mWv;
Kw`ochpw DZmØhpamb i_vZap≈h\mWv; {]mbw icocØns‚ cq]
tØbpw KpWtZmjßsfbpw A\ph¿Øn®p amdns°m≠ncn°pw (AXn
\m¬ hr≤t\m bphmthm F∂ t`Zw t\mt°≠Xn√). sshIeyan√mØ
C{μnbßtfmSpw _p≤ntbmSpw a\t mSpw IqSnb Hcmƒt° {i≤m
185

{]Imikn‘p

]q¿Δw \nco£n°m\pw, a\\w sNøm\pw imkv{XNn¥ sNøm\pw km[n
°pIbp≈p F∂XpsIm≠mWv ChnsS icoc sshIey߃ C√mØ
h\mIWw F∂p ]dbp∂Xv. Nnet∏mƒ ]q¿ΔP∑IrXamb Nne I¿Ω
^e߃ A\p`hn®pXo¿°m\mbn, AXy¥w tim`\amb Bflmhv
hnIe icocsØ {]m]nt®°mw. AXn\m¬ icoc kuμcyan√mØhcpw
icocsØ tcmKw _m[n®hcpw tPymXn imkv{X⁄cmbnØocmdp≠v
(AXn\pZmlcWamWs√m Ão^≥ tlm°nßv).
2. X{XKpWm cpNn¿Z£x {]KXvt`m hmKvan{]Xn`m\hm≥
tZiIme hnXv kmXzntIm\]¿jZv `ocpx klm≤ymbn`n
c\`n`h\obx Ipitemf hyk\o im¥nI ]ujvSnIm`nNmc
kv\m\ hnZym`nt⁄m hn`p[m¿®\ {htXm]hmk \ncXx kzX
{¥mivNtcymXv]mZnX ⁄m\ {]`mhx ]rjvTm`n [m¿ø\y{XssZhm
XrbmZv {KlKWnX kwlnXm tlmcm {KŸm¿∞thØm.
kwh’c≥ KpWhm\pw kpμc\pw NXpc\pw {]KXv`\pw hmKvan
bpw {]Xn`mimenbpw tZiIme⁄m\nbpw kmXznI\pw ]cnjØn¬
(k`bn¬) `ocpXzw C√mØh\pw, klm≤ymbnIƒ Xnckv°cn®p ]d
bmØh\pw, Ipie\pw, ZpxJclnX\pw, im¥nI ]ujvSnIm`nNmc
kv\m\ hnZyIfn¬ A`n⁄\pw, hn_p[∑msc A¿®n°p∂Xnepw
{htXm]hmkßfn¬ \ncX\pw, Bbncn°pw. am{Xa√, kzX{¥amb
(kz¥w X{¥w, A\ym{ibw IqSmsX kzbw Bhnjv°cn® am¿§w
AYhm KWnX {InbIfm¬ BivNcyw P\n∏n°p∂h≥) ⁄m\ {]`m
hw sIm≠v a‰p≈hcn¬ BivNcyw P\n∏n°p∂h\pw, ]e {]Imcap≈
Aip`ßsf kz¥w ssZhoI i‡nbm¬ l\n°p∂h\pamIWw. Cu
e£W߃ am{Xw t]mcm. KWnX, kwlnXm, tlmcm¿∞ßfn¬ hnZzm
\mIWw.
3. X{X {Kl KWntX ]uenitcmaI hmknjvT
kucss]Xmatljp ]©tkztXjp kn≤m
t¥jp bpKh¿jm b\¿Øp amk]£mtlmcm{X
bma aplq¿Ø \mUnhn\mUn {]mW{XpSyhbhm[yky
Imeky t£{XkyN thØm.
{Kl KWnXØn¬ ]ueniw, tcmaIw, hmknjvTw, kucw, ss]Xm
alw F∂o ]©kn≤m¥ßfn¬ Hmtcm∂nepw ]dbs∏Sp∂ ImeØn
186

{]Imikn‘p

s‚ Ahbhßtfbpw (Time) t£{XtØbpw (Space) Adnbp∂h\mI
Ww. bpKw, h¿jw, Ab\w, EXp, amkw, ]£w, Atlmcm{Xw, bmaw,
aplq¿Øw, \mUn, hn\mUn, {]mWw, {XpSn, {XpSnI F∂nßs\ 14 Bbn
ImesØ AXnkq£vamhbhambn Xncn®n´p≠v. Ime]pcpjs‚ B
kq£vamhbh߃ Af°p∂Xn\pw Ahbv°v t£{Xhpambp≈ ss\c
¥cyw ImWp∂Xn\pw tPymXnjn°v km[n°Ww. hn`n∂ tPymXn
imkv{X imJIfpsS hn`n∂m`n{]mbßsf kzbw ]Tn®v AhbpsS Xmc
Xay \ncq]Ww sNøm≥ km[n°Ww.
4. NXp¿Æmw N amkm\mw kuckmh\\m£{X
N{μmWma[namkImhakw`hky ImcWm`n⁄
kucw, kmh\w, \m£{Xw, Nm{μw F∂v \mephn[Ønep≈ amk
ßtfbpw, A[namkßtfbpw Ahatbbpw, Ah Hmtcm∂pw F{]Imcw
kw`hn°p∂p F∂ ImcWßtfbpw Adn™ncn°Ww.
5. (jjvTy_vZbpK h¿jamk Zo\tlmcm[n]Xo\mw {]Xn]Øn
hntOZhnXv). kucmZn\m®{μam\m\w kZrim kZritbmKym tbmKyXz
{]Xn]mZ\ ]Spx kn≤m¥ t`tZf ]yb\ \nhr≤u {]Xy£w kaafie
tcJm kw{]tbmKmiypZnXmw iIm\m®Ombm Peb{¥ Zr§WnX km
tay\ {]Xn]mZ\ Ipiex kqcymZo\mivN {KlmWmw io{Laμbm taym
Øc \otNm® KXnImcWm`n⁄x kqcyN{μ atkmivN{KltW {Kl
WmZntam£ImeZnIv{]amWÿnXn hna¿±h¿Æ tZim\ma\mKX {Kl
kamKa bp≤m\m amtZjvSm. {]tXyI {Kl{`aWtbmP\ I£m{]amW
{]Xnhnjb tbmP\ ]cntOZ Ipitem `q`KW {`aW kwkvYm\m≤y
£mhew_ ImlhyknNcZeIme cmiypZbOmb \mUnIcW {]`r
Xnjp t£{XImeIctWjz `nt⁄m. \m\mtNmZy£t`tZm]e_v[n
P\nXhmIvkmtcm\nIj kwXm]mZn\n thiu¿Δn ip≤kyI\I tky
hm[nIXc aaeoIrXky imkv{Xkyh‡m X{¥ t⁄m `hXn. D‡
ivN {]Xn_≤w KabXnh‡n\N {]iv\taIa]n]rjvSx \nKZXn \N
intjy`yx kIYw imkvXm¿∞hnt⁄bx {KtŸmf \yYm\yYm¿∞x
IcWw b®m\yYmItcmXy_p[x k]nXmalap]KkykvXuXn\tcm
sshintImf \mcymw. (Xt{¥ kp]cn⁄mtXeKvt\Ombmw_pb{¥
kwhnZntX. tlmtcm¿t∞NkpcqtV \mtZjp¿ `mcXo _‘ym. D‡
©mcyhnjvWp Kp]vtX\ A]y¿Æhky]pcpjx {]Xc≥ IZmNnZmkm
187

{]Imikn‘p

ZtbZ\nethK hti\]mcw. \Xzky Ime]pcpjmJy alm¿ÆhkyK
OmXvIZm NnZ\rjn¿Ω\km]n]mcw).
{]`h hn`hmZnIamb ImeØn¬ 12 bpKßfp≠v. Hmtcm bpKhpw
]©h¿j߃ tN¿∂XmWv. C{]Imcap≈ Adp]Xv A_vZ߃,
bpKw, h¿jw, amkw, Zn\w, tlmc F∂nhbv°v Hmtcmtcm A[n]XnIsf
\niNbn°p∂ ]Xnhp≠v. hcmlanlncmNmcys‚ A`n{]mbØn¬, Ime
Øns‚ Cu AwKßtfbpw A[n]XnItfbpw Adn™tijw Ahtbm
Sp≈ aaX ({]Xn]Øn) hntOZn®h\mWv bYm¿∞ tPymXnjn (kmb\
ImesØ Adn™tijw AXn¬\n∂v ap‡n t\SWw). ImemXoX\m
bncn°Ww kXyhm°mb tPymXnjn. AtXkabw, kucNm{μ Zn\mZn
Isf°pdn®v hnhn[ imkv{XImc∑m¿ ]d™ncn°p∂Xns‚ kmZriyhpw
AkmZriyhpw tbmKymtbmKyXIfpw {]Xn]mZn°m\pw, kn≤m¥ t`Z
ßfn¬°mWp∂ Ab\hyXymkw kaafie tcJ {]tbmKn®v
{]Xy£ ambn \nhrØn°m\pw Ignbp∂ BfmhpIbpw thWw (ka
afie tcJ:- ]q¿Δm]chrØ tcJ). OmbmKWnXw, Peb{¥ {]tbm
Kw, Zr§WnXw F∂nh {]Xn]mZn°p∂Xn¬ Ipie\mbncn°Ww- kqcym
Zn{KlßfpsS {io{Lw, aμw, Ab\w (bmaymb\w, kuaymb\w) DØ
cmb\w, \otNm®KXn F∂nhbv°p≈ ImcW߃ Adn™ncn°Ww.
kqcyN{μ{KlWßfn¬ {KlWmcw`w, tam£Imew, ZnIv{]amW
ÿnXnhna¿± h¿Æ߃, {]tXyI tZißfn¬ \n∂p \nco£n°mhp∂
{KlkamKa߃, {Klbp≤w F∂nhbpw AdnbWw. {]tXyIw {Kl
ßfpsS Hmtcm∂nt‚bpw {`aWw, tbmP\, I-£y{]amWw apXemb
hnjb߃ hnNn¥\w sNbvXv hn`Pn°m≥ Ipie\mbncn°Ww. `q`K
Ww, {`aWw, A£{]amWw, {`aW]ZØns‚ ÿncÿm\w,
A£mwiw, Ahew_Iw, ZrKvPym, NcZeImew, cmiypZbw, Omb,
\mUn, IcWw CXymZnIfn¬ tZiImeIcWw (t£{XImeIcWwSpacetime Continuim sØ {]tbmKn°¬) sNøm≥ A`n⁄\mbncn°
Ww. \m\m hn[Ønep≈ {]iv\߃°v DØcw e`n°p∂ hn[Øn¬,
P\n°p∂ “hmIvkmc”tØmSpIqSnbh\mhWw. \nI£w, k¥m]w,
A`n\nthiw apXembh IqSmsX, hnip≤amb I\ItØ°mƒ A[n
Iw hnaeoIrXamb imkv{XsØ ]dbp∂h\pw, imkv{XX{¥⁄\pw
Bbncn°Ww (kzm¿∞X IqSmsX ip≤imkv{XsØ ]dbp∂Xv im
kv{XØns‚ {]mtbmKnIXew (Practical application) BWv. c≠pw Adn
bWw). \niNnXamb icnbmb A¿∞w injy∑mcpsS tNmZy߃°v
188

{]Imikn‘p

({]iv\߃°v Is≠Øm≥ km[n°mØh¿ Fßs\ imkv{Xm¿∞
⁄m\nIfmhpw?
{KŸØn¬ ImWp∂Xv H∂v
A¿∞w ]dbp∂Xv as‰m∂v
IcWw (sNøp∂Xv) aq∂masXm∂v.
C{]Imcambm¬ Ah≥ “A_p[”\mWv. Ahs\ ]nXmals‚
kao]w sN∂v thiymkv{Xosb kvXpXn°p∂ A\mcy\mb a\pjyt\m
Sp]an°mw (Aÿm\Øp≈ hm°v). (X{¥Øn¬ ]cn⁄m\ap≈ht‚
bpw, Ombbpw Peb{¥hpw t\m°n icnbmbn eKv\w ]dbpIbpw, tlm
cm¿∞Øn¬ kpcqV\mIbpw sNbvXhs‚bpw \mZØn¬ `mcXotZhn
_‘n°s∏´ncn°bm¬ Ahs‚ hm°v anYybmIn√. hnjvWpKp]vX≥
Cßs\ ]d™p: “kap{ZsØ XcWw sNøWsa∂v Hcp a\pjy≥ \n
ivNbn®m¬ hmbphns‚ KXnthKa\pkcn®v AXv Ffp∏Øn¬ km[n
°mhp∂XmWv. ]s£, ‘Ime ]pcpjs\∂ alm¿ÆhsØ F\n°p
{]m]n°W’sa∂v Ejnb√mØ Hcmƒ°v a\ psIm≠v hnNmcn°m≥
t]mepw km[ya√.” ]ns∂bmtWm, XcWw sNøp∂Xv!)
6. tlmcmimkvt{Xf ]n cmintlmcm t{Z°mW \hmwiI ZzmZi
`mK{XnwiZv `mK _em_e ]cn{Ktlm{KlmWmw ZnIvÿm\
Ime tNjvSmZnct\I {]Imc _e \n¿≤mcWw {]IrXn[mXp
{ZhyPmXn tNjvSmZn ]cn{Ktlm\n tjIP∑Ime
hnkvam]\ {]Xybm tZi ktZymacWmbp¿±mb Zim¥
imjvSIh¿§ cmPtbmK N{μtbmK Zzn{KlmZn
tbmKm\w \m`kmZn\mivNtbmKm\mw ^em\ym
{ib`mhhtemI\ \ncymW KXy{¥Im\n XmXvImenI
{]iv\ ip`mip` \nanØm\n hnhmlmZn
\mivNI¿ΩWmw IcWw. bm{Xmbmw NXnYnZnhk
IcW\£{Xaplq¿Ø hneKv\tbmKtZl kv]μ\kz]v\
hnPbkv\m\ {Klb⁄ KWbmKmKv\n.
enwKlmXytizwKnX tk\m{]hmZtNjvSmZn{KlW jmUv
KptWym ]mbawKemawKe iIp\ ssk\y\n\nthi
`qatbmf Kv\n h¿tÆma{¥nNcZqXm´ hnIm\mw bYmImew
{]tbmKmx ]cZq¿§ewt`m]mbtizXyp‡w NmNmsscyx
PKXnx {]kmcn XanhmenJnXaXu \njn‡anhlrZtb
imkv{Xw bkyk`KWw \mZim\njv^emkvXky.
189

{]Imikn‘p

tlmcmimkv{Xw, cmin, tlmc, t{Z°mWw, \hmwiw, ZzmZimwiw,
{Xnwimwiw, AhbpsS _em_e߃, ]cn{Klÿm\߃, Ime߃,
tNjvSIƒ F∂nhsb Af∂v {Kl_esØ \n¿≤mcWw sNøp∂
imkv{XamWv. {]IrXn, [mXp°ƒ, {Zhy߃, PmXn, tNjvS F∂nhbp
sS ]cn{Klw, \ntjIw, P∑Imew, hnkvam]\w, {]Xybw, BtZiw,
acWw, Bbp¿±mbw, Zi, A¥¿±i, AjvSIh¿§w, cmPtbmKw, N{μ
tbmKw, Zzn{KltbmKw, \m`ktbmKw, AhbpsS ^e߃, B{ibw,
`mhw, ZrjvSn, \ncymWw, KXn, A\qIw, Xm¬°menI {]iv\ßfpsS
ip`mip` Nn¥, \nanØ߃, hnhmlmZn I¿Ω߃ Ch tlmcbpsS
]cn[nbn¬s]Sp∂p. bm{X°pth≠ ip`XnYnZn\IcW߃, \£{X
߃, aplq¿Ø߃, eKv\w, tbmKw, tZlØns‚ kv]μ\߃, kz]v\
^ew, hnPbw, kv\m\w, KWbm{X, AKv\ne£Ww, B\, IpXnc F∂n
hbpsS CwKnX߃ (B\, IpXncIfpsS a\»mkv{Xw-amXwKlrZbw,
AizlrZbw-aμKa\w, io{LKa\w F∂nh) tk\m{]hmZßfpsS
tNjvS apXemb jmUvKptWym]mb߃, awKfhpw AawKfhpamb
iIp\߃, ssk\ysØ \nthin∏nt°≠ (\n¿tØ≠) `qanIƒ,
AKv\nh¿Æ߃, a{¥n Nmc≥ ZqX≥ BcWyI∑m¿ F∂nhcpsS bYm
ImeØnep≈ {]tbmK߃, a‰p cmPm°∑mcpsS Zp¿§tZZ\Øn\p≈
D]mb߃, bm{Xmi¶ F∂nhbpw tlmcmimkv{X ]cn[nbn¬ s]Spw
(A¿∞imkv{Xw, s]mfn‰n°¬ imkv{Xw (cmjv{Saoamwk), a\»mkv{Xw,
Bbp¿tΔZw F∂nhbnte°pw tlmcmimkv{Xw hym]n®p\n¬°p∂p≠v
F∂p {i≤n°pI).
BNmcy∑m¿ ]dbp∂p:- “PKØn¬ k¿Δ{X {]kcn°p∂ {]Im
iw t]mse, {]⁄bn¬ enJnXamb `KWimkv{XsØ lrZbØn¬
{]XnjvTn®hs‚ BtZiw (hm°v) Hcn°epw \njv^eamIbn√.”
\£{XKWßtfmSp IqSnb tPymXnivN{IsØ, {]⁄bn¬ {]k
cn∏n°m\pw, B {]Imicminsb lrZbØn¬ kZm kvacn°m\pw Ign
™hs\ ‘hmKvtZhn’ A\p{Kln®ncn°p∂p; Ah\n¬ hm°v k^e
ambnØocp∂p.
7. kwlnXm]mcKivN ssZhNn¥tIm`hXn. bss{XtX kwlnXm
]Zm¿∞mx Zn\IcmZo\mw {KlmWmw NmcmkvtXjpNtXjmw {]IrXn
hnIrXn {]amWh¿Æ IncWZypXn kwkvYm\mkvXat\mZbam¿§
am¿§mXch{I¿£{KlkamKa NmcmZn`nx ^em\n \£{XIq¿Ωmhn`m
190

{]Imikn‘p

tK\ tZtijzKkvXn Nmck]vX¿jnNmtc. {Kl`‡tbm \£{Xhyql
{KlirwKmSI {Klbp≤ {KlkamKa {Klh¿j^e K¿`e£W
tcmlnWokzmXymjmUotbmKx ktZymh¿j IpkpaeXm ]cn[n ]cn
thj ]cnL]ht\m¬°m ZnKvZml£nXnNe\k‘ymcmK K‘¿Δ
\KcctPm\n¿LmXm¿≤ Imßvkky Pt∑{μ [ztP{μ Nm]hkvXp
hnZymwK hnZymhmbk hnZym¥c N{IarKN{Im ivN N{IhmX N{I
{]mkmZe£W {]Xname£W{]XnjvTm]\ hr£mbp¿tΔtZm Z¿§m
¿§e \ocmP\J÷ t\mXv]mX im¥nabqc Nn{XI [rXIw _e JwK
]´ IrI hmIp Iq¿ΩtKmf Pmtiz ` ]pcpjkv{Xoe£Wm\y¥x ]pc
Nn¥m ]nSI e£tWm]m\tOZ hkv{X tOZ Nmac Zfi iømk\
e£W cXv\]co£m Zo]e£Ww, Z¥ImjvTm Zym{inXm \nip`m
ip`m\n \nanØm\n kmam\ym\n NPKXx {]Xn]pcpjw ]m¿∞nthN
{]Xn£W a\\y.
I¿ΩmZnbpt‡\ssZht⁄\Nn¥bnXhm\n.
\ssNImIn\ iIyt¥f l¿∂niah[mcbnXpw
\nanØm\n. XkvamXv kp`rtX\ssZht⁄\mt\y
XZnZivNzXzmtcm`¿Øhymx Xss{XtIss\{μn
NmKvt\bn NZnKz htemIbnXhym. bmaym
ss\cyXnNmt\yss\hw hmcpWo hmbhymtNm
Øcm ssNim\otNXn. bkvamZp¬°m]mXmZo\n
\nanØm\n io{Lap]KOXoXn. tXjmw NmImc
h¿Æ kvt\l {]amWmZn {Kl¿ £m`n[m\mZn`nx ^em\n `h¥n.
D‡ivN K¿t§W al¿jnWm. IrXvkv\mwtKm]mwK
Ipiew tlmcm KWnX ss\jvTnIw. tbm\]qP
btXcmPm k \miap]KOXn.
kwlnXm]mcwKX≥ “kzbw ssZhNnØ”ambnØocp∂p. ImcWw
kwlnXm]Zm¿∞߃ Xmsg ]dbp∂hbmWv:- Zn\IcmZn {KlNmcw,
{]IrXn, hnIrXn, {]amWw, h¿Æw, IncWw, ZypXn ({]Imiw), ÿm\w,
AkvXabw, DZbw, am¿§w, am¿§m¥cw, h{Iw, A\ph{Iw, I£yIƒ,
\£{X {Kl kamKa߃, NmcmZnIƒ, ^e߃, \£{XIq¿a hn`m
Kw, AXmXp tZißfn¬ kw`hn°p∂ ^e߃, AKkvXyNmcw,
k]vX¿jnNmcw, {Kl`‡n, \£{Xhyplw, {KlirwKmSIw, {Kl
bp≤w, {KlkamKaw, {KlWw, h¿j^ew, K¿`e£Ww, kzmXn
tbmKw, BjmVotbmKw, tcmlnWotbmKw, ktZymh¿jw, IpkpaeX,
191

{]Imikn‘p

]cn[n, ]cnthjw, ]cnLw, hmbp, D¬°, ZnKvZmlw, £nXnNe\w,
k‘ymcmKw, K‘¿Δ \Kcw, cPkv, \n¿LmXw, A¿≤ImwKw, kkyw,
P∑w, C{μ[zPw, C{μNm]w, hmkvXphnZy, AwKhnZy, hmbkhnZy,
A¥cN{Iw, arKN{Iw, AizN{Iw, hmXN{Iw, {]mkmZe£Ww,
{]Xnam{]XnjvT, hr£mbp¿tΔZw, DZIm¿§ew, \ocmP\w, JRvP\w,
DXv]mXw, im¥n, abqcNn{XIw, [rXe£Ww, Iw_fe£Ww, Jfi
e£Ww, ]´Ie£Ww, IrIhmIp (Ip°pS) e£Ww, Iq¿Ω
e£Ww, tKme£Ww, APe£Ww. Aize£Ww, C` (B\) e£
Ww, ]pcpj kv{Xoe£Ww, A¥x]pcNn¥, ]nSIe£Ww, D]m\
tOZw, hkv{XtOZw, Nmace£Ww, Zfie£Ww, iøme£Ww,
Bk\e£Ww, cXv\]co£, Zo]e£Ww, Z¥ImjvTsb Bkv]Z
am°nb ip`mip`\nanØ߃.
ssZh⁄]pcpj≥ A\\yI¿ΩmZnbp‡\mbncn°Ww. ]m¿∞n
hhpw euInIhpamb Imcy߃°v Hcp {]Xn]pcpjs\ G¿s∏SpØn,
kZm imkv{XhnNmcw sNøpIbmWv imkv{X⁄s‚ I¿Øhyw. cm∏
I¬ t`Zan√msX \nanØßsf \nco£n°m\pw Ah[mcWw sNøm\pw
Hcmƒ°v H‰bv°v km[n°pIbn√. At∏mƒ ssZh⁄\p klmbnI
fmbn \mept]sc \nban°Ww. H∂ma≥ ]q¿ΔZn°pw AKv\ntImWpw
\nco£n®psIm≠ncn°Ww. c≠ma≥ Z£nWZn°pw ss\cyXntImWpw;
aq∂ma≥ ]Sn™mdpw hmbptImWpw; \mema≥ hS°pw Cuim\tIm
Wpw. C{]Imcw \nc¥cw AjvSZniIsf \nco£n®m¬ am{Xta D¬°m
]mXw apXembhsb Is≠Øm≥ km[nbv°q. D¬°IfpsS BImchpw
h¿Æhpw kvt\lhpw {]amWhpw {Kl\£{Xßtf°mƒ BZnaamWv.
D¬°m]mXw sIm≠v ^e߃ kw`hn°p∂p. Km¿§yal¿jn ]d™p:
“tlmcm KWnX”Øn¬ \njvTbp≈h¿ kmwtKm]mwK IpiecmWv, (th
ZmwK, D]mwKßfn¬)- Ahsc BZcn°mØ cmPmhv (`cWm[nImcn)
\in®pt]mIp∂p.
8. h\w kam{inXmtbf ]n \n¿Ωam \njv]cn{Klmx
A]ntX ]cn]rO¥n tPymXnjmw KXn tImhnZw.
\n¿Ωa\pw \njv]cn{Kl\pambn, as‰m∂pw Bhiyan√mØh\mbn,
h\ßsf B{ibn®v Pohn°p∂h¿ ‘tPymXnj’ßfpsS (tPymXn pI
fpsS) KXnsb Adn™hcmWv.
192

{]Imikn‘p

9. A{]Zo]m bYm cm{Xnc\mZnXyw bYm\`x
XYmf kmwh’tcm cmPm {`aXy‘y Chm[z\n
Zo]w sImfpØmØ cm{Xnt]msebpw BZnXy\n√mØ \` p
t]msebpamWv kwh’c≥ (tPymXnjn) C√mØ cmPmhv (`cWm[n
]≥). Ah≥ Ccp´Øv InW‰n¬s]´pt]mb IpcpSs\t∏mse {`aWw
sNøp∂X√msX e£yw {]m]n°pIbn√.
10. aplq¿ØXnYn\£{XarXhivNmbt\ XYm
k¿ΔmtWyhm Ipem\nkyp¿∂kymXv kmwh’tcmbZn.
kwh’cw Cs√¶n¬ aplq¿Øtam XnYntbm \£{Xtam EXp
thm Ab\tam C√mXmbnØocp∂p (Ah k¿Δhpw kwh’cØns‚
AwKßfmIbm¬). kwh’c≥ Cs√¶n¬ Ahs‚ AwKßfpw C√.
kmb\ImeØns‚ AwKßfmb aplq¿ØXnYymZnIƒ kmb\Imew
C√mXmhp∂ Ahÿbn¬ am{XamWv C√mXmhp∂Xv. kmb\ImesØ
{]Xn\n[oIcn°p∂ ‘kwh’c\p’ am{Xsa kmb\Imean√mØ \ncb
\mhÿ (Time lessness- Ime≥ C√mØ AarXmhÿ)sb A\p`hn
°m≥ km[nbv°pIbp≈p. Ahs‚ IpSpw_mwKßfmb aplq¿ØmZn
Ahbh߃ (C{μnb߃) AXn\p ka¿∞c√. C°mcWw sIm≠m
Wv “kwh’c≥” kmwtKm]mwKIpie\pw, AarXXzw A\p`hn®h\pw
Bbn `qan°pw, tZymhn\pw CSbn¬ (Pm{KØn\pw kpjp]vXn°pw CS
bn¬) ssXPk cq]Øn¬ thZt\{Xambn Pzen°p∂Xv.
11. Xkvam Zm⁄m `nK¥thym hnZzm≥ kwh’tcmf {KWnx
Pbw bix {inbw t`mKm≥ t{ibivN ka`o]vkXm.
AXn\m¬ hnZzm\pw A{KKWy\pamb kwh’cs\, Pbhpw bi
 pw {iobpw t`mKhpw t{ib pw Bin°p∂h¿ A\pkvacn°p∂p
(Hmtcm cmPmhpw kZ n¬ Hcp tPymXnjnsb BZcn°p∂Xv CXn\p
th≠nbmbncp∂p).
12. \m kmwh’cntIw tZtihkvXhyw `qXnanOXm
N£p¿ `qtXmln bss{Xj ]m]w X{X\hnZytX.
GXptZiØn¬ kmwh’cnI≥ hknbv°p∂n√sbm AhnsS hkn
°m≥ COn°cpXv. {]]©Øns‚ N£p n¬ \n∂v (kqcy\n¬ \n∂v)
kw`hn® Ah≥ FhnsSbps≠m AhnsS ]m]w (tZmjw) D≠mIbn√.
193

{]Imikn‘p

hnizkm£nbmb kqcys‚ hwiP\mWv kmwh’cnI≥. AXn\m¬
{]IrXn {]Xn`mkßsf Ah≥ ap≥Iq´n Adnbp∂p. {]IrXn {]t£m
`w kw`hn°p∂ Zn°pIsf ap≥Iq´n°≠v AhnSw hn´pt]mIp∂p. AØ
cw {]tZißfn¬ Xmakn°cpXv.
kwh’cnI≥ sXcs™Sp°p∂ {]tZiw Ft∏mgpw P\hmk
tbmKyhpw tZmjclnXhpw Bbncn°pw. AXn\m¬ kwh’c≥ hkn
°p∂ tZißsf hmkÿm\am°p∂Xv \√XmW.v
13. \ kmwh’c]mToN \ctIjq] ]ZytX.
{_lvatemI {]XnjvTm®e`tX ssZhNn¥Ix
kwh’cw ]Tn°p∂h\v (kwh’c\v) \cIw tI´n´n√. ssZh
Nn¥I\v e`n°p∂Xv {_lvatemI {]XnjvTbmWv.
14. {KŸ XivNzm¿∞XivssNXXv IrXvkv\w Pm\mXntbm
ZznPx A{K`pIv k`th{Omt≤]qPnXx ]w‡n ]mh\x
GsXmcp ZznP≥ A{Xbpw {]bmktadnb CuhnjbsØ {KŸm\p
krXambn, A¿∞tØmSpIqSn Adnbp∂pthm, Ah≥ A{K`p°pw,
{im≤ ]qPnX\pw, ]w‡n ]mh\\pamb AKv\nbmbn `hn°p∂p.
15. tæOmlnbh\mkvtXjp kayIv imkv{XanZw ÿnXw
EjnhtØf ]n ]qPyt¥ Inw ]p\¿ ssZhhnZznPx?
Cu kayIv imkv{Xw tæO∑mcpw bh\∑mcpw ]Tn®m¬ Ah¿
t]mepw Ejnamcm¬ ]qPn°s∏Sp∂p. ]ns∂bmtWm ssZhhnØmb
ZznPs‚ Imcyw?
16. IplImthi ]nlnssXx I¿tÆm]{ipXntlXp`nx
IrXm tZtim\ k¿Δ{X {]jvSthym\ kssZhhnØv.
ambbm¬ Bthin°s∏´v Xs∂ \nμn°p∂Xv sNhnbn¬ tIƒ
°m≥ ImcWambm¬t]mepw, IrXmtZi\pw Ft∏mgpw B\μioe\p
amb ssZhhnØv {]XnIcn°p∂n√ ({_lvakq{X i¶c`mjyØn¬
A]iq{Zm[n°cWØn¬ iq{Ze£Ww ]dbp∂Xv \nμmhN\w tI´m¬
{]XnIcn°p∂Xns\bmWv; {]XnIcn°mXncn°¬ {_mlvaW e£W
amWv. AXmbXv, P∑a√ tæOt\bpw {_mlvaWt\bpw hyXykvXcm
°p∂Xv; AhcpsS am\knImhÿbmWv).
194

{]Imikn‘p

17. AhnZnssXz hbx imkv{Xw ssZh⁄Xzw {]]ZytX
k]w‡n ZqjIx ]mt]mt⁄tbm \£{XkqNIx
imkv{Xw AdnbmsX ssZh⁄Xzw \Sn°p∂h¿ ]w‡n ZqjIc
amWv, ]w‡n ]mh\c√. B ]m]nIƒ shdpw \£{X kqNI¿ am{X
ambn´mWv Adnbs∏Sp∂Xv.
18. \£{X kqNtIm±njvS ap]hmkw ItcmXnbx
k{]PXy‘Xm an{kw km¿≤ ar£hnMv_n\m
Cßs\bp≈ \£{X kqNI∑m¿ D]hmkw apXemb {]mbivNn
Ø߃ hn[n°p∂Xv tI´v, AsXms° icnbmsW∂v [cn®v A\pkcn
°p∂h¿ \£{X kqNI∂p e`nt°≠ A‘Xman{k \cIØns‚
]IpXnsb {]m]n°p∂p.
19. \KcZzmc temjvSky bZzXvkymZp]bmNnXw
BtZikvXZzZ⁄m\w bx kXyx khn`mhysX\KcZzmctemjvSmZnIsf D]mkn°p∂Xp t]msebmWv, A⁄m\n
bpsS BtZiw kXyamIpw F∂p≈ hnNmcw.
20. kw]ØymtbmPnXm tZi ikvXZznOn∂ IYm{]nbx
aØx imkvss{XItZti\ XymPykvXmZrMvalo£nXmx
kw]ØntbmSpIqSnbh\pw (kºØv Bin°p∂h\pw) kºØv
\in®pt]mbhcpsS IYIfn¬ {]nbw ImWn°p∂h\pw, D∑Ø\pamb
imkv{X⁄s\ P\߃ I≠dn™v XyPnt°≠XmWv.
21. bkvXp kayKznPm\mXn tlmcmKWnXkwlnXmx
A`y¿®x k\tctμW kzoI¿ØthymPssbjnWmx
tlmc, KWnXw, kwlnX- Cu aq∂p kv°μßfnepw kayKv
⁄m\w t\Snbhs\, PbImw£nIfmb \tc{μ∑m¿ A¿®n®v kzoIcn
t°≠XmWv.
22. \ XXv kl{kw IcnWmw hmPn\mw hmNXp¿KpWw
ItcmXn tZiImet⁄m btZtIm ssZhNn¥Ix
Bbncw B\Ifpw \membncw IpXncIfpw D≈ ssk\yw, tZi
Ime⁄m\nbmb Hscm‰ ssZhNn¥I≥ sNøp∂Xv (bp≤w Pbn°¬)
sNøm≥ ka¿∞c√.
195

{]Imikn‘p

23. Zpxkz]v\ Zp¿ hnNn¥nX Zpjvt{]jnX ZpjvIrXm\n I¿ΩmWn
£n{]w {]bm¥n \miw cmin\x {ipXzm` kwhmZw
\£{Xßsf°pdn®p≈ (`mkn°p∂hsb°pdn®p≈) kwhmZw
{i≤n®m¬ Zpxkz]v\w, ZpjvSNn¥Iƒ, ZpjvIrX߃, Zp¿hm¿Øm
{ihW߃ F∂nh sIm≠p kw`hn®sX√mw \micminbnte°v AXn
thKw {]bmWw sNøpw. {]ImitemIßsf°pdn® kwhmZw {ihn®m¬
Xs∂ Zpxkz]v\ ZpjvS Nn¥mZnIƒ \in°psa∂ps≠¶n¬, \nc¥cw
{]ImitemIßsf A\pNn¥\w sNøp∂hs‚ hm°v Fßs\bp≈Xm
bncn°pw F∂v hn`mh\w sNøpI.
24. \ XtY OXn `q]tXx ]nXm P\\o hmkzPt\mf Yhm kplrXv
kzbtimf tim`nhnhr≤tb bYmlnX am]vXx k_eky ssZhhnXv
kz¥w bi ns\ ⁄m\tim`bm¬ ho≠pw ho≠pw A`nhr≤n
{]m]n∏n®psIm≠v _ehØmbnØo¿∂ ssZhhnØv `q]Xnam¿°v
kz]nXmhpw, amXmhpw kzP\ßfpw, kplrØp°fpw sNøp∂Xnt\
°mƒ lnXImcnbmbncn°p∂p. kwh’c e£Ww sIm≠p hnh£n°
s∏´ tPymXnimkv{X⁄≥ EjnbmWv; {Xnkv°μ⁄m\nbmWv.
F∂m¬, C∂sØ tPymXnjn ^e`mKtPymXnjØns‚ GXm\pw AwK
߃ am{Xw IjvSn®p a\ nem°nsh®n´v, Ab\mwiØ¿°hpambn
\S°p∂p!!
CXn {iohcmlanlnc IrXu_rlXv kwlnXmbmw
kwh’c kq{Xw \ma ZznXotbmf ≤ymbx

196

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 3

BZnXyNmcw
1. Bt«jm¿≤±£nW apØcab\w [\njvTmZyw
\q\w IZmNnXm koZv tbt\m‡w ]q¿Δ imkvt{Xjp
2. km{ºXab\w khnXpx I¿°SImZyw arKmZnXivNm\yXv
D‡m`mthm hnIrXnx {]Xy£]co£sW¿hy‡nx
BbneyØns‚ ]IpXnbn¬ Z£nWmb\w: [\njvTmZnbn¬ DØ
cmb\w. ]q¿Δ imkv{Xßfn¬ Cßs\ ]d™n´p≠v. Ct∏mƒ khnXm
hns‚ Ab\w I¿°nSIw BZyØnepw aIcmZnbnepamWv. Cu A`mh
sØ “hnIrXn” F∂p ]dbmw (kz{]IrXn°p hn]coXamb Ahÿ){]Xy£]co£Ww sIm≠v CXv hy‡am°mhp∂XmWv.
[BbneyØns‚ ]IpXn- cminN{IØn¬ 113° 20'
(I¿°nSIØn¬ 23°-20' )
[\njvTmZn- 294°-20')
ie. 294°-20
113° -20
181° 00
181° hyXymkw (180° A√)]
3. Zqcÿ Nnlv\ th[mZpZtb AkvXatbf ]nhmkl{kmw timx
Ombm {]thi \n¿§a Nnlvss\¿ Δmafite alXn.
kl{kIncWs‚ DZbw, AkvXabw F∂nhbv°nSbnep≈ alm
afieØnse Zqcÿßfmb Nnlv\ßsf th[n®n´pw, OmbbpsS {]
thihpw \n¿§ahpw \nco£n®n´pamWv Ab\w ]co£n®dntb≠Xv.
Ab\mwisØ ]co£n®dntb≠ Cu c≠p am¿§ßƒXs∂ Ab
\mwi hyXymksØ km[qIcn°p∂p. `qanbpsS hyXykvX _nμp°
fn¬ Ccp∂v DZbmkvXab _nμp°ƒ°nSbnse Zqcÿ Nnlv\ßsf
\n¿Æbn°p∂h¿, `q{]XeØns‚ hyXykvX _nμp°fnencp∂v i¶p
Ombsb B[mcam°nbpw, {KlWsØ B[mcam°nbpw \n¿Æbn°p
∂h¿- Cu {]Xn`mkw {Kln°mXncn°bn√. \nco£I\pw \nco£I≥
197

{]Imikn‘p

Ccn°p∂ _nμphpamWv Cu Bt]£nI hyXymkØn\v, {]IrXnbpsS
hnIrXn°v, ImcWw. B “_nμp”thmSp≈ _‘\w hnS¿Ønbm¬
Ab\mwiØ¿°w C√. A£mwi tcJmwi _‘\amWv Ab\mwi
Ø¿° tlXp.
shdpsX ISemkpw s]≥knepw FSpØv IW°m°ptºmgmWv
Ab\mwiØ¿°w D≠mhp∂Xv. Zr°¿Ωw (Observation) sIm≠v AXv
C√mXm°mw.
4. A{]m]yaIca¿t°mhn\nhrtØm (l¥n km]cmw bmayw
I¿°nSIamkw {]m]vtXmhn\nhrØ) tizmØcmw ssk{μnw
A¿°≥ aIccminbn¬ \n∂v {]h¿Øn°ptºmƒ Z£nW ]ivNna
ZniIfpw, I¿°nSIcminbn¬ \n∂v DØc]q¿ΔZniIfpw £bn∏n°p∂p.
5. DØcab\aXoXhrØx t£akky hr≤nIcx
{]IrXn ÿivNzmt]ybw hnIrX KXn `bIr ZpjvWmwipx
DØcmb\ hrØw t£aIchpw kkyhr≤nIcWhpamWv. `qan
kqcyt\mSSp°p∂Xv {]IrXn [¿ΩamWv. kv{Xo]pcpj kwtbmKw
t]mse. AXpsIm≠mWv DØcmb\w t£aIcambXv. kqcyKXn
hnIrX KXnbmIp∂Xv `qanbpw kqcy\pw AIem≥ XpSßp∂ Z£nWm
b\ØnemWv. kv{Xo ]pcpj∑m¿ ]nWßn∏ncnbp∂Xpt]mse, `qanbpw
kqcy\pw AIep∂p. AI¬® hnIrXnbmWv. {]IrXnhncp≤amWv.
AI¬® hcptºmƒ cs≠∂ ZnXz`mhap≠v; AXn¬ `bap≠v.
taSw (e¶) - {Im¥n]mXw
N
{]IrXn

W
\w
b
m
I¿°nSIw
nW

\w
b aIcw
m
c
E

hnIrXn
S

Xpemw
(saIvknt°m)
{Im¥n]mXw
198

{]Imikn‘p

`qan kqcy\nte°v ASp°m≥ Bcw`n°p∂ aIcmZn (DØcmb\
_nμp) apX¬ {]IrXn, AIem≥ Bcw`n°p∂ I¿°nSImZn (Z£n
Wmb\ _nμp) apX¬ hnIrXn.
6. kXakv°w ]¿Δhn\mXzjvSm\m a¿° afiew IpcpsX
k\nl¥n k]vX`qXm≥ P\mw ivNikv{XmKv\n Zp¿`nss£x
]¿ΔImeØv A¿° afiesØ XzmjvS≥ adbv°ptºmƒ k]vX
`q]∑m¿ h[n°s∏Sp∂p. P\߃°v ikv{Xw, AKv\n, Zp¿`n£w, F∂n
hbn¬\n∂v `bw P\n°p∂Xv C°meØmWv. AXn\m¬ I¿°nSIsØ
]™amksa∂v hnfn°mdp≠v.
7. Xmak IoeI kw⁄mcmlpkpXmx tIXhkv{Xbkv{XnwiXv
h¿Æÿm\mImssc kvXm≥ ZrjvSzm¿° ^ew {_qbmXv.
Xmak≥ (Ccp≠h≥) F∂pw IoeI≥ (Pzme) F∂pw t]tcmSp
IqSnb cmlp]p{X≥ (`qankpX≥) BWv tIXp. {Xb{XnwiXvhn[w (3 x
30 = 90) hn[w tIXp°ƒ D≠v. AhbpsS h¿Æw, ÿm\w, cq]w F∂nh
sb \nco£n®m¬ kqcy^ew (kqcyÿm\w) Adnbmw.
8. tX Nm¿° afie KXmx ]m]^em ivNm{Iafite kuaymx
[zmMv-£I_‘ {]lcW cq]mx ]m]mx iimt¶f ]n.
tIXp A¿° afieØn¬ {]thin®m¬ ]m]\pw, N{μafie
Øn¬ {]thin®m¬ kuay\pw BWv. N{μafieØn¬ Im°, I_
‘w, Bbp[w F∂nhbpsS cq]Øn¬ tIXp Z¿in®m¬ ]m]^ew
Xs∂bmWv.
9. tXjmapZtb cq]mWyw `x Iepjw ctPmhrXw thymaw
\KXcpinJc hna¿±o ki¿°tcmamcpXivNfix
tIXphns‚ DZbØn¬ BImiw Aw` psIm≠v Iepjamtbm
s]mSn aqSntbm F∂t]mse ImWs∏Spw ([qaw t]mse, \ocmhnt]mse)
]¿ΔXßsfbpw hr£inJcßtfbpw a¿±n®psIm≠v, a[pc ckap≈
NfiamcpX≥ hoipw.
10. EXp hn]coXmkvXcthm, Zo]vXm, arK]£ntWm Znimw Zmlx
\n¿LmX alo IºmZtbm `h¥y{X tNmXv]mXmx
199

{]Imikn‘p

Xcp°fn¬ EXp ssh]coXyw ImWpw (]q°mea√msXbpw ]q
°pI apXembh) arK]£nIƒ Zo]vXamb ZniIfnte°v Zmln®v a≠n
\S°pw. \n¿LmXw (CSn), `qIºw, DXv]mXw F∂nh D≠mIp∂p.
11. \ ]rYIv ^em\n tXjmw inJo IoeIcmlp Z¿i\m\n
bZn XZpZb ImcW tajmw tIXzmZn\mw ^ew {_qbmXv.
inJn (k¿∏w), IoeIw (Pzme) F∂o cq]ßfn¬ cmlp Z¿i\w
km[n°pw. AhbpsS DZb ImcWw sh®v tIXzmZnIfpsS ^ew ]dbmw.
12. bkvan≥ bkvan≥ tZtiZ¿i\ ambm¥n kqcy_nw_ÿmXx
XkvanØkvan≥ hyk\w alo]Xo\mw ]cnt⁄bw.
GtXXp tZißfn¬ kqcy_nw_ÿambn tIXpsh ImWp∂p
thm, B tZißfnse `cWm[n]∑m¿°p hyk\w kw`hn°p∂p F∂v
AdnbpI.
13. £pXv {]æm\ icocmap\tbm ]ypXv krjvS [¿Ω k®cnXmx
\n¿Ωmwk _melkvXmx IrOvtdWmbm¥n ]ctZimXvhni∏n\m¬ æm\amb icoctØmSpIqSnbhcpw, [¿Ωk®cnXcp
amb ap\nam¿ AXp ImWptºmƒ \n¿Ωmwkcmb (F√pw tXmepamb)
XßfpsS Ip´nIsf IønseSpØv hfsc t¢in®v ]ctZißfnte°v
Kan°p∂p.
14. Xkv°c hnep]vXhnØmx {]±m¿[n\nx izmkapIpenXm
£
- n]pSmxk¥xk∂ icocmxtimtImZv`h_mjv]cp≤rix
Xkv°c∑mcm¬ hnØw A]lcn°s∏´ kØp°ƒ Zo¿L\nizm
kw hn´pw IÆpIƒ AS®pw icocw hnd®pw timtImZv`hamb A{ip°ƒ
Hgp°nbpw Ccn°p∂p.
15. £am PpKp]vkam\mx kz\r]Xn]cN{I ]oVnXma\pPmx
kz\r]XnNcnXw I¿ΩN]cmIrXw{] {_ph¥yt\y.
P\ßsf kzcmPysØ `cWm[n]Xnbpw (\nbaßfmepw \nIpXn
Ifmepw), a‰p cmPm°∑mcpsS N{Imbp[hpw (bp≤w) ]oUn∏n°ptºmƒ
“£a” PpKp]vkbpfhm°p∂p. Ah¿ kz\r]XnbptStbm, a‰p cmPm°
∑mcptStbm I¿Ω Ncn{Xßsf°pdn®v Hc£cw an≠mXmhp∂p. (“£a”
200

{]Imikn‘p

bv°v `qan F∂pw IqSn A¿∞ap≠v; P\ßfpsS £a, `qan F∂v Zzbm
¿∞w)
16. K¿`jz]n\njv]∂m hmcnartNm\{]`qXhmcnarN
kcntXmbm¥n X\pXzw IzNnXv IzNn ÷mb tXkkyw.
taLw K¿`w [cn°p∂psh¶nepw ag Xcp∂n√. AXn\m¬ \ZnIƒ
IriKm{XnIfmbnØocp∂p. kky߃ AhnShnsS am{Xw apfbv°p∂p.
17. Ztfi\tc{μarXyp¿hym[n`bwkymXvI_‘
kwÿmt\. ZzmMv ss£ NXkv°c`bw Zp¿`n£w IoetI¿°tÿ.
A¿°ÿambn´v IoeIw (Pzme) I≠m¬ Zfiw sIm≠v `cWm[n
Imcn°v arXyp kw`hn°pw; I_‘cq]Øn¬ I≠m¬ hym[n`bw;
Im°bpsS cq]Øn¬ I≠m¬ Xkv°c `bhpw Zp¿`n£hpw.
18. cmtPm]IcW cqss]O{X [zP Nmacm Zn`n¿hr≤n: cmPm\yXz
IrZ¿°x kv^penwK[qamZn `n¿÷\lm.
cmtPm]IcWßfmb O{Xw, [zPw, Nmacw F∂nhbpsS cq]
Øn¬ I≠m¬ `cWm[nImcn°v ÿm\{`wiw hcpw; as‰mcmƒ `cWw
Gs‰Sp°pw. P\߃°v kv^penwKw, [qaw F∂nhbm¬ \miw kw`
hn°pw.
19. GtImZp¿`n£ItcmZzm[ymx kyp¿∂c]tX¿Δn\mimb
knXc‡ ]oXIrjvssW kvssX¿Δnt≤m¿t°m \ph¿ÆLv\x
taev]d™hbn¬ Hcp Nnlv\w am{Xw I≠m¬ Zp¿`n£w, cs≠
Æw I≠m¬ cmPmhn\p \miw. sh≈, Nph∏v, a™, IrjvWh¿Æw
F∂nßs\ Nnlv\߃ I≠m¬ {IaØn¬ {_mlvaW, £{Xnb,
sshiy, iq{Z¿°v \miw20. Zriyt¥ NbXkvtX chn_nw_ tkym∞nXmatlmXv
]mXmx BKOXntemIm\mw tXss\h`bw {]tZti\.
AkvXan°m≥ t]mIp∂ kqcy_nw_Øn¬\n∂v atlmXv∏mXw
Db¿∂phcp∂Xp Z¿in®m¬ temI߃°v AXnbmb `bw hcm≥ t]m
Ip∂p F∂¿∞w.
201

{]Imikn‘p

21. Du¿≤zItcm ZnhkIcØm{ax tk\m]Xnw
hn\mibXn ]otXm \tc{μ]p{Xw tizXkvXp ]ptcmlnXw l¥n.
kqcys‚ Du¿≤z`mKsØ civanIƒ Xm{a\ndamsW¶n¬ tk\m
]Xnbpw a™bmsW¶n¬ cmP]p{X\pw sh≈bmsW¶n¬ ]ptcmlnX
\pw h[n°s∏Spw.
22. Nnt{Xmf Y hm\n[qt{am chn civan hymIpew ItcmXn
alow. Xkv°c ikv{X \n]mssXcyZn kenew\mip ]mXbXn.
kqcycivan Nn{Xambpw [q{aambpw I≠m¬ `qan hymIpeamhpw,
Xkv°c`bhpw ikv{X\n]mXhpw (Bbp[ h¿jw) D≠mhpw. ag
Ipdbpw.
23. Xm{ax I]ntemhmIv; inincw lcnIp¶pa Ohn Oa≤u
B ]mfip I\Ih¿tÆm {Kojvta h¿jmkpip¢O
24. icZn Iatem Zcm `u tlat¥ cp[nc k∂n`x cmkvXx
{]mhrVvImte kv\nKv≤x k¿Δ¿Øp \nt`m ]nip`Zmbn.
kqcyafiew Xm{atam I]netam Bbn inincØnepw, lcn
Ip¶paOhntbmsS hk¥Ønepw, ]mfipc, I\Ih¿Æßfn¬ {Kojva
Ønepw, Iae ZfØns‚ DZc`mKsØ \ndwt]mse icØnepw, cp[nc
k∂n`ambn tla¥Ønepw, ip`ZmbIamWv. h¿j°meØv kqcy
_nw_w kv\nKv≤ambncp∂m¬, ip`amWv.
25. {Kojvtact‡m `bIrZz¿jmkzknXx ItcmXy \mhrjvSnw
tlat¥ ]otXm¿°ItcmXyNntcW tcmK`bw.
{KojvaØn¬ kqcy_nw_w c‡OhntbmsS Ccp∂m¬ `bw ^ew.
h¿j°meØv AknXambncp∂m¬ A\mhrjvSn; tla¥Øn¬ ]oX
h¿Æambncp∂m¬ tcmK `bw.
26. kq£vaxtiztXm hn{]m≥ c‡m`x £{Xnbm\zn\mibXn
]otXm sshiy≥ IrjvWmkvXtXm ]cm≥ ip`Icxkv\nKv[
kq£vax tizXw hn{]∑mscbpw, c‡m`£{Xnb∑mscbpw a™
sshiytcbpw IrjvW\ndw iq{Ztcbpw ip`Icambn kzm[o\n°pw. A\y
\nd߃ hn\miIcambn `hn°pw.
202

{]Imikn‘p

27. kpcNm]]mSnXX\p¿\r]Xnhntcm[{]Zx kl{kmwipx
{]mhrVvImte kZyx ItcmXn hnaeZypXn¿hrjvSnw.
aghn√psIm≠v {hWnXamb icoctØmsS°≠m¬ hnhn[ cmjv{S
ßfnse `cWm[n]∑m¿°nSbn¬ hntcm[w D≠mhpw. h¿jIme kqcy≥
hnaeZypXnbmbncp∂m¬ [mcmfw ag s]øpw.
28. h¿jImte hrjvSnw ItcmXn kZyx incoj]pjv]m`x
inJn]{X\n`x kenew \ ItcmXn ZzmZim_vZm\n.
h¿j°mekqcy≥ incoj]pjv]w t]mse Ccp∂m¬ \√ ag
s]øpw, abn¬∏oenbpsS h¿ÆtØmSpIqSnbncp∂m¬ ]{¥≠p h¿j
tØbv°v ag In´pIbn√.
29. iymtaf ¿t°IoS`bw `kva\nt` `bapi¥n ]cN{ImXv
bky¿t£ k®n{Z kvXkyhn\mix £nXoiky.
iymah¿Æamb A¿°≥ IoS`bap≠m°pw. `kvakZriambncp
∂m¬ A\ycmPy°m¿°v `bw. cmPmhns‚ P∑\£{XØn≥ \mƒ
kqcy_nw_Øn¬ On{Zw I≠m¬ cmPmhn\v hn\mi ^ew.
30. ii cp[nc \nt` `m\u \`ÿetÿ `h¥n kw{Kmamx
iinkZrti \r]Xn h[x £n{]wNmt\ym\rt]m`hXn.
apb¬c‡w t]mse kqcys\°≠m¬ BImiØn¬ sh®v kw{Km
aw (thymabp≤w) \S°pw. N{μkZriambn kqcy≥ ImWs∏´m¬ Hcp
`cWm[n]≥ h[n°s∏SpIbpw, AbmfpsS ÿm\Øv DSs\ as‰mcp
`cWm[n]≥ Ahtcm[n°s∏SpIbpw sNøpw.
31. £p∑mc IrZv LS\n`x Jtfim \r] lmhn Zo[nXn
¿ `bZx tXmcWcq]x ]pclm O{X\nt`m tZi\mimtb.
LSwt]mse Ccp∂m¬ cmPyØv hni∏pw sIme]mXIhpw D≠m
hpw. Jfiambn°≠m¬ cmPmhn\v \miw. O{X cq]Øn¬ I≠m¬
tZiØn\pw, tXmcWcq]Øn¬ I≠m¬ \KcØn\pw \miw.
32. [zP Nm]\nt` bp≤m\n `mkv°tc th]t\Ncqt£N
IrjvWm tcJmkhnXcnbZnl¥n \r]w XXx kNnhx
kqcy\n¬ [zPNm]߃ I≠m¬ cq£amb bp≤w \S°pw.
IrjvWtcJ I≠m¬ a{¥n cmPmhns\ h[n°pw.
203

{]Imikn‘p

33. {]XnZnhkalna IncWx ]cnthjokk≤y tbm¿ZztbmcYhm
ct‡m kvXtaXn ct‡mZnXivN `q]w ItcmXy\yw.
GsX¶nepw cmPyØv Zn\w{]Xn kqcytZh≥ {]`mX kmbwk‘y
Ifn¬ ]cnthjtØmsS lnaIncW\mbn ImWs∏´m¬ Xo¿®bmbpw
B cmPyØv Hcp `cWam‰w D≠mhpw. ]pXnb `cWm[nImcn cmPyw
Gs‰Sp°pw.
34. {]lcW kZriu¿÷essZx ÿKnXx k‘ymZztb ]ncWImcn
arK alnjhnlK JcIc`kZricqss]ivN `bZmbo.
c≠p k‘yIfnepw kqcy_nw_w {]lcWkZriambn taL
Øn¬ \n∂v ]Xnbv°p∂nSØv bp≤ap≠mhpw. arKw, alnjw, ]£n,
IgpX, B\ F∂nh°p kZriamb cq]߃ `bap≠m°pw.
35. Zn\Ic Icm`n Xm]m Zr£ahm]vt\mXn kpalcnw ]oVmw.
`hXn N ]ivNzm {Op≤w I\IanhlpXmi ]cnXm]mXv.
AKv\nXm]Øm¬ kz¿Æw ]oUn∏n°s∏´v ]cnip≤n ssIhcn°p
∂Xpt]mse, k¿Δ A£ßfpw (A£mwiw) kqcycivanIfm¬ A`n
X]n∏n°s∏´v ]oUn∏n°s∏´v ]hn{XamIp∂p.
36. ZnhkIrXx {]Xnkqcym PeIrZp ZMvZ£ntWÿntXmf \neIrXv
D`bÿx kene `bw \r]ap]cn \nl¥yt[mP\lmkqcys‚ DØc`mKØv {]Xnkqcys\ I≠m¬ ag D≠mhpw, kqcy
s‚ Z£nW`mKØv I≠m¬ sImSp¶m‰v D≠mhpw. c≠p hiØpw
I≠m¬ kene`bw (sh≈s∏m°w apXembh) D≠mhpw. XmsgbmWv
I≠sX¶n¬ temI\miw. apIfn¬ I≠m¬ `cWm[n]\v \miw.
37. cp[nc\nt`mhnbXyh\n ]m¥Itcm \NncmXv
]cpjctPm cpWo IrX X\pcyZnhmZn\IrXv.
BImtim]cn cp[nc\n`ambn´pw ]cpjamb s]mSnaqSn AcpW
h¿Æambn´pw I≠m¬ `cWm[n]\v DSs\ arXyp kw`hn°pw.
38. AknXm hnNn{X \oe ]cptjm P\LmXIcx
JK arK ss`ch kzccpssX ivN\nimZyapssJx
204

{]Imikn‘p

kqcys\ IrjvWh¿ÆØnepw hnNn{X \oeh¿ÆØnepw ]cpj
ambpw k‘ybv°v Z¿in°bpw, ]£narKmZnIƒ IgpX kzcw D≠m°p
Ibpw sNbvXm¬ P\߃ H∂S¶w \in°pw.
39. Aae h]p ch{I afiex kv^pS hnaemae Zo¿LZo[nXnx
AhnIrX X\p h¿Æ Nnlv\ `q⁄ KXnItcmXn inhw ZnhmIcx
Aae h]p mbn, Ah{I afieambn, (tKmfmIrXn) kv^pShpw
Aaehpw hn]pehpamb kpZo¿LIncWßtfmsS, AhnIrX X\phmbn,
h¿Æßsfm, Nnlv\ßtfm C√mØ kzkzcq]tØmsS KXn sNøp∂
ZnhmIc≥ inhw (awKfw) \¬Ip∂p.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlZv
kwlnXmbmamZnXy Nmc kvXrXotbm≤ymbx

205

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 4

N{μNmcw
1. \nXya[x -ÿtkytμm¿ `m`n¿ `mt\mx knXw `hXy¿≤w.
kzOmbbm\yZknXw Ipw`ky hmX]ÿky.
Hcp Ipw`sØ kqcy\v A`napJambn ]nSn®m¬ kqcy\p t\¿°p≈
A¿≤w kqcymX]w X´nXnfßpw. at‰ A¿≤w kz¥w Ombbm¬
AknXw (Idp∏v) Bbn°mWpw. CXpt]msebmWv \nXyhpw kqcys‚
Xmsg ]nSn®ncn°p∂ N{μs‚ Hc¿≤w {]Imin°p∂ ip¢ambpw at‰
A¿≤w IrjvWambpw Ccn°p∂X.v
2. keneamb cmin\ncth¿≤nXtbmaq¿OnXmkvX
tamss\iw. £]b¥n Z¿∏tWmZc\nlXm Ch aμnckym¥x
IÆmSnbn¬ ]Xn® kqcyIncWw aμncØns‚ Dƒ`mKsØ Ccp
´ns\ \o°p∂Xpt]mse, keneamb cminbn¬ ]Xn® kqcyIncWw
(N{μ\n¬ ]Xn®Xv) Xs∂bmWv cm{Xnbnepw Ccp´I‰p∂Xv (\nemhv,
{]Xn^en® kqcycivanbmWv, A√msX N{μcivanb√ F∂¿∞w).
3. XyPtXm¿f °Xew iin\x ]ivNmZhew _tXbYm iu¢yw.
Zn\IchimØ tZtμmx {]ImitXf [x {]`rXyZbx
kqcy{]XesØ Dt]£n®v N{μs‚ ]ivNna`mKsØ Ahew_n®
kqcyIncWw F{]Imcw ip¢h¿Æambncn°p∂pthm AXpt]mse, Zn\
Ichiamb B Cμp, Xs‚ At[m`mKØp≈ {]`rXnIsfbpw {]Imin
∏n°p∂p.
4. {]Xn Znhktaha¿°mXv ÿm\ hntitjW iu¢y]cnhr≤nx
`hXn iint\mf ]cmlvt\ ]ivNmZv `msKLStkyh.
{]XnZn\w C{]Imcw kqcyÿm\ hntijØm¬, A]cmlv\Øn¬
iinbv°v ip¢ ]cnhr≤n kw`hn°p∂p; LSØns‚ ]ivNmZv`mKsØ∂
t]mse.
206

{]Imikn‘p

5. sF{μkyioXInctWm aqemjmVmZzbky hmbmXx
bmtay\ _oP PeNcIm\\ lm hlv\n `bZivN
sF{μw (Xrt°´), aqew, ]qcmSw, D{XmSw F∂nhbpsS Zml`mKß
fnte°v ioXIncW≥ {]thin°ptºmƒ _oP߃, PeNc߃, ImSp
Iƒ F∂nhbv°v AKv\n`bap≠mhpw (hnØpIfpw, PeNcßfpw ImSp
Ifpw AKv\nbv°ncbmhpw).
6. Z£nW ]m¿tiz\ KXx iiohnimJm\pcm[tbmx ]m]x
at≤y\Xp {]ikvXx ]nXrkyhnimJtbmivNm]n.
hnimJw, A\ngw \£{XßfpsS Z£nW ]m¿izØneqsS k©cn
°p∂ N{μ≥ Aip`amWv. AhbpsS a≤y`mKØp IqsS k©cn°p
tºmƒ ip`Zmbnbpw “]nXr” F∂v t]cptI´ {]Pm]XnbpamWv.
7. jUv \mKXm\n ]ujvWmZv ZzmZicu{Zm®a≤ytbmKo\n
tPyjvTmZym\n\h¿£mWypUp]Xn \mXoXybpPyt¥
tchXn apX¬ arKinc phscbp≈ Bdp \£{Xßfn¬ {]thin
°msX, B¿{Z apX¬ A\pcm[w hsc ]{¥≠p \£{XßfpsS a≤ya
KXnbmbn, tPyjvT apX¬ DØc `{Z]mZwhsc HºXp \£{Xßsf
AXn{Ian®v (AXoX\mbn) N{μs\ ImWmw.
8. D∂Xaoj OrwKw \u kwÿmt\ hnimetXm tNm‡m
\mhnI]oVmXkvan≥ `hXn inhw k¿ΔtemIky
N{μs‚ Db¿∂ irwKw Hcp ‘\uI’ t]mse hnimeambn°≠m¬
\mhnI∑m¿°v ]oVbpw, a‰p k¿ΔtemI¿°pw awKfhpw `hn°pw.
9. A¿t≤m∂tX NewKeanXn]oVm X Zp] Pohn\mw Xkvan≥
{]oXnivN\n¿ \nanØw a\pP]Xn\mw kp`n£nw N.
]IpXn DZn® N{μs‚ irwKsØ emwKesa∂p ]dbpw. AXv lew
(Ie∏) sIm≠v D]Pohn°p∂h¿°v ]oVhcpØpw. cmPm°∑m¿
\nanØsam∂pw IqSmsXbpw {]oXntbmSpw kp`n£ambpw Pohn°p∂p.
10. Z£nW hnjmW a¿t≤m∂Xw bZmZrjvS emwKemJyw XXv
]mfiy\tcizc \n[\ Irt≤ymKIcw _em\mw N.
207

{]Imikn‘p

]IpXn Db¿∂p ImWp∂ N{μs‚ Z£nW irwKsØ ZrjvSmemwK
sa∂v ]dbp∂p. ZrjvSemwKew I≠m¬ ]mfiycmPmhns‚ BfpIƒ
Xs∂ At±lsØ h[n°m≥ {ian°pw.
11. kacmin\n kp`n£ t£ahrjvSmbx {]YamZnhk kZrimx kyp
ZfihZpZntX ]oVmKhmw \r]ivtNm{K Ztfimf {Xx
kacminbn¬ N{μ≥ DZn®m¬ kp`n£w, t£aw, hrjvSn F∂nh
AXn\p apºsØ Zn\Øn\p kZriambn´v D≠mhpw, Zfiw t]mse
DZn®m¬ ]ip°ƒ°v ]oVbp≠mhpw; \r]∑m¿ Zfi\oXn \S∏m°pw.
12. Im¿ΩpI cqt] bp≤m\n b{XXp PymX tXmPbkvtXjmw
ÿm\w bpKanXn bmtaymØcmbXw `qanIºmb.
hn√ns‚ cq]Øn¬ DZn®m¬ bp≤w D≠mhpw. hn√ns‚ Pymhv (au
¿Δn) GXp tZi`mKtØ°v Nq≠p∂pthm Ah¿°p hnPbap≠mhpw.
B irwKw Z£nW `mKtØbvt°m DØc `mKtØbvt°m Nq≠nbncn
°p∂ ÿm\amWv “bpKw”. B Zn°n¬ `qan hndbv°p∂p (`qIºw D≠m
hp∂p).
13. bpKtah bmaytImSyw In©nXvirwKw k ]m¿izmbnXn
hn\nl¥n km¿∞hmlm≥ hrjvtSivN hn\n{Klw IpcymXv.
bpKsa∂ irwKw batImSn (Z£nW `mKw) bn¬ \n∂v Db¿∂p
\n∂m¬ AXns\ ]m¿izimbn F∂v hnfn°pw. AXv km¿∞hml
kwLßtfbpw hrjvSntbbpw \in∏n°pw.
14. Acyp{Ombm tZIw bZn iint\mf hmMv apJw `thmOrwKw
Bh¿÷nXanXykp`n£Imcn XZv tZymL\kym]n.
iinirwKw Xmtg°v apJambn°≠m¬ AXns\ Bh¿÷nXw
F∂v ]dbpw. AXv ]ip°ƒ°v kp`n£w C√mXm°pw. ]p√v IqSn apf
bv°pIbn√.
15. BhypOn∂m tcJmka¥tXm afiem NIpfimJyw
Akvan≥ amfienIm\mw ÿm\XymtKm\c]Xo\mw.
N{μafieØns‚ Np‰pw AhnOn∂amb, AJfiamb tKmfm
IrXnbnep≈ tcJmafiew ImWp∂XmWv Ipfiw. Ipfiw GXp
208

{]Imikn‘p

afieØn¬ \n∂v (`q`mKw) ZriyamIp∂pthm B afieØnse cmPm
°∑m¿ ÿm\XymKw sNøpw.
16. t{]m‡ÿm\m`mhmZpZK®x kkyhr≤nhrjvSnIcx
Z£nW XpwK Ot{μmZp¿`n£ `bmb \n¿±njvSx
t\csØ ]d™ ÿm\`mh߃ D≠mhpIbpw, irwKw Db¿∂p
ImWpIbpw sNbvXm¬ kkym`nhr≤n, [mcmfw ag; Z£nWirwKw Db¿
∂m¬ Zp¿`n£hpw `bhpw D≠mhpw.
17. irwtKssWtIt\μp hnlo\ aYhm]yhmMv apJairwKw
kºq¿Æ Nm`n\hw {ZjvssSztIm PohnXmXv{`tiyXv.
H‰ irwKw, Xmtg°p t\m°nb irwKw, irwKlo\w, kºq¿Æw,
A`n\hw- Cßs\ N{μs\ Z¿in®m¬, Z¿in®hcn¬ Hcmƒ°v PohnXw
\jvSs∏Spw.
18. kwÿm\ hn[n; IYntXm cq]mWykvamZv `h¥n N{μakx
kzevt]m Zp¿`n£Itcm alm≥ kp`n£ hlx t{]m‡x
N{μa ns‚ kwÿm\ hn[nbn¬ At\Iw cq]߃ `hn°p∂
Xmbn ]dbs∏´ncn°p∂p. sNdnb N{μ≥ Zp¿`n£w sIm≠phcpw. henb
N{μ≥ kp`n£hpw.
19. a≤yX\p¿Δ{PmJyx £pZv `bZx kw{`amb cm⁄mw N
Nt{μm arZwK cq]x t£a kp`n£mhslm `hXn.
a≤yX\phmb N{μs\ ‘h{Pw’ F∂p ]dbpw. AXv hni∏ns‚ `bw
D≠m°pw; cmPm°∑m¿°v kw{`ahpw. arZwKcq]Ønep≈ N{μ≥ t£a
hpw kp`n£hpw Xcp∂p.
20. t⁄tbm hnimeaq¿Øn¿∂c]Xne£vanhnhr≤tbN{Ix
ÿqex kp`n£Imcn {]nb[m\yIckvXp X\paq¿Ønx
hnimeaq¿Ønbmbn h¿≤n°p∂ N{μ≥ cmPm°∑m¿°v e£van
h¿≤n∏n°p∂p. {]nb¶cßfmb [m\y߃ kp`n£ambn \¬Ip∂p.
21. {]Xy¥m≥ Ip\r]mw ivNl¥ypUp]tXx irwtKIp tP\mltX
ikv{X £pXv `bIr[yta\ iintP\mhrjvSn±p¿`n£IrXv
209

{]Imikn‘p

t{ijvTm≥ l¥n\r]m≥ atl{μ KpcpWmipt{IW Nm¬∏m\r]m≥
ipt¢ bm]yanZw ^ew {KlIrXw IrjvtW btYmIvXmKaw.
N{μ irwKØn¬ sNmΔ kv]¿in°psa∂p tXm∂pwhn[w ASpØp
h∂m¬ NoØ `cWm[nImcnIƒ°v lm\n kw`hn°pw; i\nsb¶n¬
Bbp[w sIm≠pw hni∏psIm≠pw Ah¿°p `bap≠mhpw. _p[s\
¶n¬ A\mhrjvSnbpw Zp¿`n£hpw D≠mhpw. _rlkv]Xnsb¶n¬
t{ijvT cmPm°∑m¿°pw ip{Is\¶n¬ km[mcW cmPm°∑m¿°pw
\miw hcpw. IrjvW]£ØnemWv Cu {Kl߃ N{μ∂SpØv ImWp
∂sX¶n¬ Cu ^eßfpsS ]q¿Æm\p`hhpw ip¢]£ØnemsW¶n¬
Aev]m\p`hhpw ]dbmw.
22. ]m©me ssIIbIpeqXI ]qcpjmZm≥
l\ymZpio\cP\m\ ]nk]vXamkm≥
IrjvW]£Øn¬ N{μirwKw ip{I\m¬ ]oUnXambm¬ ]m©m
ew, ssIIbw, IpeqXIw, Dio\cw F∂o {]tZißfnse P\߃°v
Aip`m\p`h߃ kw`hn°pw.
23. Km‘mckuhocI kn‘pIocm≥
[m\ym\nssiem≥ {ZhnUm[n]mwivNm
ZznPmw ivNamkm≥ ZiioXcivanx
k¥m]tbZzmIv ]Xn\m hn`n∂x
_rlkv]Xnbm¬ irwKw `n∂ambm¬ Km‘mcw, kuhocIw,
kn‘p, Iocw, {ZmhnUw, ssietZi߃ F∂nhnSßfnse {_mlvaW¿
°pw [m\y߃°pw \miw kw`hn°pw.
24. DZyp‡m≥ klhmlss\¿\c]Xnw kvss{XK¿Ø I¿ØIm≥
amehm≥ Iuenμm≥ KW]pwKhm\Y
in_o\mtbm≤yIm≥ ]m¿∞nhm≥.
l\ymXv Iucha’yip‡y[n]Xo≥ cmP\yapJym\]n
{]mtebmwipc krKv {KtlX\pKtXj¨amk acymZbm.
sNmΔbm¬ irwKw `n∂am°s∏´m¬ {XnK¿Øw, amfhw, Iuenμw,
in_n, Atbm≤y, Ipcp, a’yw, ip‡ntZiw F∂nhnSßfnse KW
]pwKh∑mcpw, ]m¿∞nh∑mcpw, cmP\yapJycpw DZyp‡cmb (bpt≤mZyp
‡¿!) hml\ktaXw Bdpamkw sIm≠v \miw {]m]n°pw.
210

{]Imikn‘p

25. tbmt[ymbm≥ kNnhm≥ k¿°uchm≥ {]mKoim\Y
Nm¿÷p\mb\m\rl\ymZ¿°P`n∂afiex
ioXmw ip¿±i amk]oVbm.
i\nbm¬ N{μafiew `n∂am°s∏´m¬ ]q¿ΔtZißfn¬ hkn
°p∂hcpw, A¿÷p\ hwiPcpw, IpcphwiPcpamb cmPm°∑m¿, a{¥n
am¿, tbm≤m°ƒ F∂nh¿°v ]Øp amktØ°v ]oVmImeambncn°pw.
26. aK[m≥ aYpcmw N ]oUtbXv
thWmbmizXSw iim¶ IPx
A]c{XIrXw bpKw htZZv
bZn `nXz iio≥ hn\n¿§Xx
_p[\m¬ N{μafiew `n∂ambm¬ aK[, aYpc, thWm\ZoXocw
(thWmSv), F∂nhnSßfnse P\߃°v ]oU D≠mhpw. A°meØv
]ivNnatZiØp≈ BfpIƒ°v IrXbpKw Bcw`n°pw.
27. D¬°bm bZm iio{KkvX Ghl\ytX
l\ytX XZm \rt]m bkyP∑\nÿnXx
D¬° sIm≠v iin {KkvX\mbm¬ sImebmfnIƒ°pw, \r]∑m
¿°pw AXmXp P∑\£{XØnse ÿnXn A\pkcn®v \miw {]h
Nn°mw.
28. `kva\n`x ]pcptjmf cpWaq¿Ønx
ioXItcmx IncWu ]cnlotWmx
iymhX\px kv^pSnXx kv^pctWm hm£pXv
ka cmab Nuc `bmbx
`kva kZriw, AcpWh¿Æw, IncWlo\w, iymah¿Æw, kv^pSn
Xw, kv^pcWw F∂nßs\ N{μs\°≠m¬ hni∏pw, bp≤hpw tcmK
hpw tNmc`bhpw D≠mhpw.
29. {]mteb Ipcp IpapZ kv^SnImhZmtXm
bXv\mZnhm{Zn kpXbm]cnarPy N{μx
Dss®x IrtXm \nin`hnjyXnta inhmb
tbm ZriytX k `hnXm PKXx inhmbm.
cm{Xnbn¬ “CXv F\n°v inhambn `hn°s´” F∂v A{ZnkpXbm¬
211

{]Imikn‘p

bXv\w sNøs∏´t∏mƒ F∂t]mse, lnaIWtØmSpw, IpμtØmSpw,
IpapZtØmSpw kam\amb ip{`h¿ÆtØmsS DZn°p∂ N{μ≥ PK
Øn\v inhIcamWv.
30. bZn IpapZ arWmemlmcKuc kvXnYn \nbamXv
£b taXn h¿≤tX hm.
AhnIrX KXn afiemwip tbmKo
`hXn \rWmw hnPbmb ioXcivan.
IpapZw, arWmfw, lmcw F∂nh t]mse shfpØv, XnYn \nbam\p
krXamb hr≤n£bßtfmSpIqSn AhnIrXKXnbmb afietØmSp
IqSn N{μ≥ ImWs∏´m¬ F√m \r]∑m¿°pw (P\߃°pw) hnPbw
`hn°pw.
31. ipt¢ ]t£ kw{]hrt≤ {]hr≤nw
{_lva£{Xw bmXnhr≤nw {]PmivNx
lot\ lm\nkvXpeyXm XpeyXmbmw
IrjvtW k¿Δw XXv^ew hy]ytb\m.
CXn {io hcmlanlncIrtXm _rlXvkwlnXm
bmw N{μNmcivNXp¿t∞m≤ymbx
ip¢]£Øn¬ h¿≤n®phcp∂ N{μ≥ {_lva£{X߃°pw
P\߃°pw kar≤n \¬Ip∂p; ip¢]£Øn¬ lo\\mbn ImWp∂
N{μ≥ Ah¿°v lm\n hcpØp∂p. kaambn I≠m¬ ka^ew. IrjvW
]£Øn¬ Cu ^e߃ hn]coXambn ]dbWw.

212

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 5

cmlpNmcw
cmlp F∂Xv Atlmcm{Xw F∂Xnse a≤ya]Zßfmb “tlmcm”
Xncn®n´ “cmtlm”bn¬ \n∂v kw`hn®XmWv. kqcyN{μ∑m¿ {]Imi
{Klßfpw a‰p≈h Xtam{KlßfpamWv. Xtam{Klßfn¬ {][m\n
bmb cmlp “`qan” Xs∂bmWv. CXv ]©kn≤m¥nIm X{¥Øn¬
\n∂p hy‡amWv. `qanbpsS BIrXnsb°pdn®v `n∂m`n{]mbßfpw,
{KlWthfbnse `qOmb sIm≠v AXns‚ tKmfmIrXn {Kln°mhp
∂Xpw hcmlanlnc≥ ChnsS ]dbp∂p≠v.
1. AarXm kzmZ hntijmOn∂a]nincx InemkpctkyZw
{]mWu c]cnXr‡w {KlXmw bmXw hZt\ytI.
2. Cμz¿° afiemIrXncknXXzmXvIne \ZriytX KKt\
A\y{X ]¿Δ ImemXv hc{]Zm\mXv Iae tbmt\x
inc v On∂amsW¶nepw AarXns‚ BkzmZ\hntijØm¬
{]mWs\ ]cnXyPn°mØ as‰mcp {Klap≠v. N{μkqcy∑msct∏mse
tKmfmIrXnbmWv CXn\pw. F∂m¬ AknXXzw (shfp∏v AYhm {]Im
iØns‚ A`mhw) sIm≠v CXns\ KK\Øn¬ ZriyamIp∂n√. {KlW
ImeØv Iaetbm\nbmb krjvSnI¿Ømhns‚ hcZm\Øm¬ CXns‚
tKmfmIrXn \ap°v Z¿in°m≥ km[n°p∂p.
3. apJ ]pO hn`‡mwKw, `pPwKamImcap]Zni¥ytXy
IYb¥yaq¿Ø a]tc Xtamabw sskwlntIbmJyw.
Nne¿ ]dbp∂p apJhpw ]pOhpw hn`‡am°mhp∂ hn[Øn¬
Hcp `pPwKØns‚ cq]amWv CXns\∂v. a‰p Nne¿ ]dbp∂p Aaq¿Ø
hpw Xtamabhpw Bb CXv “knwlnIbpsS ]p{X≥” BsW∂v.
`qanbv°v Hcp DSepw Hcp hmepap≠v F∂v Ct¥mt\jy°m¿ Icp
Xp∂p. AXn\m¬ Ah¿ `qansb Hcp “Devt°m” F∂v hnfn°pw. Xangp
`mjbnse “DeIw” F∂ ]Zhpw “D¬°w” F∂ ]Zhpw Ct¥mt\jy
°mcpsS Cu ]ZØns‚ apt∂mSnIfmWv. thZßfn¬ `qan Ccp≠ apJ
213

{]Imikn‘p

hpw {]Imin°p∂ ]pOhpap≈
kk¿∏nWnbmb tZhnbmWv.
CuPn]vXn¬ Cu “Imek¿∏”
Øns‚ inc v c≠mbn ]nf¿∂
hn[Øn¬ Nn{XoIcn°p∂p.
CXn¬ knwlntIbs\∂
]Zhpw, D¬°Ifpw `qanbpw
XΩnep≈ _‘hpw Ncn{X]c
ambn khntij {i≤b¿ln°p
∂p. c≠mbncw h¿jw apºp≈
CuPn]vXy≥ ]m∏d pIfn¬
D¬°Isf ]cma¿in®n´p≠v.
{In. ap. 1768 se ssN\okv tcJ
Ifn¬ Ahsb°pdn®p ]d™n´p≠v. sImdnbbnepw P∏m\nepap≈
tcJIfn¬ \n∂v C∂v \mw *“ensbmWnUv jhdpIƒ” F∂p hnfn°p∂
D¬°mh¿jw Hmtcm 33 h¿jØnepw A[nIcn°p∂ {]Xn`mkw Npcp
ßnbXv 3500 h¿j߃°papºv Cu cmPy°m¿°v Adnbmsa∂v I≠n
´p≠v (Meteors- F∂ {KŸØn¬ hn. s^Un≥kv°n CXv ]cma¿in
°p∂p). ensbmWnUv AYhm entbm (knwlw) cminbn¬ \n∂v P\n
°p∂ knwlntIb∑m¿ F∂ cmlp h¿jØn\v `qantbmSp≈ _‘am
Wv ChnsS ]cma¿iw. 1799, 1832-33 h¿jßfn¬ am{XamWv lwt_mƒ´pw,
AhmtKmbpw, _tbm´pw a‰pw ]mivNmXy cmPyØv Chsb BZyambn
Z¿in®Xpw ssN\okv tcJItfmSv HØpt\m°nbXpw.
a≤yImew hsc, D¬°Iƒ `ua{]Xn`mkßfmsW∂v hnizkn®n
cp∂Xmbn AcntÃm´nens‚bpw a‰t\Iw XØz⁄m\nIfpsSbpw {KŸ
߃ kqNn∏n°p∂p≠v. 1734-¬ am{XamWv djybn¬ Cu {]Xn`mkw
]T\hnt[bam°nbXv. 1855-66 ¬ Cw•≠v Cu ]T\w Bcw`n®p. C‰en
bn¬ jnbm^d√nbpw Atacn°bn¬ \yq´\pw Ahsb ]Tn®p. D¬°
Ifpw [qatIXp°fpw XΩnep≈ _‘w jnbms^d√n Is≠Øpw
aptº ]q¿ΔtZi°m¿ Is≠Ønbncp∂Xn\p sXfnhmWv, Ah¿ cmlp
sh Ft∏mgpw tIXphnt\mSp _‘n®p ]dbp∂Xv. sk]vXw_¿ 24 (1948)
\v s]≥kbnse Zm\ntemh {KmaØn¬ I≠ D¬°mh¿jØns‚ Nn{Xw
* Im¿ØnI, A{KlmbW amkØn¬ Nnßcmin `mKØv ImWmw.
\hw_¿ 10 apX¬ 18 hsc- amIvknaw \hw_¿ 16-mw XnøXn.
214

{]Imikn‘p

F. bqkpt∏mhv (t]Pv 37-38. Meteors- by V. Fedynsky) hc®Xv Hcp
k¿∏cq]ØnemWv F∂Xv khntij {i≤ A¿ln°p∂p. 1948 HIvtSm
_¿ 11 \v s^k≥tImhpw \£{X߃°nSbn¬ k¿∏sØt∏mse
\o≠ hmev Cg® cq]ØnemWv D¬°mh¿jßsf \nco£n®Xv. Ah
bpsS intcm`mKØn\v Xnfßp∂ sh≈ \ndhpw (dazzling whitish hue)
hmen\v Nph∏p\ndhpw Bbncp∂p. CXv cmlptIXp°fpsS h¿Æ\
bmWv F∂Xn¬ kwiban√.
D¬°Iƒ s]mSn™ [qfoIWßfm¬ Hcp {]Imin°p∂ hmev
X\n°p Np‰pw krjvSn®psIm≠mWv `qan kqcy\p Np‰pw *k©cn°p∂
sX∂v B[p\nI imkv{Xw Is≠Ønbn´p≠v. DeIw, Devt°m, `pPKm
Imcw, apJ]pOhn`‡w, knwlntIbw, Aaq¿Øw, Xtamabw apXemb
hcmlanlncs‚bpw ]q¿ΔnIcpsSbpw ]Z{]tbmKßsf Cu Adnhp
sh®v ]p\¿hnNn¥\w sNbvXv AhcpsS imkv{XobX {Kln°pI.
4. bZna¿tØm`hnNmcn intcmf Yhm `hXn afieo cmlpx
`KWm¿t≤\m¥mcntXm KrlvWm\n IYw \nbX Nmcx
Aaq¿Øhpw afienbpamb inc mb cmlp `KWm¿≤Øn\
IØv (6 cmin) \nbXambn k©cn°p∂p. afiew F∂m¬ tKmfmIrXn
F∂pw, Field F∂pw, A¿∞w. afietØmSp IqSnbXv afien (afi
enbpsS Hcp ]cymb]Zw k¿∏sa∂pw BWv). 6 cmin F∂m¬ 180 Un{Kn.
\nbXambn 180° °IØv kqcyN{μ∑msc hn`Pn°p∂ `qanbmWv ChnsS
cmlp.
5. A\nbX Nmcx Jep tNZp]e_v[nx kwJybm IYw Xky
]pOm \\m`n[mt\mf ¥tcW Ikvam∂ KrlvWmXn.
cmlphns‚ Nmcw (`qanbpsS k©mcw) A\nbXambncp∂psh¶n¬
Fßs\bmWv {KlWw {]hNn°m≥ km[n°pI? ]pOw, B\\w
F∂nh shtΔsdsb¶n¬ Fßs\ {KlWw kw`hn°pw (tKmfmIrXn
bs√¶n¬ Fßs\?).
6. AYXp `pPtK{μcq]x ]ptO\ aptJ\ hmkKrlvWmXn.
apJ]pOm¥ckwÿw ÿKbXn Ikvam∂ `KWm¿≤w.
k¿∏w apJwsIm≠√msX hmepsIm≠v {Kln°pI (hngpßpI)
bn√. apJØn\pw ]pOØn\pw CSbnep≈ `mKw (DS¬) sIm≠pw
* 18 -mw \q‰m≠n¬ temat\mtkmhv BWv CXv BZyw Duln®Xv.
215

{]Imikn‘p

hngpßpIbn√ (Chsb√mw `qanbpsS tKmfIrXn Nq≠n°m´p∂p). Nne¿
kqcys\ {Kkn°p∂Xpw N{μs\ {Kkn°p∂Xpw shtΔsd cmlp°fm
sW∂v IcpXp∂p≠v. ASpØ t«mIw Ahsc AS°p∂Xn\mWv.
7. cmlpZzbw bZnkymZw {KkvtX f kvXantXf YthmZntX Nt{μ
XXv kaKXn \mt\y\ {KkvXx kqtcymf ]nZrtiyX.
c≠p cmlp°ƒ Ds≠¶n¬ N{μ\v {Kmkw, AkvXabw, DZbw
F∂nh \S°ptºmƒ AXns‚ kaKXnbm¬ kqcy\pw {KkvXambn
ImtW≠Xt√? Aßs\ ImWmbvIbm¬ Hcp cmlpthbp≈q.
8. `qOmbmw kz{KltW `mkv°ca¿°{Ktl {]hniXoμpx
{]{KlWaXx ]ivNmt∂tμm¿ `mt\mivN ]q¿Δm¿≤mXv
N{μ≥ kz{KlW thfbn¬ `qOmbbnepw, A¿°{KlW ka
bØv kqcy\nepw {]thin°p∂p. AXn\m¬ ]ivNnaZnibn¬ N{μ{Kl
Wtam ]q¿ΔZnibn¬ kqcy{KlWtam kw`hn°p∂n√ (N{μ≥ Ing°v
DZn°bpw kqcy≥ ]Sn™mdkvXan°bpw sNøp∂ ]u¿Æanbn¬
am{Xw N{μ{KlWw).
9. hr£ky kzOmbm bssYI ]m¿tiz\ `hXn Zo¿LmN
\nin\nin XZzZv `qtacmhcWhim±nt\iky
hr£Omb F{]Imcw Bdp cminbv°v, Htc hitØbv°pXs∂
\o≠p \o≠p sN√p∂pthm AXpt]mse, Hmtcm cm{Xn Ignbptºmgpw
`qanbm¬ BhcWw sNøs∏´ OmbZn\w {]XnZo¿Ln®phcp∂p.
10. kqcymXv k]vXacmiubZn tNmZKv Z£ntW\ \mXnKXx
N{μ]q¿Δm`napJ Ombm au¿Δo XZm hniXn.
F{]Imcw kqcys‚ Ggmw cminsb IS∂v DØc Z£nWZnibn¬
AXnKXamhp∂n√tbm, AXpt]mse ]q¿Δm`napJamb `qOmb N{μ
\n¬ hogp∂p. DØc Z£nW Znibn¬ `qan kqcy\n¬ \n∂v 7 cmin°
∏pdw t]mIbn√. ]q¿Δ ]ivNnaZnibn¬ N{μ≥ `qanbn¬ \n∂pw 7 cmin
°∏pdw t]mIbn√.
N{μ{KlWw
]q¿Δw

]›naw
`q

N
216

kq

{]Imikn‘p

kqcy{KlWw
DØcw
kq

Vertical

N

`q
]q¿Δw

]›naw
N

Z£nWw

kq
N{μ{KlWw (Horizontal)

N

kq

11. Nt{μmf [ÿx ÿKbXnchnaw_pZ h’amKXx ]ivNmXv
{]XntZi aXivNn{Xw ZrjvSnhimZv `mkv°c {KlWw.
kqcys‚ At[m`mKØp≈ N{μ≥, ]ivNnaZnibn¬ \n∂v k©cn
®ph∂v, taLw t]mse kqcys\ adbv°p∂p. Hmtcmtcm tZißfnepw
AXn\m¬ hnNn{Xßfmb {KlW߃ ImWm≥ km[n°p∂p.
12. BhcWw almZntμmx IpWvT hnjmW kvXtXmf ¿≤ k©∂x
kz¬]w cthcytXmf XkvXo£vW hnjmtWmchn¿`hXn.
N{μs‚ BhcWw alØmWv. AXn\m¬ ]IpXn {Kkn°s∏´
N{μirwKw AXnibIcamw hn[w IpWvTnXw Xcp∂p. kqcymhcWw
A¬]amWv. AXn\m¬ chnbpsS irwKw Xo£vWamWv. hnjmWw
AYhm sImºv (irwKw) F∂XmWv hnjw (Poison) Bbn hymJym\n°
s∏Sp∂Xv.
13. Ghap]cmK ImcWw D‡anZw ZnhyZrKv`ncmNmcyx
cmlpx ImcWakvan∂nXyp‡x imkv{X kZv`mhx
ZnhyZr°pIfmb BNmcy∑m¿ C{]Imcap≈ D]cmK ImcWw cmlp
hmWv F∂v ]d™p. cmlp ImcWsa∂ D‡n imkv{X kXy`mhw am{XamWv.
217

{]Imikn‘p

14. tbmfkmh kptcm cmlpkvXkyhtcm {_lvaWmb am⁄]vXx
B]ymb\ ap]cmtKmZØ lpXmwti\tX `hnXm.
Akpcamb (A{]Imiw) cmlphn\v {_lvamhn\m¬ hcw e`n®p.
“GXphn[w tlmaw P\߃ sNøp∂pthm B b⁄mwiØm¬ \o
kwXr]vX\mhs´” F∂v. AXn\m¬, a\pjyb⁄w (I¿Ωw) tlXp
hmbn `qan kwXr]vXambn, kZm AarXambncn°p∂p.
15. \ IY©n Z]n\nanssØ¿ {KlWw hn⁄mbtX \nanØm\n
A\ykvan\m]n Imte `h¥y tYmXv]mXcq]mWn.
16. Xkvan≥ Imte km∂n≤yakytXt\m]NcyXvcmlpx
bmtaymØcmiinKXn¿§WntXf ]yp] NcytXtX\.
{KlWImeØv AXns‚ km∂n≤yw \mw Adnbp∂p. N{μs‚
DØcZ£nWKXnImeØmWv KWnX]cambn {KlWw kw`hn°p∂Xv.
AX√mØ ImeØv \nanØw sIm≠v {KlWw I≠m¬, {KlWw {]h
Nn°cpXv. DXvLmX cq]Ønep≈ {]Xn`mk߃ am{Xta {]hNn°mhq.
17. ]©{KlkwtbmKm∂Ine {KlWkykw`thm `hXn.
ssXemivNPtef jvSaymw \ hnNn¥yanZw hn]ivNnXv`nx
]©{KlkwtbmKØm¬ {KlWw kw`hn°n√ F∂pw AjvSan
\mfn¬ PeØn¬ ssXew Iecpw F∂pw ]dbp∂Xv hnNn¥\w sNbvX
tijw am{Xw kzoIcnt°≠XmWv.
18. Ah\Xym¿° {KmtkmZnKvt⁄bm]e\bmh\XymN
XnYyhkm\mtZzemIctW IYnXm\nXm\nabm.
Ah\Xnbm¬ A¿°{Kmkw, he\w F∂nhbpw Zn°v, XnYyhkm
\w F∂nhbm¬ thfbpw ImWp∂Xv Rm≥ t\ctØ (]©kn≤m¥nI
F∂ IcW{KŸØn¬) ]d™pIgn™p.
19. j¨amtkmØchr≤bm]¿Δimx k]vXtZhXmx {Iaix
{_lva iio{μ Ipt_chcpWmKv\nbamivNhnt⁄bm.
BdpamksØ hr≤nb\pkcn®v ]¿ΔØn\v {IaØn¬ GgptZhX
amsc ]dbp∂p: {_lvamhv, iin, C{μ≥, Ipt_c≥, hcpW≥, AKv\n,
ba≥.
218

{]Imikn‘p

20. {_mlvta ZznP ]iphr≤nt£amtcmKym∂n kkykº®
XZzXv kutay Xkvan≥ ]oVm hnZpjmahrjvSn®.
21. sFt{μ`q]hntcm[x imcZ kky £tbm\ N t£aw
Iut_tcf ¿∞ ]Xo\m a¿∞hn\mix kp`n£w N.
{_lvamhv {KlWm[n]Xnbmbm¬ {_mlvaW¿°pw ]ip°ƒ°pw
A`nhr≤nbp≠mhpw. BtcmKyhpw kkykºØnbpw D≠mhpw. N{μ
s\¶n¬ hnZzm∑m¿°v ]oVbpw AhrjvSnbpw D≠mhpw. C{μs\¶n¬
cmPm°∑mcpsS hntcm[hpw icZvEXphn¬ kky\mihpw t£acmlnXy
hpw ]dbmw. Ipt_cs\¶n¬ ]W°m¿°v A¿∞hn\mihpw a‰p≈
h¿°v kp`n£hpw D≠mhpw.
22. hmcpW ah\oim ip` at\yjmw t£a kkyhr≤nIcw
BKvt\bw an{XmJyw kkymtcmKy`bmw_pIcw.
hcpWs\¶n¬ cmPm°∑m¿°v Aip`w. A\y¿°v t£aw. kky
߃°v A`nhr≤n. an{Xs\∂ AKv\nsb¶n¬ kkyhr≤nbpw BtcmKy
hpw A`bhpw hrjvSnbpw.
23. bmayw ItcmXyhrjvSnw Zp¿`n£w kw£bw N kkym\mw
bZXx ]cw XZip`w £p∑mcm hrjvSnZw ]¿Δ.
bas\¶n¬ AhrjvSn, Zp¿`n£w, kky£bw, £pØv, almamcn,
A\mhrjvSn.
24. themlot\ ]¿ΔWn K¿`hn]ØnivN ikv{XtIm]ivN
AXnthte Ipkpa^e£tbm `bw kky\miivN
thfmlo\ambn {KlWw h∂m¬ K¿`hn]Ønbpw ikv{X tIm]
hpw, AXnthfbn¬ h∂m¬ ]q°ƒ°pw Imbv°ƒ°pw \mihpw kky
\mihpw ]dbmw.
25. lo\mXncn‡ Imte ^eap‡w ]q¿Δ imkv{XZrjvSXzmXv
kv^pSKWnX hnZx ImeIZivNnZ]n\m\yYm `hXn.
thfm lo\hpw AXncn‡hpamb Imeßfnse ^ew ]q¿Δ
imkv{Xßfn¬ I≠Xp ]d™XmWv (kzbw KWn®tXm \nco£n®
tXm A√). kv^pSKWnX hnZKv[cmb ]q¿Δimkv{X⁄∑m¿ ]d™
Ime߃ adn®p kw`hn°phm≥ bmsXmcp \ymbhpan√.
219

{]Imikn‘p

26. bt[yIkvan≥ amkw {KlWw chntkmatbm kvXZm£nXnjx
kz_et£mss` kw£b ambm¥zXn ikv{XtIm]ivN.
Htc amkØn¬ Xs∂ kqcy{KlWhpw N{μ{KlWhpw kw`hn
®m¬ cmPm°∑m¿ kz¥ tk\bpsS Xs∂ t£m`w sIm≠v ikv{X
tIm]Øm¬ £bn®pt]mIp∂p (]´mf hnπhw).
27. {KkvXm DZnXkvXanXu imiZ[m\ymh\oizc£bZu
k¿Δ {KkvXu Zp¿`n£ acIZu ]m]kwZrjvSu.
]m]∑mcm¬ ZrjvSn sNøs∏´ kqcyN{μ∑m¿ {KkvXcmbn DZn°
tbm AkvXan°tbm sNbvXm¬ icZrXphnse [m\yßfpw cmPm°∑m
cpw £bn°p∂p; Zp¿`n£w D≠mhp∂p.
28. A¿t≤mZntXm]tcmt‡m ss\crXn Im≥ l¥n k¿Δb⁄mw ivNx
AKv\yp]Pohn KpWm[nI hn{]mivNantWmf bpKmivNpZnX;
]IpXn DZn® thfbn¬ {KlWw D≠mbm¬ ss\crXn tImWn¬
(\njmZtZißfn¬) k¿Δb⁄hpw l\n°s∏Sp∂p. AKv\yp]Pohn
Ifpw (AKv\nsb B{ibn°p∂h¿- {_mlvaW¿) KpWm[nIyap≈
hn{]cpw iaW∑mcpw AhnsS C√mXmhp∂p (CXv BImiØns‚ {]Y
amwiØn¬ {KlWw \S∂memWv).
29. I¿jI ]mjfin hWnI£{Xnb _e\mbIm≥
ZznXotbwf timImcqI iq{ZtæOm≥ J XrXobmw tika{XnP\m≥
c≠masØ AwiØn¬ {KlWw kw`hn®m¬ I¿jI¿, ]mjfi
∑m¿, hWnI¿, £{Xnb¿, tk\m\mbI¿ F∂nh¿°pw, aq∂masØ
AwiØn¬ kw`hn®m¬ Imcp°ƒ (in¬]nIƒ), iq{Z¿, tæO∑m¿,
a{¥nam¿ F∂nh¿°pamWv \miw hcnI.
30. a≤ymlvt\ \c]Xn a≤ytZi lm tim`\ivN [m\ym¿≤;
XrW `rKamXym¥; ]pcsshiyLv\; ]©takzmwti.
a≤ymlv\Øn¬ {KlWap≠mbm¬ a≤ytZiØnse cmPm°∑m¿
°pw tim`\ßfmb [m\y߃°pw \miw kw`hn°pw. ]©amwiØn¬
{KlWap≠mbm¬ ]p√pXn∂p Pohnbv°p∂hbv°pw, a{¥nam¿°pw
A¥x]pchmknIƒ°pw sshiy¿°pamWv tZmjw.
31. kv{Xo iq{Zm≥ jjvtTf tiZkyp{]Xy¥ lmkvXabImte
bkvan≥ kzmwti tam£kvXXv t{]m‡m\mwinhw`hXn.
220

{]Imikn‘p

jjvT `mKambm¬ kv{XoIƒ°pw iq{Z∑m¿°pw k]vXa`mKamb
AkvXab ImeØv I≈∑m¿°pw tZmjamWv. FhnsS {KlWtam£w
kw`hn°p∂pthm AhnsSbp≈h¿°v inhw kw`hn°pw.
32. ZznP \r]Xo\pZKbt\ hnUvivNp{Zm≥ Z£nWmb t\l¥n
cmlp cpZKmZn ZrjvSx {]Z£nWw l¥nhn{]mZo≥.
DØcmb\ ImesØ {KlWw ZznP\r]Xnam¿°pw, Z£nWmb\
ImesØ {KlWw sshiyiq{ZmZnIƒ°pw \miw hcpØpw. DØc
]q¿ΔZ£nW ]ivNna`mKßfn¬ FhnsS cmlp ZrjvSamIp∂p F∂v t\m
°pI. Z£nWw apX¬ {IaØn¬ {_mlvaWmZnIƒ°v £bw ]dbmw.
Z£nWw - {_mlvaW¿
]ivNnaw - £{Xnb¿
DØcw
- sshiy¿
]q¿Δw
- iq{Z¿
33. tæOm≥ hnZnIÿntXm bmbn\ivNl\ymZv [rXmi k‡mwivN
keneNc Z¥nLmtXm bmtayt\m Z§mhmaip`x
Cuim\ tImWn¬ tæO∑m¿°pw AKv\ntImWn¬ ]YnI∑m¿°pw
Z£nW`mKØv PePohnIƒ°pw B\Iƒ°pw DØc`mKØv ]ip°ƒ
°pw {KlWw Aip`IcamWv.
34. ]q¿tΔWm kene ]q¿Æmw ItcmXn hkp[mw kamKtXm ssZXy
]ivNmXv I¿jI tkhI _oP]n\mimb \n¿±njvSx
]q¿Δ`mKØv cmlp h∂m¬ `qan Pe]q¿ÆbmbnØocpw. ]Sn™m
dmWv h∂sX¶n¬ I¿jIcptSbpw AhcpsS tkhI∑mcptSbpw _oP
߃°v (hnØv) \miw hcpw.
35. ]m©me IenwK iqctk\mx Imwt_mPuIncmX ikv{Xhm¿Ømx
Poh¥n Ntb lpXmihrØym tX]oVmap]bm‡n tajkw tÿm.
36. tKm]mx ]ithmf Y tKmant\ma\pPmtbNmal XzamKXmx
]oVmap]bm¥n `mkv°tc {KkvtX ioXItcf AYhmhrt£.
taScminbn¬ cmlp ÿnXn sNøptºmƒ {KlWap≠mbm¬
]m©mew, IenwKw, iqctk\w, Imwt_mPw, HuwKw, IncmXw F∂nhnS
ßfnse Bbp[[mcnIfpw AKv\nsb D]Pohn°p∂hcpw ]oV A\p`hn
221

{]Imikn‘p

°pw. hr£`cminbn¬ kqcy, N{μ{KlW߃ kw`hn®m¬ tKm]∑m¿
°pw, ]ip°ƒ°pw, AhcpsS _‘p°ƒ°pw _p≤nap´pIƒ t\cnSpw.
37. anYp\Øn¬ t{ijvTmwK\Iƒ°pw, cmPm°∑m¿°pw, kma¥
∑m¿°pw, _eimenIƒ°pw, IemImc∑m¿°pw, bap\mXShmknIƒ
°pw, _mlvfoI¿°pw, a’ytZi°m¿°pw, kplvatZi P\߃°pw.
38. B`ocmivN_cm≥ k]lvehm≥ a√m≥ a’yIpcp OIm\]n
]m©me≥ hnIemwivN ]oV bXy∂w Nm]n\n l¥nI¿°tSm.
I¿°nSIØn¬ B`oc∑m¿°pw i_c∑m¿°pw ]lv√h∑m¿°pw,
a√∑m¿°pw a’y∑m¿°pw, Ipcp°ƒ°pw, imI∑m¿°pw, ]m©me∑m
¿°pw, hnIe¿°pw ]oV D≠mhpw.
39. knwl ]pfnμ KW taIe kXybp‡m≥
cmtPm]am≥ \c]Xo≥ h\tKmNcmwivN
jjvtT XpkkyIhnteJItKb k‡m≥
l¥yivaI {Xn]pc imenbpXmwivN tZim≥
knwlcminbnse {KlWw sIm≠v ]pfnμKWw, taIeØnse
kXybp‡cmb cmtPm]a∑m¿, cmPm°∑m¿, h\ßfn¬ k©cn°p∂
h¿ (BcWyI∑m¿) F∂nh¿ \in°pw. I∂nbnse¶n¬ kkyßfpw
IhnIfpw teJIcpw kwKoXt{]anIfpw, AivaIcmPytØbpw {Xn]pc
Øntebpw imen (s\√v) bpw BWv \in°pI.
40. Xpem[tcf h¥y ]cm¥ykm[q≥
hWnKvZim¿Æm≥ acpIivN]mw ivNm
Aen\y tYmZpw _ca{Z tNmem≥
{Zpam≥ kbu t[ybhnjmbp[obm≥.
XpemØnse¶n¬ Ah¥n, A]cm¥w (]ivNnakap{ZXocw) F∂n
hnSßfnse km[pP\ßfpw hWn°pIfpw, Zim¿Æ∑mcpw, acptZi°m
cpw, IO]tZi°mcpw ]oVnXcmhpw. hrivNnIØnse¶n¬ DZpw_cw,
a{Z, tNmftZiw F∂o P\kaqlßfpw hr£ßfpw t{ijvTtbm≤m°
fpw hnjmbp[nIfpw (hnjsshZy∑m¿) ]oV A\p`hn°pw.
41. [\zn\yamXyJchmPn hntZl a√m≥
]m©me sshZyhWntPm hnjambp[⁄m≥
l\ym\vartKmXp’ja{¥n Ipem\n \oNm≥
a{¥uj[ojp Ipiem≥ ÿhncm bp[obm≥.
222

{]Imikn‘p

[\phnse¶n¬ a{¥nt{ijvT∑m¿, IpXncIƒ, hntZl∑m¿, a√¿,
]m©me¿, sshZy∑m¿, hWn°pIƒ, hnjamkv{X⁄m\nIƒ F∂n
h¿°pw aIcØnse¶n¬ a’y∑m¿, a{¥nIpew, \oNIpe°m¿, a{¥u
j[Ipie∑m¿, hr≤cmb Bbp[[mcnIƒ F∂nh¿°pw ]oV.
42. Ipwt`f ¥¿KncnPm≥ k]ivNnaP\m≥
`mtcmZzlmwkvXkv°cm≥
B`ocm≥ ZcZmcyknwl]pcIm≥
l\ymØYm¿∫¿∫cm≥.
aot\ kmKc Iqe kmKcPe{ZhymWn am\ym≥ P\m≥
{]m⁄m≥ hmcyp]Pohn\ivN` ^ew Iq¿tΩm ]tZimZztZXv
Ipw`Ønse¶n¬ aebnSp°pIfn¬ hkn°p∂ KncnP\߃, ]m
ivNmXy¿, `mtcmZzl\w sNøp∂h¿, Xkv°c∑m¿, B`oc∑m¿, ZcZ∑m¿,
Bcy∑m¿, knwl]pc°m¿, _¿∫c¿ F∂nh¿°pw ao\Ønse¶n¬
kap{ZXochmknIƒ, kap{ZPe {Zhy߃, am\yP\߃, {]m⁄∑m¿,
Ptem]PohnIƒ (ap°ph¿) F∂nh¿°pw \miw kw`hn°pw.
43. khym] khytel {Kk\ \ntcm[mh a¿±\mtcmlmx
B{LmXw a≤yXakvsXtamf ¥y CXntX Zi{Kmkmx
]Øphn[w {Kmkßfm¬ {KlWw kw`hn°p∂p. Ah -khyw,
A]khyw, telw, {Kk\w, \ntcm[w, Aha¿±w, Btcmlw, B{LmXw,
a≤yXaw, Xtam¥yw F∂nhbmWv Zi{Kmk߃.
44. khyKtX Xakn PK÷eπqXw `hXn apZnXa`bivN.
A]kthy \c]Xn Xkv°cmha¿t± {]Pm\mix
khyØn¬ PKØp apgph≥ Xa n¬ apßnbXpt]mse, ]q¿Æ
ambn Bfleb\w kw`hn°bm¬ apZnXhpw A`bhpw Bb Ahÿ
bmWv. A]khyØn¬ cmPm°∑m¿°pw I≈∑m¿°pw ]oVbpw {]Pm
\mihpw kw`hn°pw.
45. Pntlzh teVn ]cnXkvXnancPtZmafiew bZnktelx
{]apZnX kakvX `qXm{]`qX tXmbmN X{Xaln.
cmlp Pnlzt]mse afiesØ H∂p \°pI am{Xw sNøp∂
XmWv telw. Cu {KlWØn¬ kakvX`qXßfpw B\μn°p∂p.
[mcmfw hrjvSnbpw Pekar≤nbpw D≠mhp∂p.
223

{]Imikn‘p

46. {Kk\ anXn bZm{Xnwix ]mtZmhmKrlytXf Yhm ]y¿≤a
kv^oX\r] hnØlm\nx ]oVmNkv^oX tZim\mw.
{KlafieØns‚ aq∂p ]mZtam, Hcp ]mZtam, A¿≤tam {KkvX
ambm¬ AXv {Kk\w. K¿ΔnIfmb \r]∑m¿°p hnØlm\nbpw, K¿Δ
ap≈ tZi߃°p ]oVbpw ^ew.
47. ]cyt¥jp KrloXzm at≤y]nfioIrXw XakvXnjvtTXv.
k\ntcmt[mhnt⁄bx {]tamZIrXv k¿Δ`qXm\mw.
afieØns‚ a≤y`mKØv ]nficq]Øn¬ cmlp\n¬°bpw
AXns‚ ]cn[n HgnsI as‰√mw cmlphm¬ adbs∏´ncn°bpw sNøp∂
XmWv \ntcm[w (]cn[n Hcp corona bmbn ImWmw). CXv k¿Δ`qX߃
°pw B\μImcnbmb Z¿i\amWv.
48. Aha¿±\anXn\nx tijtah kRvOm[ybZnNncw XnjvtTXv.
l\ymXv {][m\ tZim≥ {][m\`q]mwivN Xnancabx
afiesØ apgph≥ {Kln® cmlp AhnsSØs∂ IqSpX¬
kabw \n∂m¬ Aha¿±\w. {][m\ tZi߃°pw {][m\ \r]∑m¿°pw
\miw hcpw; A‘Imcambncn°bpw sNøpw.
49. hrØ {KtlbZnXakvXXv £WamhrXyZriytX `qbx
BtcmlW antXyt\ym\ya¿±ss\¿`bIcw cm⁄mw.
tKmfhrØmImcamb {KlØn¬ Hcp £Wt\ctØbv°v Xa p
sIm≠p aqSnb tijw, ho≠pw AXns\ Zriyam°pamdv cmlp Dbcp∂p.
AXns\ BtcmlWsa∂p ]dbpw. BtcmlWap≠mbm¬ cmPm°
∑m¿°nSbn¬ `b¶camb bp≤w D≠mhpw.
50. Z¿∏W CsshItZtik _mjv]m\nx ivNmkamcptXm]lXx
ZrtiyXm{LmXw XXvkphrjvSn hr≤ymhlw PKXx
\nizmkØm¬ IÆmSnbn¬ F∂t]mse, cmlphns‚ \nizmkw
am{Xw (hmbpafiew) {KlafieØn¬ X´n _mjv]oIcn°p∂XmWv
B{LmXw. AXn\m¬ kphrjvSnbpw PKØn\v A`nhr≤nbpw D≠mhpw.
51. at≤yXax {]hnjvTw hnXakv°w afiew N bZn]cnXx
X≥a≤ytZi\miw ItcmXn Ip£ymab`bw N.
224

{]Imikn‘p

a≤yØn¬ kz¬]`mKw Xa v. ]cn[nbn¬ \mep`mKw \n¿Ωew.
CXv a≤yXaw. a≤ytZiØv \mihpw DZctcmK`bhpw ^ew.
52. ]cyt¥zjzXn _lpew kz¬]w at≤yXakvX
tamf ¥ymtJy. kkym\m aoXn`bw `bakvanw
kvXkv°cmWmw N.
N{μafieØns‚ ]n≥`mKsØ ]cn[nbn¬ cmlp AXy¥w
_lpeambpw adp`mKØv AXy¥w sNdpXmbpw Omb hogvØp∂XmWv
Xtam¥yw. kky߃°v \mihpw, Xkv°c∑m¿°p `bhpw ^ew.
53. tiztXt£a kp`n£w {_mlvaWo]oVmwN\n¿±nti{Zmlu.
AKv\n`b a\eh¿Æ ]oVmNlpXmihrØo\mw.
{KlW thfbn¬ {Kkn°s∏´ N{μkqcy∑m¿ tizXh¿Æambn
I≠m¬ t£aw, kp`n£w, {_mlvaW]oV; AKv\nh¿Æsa¶n¬
AKv\n`bhpw AKv\nI¿Ωw sNøp∂h¿s°√mw ]oVbpw.
54. lcntXtcmtKm¬_WXm kkym\m{aXo`nivN hn[zwkx
I]nte io{LKa kXztæO≤zwtkm fY Zp¿`n£w.
lcnXh¿ÆamsW¶n¬ tcmK߃ A[nIcn°pw. kkyßfpw amhv
apXemb hr£ßfpw \in°pw. I]neh¿ÆamsW¶n¬ io{LKman
Ifmb {]mWnIfpw tæO∑mcpw \in°pw; Zp¿`n£w D≠mhpw.
55. AcpW IncWm\pcqt] Zp¿`n£mhrjvStbmhnlK]oVmx
B[qt{a t£akp`n£ amZnti≥acphrjvSn.
AcpW IncWm\pcq]sa¶n¬ Zp¿`n£w, BhrjvSn, ]£n]oV;
[q{aamsW¶n¬ t£aw, kp`n£w, aμhrjvSn.
56. Imt]mXmcpW I]ne iymhmt` £pZv`bw hn\n¿±iyw.
It]mXx iq{ZmWmw hym[nIcx IrjvWm h¿ÆivN.
It]mXw, AcpWw, I]new, iymaw, IrjvWw F∂o h¿Æ߃
tN¿∂p I≠m¬ £pXv`bw, It]mX iq{ZmZnIƒ°p hym[n.
57. hnaeaWn ]oXmt`m sshiy[zwtkm `thXvkp`n£mb
km¿®njv aXymKv\n`bw ssKcnIcqt]Xpbp≤m\n.
225

{]Imikn‘p

hnaeamb aWnt]mse a™\ndØn¬ tim`n®m¬ sshiy[zwk\
hpw, kp`n£hpw ^ew. A¿®n pt]mse I≠m¬ (AKv\n\mfw) AKv\n
`bw. ssicnIcq]Øn¬ I≠m¬ bp≤w.
58. Zq¿Δm Imfiiymta lmcnt{Z hm]n \n¿±nti≥acIw.
Ai\n `≥ak{ºZmbn ]mSeo Ipkptamcmlpx
IdpIØ≠pt]mse iymaamtbm, lmcn{Zw (AcnXmcw) t]msetbm
I≠m¬ acWw ^ew. ]mSeo ]pjv]w t]mse I≠m¬ Ai\n]mXw
^ew.
59. ]mwiq hotemlnXcq] £{X[zwkmb `hXnhrjvtSO.
_mechn IaekpcNm]cq] `rOkv{XtIm]mb.
[qfo]Sew sIm≠v Nph∂p I≠m¬ £{Xnb[zwk\hpw, hrjvSn
bpw {]hNn°mw. DZbkqcy≥ Xmact]msetbm C{μ[\p pt]msetbm
I≠m¬ ikv{XtIm]w ^ew.
60. ]iy≥ {KkvXw kutaymLrXa[pssXe£bmb cm⁄mw N
`uax kachna¿± inJntIm]w Xkv°c`bw N.
_p[s‚ {KlWw kw`hn®m¬ s\øv, tX≥, FÆ, cmPm°∑m¿
F∂nh¿°v £bw, `ua≥ (sNmΔ) BsW¶n¬ bp≤w, k¿∏tIm]w,
Xkv°c`bw.
61. ip{Ix kkymhna¿± \m\mt¢imwOP\bXn [cn{XymwchnPx
ItcmXyhrjvSnw Zp¿`n£w Xkv°c`bw N.
ip{I\m¬ {KlWap≠mbm¬ kky\mihpw, `qan°v \m\mhn[
t¢ißfpw ^ew. i\nbmemsW¶n¬ AhrjvSn, Zp¿`n£w, Xkv°c
`bw (`qan AYhm cmlpsh IqSmsX a‰p {Klßfmepw {KlWw kw`hn
°psa∂ ⁄m\w {it≤bamWv).
62. bZip` ahtemI\m`ncp‡w {KlP\nXw {KltW
{]tam£tWhm kpc]XnKpcpWmhtemIntX
XOaap]bmXnPsse cnhmKv\ncn≤x
*Zo¿LIme {`aW]Yßfp≈ hkvXp°sf {lkzIme ]Yßfp≈hbmbn
am‰m≥ hymgØn\p Ignbpw. CØcw hkvXp°ƒ (t{SmP≥ {Kq∏v), hymgw, kqcy≥
F∂nh 60° hyXymkØn¬ Hcp ka`pP {XntImWØns‚ aqeIfn¬ \n¬°p∂p.
Chsb Libration point F∂p ]dbpw.
226

{]Imikn‘p

{KlW kabØpw tam£ImeØpw I≠ F√m Aip` ^eß
fpw, AKv\n PeØmse∂ t]mse, *hymgZrjvSn sIm≠v ian°p∂p.
63. {KkvtX {Iam∂nanssØx ]p\¿{Ktlmam kjUvI ]cnhr≤ym
]ht\m¬°m]mXcPx £nXnIºXtam f i\n]mssX
Im‰v, D¬°m]mX߃, cP v (s]mSn), `qIºw, Xa v, Ai\n
]mXw F∂o \nanØ߃ \nco£n°p∂ ]£w {IaØn¬, Bdp amk
Øn\IØv {KlWap≠mhpsa∂v Dd∏n°mw.
Im‰v
- 6 amkØn\Iw
D¬°m]mXw - 5 amkØn\Iw
cP v
- 4 amkØn\Iw
- 3 amkØn\Iw
`qIºw
Xa v
- 2 amkØn\Iw
Ai\n]mXw - 1 amkØn\Iw (Ai\n]mXamWv fireballs
AYhm AKv\ntKmfcq]Øn¬ hogp∂ D¬°Iƒ).
64. Bh¥nImP\]Zmx Imthco\¿ΩZmXSm{ibnWx
Zr]vXmivN a\pP]tbx ]oVyt¥ £nXnkptX {KkvtX.
`qanbpsS ]p{X\mb sNmΔbm¬ {KlWap≠mbm¬ Bh¥nIm
P\]Zw, Imthco Xocw, \¿ΩZmXocw F∂nhnSßfnse cmPm°∑m¿°v
]oV kw`hn°pw.
65. A¥¿tΔZo kcbpw t\]mfw ]q¿ΔkmKcw timWw
kv{Xo\r]tbm[Ipamc≥ klhnZzZv`n _pt[ml¥n.
_p[\m¬ {KlWap≠mbm¬ A¥¿tΔZn, kcbqXocw, t\]mfw,
]q¿ΔkmKcXocw, timWm\ZoXocw ChnSßfnse kv{XoIƒ, \r]∑m¿,
tbm≤m°ƒ, Ipamc∑m¿, hnZzm∑m¿ F∂nh¿°v \miw.
66. {KltWm]KtXPoth hnZz≥\r]a{¥nKPlb≤zwkx
kn‘pXShmkn\ma ]ypZKvZniw kw{inXm\mwN.
_rlkv]Xn {KlWI¿Ømhmbm¬ kn‘p\ZoXShmknIƒ°pw,
DØcZn°nep≈h¿°pw, hnZzm∑m¿, \r]∑m¿, a{¥nam¿, B\Iƒ,
IpXncIƒ F∂nh¿°pw \miw hcpw.
227

{]Imikn‘p

67. `rKpX\tb cmlpKtX ZtkcImx ssIIbmkbu
t[ybmx Bcyh¿Øm in_bx kv{Xo kNnhKWmw ivN]oVyt¥y.
ip{Is\¶n¬ ZmtkcI∑m¿, tIIb∑m¿, Atbm≤y°m¿, Acym
h¿Ø∑m¿, in_nIƒ F∂nhcpw kv{XoIfpw a{¥nKWßfpw \in°pw.
68. kutc acp `h ]pjv°ckucmjv{Sm
[mhtXmA¿∫pZm¥yP\mx
tKma¥ ]mcnbm{Xm{inXmivN\miw {hP¥ymip
i\nbmsW¶n¬ acp`qanIfnepw ]pjv°cØnepw kucmjv{SØnep
ap≈ P\ßfpw ssk\yßfpw, tKma¥Iw, ]mcnbm{Xw F∂o ]¿ΔX
ßsf B{ibn®p Ignbp∂hcpw ]oVnXcmhpw.
69. Im¿ØnIyma\tem]Pohn aK[m≥ {]mNy[n]m≥
tImiem≥ IΩmjm\Y iqctk\ klnXm≥
IminwivN k¥m]tbXv l\ymivNmXp IenwKtZi\r]Xnw.
kmam\y`rXyw XtamZrjvSw £{XnbXm]Zw
P\bXn t£aw kp`n£m\znXw.
Im¿ØnI amkØn¬ {KlWap≠mbm¬ AKv\nsb D]Pohn°p
∂h¿, aK[°m¿, ]q¿ΔZn°ns‚ A[n]¿, tImie¿, I≥amj∑m¿, iqc
tk\∑m¿, IminhmknIƒ F∂nh¿°v k¥m]ap≠mhpw. £{Xnb¿°v
Xm]ap≠m°p∂ cmlp IenwKtZisØ cmPmhns\ kmam\y`rXy∑m
tcmSpIqSn l\n°bpw, P\߃°v t£ahpw kp`n£hpw hcpØpIbpw
sNøpw.
70. ImivaocIm≥ IuieIm≥ k]p{fim≥
arKmwivNl\ymZ]X¥ImwivN
tb tkma]mwkvXmw ivN\n]m¥n kutay
kphrjvSnIrXv t£akp`n£IrO.
B{KlmbWØn¬, Imivaocw, tImiew, ]p{fiw, A]cm¥
tZiw (]ivNna tZiw), Z£nWtZiw F∂nhnSßfnse tkma]¿°v
\miw hcpw. a‰p≈h¿°v kphrjvSnbpw t£ahpw kp`n£hpw ^ew.
71. ]utjZznP£{XPt\m]tcm[x
kssk‘hmJymx IpIpcmhntZlmx
228

{]Imikn‘p

[zwkw{hP¥y{XN aμhrjvSnw
`bw N hnZymZkp`n£ bp‡w.
]ujamkØn¬ {KlWw h∂m¬ {_mlvaW¿°pw £{Xnb¿
°pw D]tcm[w, ssk‘h, IpIpc, hntZl∑m¿°p \miw, aμhrjvSn,
`bw, Akp`n£w.
72. amtLXp amXr]nXr`‡hknjvT tKm{Xm≥
kzm≤ymb [¿Ω\ncXm≥ IcnWkvXpcwKm≥
hwKmwKImin a\pPmw ivNZpt\mXn cmlp¿
hrjvSnw N I¿jIP\m\paXmw ItcmXn.
amLamkØn¬ {KlWap≠mbm¬ amXr]nXr`‡cmb hknjvT
tKm{X°m¿°pw, kzm≤ymb[¿Ω\ncX¿°pw, B\Iƒ°pw, IpXncIƒ
°pw AwK, hwK tZißfntebpw Iminbntebpw a\pjy¿°pw ZpxJw
kw`hn°pw. ]s£, I¿jI¿°v [mcmfw ag e`n°pw.
73. ]oVmIcw ^m¬Kp\amkn ]¿Δ
hwKmivaImh¥I taIem\mw
\rØ⁄ kky{]hcmwK\m\mw
[\pjv°c £{XX]kzn\mw N.
^m¬Kp\ amkØn¬ hwKw, AivaIw, Ah¥n, taIe F∂o
tZi°m¿°pw, \rØ⁄∑m¿°pw, kky߃°pw, t{ijvT kv{XoIƒ
°pw, [\p¿≤mcnIƒ°pw, £{Xnb¿°pw, X]kznIƒ°pamWv tZmjw.
74. ssNt{XXp Nn{XIctebI tKbk‡m≥
cqt]m]Pohn\nKa⁄lncWy]Wym≥
]u¨{UuWv{U ssIIbP\m\Y NmivaImwivN
Xm]x kv]riXyhc t]mf {X hnNn{Xh¿jm.
ssN{XØnse {KlWw, Nn{XImc∑m¿, teJI¿, Km\{]nb¿,
cqt]m]PohnIƒ (thiyam¿), \nKa⁄¿, kz¿Æ∏Wn°m¿, ]u{fiw,
D{fiw (Hdok), ssIIbw, AivaIw F∂nhnSßfnse P\\mY∑m¿
F∂nh¿°v Xm]ap≠m°pw. h¿jw (ag) hnNn{Xambncn°pw.
75. sshimJamtk {KltW hn\miambm¥nIm¿∏mkXnemx
kap{Zx C£ymIpcyut[ybiImx IenwKm tkm]{Zhmx
In¥p kp`n£ akvan≥.
229

{]Imikn‘p

sshimJamkØnse {KlWw sIm≠v ]cpØn, F≈v, kap{Zw,
C£zmIp, Hut[b¿, iI∑m¿, IenwK∑m¿ F∂nh¿°mWv \jvSw.
]s£ kp`n£w D≠mhpw.
76. tPyjvtT \tc{μZznPcmP]Xv\yx
kkym\n hrjvSn® almKWmivNx
{]≤zwk ambm¥n \cmivNkuaymx
kmssezx ktaXm ivN \njmZ k‘mx
tPyjvTamkØn¬ cmPm°∑m¿, ZznP∑m¿, cmP]Xv\nam¿, kky
߃, ag, almKW߃, kmeztZisØ P\߃, \njmZ∑m¿ F∂nh¿
°mWv \miw.
77. BjmV]¿ΔWypZ]m\h{]\Zo{]hmlm≥ ^eaqehm¿Øm≥
Km‘mc Imivaoc ]pfnμ No\m≥lXm≥ htZ≥afie h¿jakvan≥.
BjmVamkØn¬ Ipfßfpw InWdpIfpw, \Zo{]hmlßfpw
^eaqemZnIfpw \in°pw. Km‘mcImivaoc ]pfnμ, No\tZißfn¬
Hcp afieImew \o≠p\n¬°p∂ h¿jw e`n°pw.
78. Imivaocm≥ k]pfnμNo\bh\m≥l\ymXv Ipcpt£{XIm≥
Km‘mcm\]na≤ytZi klnXm≥ ZrjvtSm {Klx {imhtW.
Imwt_mssPI i^mw ivN imcZa]n Xy‡zm btYm‡m \nam\\y{X
{]NpcmWlrjvS a\pssP¿≤m{Xow ItcmXymhrXmw.
{imhWØn¬ {KlWap≠mbm¬ Imivaocw, ]pfnμw, No\w,
bh\w, Ipcpt£{Xw, Km‘mcw, a≤y{]tZiw, Imwt_mPw, GIi^w,
imcZw F∂nhnSßfn¬ [mcmfw agbp≠mhpIbpw A∂w sIm≠v
kar≤amb `qanbn¬ a\pjy¿ B\μ Xpμnecmbn Pohnbv°bpw sNøpw.
79. IenwK hwKm≥ aK[m≥ kpcmjv{Sm≥
tæOm≥ kphocm≥ ZcZmivNImwivN
kv{XoWmw N K¿`m\kptcm\nl¥n
kp`n£ IrZv `m{Z]tZf {ipt]Xx
`m{Z]ZØnse¶n¬ IenwKw, hwKw, aK[, kpcmjv{Sw, tæOw, kphocw,
ZcZw, iIw F∂nhnSßfnse kv{XoIfpsS K¿`w Aeknt∏mIbm¬
IÆo¿ Hgp°p∂p. F∂m¬ AhnSßfn¬ kp`n£w D≠mbncn°pw.
230

{]Imikn‘p

80. Imwt_mP No\bh\m≥ klieylrZv`n¿ ∫mlvfoIkn‘pXS hmknP\mwivNl\ymXv
B\¿Ø ]u{fi`njPmwivN XYmIncmXm≥
ZrjvtSm fkptcm fivNzbpPn `qcnkp`n£ Ir®.
Bizn\Ønse {KlWw sIm≠v Imwt_mP, No\, bh\ tZi°m
¿°pw, ieyap≠m°p∂ _mlvfoIØntebpw, kn‘p\ZoXSØntebpw
B\¿ØØntebpw ]u{fiØntebpw P\߃°pw sshZy∑m¿°pw
IncmX∑m¿°pamWv \miw. s]mXpsh kp`n£w D≠mhpw.
81. l\p Ip£n]mbpt`Zm ZznZznx kO¿±\w N PcWw N
a≤ym¥tbmivN hnZcWanXn Zi iin kqcytbm¿tΩm£mx
iinbv°pw kqcy\pw ]Øphn[w {KlWtam£ap≠v. c≠p hn[w
l\pt`Zw, c≠phn[w Ip£nt`Zw, c≠phn[w hmbpt`Zw, kwO¿±\w,
PcWw, a≤yhnZmcWw, A¥hnZmcWw.
82. BKvt\bym a]Ka\w Z£nW l\pt`Z kw⁄nXw.
iin\; kkyhna¿t±m apJcpKv\r]]oVmkymXv kphrjvSn®
AKv\ntImWn¬ tam£w kw`hn°p∂Xv Z£nWl\p. [m\y
\miw. apJtcmKw, \r]]oV, kphrjvSn^ew.
83. ]q¿tΔmØtcW hmtaml\pt`tZm \r]Ipamc`bZmbn.
apJtcmKw ikv{X`bw Xkvan≥ hnZymXv kp`n£w N.
]q¿tΔmØcZnibn¬ tam£w h∂m¬ hmal\p. \r]Ipamc
∑m¿°v `bw, apJtcmKw, ikv{X`bw, kp`n£w ^ew.
84. Z£nWIp£n hntZtZm Z£nW]m¿tiz\bZn`th≥ tam£x
]oVm\r] ]p{XmWmaZntbmPym Z£nWmcn]hx
Z£nWZnibn¬ tam£w `hn°p∂Xv Z£nWIp£nhnt`Zw. \r]
]p{X∑m¿°p ]oVbpw, Z£nWtZisØ cmPm°∑mtcmSv Ielhpw
^ew.
85. hmakvXp Ip£nt`tZm bZypØcam¿§ kwÿntXmcmlpx
kv{XoWmw K¿`hn]Øn kkym\nN X{X a≤ymWn.
DØcam¿§Øn¬ tam£w hcp∂Xv hmaIp£nt`Zw. kv{XoIfpsS
K¿`\mihpw, kky߃°v a≤ya^ehpw.
231

{]Imikn‘p

86. ss\crX hmbhyÿu Z£nWhmauXp ]mbpt`Zu
Zzu. KplycpK¬]mhrjvSn¿t±tbmkvXp cm⁄n£ tbmhmta.
ss\crXn tImWn¬ Z£nW hmbpt`Zw. KplytcmKßfpw, A¬]
hrjvSnbpw, cm⁄nam¿°p £bhpw ^ew.
87. ]q¿tΔW{]{KlWw IrXzm {]mtKh Nm]k¿t∏X.
kO¿±\manXnXv t£akkylm¿±n{]Zw PKXx
{KlWw ]q¿Δ`mKØp XpSßn apt∂m´v Nen®v tam£w kw`hn
°p∂Xv kO¿±\w. kky߃°v hr≤nbpw, kwkmcØn\v t£ahpw
^ew.
88. {]mNv {]{KlWw bkvan≥ ]ivNmZk¿∏Ww XpX÷cWw.
£pOkv{X `tbmZznKv\mx I icWap]bm¥n X{XP\m.
]ivNna `mKØp XpSßn, ]ivNna`mKØp Xs∂ tam£w \S∂m¬
£pØv, Akv{X`bw F∂nhbm¬ Dgdp∂ P\߃ “F¥msWmcp
icWw” F∂v hebp∂p.
89. at≤ybZn {]Imix {]Yaw X≥a≤yhnZcWw \ma.
A¥x tIm]Icw kymXv kp`n£Zw \mXnhr≤nIcw
a≤yw BZyw {]Imin∏n°s∏Sp∂Xv a≤yhnZcWw. {]mWnIƒ A¥x
t£m`w A\p`hn°pw. kp`n£ap≠mhpw. F¶nepw AXnhr≤nIca√.
90. ]cyt¥jp hnaeXm _lpew at≤yXtam f¥ZcWmtJy
a≤ymJy tZi\mix imcZkky£b ivNmkvan≥.
Np‰p `mKw hnaew, a≤y`mKw Ccp≠v- C{]Imcw Ccp∂m¬ A¥
hnZmcWw. a≤y {]tZiØn\v \mihpw ic¬°meØv kky£bhpw
^ew.
91. GtX k¿tΔ tam£mh‡hym `mkv°tc]nf In¥z{X.
]q¿ΔmZnIv cmin\n bYm XYmcshu ]ivNnam I¬]ym
N{μ{KlWØn\p ]d™ Cu k¿Δhpw kqcy{KlWØn\pw
_m[IamWv. N{μ\v ]q¿ΔZnIvcmin ]d™sXms° kqcy\v ]ivNnaZnIv
cminbmbn I¬]n°Ww.
232

{]Imikn‘p

92. apt‡ k]vXmlm¥mx ]mwkp\n]mtXm f∂kMv £bw
IpcptXm \olmtcm tcmK`bw `qIºx {]hc\r]arXypw.
93. D¬°m a{¥nhn\miw \m\mh¿Æm L\mivN`baXpew
kvX\nXw K¿`hn\miw hnZyp∂r] Zwjv{Sn ]cn]oVmw.
94. ]cnthtjm cpIv]oVmw ZnKvZmtlm\r]`bw NkmKv\n`bw
cqt£mhmbpx {]_eivNuckar∞yw `bw [tØm.
95. \n¿LmXx kpcNm]w Zfi O £pZv`bw k]cN{Iw
{Klbp≤w \r]bp≤w tIXpivN X tZhkwZrjvSx
96. AhnIrX kene\n]mtX k]vXmlm¥x kp`n£amtZiyw
b®mip`w {KlWPw XXv k¿Δ\miap]mbmXn.
97. tkma{Ktl\nhrtØ ]£mt¥ bZn`thZv {Ktlm f¿°ky
X{Xm\bx {]Pm\mw ZºtXym¿ssΔcat\ym\yw.
98. A¿°{KlmXv Xp iint\m {KlWw bZnZriytX.
XtXm hn{]mx ss\I{IXp^e`mtPm `h¥n
apZnXmx {]PmivssNh.
CXn hcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
cmlpNmcx ]©tam f≤ymbx
{KlWtam£w Z¿in®v GgpZnhkØn\Iw Nne e£W߃
I≠m¬ {]hNnt°≠hbmWv Cu t«mIßfn¬ ]dbp∂Xv.
1. [qfoh¿jw
- A∂£bw
2. \olmcw
- tcmK`bw
- t{ijvT \r]∑mcpsS arXyp
3. *`qIºw
4. *D¬°
- a{¥nhn\miw
5. \m\mh¿ÆØn¬ taLw - `bw
- K¿`hn\miw
6. *taLK¿÷\w
7. *hnZypZv]mXw
- \r]\pw Zwjv{SmarK߃°pw ]oV
8. ]cnthjw
- tcmK]oV
- \r]`bw, AKv\n`bw
9. *ZnKvZmlw
*1908 ¬ ssk_ocnbbn¬ D≠mb TUGUSKA FALL- ¬ \£{X Nnlv\an´
e£W߃ I≠ncp∂p. djybnse N{Ih¿Øn hwiØns‚ ]X\Øns‚
apt∂mSn.
233

{]Imikn‘p

10. cq£hpw {]_ephamb Im‰v - tNmc`bw, arXyp`bw
11. \n¿LmXw, C{μ[\p v, - at‰ N{IØn¬ (A¿≤tKmfØn¬)
Zfiw
D≈h¿°v £pXv`bw (\ofØn¬
Hcp hSnt]mse ImWp∂ Eros
BWv Zfiw)
12. {Klbp≤w
- \r]bp≤w
13. tIXp
- bp≤w
14. AhnIrXamb Pe]mXw - kp`n£w (CXpsIm≠v, {KlW
Øns‚ tZmjßsf√mw ian°pw)
15. N{μ{KlWw Ign™v A¬]Zn\߃°°Iw kqcy{KlWw
h∂m¬ P\߃ Zp¿∂S∏pImcmhpw. ZºXnam¿°v ]ckv]cw sshcw
P\n°pw.
16. kqcy{KlWm\¥cw (Hcp ]£Øn\p tijw) N{μ{KlWw
h∂m¬ hn{]∑m¿ At\Iw {IXp°fpsS ^ew `pPn-°bpw {]PIƒ
B\μn°bpw sNøpw.

234

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 6

`uaNmcw
1. bZypZb¿t£mZz{Iw ItcmXn \hamjvSk]vXa¿t£jp
XZz{I apjvWm apZtb ]oVmIcaKv\nhm¿Øm\mw
GXp \£{XØn¬ sNmΔ DZn®pthm B DZb\£{XØns‚ 7,8,
9 \£{Xßfn¬ sNmΔ h{IamIp∂psh¶n¬ B h{IsØ ‘DjvWw’
F∂p ]dbpw. DjvWht{ImZbØn¬ AKv\nbm¬ D]Poh\w sNøp∂
h¿ ]oVn∏n°s∏Sp∂p.
2. ZzmZi Zissa ImZi \£{XmZz{IntX IptPf {ip
apJw ZqjbXn ckm\pZtb ItcmXn tcmKm\phrjvSnivN.
DZb\£{XØns‚ 10,11,12 ¬ h{Iw kw`hn®m¬ AXns\ A{ip
apJw F∂p ]dbpw. A{ipapJØns‚ DZbImeØv k¿Δckßfpw
Zpjn°p∂p. tcmKßfpw A\mhrjvSnbpw D≠mhp∂p.
3. hymfw {XtbmZi¿£m NXp¿±imZzm hn]NytXf kvXatb.
Zwjv{SohymfartKmivNyx ItcmXn]oVmwkp`n£w N.
GXp \£{XØn¬ IpP≥ AkvXan°p∂pthm, B \£{XØn
s‚ 13,14 \£{Xßfn¬ IpP≥ h{IamIp∂ ]£w B h{IØn\v hymf
sa∂p ]dbpw. Zwjv{Sbp≈ arK߃°pw hymf߃°pw ]oVbpw, a‰p
≈h¿°p kp`n£hpw ^ew.
4. cp[ncm\\anXn h{Iw ]©ZimXvtjmVimw ivNhn\nhrtØ
XXv°mew apJtcmKw kZbw N kp`n£amhlXn.
15,16 \£{Xßfn¬ h{IamIp∂Xv cp[ncm\\w- cp[ncm\\ImeØv
apJtcmKw, `bw, kp`n£w5. Aknapiew k]vXZimZjvSmZitXm ]nhmf XZ\pht{I
ZkypKtWivNx ]oVmw ItcmXyhrjvSnwk ikv{X`bw.
17,18 \£{Xßfn¬ A\ph{Iw hcp∂Xv Aknapiew. I≈∑mcn¬
\n∂pw Bbp[ßfn¬ \n∂pw `bw, AhrjvSn F∂nh ^ew.
235

{]Imikn‘p

6. `mKym¿∞ tamZntXmbZn \nh¿ØtX sshiztZhtX `uax
{]mPm]tXyf kvXanXkv{Xo \]ntemIm∂n]oV bXn.
IpP≥ ]q¿Δ^m¬Kp\n, DØc^m¬Kp\n F∂o \£{Xßfn¬
DZn®v, DØcmjmVØn¬ \nhrØambn (h{Iw) tcmlnWnbn¬ AkvX
an°p∂ ]£w {XntemI߃°pw ]oV kw`hn°pw.
7. {imhtWmZnXky h{Iw ]ptjyaq¿≤m`njn‡]oVIrXv
bkvan∂rt£f ivNpZnXkvXZnKvhyqlm≥ P\m≥l¥n.
{imhWØn¬ DZn®v ]pjyØn¬ h{Iambm¬, A`njn‡cmb
cmPm°∑m¿°v ]oV- DZb\£{Xw GXp ZnibnemtWm B Znibn
ep≈h¿°v Cu ^e߃ ]dbWw.
8. at≤y\ bZn aLm\w KXmKXx temlnXx ItcmXn XXx
]mtfiym\rt]m hn\iyXn ikvt{Xm tZymKmZv `b ahrjvSn
aIw \£{Xsa¶n¬ a≤yØneqsSbmWv IpPs‚ k©mcsa¶n¬
]mfiycmPmhn\v \mihpw, Bbp[`bhpw, AhrjvSnbpw ]dbmw.
9. `nXzmaLw hnimJw `nμ≥ `uax ItcmXn Zp¿`n£w
acIw ItcmXn tLmcw bZn`nXzm tcmlnWow bmXn
aIsØbpw hnimJtØbpw sNmΔ t`Zn®p sN∂m¬ Zp¿`n£ap≠m
hpw. tcmlnWnsb t`Zn®m¬ tLmcacWw ^ew.
10. Z£nWtXm tcmlnWymivNc≥alotPmf ¿≤ hrjvSn \n{KlIrXv.
[qamb≥ kintJm hmhn\nlXymXv ]mcn bm{Xmÿm≥.
tcmlnWnbpsS Z£nW`mKØpIqSn sNmΔ k©cn®m¬ ag
Ipdbpw. [qaw t]msebp≈ inJItfmSpIqSn sNmΔsb I≠m¬ ]mcn
bm{X ÿm\Øp≈h¿°p \miw kw`hn°pw.
11. {]mPm]tXy {ihtWmaqteXnkrjpØcmkp imt{IN.
hnNc≥ L\\nhmlm\m ap]LmXIcx £amX\bx
tcmlnWn, XncpthmWw, aqew, DØc^m¬Kp\n, DØc BjmVw,
DØc`m{Z]Zw, tPyjvT F∂o \£{XßfneqsS k©cn°p∂ sNmΔ
taL߃°pw \miw hcpØpw.
236

{]Imikn‘p

12. NmtcmZbmx{]ikvXmx {ihWabmZnXyaqe lkvtXjp
GI]Zmizn hnimJm {]mPm]tXyjp N IpPky.
{imhWw, aIw, ]p\¿hkp, aqew, AØw, ]q¿Δ`{Z]mZw, Aizn\n,
hnimJw, tcmlnWn F∂nhbn¬ sNmΔ DZn°p∂Xpw Ncn°p∂Xpw ip`
IcamWv.
13. hn]pe hnaeaq¿Ønx InwipImtimIh¿Æx
kv^pScpNnc abqJ kvX]vX Xm{a {]`mhx
hnNcXn bZn am¿§ tNmØcw taZn\oPx
ip`IrZh \n]m\mw lm¿±nZivN{]Pm\mw.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlXvkwlnXmbmw
`uaNmcx jjvtTm≤ymbx
hn]pehpw hnaehpamb cq]tØmsS, AtimIØnt‚tbm InwipI
Ønt‚tbm ]pjv]Øn\p kam\amb h¿ÆtØmsS kzOat\mlcß
fmb IncWßtfmsS, X]n∏n® Xm{aw t]mse {]`mhtØmsS; DØc
{Im¥n]YØneqsS k©cn°p∂ awKe≥ cmPm°∑m¿°v ip`acpfp∂p;
{]PIƒ°v kpJacpfp∂p.

237

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 7

_p[Nmcw
1. t\mXv]mX ]cnXy‡x IZmNn Z]n
N{μtPm {hP XypZbw
Pe Zl\ ]h\`b IrZzm\ym¿≤ £b hnhr≤tb.
N{μ\n¬ \n∂p P\n® _p[≥ DXv]mXßtfmSpIqSnbn´√msX DZn
°pIbn√. PesØ Zln∏n°p∂Xpw `bIrØp°fpamb DjvW°m‰p
Iƒ AXn¬ D≠v. _pt[mZbw [m\yßfpsS £bhpw hr≤nbpambn
_‘s∏´ncn°p∂p.
2. hnNmc{›mhW [\njvTm {]Pm]tXyμp hnizssZhm\n
arZvK≥ lnaIcX\bx ItcmXyhrjvSnw ktcmK`bmw.
{imhWw, [\njvTw, tcmlnWn, arKinc v, DØc BjmVsa∂o
\£{XßfneqsS _p[≥ k©cn°ptºmƒ A\mhrjvSnbpw tcmK`b
hpw D≠mhp∂p.
3. cu{ZmZo\n aLm¥m \yp]m{intX N{μtP
{]Pm]oVm ikv{X\n]mX £pZv`b tcmKm\mhrjvSn k¥mt].
B¿{Z apX¬ aLw hsc _p[≥ k©cn°ptºmƒ ikv{X߃,
hni∏v, tcmKw, A\mhrjvSn F∂nhbm¬ {]PIƒ°v ]oV kw`hn
°p∂p.
4. lkvXmZo\n hnNc≥ jUv£mWyp] ]oVb≥ Khmaip`x
kvt\lckm¿≤ hnhr≤nw ItcmXn tNm¿Δo{]`pXm∂mw.
AØw apX¬ Xrt°´ hscbp≈ Bdp \£{Xßfn¬ k©cn°p
tºmƒ ]ip°ƒ°v Aip`amWv. ]s£ kvt\lckmZnIƒ h¿≤n®v
`qan At\I{Zhyßfm¬ kºq¿ÆbmbnØocpw.
5. BcyavWw luX`pPw `{Z]ZmapØcw btaiw N
N{μky kptXm \nLv\≥ {]mW`rXmw [mXpkw£bIrXv.
238

{]Imikn‘p

DØc^m¬Kp\n, IrØnI, DØc`m{Z]Zw, `cWn \£{Xßfn¬
k©cn°ptºmƒ k¿Δ{]mWnIƒ°pw [mXp£bw kw`hn°p∂p.
6. Bizn\ hmcpWaqem \yp]arZvK≥ tchXnw NN{μ kpXx
]Wy`njKv\u PohnIkene PXpctKm][mXIcx
AizXn, imXm`njw, ]qbw, tchXn \£{Xßfn¬ k©cn°p
tºmƒ hmWnPyhkvXp°ƒ, sshZy∑m¿, Pebm\w sNøp∂ \uIm
PohnIƒ, Pe]Zm¿∞߃, IpXncIƒ F∂nhbv°v D]{Zh߃ kw`
hn°pw.
7. ]q¿Δm[y£{XnX bmtZIa]otμmx kptXm `narZvKobmXv
£pO kv{XXkv°cmab `b{]ZmboNc≥ PKXx
]q¿Δ^m¬Kp\n, ]q¿ΔmjmVw, ]q¿Δ`m{Z]mZw, F∂o aq∂p
\£{Xßfn¬ GXns\sb¶nepw H∂ns\ t`Zn®v _p[≥ k©cn°p
tºmƒ hni∏v, Bbp[w, I≈∑m¿, tcmK߃ F∂nhbn¬ \n∂v `bap
≠mhpw.
8. {]mIrXkw⁄m hmbhy bmayss]Xmalm\n _lpemivN
an{im KXnx {]XnjvTm icocnh]nXr`pP KssZ]m\n
ss]Xmalkn≤m¥Øn¬ \£{XßfneqsSbp≈ _p[Nmcw Ggp
hn[w ]d™n´p≠v. {]mIrXw, hnan{iw, kw£n]vXw, Xo£vWw, tbmKm
¥w, tLmcw, ]m]w. kzmXn, `cWn, tcmlnWn, Im¿ØnI \£{Xß
fn¬ \n¬°p∂XmWv {]mIrXw. aIbncw, XncphmXnc, aIw, Bbneyw
F∂nhbn¬ \n¬°p∂Xv an{iw. ]pjyw, ]p\¿hkp, ]q¿Δ`m{Z]Zw,
DØc`m{Z]Zw, Aizn\n, tchXnIfn¬ Xo£vWw (9 -mw t«mIw t\m
°pI).
9. kw£n]vXmbmw ]pjyx ]p\¿hkpx ^m¬Kp\oZzbw tNXn
Xo£vWmbmw `m{Z]ZmZzbw kim¿°mizbpIv ]ujvWw.
10. tbmKm¥n tIXnaqew tZz NmjmtV- KXnx kpXtkytμm
tLmcm {ihWkvXzmjv{Sw hkptZhw hmcpWw ssNh.
aqew, ]q¿ΔmjmVw, DØc BjmVw \£{Xßfn¬ _p[≥
k©cn°p∂Xns\ ‘tbmKm¥nI’ sa∂v ]dbp∂p. {imhWw, Nn{X,
[\njvTw, iXm`njw F∂nhbnse KXnsb tLmcsa∂p ]dbpw.
239

{]Imikn‘p

11. ]m]mJyw kmhn{Xw ssa{Xw i{ImKv\nssZhXw tNXn
DZb {]hmk Znhsskx k Gh KXne£Ww {]ml.
AØw, A\ngw, Xrt°´, \£{Xßfn¬ k©cn°p∂Xv ]m]w,
DZbw, AkvXabw (_p[s‚) F∂nhsb B[mcam°n ]cmicap\n
C{]Imcw _p[s‚ KXne£Ww ]d™p.
12. NXzmcnwim {XnwiZv ZznktaXm hnwiXn¿±n\ h{Iw N
\h amkm¿≤w ZissNIkwbpXm {]mIrXm[ym\w
{]mIrXKXn
40 Znhkw
an{iw
30 Znhkw
kw£n]vXw
22 Znhkw
Xo£vWw
18 Znhkw
tbmKm¥w
9 Znhkw
tLmcw
15 Znhkw
]m]w
11 Znhkw
BsI
145 Znhkw
13. {]mIrX KXym amtcmKyhrjvSn kky {]hr≤bx t£aw
kw£n]vX an{itbm¿Ωn{X taX Z\ykp hn]coXw.
{]mIrXKXnbn¬ [m\y߃, hrjvSn, BtcmKyw, F∂nhbv°v
kar≤n^ew. an{iw, kw£n]vXw F∂nhbn¬ {IaØn¬ Chbv°v
kΩn{i^ehpw, hn]coX^ehpw ]dbmw.
14. EPzXn h{Im h{Im hnIem N atX\ tZhesskyXmx
]©NXp Zzssb ImlmEPzmZo \mwjUiykvXmx
tZheaX{]Imcw _p[KXn \mephn[amWv. EPzn, AXnh{Iw,
h{Iw, hnIe Chbvt°mtcm∂n\pw bYm{Iaw 30 Znhkw, 24 Znhkw, 12
Znhkw, 6 Znhkw F∂v tZhe≥ ]dbp∂p (72 Znhkw BsI hcpw.
]cmics‚ 145 ZnhkØns‚ ]IpXntbmfw am{Xw tZhe≥ FSp°p∂p).
_p[NmcsØ°pdn®v hnhn[ al¿jnam¿°nSbn¬ hnhn[m`n{]mb
߃ D≠mbncp∂Xmbn ]cmics‚ Cu ]cma¿iØn¬ \n∂v {Kln°mw.
\ap°dnbmhp∂ cminN{I ÿnXn A\pkcn®v BZyw ]cmic
tZhe aX߃ XmcXayw sNømw.
240

{]Imikn‘p

]cmicaXw
I {]mIrXw

\£{Xw

cminN{IØn¬

Un{Kn

kzmXn
`cWn
Im¿ØnI
tcmlnWn

186°.40'-200°
13°.20'-26°.40'
26.40'-40°
40°-53°.20'

13°.20'

53°-20'

40 °

40 Znhkw

aIocw
XncphmXnc
aIw
Bbneyw

53°.20'-66°.40'
66°.40' to 80°
120°-133°.20'
106°.40' to 120°

sIm≠v

II an{iw

53°-20'
26°.40'
30 Znhkw
26°.40'

sIm≠v

26°.40'

53°-20'

III kw£n]vXw

]pW¿Xw
]qbw
]qcw
D{Xw

80°-93°.20'
93°.20' to 106°.40'
133°.20' to 146°.40'
146°.40' to 160°

22 Znhkw
26°.40'

sIm≠v

53°.20'

18 Znhkw

IV Xo£vWw

]qtcmcp´mXn
D{X´mXn
tchXn
AizXn

320° to 360°
13°.20'

sIm≠v

V tbmKm¥nIw

aqew
]qcmSw
D{XmSw

9 Znhkw
240° to 280°

(40 °)

sIm≠v

VI tLmcw

XncpthmWw
Ahn´w
NXbw
Nn{X

280° to 320°

173°20' to 186° 40'

53°20 '

sIm≠v

AØw
A\ngw
Xrt°´

160° to 173°.20'
213°.20' to 226°.40'
226°.40' to 240°

40°.

11

15 Znhkw

VII ]m]w

Znhkw

(200° to 213°.2' D≈ hnimJØneqsS _p[≥ Ncn°p∂n√. AXmbXv 346°.
40'. 145 Znhkw sIm≠v).
241

{]Imikn‘p

Hcp ZnhkØn¬ = 2°,23', 26 sk°‚ v F∂v kmam\yambn thKX
]dbp∂XpsIm≠v ]cmic≥ Xr]vXns∏Sp∂n√.
{]mIrXw
an{iw
kw£n]vXw
Xo£vWw
tbmKm¥nIw
tLmcw
]m]w

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

53°.20'
53°.20'
53°.20'
53°.20'
40 °
53°.20'
40 °

40 Znhkw
30 Znhkw
22 Znhkw
18 Znhkw
9 Znhkw
15 Znhkw
11 Znhkw

∴ Hcp Znhkw = 1°.20"
Hcp Znhkw = 1°.46'-44"
Hcp Znhkw = 2°.25'-27"
Hcp Znhkw = 2°.57'-46"
Hcp Znhkw = 4°.26'-40"
Hcp Znhkw = 3°.33'-20"
Hcp Znhkw = 3°.38'-10"

BsI 7 KXnIƒ = 346°.40' = 145 Znhkw = 20°.08'.07"
icmicn = 20°.08'-07"
7

= 2°.52'-35"
F∂v IrXyambn ]dbp∂p.
am{Xa√, Chsb `qZn\am°m≥ Hmtcm∂nt\bpw 30 sIm≠v KpWn°p∂p.
30 {]mIrX Zn\w
an{i Zn\w
kw£n]vX Zn\w
Xo£vW Zn\w
tbmK¥nI Zn\w
tLmc Zn\w
]m] Zn\w

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1°.20' x 30
1°.46'-44" x
2°.25'-27" x
2°.57'-46" x
4°.26'-40" x
3°.33'-20" x
3°.38'-10" x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

30
30
30
30
30
30

40 °
75 °
80°.43'
88°.1'-53"
120°.13'-20"
90°.16'-10"
90°.19'-5"

210 Zn\w sIm≠v,
= 584°.33'-28"
AXns‚ a≤yKXn = 1 Zn\w = 2°.47'-0.9" sk°‚ v
88 `qZn\Øn\v _p[Nmcw
= 2°.47'-.9" x 88

= 204°,1',19"
= 6 cmin; 24°,1', 19 Sec.

176 `qZn\Øn\p _p[Nmcw

= 12 cmin; 48°.2', 38 Sec.

]cmics‚ Cu KWnXw B[p\nI imkv{Xw hfsc Ign™mWv Is≠Øn
bXv. 176 `qZn\w sIm≠v kz¥w A®pX≠n¬ 3 XhW Idßp∂p. _p[{Klw
(1.5 Id°w Hcp {`aWØn\v) `qanbpsS 366 Id°amWv Hcp `qh¿jw. At∏mƒ
_p[s‚ h¿jw 1.5 _p[Zn\amWv; 58 Znhkw 16 aWn°qdn¬ (176/3) _p[≥ Hcp
Id°w ]q¿Ønbm°p∂p. CXmWv ]cmics‚ KWnXw.
Great world Atlas (Readers digest) t]Pv 110 -¬ Cßs\ ImWmw.
242

{]Imikn‘p
"It was once thought that the same side of Mercury always faced the sun and
therefore that its rotation was exactly synchronised with its orbit. But in 1962 American
Radio-astronomers discovered that both sides of the planet radiated heat which would
not have been the case if the same hemisphere had always faced the sun. In 1965, it was
confirmed by the use of radar that the planet rotated on its axis three times every 176
earth days. This fact was confirmed by the American Mariner 10 space probe in 1974.
Having established this rotation rule it was possible to calculate that Mercury only
rotates one and a half times on its axis during one complete orbit of the sun. This means
that Mercury's year is only made up of one and a half days.
[ss]Xmal, ]cmicmZnIƒ°v Adnbmhp∂ Hcp Imcyw \mw hfsc Ipd®p
Imeambnt´ I≠p]nSn®n´p≈q. Ah¿ N{μs‚ ]p{Xs\∂p _p[s\ ]dbp∂p.
B[p\nIcmIs´, kaXeßfpw, K¿Øßfpw, taSpIfpw \nd™ _p[{]Xehpw
AXns‚ kqcycivanIsf dn^vfIv‰v sNøm\p≈ Ignhpw N{μXp√yamsW∂p
]dbp∂p.]

]cmics‚ {]mIrXw tIhew EPznbpw, an{ikw£n]vX߃ AXnh{Ihpw,
tbmKm¥nIw h{Ihpw, ]m]tLmcIƒ hnIebpw BWv. ]cmic≥ 145 F∂v
FSp°ptºmƒ tZhe≥ AXns‚ ]IpXnbmb 72 FSpØp F∂X√msX henb
hyXymkw Cu ]≤XnIƒ XΩnen√.

hknjvT ]≤Xn Cßs\bmWv.
81 Zn = 0° 45'-0"
88 Zn = 1° 38'-30"
14 Zn = 0° 51'-8"
30 Zn = 1° 0.0
104 Zn = 0° 55'-0"
31 Zn = 0° 44'-30"
348 Zn = 5° 54'-16"
346° 40. D≈ 7 KXn F∂p ]dbp∂Xn\p]Icw hknjvT≥ 348 Znhk
Øn¬ 5°-54.16" F∂p ]dbp∂p (]©kn≤m¥nI t\m°pI).
348 = 174
2
174 `qZn\w = 2°.57'.8" F∂mWv At∏mƒ In´pI. Fßs\bmWv
Cu EWmflIamb KXn hknjvT\p e`n®Xv. hknjvT≥ IcpXp∂Xv
]cmicmZnIƒ hnNmcn°ptºmse, kqcy\p Np‰pw Idßns°m≠v kqcy
\p Np‰pap≈ 12 cminbn¬ 176 (174) Zn\Øn¬ {]Z£nWw sh°p∂
_p[≥ kqcy kmao]yØm¬ kqcyt\msSm∏w ]n∂ntebv°v k©cn°p
243

{]Imikn‘p

∂pap≠v. Cu EWmflI Ne\ØmemWv At±lw 12 cmin F∂Xn\p
]Icw shdpw 2 Un{Kn F∂v ]dbp∂Xv.
]©kn≤m¥nImX{¥Ønse hknjvTkn≤m¥{]Imcap≈ EW
[\mflIamb _p[Nmcw ChnsS ]dbmw.
taSw - I∂n (6 cmin)
taSw

CShw

anYp\w

39
37
29
29

+7

45
23
49

+14
-27
+4

45
23
23
49

+5
-22
0
+26

I¿°nSIw 42

Nnßw

I∂n

-5

(Xo£vWw, {]mIrXw)
-21
+9

18
30
46

-14
-13.5
+13.5
-1

34
16
32
45

0
-7
+9
+1

26
38
38
38

-1
+18
+11
+6

+13

({]mIrXw, an{iw)

+9

(an{iw, kw£n]vXw)
-15

(kw£n]vXw, an{iw)

+3

(an{iw, kw£n]vXw)

+34

(kw£n]vXw, ]m]w,
tLmcw, {]mIrXw)

BsI 817 = +59-20 = +39
Xpemw ao\w (6 cmin)
Xpemw

42
40
34

-25
-5
+32

+2

({]mIrXw, ]m]w)
(hnimJØn\v A£an√)
244

{]Imikn‘p

hrivNnIw 18

[\p

aIcw

Ipw`w

ao\w

BsI
taSw
CShw
anYp\w
I¿°nSIw
Nnßw
I∂n
Xpemw
hrivNnIw
[\p
aIcw
Ipw`w
ao\w
BsI

45
34
48
40
16
42
32
20
13
38
32
23
22
24
32
24
25
29
27
700
134
140
140
136
127
140
116
145
130
103
101
105
1517

-44
+32
-7
+29
-35
-27
+32
-8
-16
-5
+25
+19
-36
+3
-5
+40
-34
+4
0
19
+25 - 99 = -74
-5
+13
+9
-15
+3
+34
+2
-48
-38
+23
-2
-11
-35

- bmKm¥nIw
-48 t

-38 tLmcw, tbmKm¥nIw

+23 tbmKm¥nIw, tLmcw

-2 tLmcw

{]mIrXw
-11Xo£vWw

]cmic≥
Xo£vWw
{]mIrXw
an{iw
kw£n]vXw
]m]w
tLmcw
{]mIrXw, ]m]w
tbmKm¥nIw
tLmcw
tbmKm¥nIw
tbmKm¥nIw
{]mIrXw
245

tZhe≥
?
EPzn
AXnh{Iw
hnIe
hnIe, EPzn
h{Iw
hnIe
h{Iw
h{Iw
EPzn

{]Imikn‘p
1517
1
/2-AYhm 758 1/2

=
=

-35
-17 1/2

379 1/4
189
94 1/2

=
=
=

-8 3/4
-4 1/2
-2 1/4

=
=
=
=

-1
-1/2
-1/4
0

47 1/4
23
10 1/2
5

BsI 3002

2937 ¬ -2.25

-0

_p[{]XesØ 3002 to 3004 ka`mKambn hn`Pn®m¬ AXns‚
Hmtcm `mKsØbpw kqcycivan kv]¿in°p∂ eKv\w F∂v IcpXnbm¬
3002 `mKsØ kqcycivan kv]¿in°ptºmƒ _p[\pw kqcy\pw 0° bn¬
BZysØ tbmKmhÿbnembncn°pw (_p[s‚ a≤ytcJm`mKsØ
hymkw B[p\nI imkv{Xw 3032 ssa¬ F∂v KWn°p∂p. hknjvT≥
3002 F∂pw).
XmcXayw
Modern

Ancient

1. kqcy\n¬ \n∂v Mean distance
36000000 ssa¬
sidereal revolution 87-97
Axial rotation 58 Zn 15 aWn -36 an
Escape velocity 2-64
To travel 36 million miles,
speed= 30 miles/sec
6. Maximum distance- 36900000 miles
7. 3 Rotation in 176 earth days
2.
3.
4.
5.

36000000
88
58 Zn 16 aWn°q¿
2-57
30 miles per second
36600000
3 Rotation in 176 earth days.

tZhes‚ 72 Cc´nbmb 144 FSpØmWv ]cmic≥ KWnXw Bcw`n
°p∂Xv (144 Hcp ^ns_m\m®n kwJybmWv). 210 Zn\Øn\v 584 F∂
ss]XmalKWnXØn¬ Xs∂ Cu F√m KWnXßfpw FØnt®cp
∂p≠v (Xmsg ImWpI).
246

{]Imikn‘p

tZhe≥

]cmic≥

72 x 2144 x 2
288 x 2 =
576 x 2 =
1156 x 2 =
2312 x 2

144
288
576
115 6 ------- 115 (hknjvT]cw )
2312
4624
9248
18496
38992
77984
155968
311936
6238 72
1247744
2495488
4990 976
EXp k]vX\h kwJytbmSp
tN¿∂ an\naw Zqcw
9981952
19963904
amIvknaw ZqcØn\SpØp
39927808
hcp∂ kwJy
79855616
159711232
319422464
638844928
1277689856
2555379712
5110759424
1022 1518 848

72 s\ 27 {]mhiyw XpS¿®bmb 2 sIm≠p s]cp°nbm¬ In´p∂
kwJybpsS a≤ya kwJy 1518.
Cu kwJy ss]Xmals‚ 366 F∂ `qZn\h¿j kwJysb 12
{]mhiyw XpS¿®bmbn 2 sIm≠p s]cp°nbm¬ In´p∂ 1507328 F∂
kwJybpsS BZnakwJybmb 1507 ¬ \n∂v 11 A[nIamWv. hknjvT≥
1507 t\mSv ]ØpIq´nb “1517” `qZn\Øn¬ -35° _p[Nmcw.
247

{]Imikn‘p
∴ 3002 ¬ = 0° F∂p ImWp∂Xv CXpIqSn IW°nseSpØmWv.
ss]Xmals‚ 36600000, ]cmics‚ 39927808 F∂o kwJyIƒ°nSbn¬
amIvknatØmSSpØ 39000000 F∂ kwJy hknjvT≥ KWn®p (]©kn
≤m¥nIm X{¥w t\m°pI. 366 \p ]Icw 390 F¥ns\SpØp F∂v
Xnt_m´v kwibn°p∂Xn\v DØcw CXmWv).
hknjvT ]ueni kn≤m¥ßƒ {IaØn¬ 115, 114 Znhk߃ ]d
bp∂Xmbn ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ]cma¿iw ImWmw. 8 ]q¿Æ{`aW
Øn\v _p[≥ 927 Zn. 2 \mgnI FSp°p∂ps≠∂v hknjvT≥ ]dbp∂p.
At∏mƒ Hcp ]q¿Æ{`aWØns\Sp°p∂ Zn\w 115 BhWat√m. CXv
]cmicmZnIfpsS 584 t\mSv Fßs\ _‘s∏Spsa∂v Xmsg ImWn®
]´nI km£ys∏SpØpw. hn`n∂Z¿i\߃°v XΩnep≈ A`n{]mb
hyXymkw hn`n∂ imkv{X߃°v Htc imkv{XhnjbsØ°pdn®p≈
A°mZanIv A`n{]mbhyXymkw am{XamWv. ASnÿm\]camb XXz
߃ Ah¿s°√mw H∂pXs∂bmWv.

]ueniw
114 x 2
228 x 2
456 x 2
912 x 2
1824 x 2
3648 x 2
7296 x 2
14592 x 2
29184 x 2

hmknjvTw
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

228
456
912
1824
3648
7296
14592
29184
58368

115 x 2
230 x 2
460 x 2
920 x 2
1840 x 2
3680 x 2
7360 x 2
14720 x 2
29440 x 2

= 230
= 460
= 920
= 1840
= 3680
= 7360
= 14720
= 29440
= 58880

Chbv°p c≠n\pw CSbn¬ D≈ 584 F∂ ip{INmc kwJybmWv
]cmic, ss]XmalmZnIƒ kzoIcn®Xv (CXns‚ imkv{XobX ip{I
Nmcw ]dbptºmƒ IqSpXembn shfns∏SpØmw). XmcXay]T\w
sIm≠v hn`n∂ EjnamcpsS A`n{]mbhyXymkßfnep≈ imkv{XobX
bpw, AXv B[p\nIimkv{XtØmSv F{Xam{Xw ASpØp\n¬°p∂p
F∂ hkvXpXbpw \ap°v {Kln°mw.
366 s\ 12 {]mhiyw (`qZn\ kwJy x 12 cmin) s]cp°tWm, 72
s\ 27 {]mhiyw (\£{X kwJy) s]cp°tWm, 72 x 2 s\ 9 {]mhiyw
({KlkwJy) s]cp°tWm F∂v hyXykvX coXnbn¬ KWnXw sNbvXp
248

{]Imikn‘p

ImWn®XnemWv BNmcy∑mcpsS hyXymkw. Ahsbms° H∂msW∂
ASnÿm\]camb Hcp “\ncb\Xzw” B Z¿i\ßfnsems°bp≠v.
imkv{X⁄∑mcpsS Cu “kzX{¥mivNtcymXv]mZnXx ⁄m\{]`mh”
sØ kwh’ckq{XØn¬ {]Xn]mZn®Xv Hm¿°pI.
(^ns_m\m®n kwJyIƒ
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 371, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181,
6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, 196418, 317811, 514229, 832040,
1346269, 2178309, 3524578, 5702887, 9227465, 14930352, 24157817, 39088169,
63245986, 102334155, 165580141, 267914296, 433494437 ......)
_p[≥

e

α

`qan

L = angle of aberration
α IW°m°p∂ hn[w: {]Imicivan `qanbnse \nco£Is‚ IÆn
seØm≥ FSpØ kabw = t F∂p IcpXpI. Cu kabØv {]Imiw
e Zqcw IS∂p. B kabw sIm≠v (`qNmcØm¬) `qanbnse \nco£Is‚
ÿm\w “v” Zqcw amdn. At∏mƒ
tan α = `qanbnse \nco£Is‚ amdnb Zqcw/ {]Imicivan k©cn®
Zqcw = v/e
`qan Hcp EPptcJbn¬ Htc thKXbn¬ k©cn®ncp∂psh¶n¬
\mw _p[h{Iw t]mep≈ aberrations AdnbpIXs∂bn√. kqcy\p Np‰p
ap≈ `q{`aWØn¬ `qanbpsS shtemkn‰n amdp∂Xn\mepw, {`aWw
IpSnetcJbnemIbmepamWv h{Iw ImWp∂Xv (1727 ¬ am{XamWv
{_mUven {Umt°mWnbkv F∂ \£{XsØ \nco£n®v h{IsØ
]Tn®Xv). am¿®pamkØn¬ `qanbpsS thKX IqSpw, kqcy_p[∑mtcmS
SpØphcpw. At∏mƒ h{IØns‚ angle Ipdbpw. _p[s‚ A£mwiw
(D®m£mwiw) `qÿm\a\pkcn®pw _p[ÿm\a\pkcn®pw amIvknaw,
an\naw Bhpw. AXn\m¬ `qanbnse \nco£I\v _p[≥ Hcp Fen]v‰n
249

{]Imikn‘p

°¬ {SmPIvSdnbn¬ \oßp∂Xmbn tXm∂mw. Cu _p[NmcamWv
]cmic, hknjvT, ]ueni, tZhemZnIƒ hfsc hy‡ambn {]Xn]mZn
°p∂Xv. Jw (BImiw) ANea√, `qantbmsSm∏w AXpw Nen°p∂p
s≠∂ ^ntkymhns‚ ]co£Ww CXns\ XpS¿∂ph∂p. C°mcyw
]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ hcmlanlnc≥ ]d™XpXs∂bmWv. ^ntkym
(Fizueau) sh XpS¿∂v ssat°¬k¨ sam¿en Cu ]co£WsØ
hnPbIcambn XpS¿∂p. ]ns∂bmWv temd≥kv {Sm≥kvt^m¿taj≥
h∂Xpw, sF≥ssÃ≥ ‘BImi’sØ Hgnhm°n, sshcp≤y߃ Xo¿Øv
kvs]jy¬ dnte‰nhn‰n sIm≠ph∂Xpw.
temd≥kv Imekt¶mNw (time contraction), ImehnImkw (time
dilatation) F∂nhsb kt¶mN hnImkcq]nWnbmb {]IrXnbpsS \nba
ambn F{Xtbm kl{km_vZ߃°paptº `mcXob¿ AwKoIcn®n
´p≠v. F∂n´pw C°mcyw ]d™v tPymXnjnIƒ XΩn¬ X√ns°mt≠
Ccn°bmWv. ChnsS Rm≥ Cu DZmlcWw sIm≠v IelØns‚
A¿∞iq\yX ImWn°mw.
A,B,C F∂ aq∂v t]¿. A `qa≤ytcJm`mKØp \n¬°p∂p. B, DØc
{[phØn¬; C Z£nW {[phØn¬. E1 (_pt[mZbw), E2 (Nt{μmZbw)
F∂ c≠p kw`hßsf Ah¿ \nco£n°p∂p. A bv°v E1 E2 Hcp t\¿
tcJbnemWv. Abmƒ Xs‚ hm®n¬ t\m°n Cu kw`hßfpsS CSthf
sb T1-T2 F∂v Ffp∏Øn¬ IW°m°p∂p. B bv°v DØc{[ph`mKØm
Ibm¬ kqtcymZbhpw _pt[mZbhpw F√m ImeØpw Hcpt]mse Im
Wm≥ Ignbp∂n√. Abmƒ Nt{μmZbw ImWp∂p. adn®v, C kqcy_pt[m
Zbw AtX ImeØv Z¿in°p∂p F∂p IcpXpI. B.C F∂nh¿ CXns\
]ckv]cw N¿®IfneqsS ssIamdnb ⁄m\am°n am‰ptºmƒ am{X
amWv Ah¿°v T'2-T'1 F∂v IW°m°m\mhpI.
A F∂ hy‡n E1, E2 F∂nh XΩnep≈ ImehyXymkw T2-T1
F∂pw B,C F∂nh¿ T'2-T'1 F∂pw ]d™p Ieln°p∂p. Hcp X¿°w
Bhn¿`hn°p∂p. CXn¬
B
kXyw CcpIq´cpsS Iønep
ap≠v . CXmWv Relativity of
E
E2
1
A
simultaneity. S,S' F∂ c≠p
N
_p
ÿm\߃ \ncb\ÿm\ß
fmWv. ImcWw Ah ]ckv]cw
C
kathKXbn¬ Ncn°p∂ c≠p
250

{]Imikn‘p

_nμp°fmWv. Hcp _nμphnencp∂p t\m°ptºmƒ H∏w kw`hn®Xmbn
tXm∂p∂ kw`h߃, as‰mcp _nμphnencp∂p t\m°ptºmƒ Aßs\
bmhWsa∂n√. V (thKX) {]Imicivan k©cn® thKXtbmSp Xpeyam
Ipt¥mdpw hyXymkw IqSn°qSn hcpw. kqNot£{XØns‚ DZmlcWw
Im´n `mkv°cmNmcy≥ Cu {]Xn`mkw h¿Æn®n´p≠v.
kq
_p
kqNot£{Xw
Light corn
A
C

`qan

B

Imew, tZiw F∂nhsb Hcp ss\c¥cyambn (Time space continum)
ImWm≥ _p[Nmc \nbaamWv ]ucmWnI¿s°∂ t]mse B[p\nI¿
°pw klmbambn h¿Øn®n´p≈Xv. sF≥ssÃs‚ t_m[{]]©Øn¬
AXn\p≈ sXfnhpIƒ F{Xtbm D≠v (Ideas and opinion of Einstein, At
the speed of light, A brief history of time F∂o ]pkvXI߃ hmbn°pI).
hnkvXc`bØm¬ ChnsS Ahsb IqSpX¬ ]cma¿in°p∂n√. \yq´\p
{]hNn°m≥ km[n°mØ _p[Nmc\nbaw sF≥ssÃ≥ Third astronomical effect of Mercury F∂ t]cn¬ {]hNn°bp≠mbn. ]©kn≤m¥nI
Xmcm{Kl kv^pSoIcWm≤ymbw t«mIw 10 ¬ XpSßn Cu _p[Nmc
\nbaw khnkvXcw {]Xn]mZn°s∏´n´p≠v. 1889 hsc Cu \nbaw ]mivNm
Xy¿°v Adnhp≠mbncp∂n√. ]©kn≤m¥nIbpsS `mjyØn¬ Pn,
Xnt_m´v ]dbp∂p. “The text then goes on to give a general rule, obscure to
us about the adjustment of true and mean motion (stanza 21) and there upon
gives a detailed account (stanza 42 to 53) of the difference of Mercury's motion
according to the sign of the ecliptic in which the planet stands at the time. We
are unable to account for these rules by calculation.” sF≥ssÃ≥ shdpw

]Øp hb p≈ _me\mbncns°bmWv Xnt_m´v Cu hcnIƒ {]kn≤o
Icn®Xv F∂v Hm¿°pI.
251

{]Imikn‘p

15. EPzn lnXm {]Pm\m aXnh{Im¿∞w KXn¿Δn\mibXn.
ikv{X`bZm Nh{ImhnIem `btcmKkRvP\\o.
EPzn KXn {]PIƒ°p lnXImcnbmWv- AXnh{IØm¬ [\\miw
kw`hn°pw. h{IKXnbn¬ ikv{X`bhpw hnIeØn¬ `bhpw tcmKhpw
P\n°pw.
16. ]ujmjmV {ihW sshimtJ jznμpPx kamtLjp
ZrjvtSm`bmb PKXx ip`^eIrXv t{]mjnXkvtXjp
]ujw, BjmVw, {imhWw, sshimJw, amLw F∂o Imeß
fm¬ _p[s\ I≠m¬ PKØn\v `bap≠mIpw. F∂m¬ Cu Imeß
fn¬ _p[≥ AkvXan°p∂Xp I≠m¬ ip`^eamWv.
17. Im¿ØntIf izbpPnhmbZnamtkZriytX X\p`hx inincmwti
ikv{X NuclpX `p§tXmb £pZv`bm\n NXZmhnZLmXn
Im¿ØnI, Aizn\w F∂nhbn¬ I≠m¬ ikv{Xw, I≈∑m¿,
AKv\n, tcmKw, Pew, hni∏v F∂nhbm¬ `bw t\cnSpw.
18. cp≤m\n skutayf kvXantX ]pcmWobm≥ bpZvKtXXm
\yp]bmwXn tam£w At\y ]›mZpXntX hZ¥nem`x
]pcmWmw`hXoXoX⁄mx
_p[Nmc hn[n Adnbp∂h¿ ]dbp∂p. _p[≥ AkvXan® ]pcw
\in°pIbpw, DZn® ]pcw tam£w {]m]n°pIbpw sNøp∂psh∂v! a‰p
Nne¿ ]dbp∂p, ]›na `mKØv _p[≥ DZn®m¬ ]pc߃°v em`am
sW∂v!
19. tlaIm¥ncY hmipIvh¿Æm kkytI\aWn\mkZr timhmkv\nKv≤aq¿ØnceLp› lnXmb hyXytb\ ip`IrOin ]p{Xm
CXn{io hcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv
kwlnXmbmw _p[Nmcx k]vXtam≤ymbx
tlaIm¥ntbmSpIqSnsbm XØbpsS \ndØntem, kkyIsa∂
aWn°v kZriamtbm, kv\nKv≤aq¿Ønbmbn, AeLphmbn DZn®m¬
F√mh¿°pw awKfw `hn°p∂p.

252

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 8

_rlkv]XnNmcw
1. \£t{XW ktlmZb ap]KOXntb\ tZh]Xn a{¥n
XXv kw⁄w h‡hyw h¿jamk {ItassWh.
\£{XßfpsS IqsS DZn®v k©cn°p∂ tZth{μ\mb N{μs\
t]mse, \£{Xßsf A\pKan°p∂ hymgsØ N{μs‚ a{¥nbmb
_rlkv]Xn F∂v ]dbp∂p. hymgw GXv \£{XkaqlØn¬ \n¬°p
∂pthm AX\pkcn®v thWw h¿jhpw amkhpw ]dbm≥. N{μ≥ Aev]
amb afieØns‚ ]XnbmWv. AXn\m¬ N{μ≥ \n¬°p∂ \£{Xw
t\m°n \mw \mfpw ]°hpw ]dbp∂p. _rlkv]Xn _rlØmb afi
eØns‚ ]XnbmIbm¬ amkhpw h¿jhpw AXns‚ ÿm\a\pkcn®v
]dbWw.
2. {Iaikv{Xn`w Xp ]©aap]m¥y a¥yw N bZz¿jw
3. iISm\tem] PohI tKm]oVmhym[nikv{XtIm]ivNhr≤nkvXp c‡]oXI Ipkpam\mw Im¿ØntI h¿tjHcp _rlkv]Xn h¿jw ]{¥≠pamkamWv. Im¿ØnI \£{X
Øns‚ BZnapX¬ Cu c≠p \£{XØn¬ Im¿ØnImZnh¿jw kw`hn
°pw. ]{¥≠p h¿jßfnse a≤yØnse A©pw, ]Xns\m∂pw ]{¥
≠pw aqΩq∂p \£{XßfnemWv kw`hn°pI. Im¿ØnI, tcmlnWn
\£{Xßfn¬ _rlkv]Xn DZn°p∂ h¿jamWv Im¿ØnI h¿jw.
Cu h¿jØn¬ hml\ßfm¬ D]Poh\w Ign°p∂ hWn°pIƒ°pw,
AKv\nsb ]men°p∂h¿°pw, tKm]meI∑m¿°pw ]oVIƒ kw`hn
°pw. hym[n, Bbp[ ]oV F∂nh D≠mhpw. Nph∏pw a™bpw \ndØn
ep≈ ]pjv]߃ kar≤nbmbn´p≠mIpw.
4. kutay_vtZm f\mhrjvSn¿ ΩrKmJp ie`mfissPiz kkyh[x
hym[n `bw anss{X c]n`q]m\mw PmbtXsshcw
kuayw F∂ A_vZØn¬ A\mhrjvSn, arK߃, FenIƒ, ie`
߃, ]£nIƒ apXemb AfiP߃ F∂nhbv°pw kky߃°pw
253

{]Imikn‘p

\miw, hym[n`bw, an{X߃°nSbnepw cmPm°∑m¿°nSbnepw ]ckv]c
sshcw F∂nh kw`hn°pw.
5. ip`Ir÷KXmx ]utjm \nhrØ sshcmx ]ckv]cw £nXn ]mx
Zzn{XnKpsWm[m\y¿∞x ]ujvSnI I¿Ω {]kn≤nivN.
]uj h¿jØn¬ PKØn\v ip`w hcpw. sshc`mhw Dt]£n®v
cmPm°∑m¿ ssa{Xnbn¬ Ignbpw. [m\y kºØv Cc´ntbm, aq∂nc´n
tbm h¿≤n°pw. ]ujvSnII¿Ω߃ h¿≤n°pw.
6. ]nXr ]qPm]cnhr≤n¿ΩmtL lm¿±nivN k¿Δ`qXm\mw
BtcmKy hrjvSn [m\y¿≤ kw]tZm an{Xem`ivNx
amL h¿jØn¬ ]nXr]qP h¿≤n°pw. k¿Δ `qXßfpw B\μn
°pw. BtcmKyw, ag, [m\y kºØv F∂nh IqSpw. an{Xem`ap≠mhpw.
7. ^m¬Kp\h¿tj hn[ymXv IzNnXv IzNnXv t£a hr≤nkkym\n
Zu¿`mKyw {]aZm\mw {]_emivNucm \r]mt›m{Kmx
^m¬Kp\h¿jØn¬ kkyhr≤nbpw t£ahpap≠mIpw. kv{Xo
Iƒ°v Zu¿`mKyhpw, tNmc∑m¿°pw {]_eXbpw cmPm°∑m¿°v D{KX
bpw A[nIcn°pw.
8. ssNt{X aμmhrjvSn {]nba∂w t£ah\n]marZhx
hr≤nkvXp tImi[m\y ky `hXn ]oVm®cq]hXmw
ssN{Xh¿jØn¬ hrjvSn Ipdbpw. F≈n≥ tNmdv [mcmfw e`n°pw.
cmPm°∑m¿ am¿±h kz`mhw Im´pw. `fimcØn\pw [m\yØn\pw hr≤n
D≠mhpw. kpμcnIƒ°pw kpμc∑m¿°pw ]oV D≠mhpw.
9. sshimtJ [¿Ω ]cm hnKX `bmx {]apZnXmx {]Pmx
k\r]mb⁄ {Inbm {]hrØn ¿∂njv]Øx k¿Δ kkym\mw
sshimJ h¿jØn¬ F√mhcpw [¿ΩnjvTcpw, A`bcpw, B\μ
ioecpambncn°pw. {]PIfpw \r]∑mcpw Xm¥mßfpsS b⁄{Inbm
{]hrØnIƒ apdt]mse sNøpw. k¿hkkyßfpw kar≤amhpw.
10. tPyjvtTPmXnIpem[\ t{iWn t{ijvTm \r]mx k[¿Ω⁄mx
]oVbt¥ [m\ym\n NlnXzmIwKpw iao PXow.
254

{]Imikn‘p

tPyjvTmh¿jØn¬ cmPm°∑m¿ PmXn, Ipew, [\w, t{iWn
F∂nhbn¬ t{ijvTcmbhtcmSpw [¿Ω⁄∑mtcmSpw tN¿∂ncn°pw.
IwKp, iao F∂nhsbmgn®p≈ [m\y߃s°ms° ]oVbp≠mIpw.
11. BjmtVf Pmbt¥f kkym\nIzNnZ hrjvSn c\y{X
tbmKt£aw a≤yw hy{KmivN `h¥n `q]memx
BjmVØn¬ k¿Δkkyhpw hr≤n {]m]n°p∂p. Nne ÿeß
fn¬ A\mhrjvSn D≠mhpw.
Ae_v[ hkvXp°fpsS em`w (tbmKw), e_v[hkvXp°fpsS
c£ (t£aw) F∂nhbv°v a≤ya^ew. cmPm°∑m¿ AXoh hy{Kcmbn
cn°pw.
12. {imhW h¿tj t£aw kay°v kkym\n ]mIap]bm¥n
£p{Zmtb ]mjfix ]oVt¥y tbNXZv `‡mx
{imhWØn¬ kky߃°p t£ahpw B\μhpw D≠mhpw.
£p{Z∑mcmb ]mjfi∑mcpw AhcpsS A\pbmbnIfpw ]oVnXcmhpw.
13. `m{Z]tZ h√oPw \njv]Ønw bmXn]q¿Δ kXywN.
\ `hyXy]cw kXyw IzNnXv kp`n£w IzNnXv `bw.
`m{Z]Z h¿jØn¬ eXIƒ°v kar≤n ]≠sØ t]mse kw`hn
°pw. a‰p NnebnSßfn¬ eXIƒ°v £bhpw `bhpw ^ew.
14. BizbptP _vtZ Pkv{Xw ]XXnPew {]apZnXmx {]Pmxt£aw
{]mWNbx {]mW`rXmw k¿tΔjm a∂ _mlpeyw.
BizbpPw (Bizn\w) F∂ h¿jØn¬ [mcmfw ag e`n°pw.
{]PIƒ B\μ`cnXcmhpw. F√mh¿°pw t£aw kw`hn°pw. {]mW
\p≈ k¿ΔØn\pw [mcmfw A∂w e`n°pIbm¬ {]mW≥ {]hr≤
amIpw.
15. DZKmtcmKy kp`n£t£a ItcmhmIv ]Xn›c≥ `m\mw
bmtay XZzo]cntXmat≤y\Xp a≤y^eZmbo.
_rlkv]Xn k¿Δ \£{X߃°pw D]cnbmbn tim`n°ptºmƒ
F√mh¿°pw BtcmKyw, kp`n£w, t£aw, Xmsg (Z£nW Zn°n¬)
F¶n¬ hn]coX ^ew. a≤yØn¬ a≤ya ^ew.
255

{]Imikn‘p

16. hnNc≥ ` ZzbanjvSkvXXv km¿≤h’tcW a≤y^ex
kkym\mw hn≤zwkn hnNtcZ[nIw bZnIZmNnXv.
Hcp h¿j°mew _rlkv]Xn c≠p \£{X߃°v a≤yØnembn
k©cn®m¬ ip`^ew. A¿≤h’cw Cßs\ kw`hn®m¬ a≤y^ew.
Hcp h¿jØne[nIw \n∂m¬ kky\mi ^ew.
17. A\e`b a\e h¿sÆhym[nx ]otXcWmKax iymta.
lcntX N Xkv°tcm`yx ]oVmct‡Xp ikv{X`bw.
AKv\n h¿ÆØn¬ hymgw I≠m¬ AKv\n`bw. ]oX \ndØn¬
I≠m¬ hym[n. iyma\ndØnse¶n¬ bp≤w hcm≥ t]mIp∂p. lcnX
sa¶n¬ I≈∑m¿°v ]oV. c‡ h¿Æsa¶n¬ Bbp[`bw.
18. [qamt`f \mhrjvSn kv{XnZiKpcu \r]ht[mZnhm ZrjvtS
hn]ptef ate kpXmtc cm{Xu ZrjvtS {]Pmx kzÿmx
[qa \ndsa¶n¬ A\mhrjvSn; ]I¬ kabØv hymgw I≠m¬
a\pjy¿°v \miw ^ew. cmPmhn\v h[w. hn]pehpw, Aaehpw, kpXmc
hpambn cm{Xn I≠m¬ {]PIƒ°v kpJw.
19. tcmlntWymf \e`w Nh’c Xi¿∂m`n kvXzmjmV
Zzbw km¿∏lrXv ]nXrssZhXw N Ipkpaw ipss≤x
ip`w ssXx ^ew.
Im¿ØnI, tcmlnWn F∂nh tZlw- (\£{X h¿jØns‚)
]q¿Δ DØc BjmU߃ \m`n. Bt«jw lrZbw, aIw ssZhXw-Ch c≠pw ]pjv]ßfmWv. ip≤amb ChIƒ ip`^ew Xcp∂p.
tZtl{Iqc\n]oUntXf Kv\y\nePw \m`ymw`bw
£pXvIrXw]ptWyaqe^e£tbm YflrZtb kkyky \mtim {[phw
_rlkv]Xn tZl\£{XØn¬ \n¬°sh AhnsS ]m]{Kl
]oUbp≠mbm¬ AKv\n, Im‰v F∂nhbm¬ `bw D≠mhpw. \m`o \£
{XØn¬ ]m] {Kl ]oVbp≠mbm¬ £pXv`bap≠mhpw. ]pWy {Kl
߃ \n∂m¬ Cu ^e߃ D≠mhmsX t]mIpw. lrZb`mKØv ]m]
{Kl ]oVbp≠mbm¬ kky\miw \n›bamWv.
20. KXm\n h¿jmWn itI{μ ImeZzXm\n cpss{Z¿KpWtb›Xp¿`nx
\hmjvS ]©mjvSbpXm\n IrXzm hn`mPtb iq\yicKcmssax
256

{]Imikn‘p

itI{μ≥ (iImZnXy imenhml\≥) cmPyw `cn® ImeØp\n∂v
F{X h¿jw Ign™pthm, AXns\ c≠p ÿm\ßfn¬ \n¿Øn, Hcp
ÿm\Ønse kwJytb 11 sIm≠p KpWn°pI. ]ns∂, \mepsIm≠p
KpWn°pI. 8589 Iq´nbn´v 3750 sIm≠v lcn°pI. c≠mw ÿm\Øp≈
iIh¿j kwJytbmSp IqSn Cu `mK^esØ Iq´pI. Cu tbmK^e
sØ 60 sIm≠v lcn°pI.
21. ^te\bp‡w iI`q]Imew kwtim≤y jjvTymhnjssb¿ Δn`Py
bpKm\n \mcmbW ]q¿ΔImWn e_v[m\n tijmx {Iaix kamkypx
AXns\ 5 sIm≠p lcn®m¬ ]q¿ΔnIamb \mcmbW bpKIme
߃ In´pw. _m°nhcp∂ {Iaamb h¿j߃°p kaIƒ (_rl
kv]Xn h¿jw) F∂p ]dbp∂p.
22. GssII a_vtZjp\hm ltXjp ZXzm]rYKvZZzm ZiIw {ItaW
lrXzmNXp¿`n¿ΔkptZhXm[ym\pUq\ntijmwiI ]q¿Δa_vZw.
D‡ h’c kwJysb 12 sIm≠v lcn®v ^esØ H≥]XpsIm≠v
KpWn® kwJytbmSp tN¿Øv 4 sIm≠p lcn®m¬ e`n°p∂ kwJybp
sS A{Xbpw \£{Xßfn¬ _rlkv]Xn k©cn®Xmbn AdnbWw.
KW\m kabØv 24 F∂p In´nbm¬ 25 -mw \£{Xamb ]q¿Δ`{Z]mZ
Øn¬, KW\mImeØv 24 -mw \£{XsØbmWv 1 F∂v IcpXp∂sX
¶n¬ (24 -mw \£{XØn¬ _rlkv]Xn \n¬s° KW\mcw`sa¶n¬)
1 F∂v DØcw In´nbm¬ AXv 25 -mw \£{Xw, 2 F∂v In´nbm¬ 26 -mw
\£{Xw- Aßs\ FÆWw.
23. hnjvWpkptctPym _e`nZvlpXmi kvXzjvtSmØc t{]mjvT]Zm
[n ]›m{Iam [yqtKimx ]nXrhniztkmamx i {Im\em
Jymizn`Kmx {]ZnjvTmx
{]`hmZn Adp]Xp kwh’cßfn¬ 12 bpKap≠v. ZzmZibpKß
fpsS A[n]XnIƒ {IaØn¬ hnjvWp, kptcPy, _e`nXv, AKv\n,
Xzmjv{S≥, DØct{]mjvT]Zw, ]nXrKWw, hniz≥, tkma≥, i{Im\e≥,
Aizn, `K≥ F∂nhcmWv ]{¥≠p ]©h¿job ss]Xmalw IqSnb
Adp]Xp kwh’cßfn¬, Hmtcm ]©h¿job bpKØns‚ A[n]Xn
Iƒ°v kuIcym¿∞w \maIcWw sNøp∂p.
257

{]Imikn‘p

24. kwh’tcmf Kv\nx ]cnh’tcmf ¿° CZmZnIx ioXabqJ ameo
{]Pm]Xn›m]y\ph’cx kymZnZz’cx ssie kpXm]Xn›x
kwh’cw, ]cnh’cw, CZmh’cw, A\ph’cw, CZz’cw,
F∂mWv ]©h¿job ss]XmalImeØn¬ Hmtcm h¿jØn\p t]cv.
Ahbv°v AKv\n, N{μ≥, kqcy≥, {]Pm]Xn, almtZh≥ F∂v A[n]Xn
Ifpw Iev]n°p∂p.
25. hrjvSnx kamt[y {]aptJZzXobw {]`qXtXmb IYnXm XrXotb
]›m÷zew ap÷Xnb®Xp¿∞ kzevt]mZIw ]©aa_vZ ap‡w.
CXn¬ {]Ya h¿jØn¬ \√ ag In´pw. c≠matØXn¬ h¿jmcw`
Øn¬ am{Xw ag In´pw. aq∂matØXn¬ AXn hrjvSn hcpw. \mematØ
Xn¬ Ahkm\ ]IpXnbn¬ ag In´pw. A©matØXn¬ ag Ipdbpw.
26. NXzmcn apJym\n bpKm\yssYjmw hnjvWnh{μ Pohm\e ssZhXm\o
NXzmcn a≤ym\n N a≤yam\n Nm¥ym\yLam\n hnZymXv.
]{¥≠v bpKßsf h¿Æn®hbn¬ hnjvWp, C{μ≥, _rlkv]Xn,
AKv\n F∂nh¿ A[n]Xnbmbncn°p∂ NXpcypK߃ ip`^e߃
\¬Ipw. AXn\p tijap≈ NXpcypK߃ a≤ya^ehpw, Ahkm\
sØ \mepbpK߃ Aip` ^ehpw Xcpw.
27. BZyw [\njvTmwia`n {]]t∂m amtLbZmbmXzXbw kptcPyx
jjvSy_vZ ]q¿Δx {]`hx k\mav\m {]h¿ØtX `qXlnXkvXXm_vZx
GXpImeØn¬ _rlkv]Xn [\njvSØns‚ BZymwiØn¬
{]thin®v amLamkØn¬ (kqcyt\msSm∏w) DZn°p∂pthm, B h¿j
sØbmWv jjvTy_vZßfpsS (60 A_vZßfpsS) BZysØ ‘{]`h’
\maamb h¿jambn KWn°p∂Xv. B h¿jw “k¿Δ`qXlnX” Imcn
bmWv [Cu h¿jØnemWv Ipw`tafbpw, amam¶hpw sIm≠mSp∂Xv
Ft∂m¿°pI].
28. IzNnXzhrjvSnx ]h\mKv\ntIm]x k¥oXbx t«jvaIrXmiztcmKmx
kwh’tcf kvan≥ {]`th{]hrtØ \ ZpxJ am]vt\mXn
P\kvXYm]n.
{]`h kwh’cØn¬ AhrjvSnbpw, Im‰v, AKv\n F∂nhbpsS
tIm]hpw, t«jva tIm]hpw, D≠mbm¬ t]mepw P\߃ Ahbp
258

{]Imikn‘p

sS A\njvS ^etam AXpsIm≠p≈ ZpxJtam A\p`hnt°≠n hcp
∂n√.
29. XkvamZv ZzXotbm hn`hx {]ZnjvSx ip¢kvXrXobx ]cXx {]tamZx
{]Pm]Xn t›Xn b tYmØcmWn ikvXm\n h¿jmWn
^em\n ssNjmw
c≠matØXv hn`hw, aq∂matØXv ip¢w, \mematØXv {]
tamZw, A©matØXv {]Pm]Xn, Ch DØtcmØcw ip` ^eßsf
{]Zm\w sNøp∂p.
30.\njv]∂imeojvSbhmZn kkyw `ssb¿Δn ap‡m hp]im¥ sshcmw
kwlrjvStemImw IentZmj ap‡mw £{Xw X[m imkvXn
N`qX[m{Xnw.
A°meßfn¬ imen (s\√v), C£p (Icnºv), bhw apXemb
kky߃ kar≤nbmbn D≠mhp∂p. P\߃ `bhnap‡cmbn,
]ckv]c sshcw ian®hcmbn, k¥pjvScmbn IentZmjßfn¬ \n∂p
hnap‡cmbn kpJambn Pohn°p∂p. \√ £{Xw (`cWw) sIm≠v
`qX[m{Xnbmb `qan l¿j]pfInXbmIp∂p.
31. BtZymf wKncmx {ioapJ`mhm kmlyubphmY[mtXXn
bptKZznXotb
h¿jmWo ]ss©h bYm{ItaW {XoWy{X ikvXm\n
kta]tctZz.
c≠masØ ]©h¿job _rlkv]Xn bpKßfpsS \ma߃
{IaØn¬ AwKnc v, {ioapJw, `mhw, bphmhv, [mXmhv F∂nßs\
bmWv. CXnse BZysØ aqs∂Æw ip`w Xcp∂p. Ahkm\sØ
cs≠Æw ip`mip`^ew kaambn Xcp∂p.
32.{XnjzwKncmt[yjp \nIma h¿jmtZthm\ncmX¶`bm›temImx
A_vZ Zztbf t¥yf ]nkamkphrjvSnx In¥z{X tcmKmx kacmK aivN.
AwKncmZyamb aq∂p h¿jßfn¬ tZh∑m¿ [mcmfw Pew h¿jn°
bm¬ temI߃ ZpxJan√msX, A`bcmbn kpJn®p Pohn°p∂p. Ah
km\sØ c≠p h¿jßfnepw kphrjvSn e`n°p∂p≠v. ]t£, bp≤
ßfpw tcmKßfpw D≠mhpIbm¬ A∂w [mcmfw Dev]mZn∏n®n´pw P\
߃ kpJhpw im¥nbpw ]q¿Æambn A\p`hn°p∂n√.
259

{]Imikn‘p

33. imt{I bptK]q¿Δ atYizcmJyw h¿jw ZznXobw _lp[m∂amlp
{]amYn\w hn{Ia a]ytXm\yZrjwNhnZymXv KpcpNmctbmKmXv.
KpcpNcWØm¬ D≠mIp∂ aq∂masØ im{Iw (sF{μw) F∂
bpKØn¬ BZysØ h¿jw Cuizcw, c≠matØXv _lp[m∂w, aq∂m
aXv {]amYn, \mematØXv hn{Iaw, A©matØXv hr£w.
34. BZyw ZznXobw N ipt`Xp h¿tj IrXm\pImcw IpcpXmx {]Pm\mw
]m]x{]amYn hr£hn{IauXp kp`n£ZutcmK`b {]ZuP.
CXn¬ Cuizcw, _lp[m∂w F∂nh ip`Icw. {]PIƒ IrXbpK
Ønse∂ t]mse kpJambncn°p∂p. {]amYn AXy¥w ]m]ZmbI
amWv. hn{Ia, hrjmZn h¿jßfn¬ kp`n£aps≠¶nepw tcmKßfpw
`bhpw D≠mIpw.
35. t{ijvTw NXp¿∞ky bpKky ]q¿Δb ®n{X`m\pw IYb¥nh¿jw
a≤yw ZznXobw Xp kp`m\p kw⁄w tcmK{]Zw arXyIcw \X®.
\memasØ lqXmisa∂ bpKØnse {]Ya h¿jw Nn{X`m\p,
AXypØa ^ew \¬Ip∂p. c≠masØ h¿jw kp`m\p a≤ya ^ew
\¬Ip∂p. A°meØv tcmKßfp≠mIpw. ]t£ B tcmK߃ arXyp
IcßfmhpIbn√.
36. XmcWw XX\p `qcn hmcnZw kkyhr≤n apZnXwN
]m¿∞nhw ]©aw hybyapi¥n tim`\w a∑Y {]_e ap’hmIpew
aq∂masØ XmcWØn¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw. \memasØ ]m¿∞nh
Øn¬ kky kar≤nbm¬ B\μap≠mIpw, A©matØXn\v hybw
F∂p ]dbpw. A°meØv P\߃ X߃ kw`cn® Du¿÷sØ sNe
hm°n ]pXnb krjvSn \SØp∂p. A°mew a∑Y {]_ehpw D’hm
Ipehpw {]Pm krjvSn sIm≠v tim`\hpamWv.
37. Xzmjvt{S bptKk¿ΔPnXmZyDØx kwh’tcmf \yx Jepk¿Δ[mcn
XkvamZn tcm[ohnIrXx kzc› ikvtXm ZznXobmf {X` bmbtcmjmx
Xzmjv{S bpKØn¬ {]Ya h¿jw k¿ΔPnØv. c≠matØXv k¿Δ
[mcn, aq∂matØXv hntcm[n, \mematØXv hnIrXn; A©matØXv
kzcw. CXn¬ c≠matØXv awKfImcnbmWv. a‰p \mseÆØn¬
tcmjw, `bw F∂nh D≠mIp∂p.
260

{]Imikn‘p

38. \μt\mf Y hnPtbmPbÿYm a∑tYm fky ]cZ› Zp¿apJx
Im¥a{XbpK BZnXkv{Xbw a∑Yx ka^tem f[tam f]cx
t{]mjvT]ZbpKØn¬ BZysØ h¿jw \μ\w, c≠matØXv
hnPbw, aq∂matØXv Pbw, \mematØXv a∑Yw, A©matØXv Zp¿
apJw. BZysØ aqs∂Æw at\mlcßfmWv. a∑Yw ka^ew Xcp∂p.
Zp¿apJw A[aamWv.
39. tlaew_ CXnk]vXta bptKkymZznew_n]ctXm hnImcnN
i¿ΔcoXnXZ\pπhx kvartXmh’tcm Kpcphti\ ]©ax
KpcpNmcØmep≠mIp∂ ]nXr\maIamb k]vXa bpKØn¬
{]Ya h¿jw tlaew_w, c≠matØXv hnew_n, aq∂matØXv hnImcn,
\mematØXv i¿Δcn, A©matØXv πhw.
40. CuXn {]mbx {]Npc ]h\mx hrjvSnc_vtZXp ]q¿tΔ
aμw kkyw\_lpkenew h’tctXm ZznXotb
AXyptZXx {]Npc kenex kmØrXob ›Xp¿t∞m
Zp¿`n£mb πh CXn XXx tim`t\m `qcntXmbx
CXn¬ BZy h¿jØn¬ sImSp¶m‰pw, t]amcnbpw sIm≠v `bw
P\n°p∂p. c≠matØXn¬ Aev]hrjvSnbpw, kkym[m\yßfpsS
£mahpw D≠mIp∂p. aq∂matØXn¬ sh≈s]m°hpw, AXnbmb DtZz
Khpw D≠mIp∂p. \mematØXn¬ Zp¿`n£w D≠mIp∂p. πhØn¬
kphrjvSnbp≠v. B Imew tim`\amWv.
41. sshtizbptK t£m`IrZoXyYmZyx kwh’tcmf Xx ip`Iy ZznXobx
t{Im[o XrXobx ]cXx {ItaW hnizmhkpt›Xn ]cm`h›
sshiz bpKØn¬ {]Yaw t£m`IrXv, c≠maXv ip`IrXv, aq∂m
aXv t{Im[n, \memaXv hnizmhkp, A©maXv ]cm`hw.
42. ]q¿Δm]ssc {]oXnIcu {]Pm\mtajmw XrXotbm
_lptZmjtZmf _vZx
A¥u kauIn¥p ]cm`thf Kv\nikvt{Xm abm¿Øn¿ ZznP
tKm`b›x
CXn¬ H∂pw c≠pw {]PIsf {]k∂cm°p∂p. aq∂matØXv
Aip` ^ew Xcp∂p. _m°n c≠pw ka^ew Xcp∂p. ]cm`h h¿j
261

{]Imikn‘p

Øn¬ AKv\n, Bbp[w, tcmKw F∂nh sIm≠v ]oV, tKm{_mlvaW
∑m¿°v ]oU F∂nh kw`hn°pw.
43. BZyxπhw tKm \hta bptKf _vZx
kymXv IoetIm\yx ]cX› kuayx
km[mctWm tcm[IrZnXyYm_vZx
ip`{]Zu IoeI kuaykw⁄u
HºXmasØ kuaybpKØn¬ πhwKw IoeIw, kuayw, km[mc
Ww, tcm[IrØv ChbmWv A_vZ߃. IoeI, kuay߃ ip`Zmbn
IfmWv.
44. IjvSx πhwtKm_lpix {]Pm\mw
km[mctWf ev]w Pe`oXb›
bx ]©tam tcm[IrZnXyYm_vZ
›n{Xw Pew X{XNkky kw]Xv.
πhwKh¿jØn¬ {]PIƒ°v AXy¥w IjvSw kw`hn°p∂p.
km[mcWsa∂ h¿jØn¬ Aev]w am{Xw Pew e`n°p∂p; `bw P\n
°p∂p. tcm[IrØn¬ hnNn{Xambn Pew e`n°p∂p; kky kºØv
A[nIcn°p∂p.
45. C{μmKv\n ssZhw Ziaw bpcwbXv
X{XmZya_vZw ]cnLmhn kw⁄w
{]am[yYm\μaXx ]cwbXv
kym{Zm£kw Nm\e kw⁄nXw Nm
C{μmKv\n ssZhßfmb bpKØn¬ ]cnL, {]amZn, B\μw, cm£
kw, A\ew, F∂ ]©h¿j߃.
46. ]cnLmhn\n a≤ytZi\mtim \r]lm\n¿÷eaev]aKv\n tIm]x
AekkvXp P\x {]amZnkwt⁄Uacw c‡I ]pjv]_oP\mix
47. XXv]cxkIetemI\μt\mcm£kx £bItcmf \e kvXmYKv\n
jva[m\y P\t\mf {Xcm£tkm _lvfotIm]\c I{]tZmf \ex
]cnLØn¬ a≤ytZiØn\p \miw, cmPm°∑m¿°p lm\n, Aev]
hrjvSn, AKv\ntIm]w. {]amZnbn¬ P\߃ Aekcmhpw, Nph∂ ]q°
fpsS hnØpIƒ \in°pw. B\μh¿jØn¬ kIetemIØn\pw
262

{]Imikn‘p

B\μh¿jw. cm£km\e h¿jßfn¬ B\μ\miw. cm£k h¿j
Øn¬ {KojvaIme kky߃ D≠mhpw. A\eh¿jw AKv\n tIm]w,
_mlvfoI∑mcpsS tIm]w F∂nhbm¬ \cI Xpeyambncn°pw.
48. GImZtim ]nwKe Imebp‡ kn≤m¿∞ cu{Zmx JepZp¿ΩXn›
Bt[Xp hrjvSn¿ ΩlXnk Nucm izmku l\q IºbqX›Imk
]Xns\m∂masØ AiznbpKØn¬ ]nwKew, Imebp‡w, kn≤m¿
∞w, cu{Zw, Zp¿ΩXn F∂ ]©h¿j߃. BZytØXn¬ AXnhrjvSn,
tNmc`bw; izmkXS ap≠m°p∂Xpw IogvØmSnsb√p Iq´nbnSn°p∂
Xpamb NpatbmSp IqSnb ImktcmKw.
49. bXv°mebp‡w XZt\I tZmjw
kn≤m¿∞ kwt⁄ _lthm KpWmizm
cut{Zmf Xn cu{Zx £bIrXv {]ZnjvtSm
tbm Zp¿ΩXn¿Ω≤ya hrjvSnIrXvkx
Imebp‡w tZmjImcnbmWv. kn≤m¿∞h¿jw [mcmfw ip`^ew
Xcp∂p. cu{Zw AXohcu{Zhpw £bImcnbpamWv. Zp¿ΩXn a≤ya
hrjvSn \¬Ip∂p.
50. `mtKy bptK Zpμp`nkw⁄amZyw
kkyky hr≤nw alXnw ItcmXn
DZvKmcn kw⁄w XZ\p£bmb
\tcizcmWmw hnjamNhrjvSn.
`Km[nssZhXsa∂ 12 -mw bpKØn¬ Zpμp`n F∂ {]Yah¿j
Øn¬ [m\ykar≤nbp≠mhpw. c≠masØ DZvKmcn (cp[ntcmZvKmcn)
cmPm°∑m¿°p £bhpw hnjahrjvSnbpw \¬Ipw.
51. c‡m£a_vZw IYn\w XrXobw
bkvan≥ `bw Zwjv{SnIrXw KZmivN
t{Im[w _lpt{Im[Icw NXp¿∞w
cmjv{SmWn iq\yoIpcptX hntcm[x
c‡m£sa∂ aq∂mw h¿jØn¬ tcmKßfpw Zwjv{SoIrXamb
`bhpw D≠mhpw. t{Im[sa∂ \memw h¿jw t{Im[IcamWv. t{Im[w
sIm≠pw ]ckv]c hntcm[w sIm≠pw Dfhmb bp≤ßfm¬ cmjv{Sß
sf iq\yam°nØo¿°p∂p.
263

{]Imikn‘p

52. £banXnbpKkym¥ykym¥yw
_lp£bImcIw P\bXn`bw XZzn {]mWmw
Irjohe hr≤nZw
D]NbIcw hnSvOq{ZmWmw ]ckzlrXmw
XYmIYnX aJnewjjvTy_vtZ bØZ{X kamkXx
Ahkm\ h¿jw ‘£b’sa∂dnbp∂p. £bImcIamb Cu h¿jw
{_mlvaW¿°p `bw P\n∏n°p∂p. Irjn°m¿°v kar≤nbp≠mhpw.
]ckzØv A]lcn°p∂h¿°pw, sshiy∑m¿°pw, iq{Z¿°pw kar≤n
bp≠mhpw. C{]Imcw kw£n]vXambn jjvTy_vZ߃°p≈ ^ew
]dbs∏Sp∂p.
53. AIepjmwip PUnex ]rYpaq¿Ønx
IpapZIpμIpkpa kv^SnIm`x
{KlltXm\bZn kXv]Yh¿Øo
lnXItcmf acKpcp¿Ω\p Pm\mw
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlZvkwlnXmbmw
_rlkv]Xn Nmtcmf jvStamf ≤ymbx
tZhKpcphmb ({]Imin°p∂hbn¬ h®v hepXmb F∂¿∞w FSp
°pI) _rlkv]Xn \n¿ΩeIncW\pw ÿqeaq¿Ønbpw, IpapZ, Ipμ
IpkpaßfpsStbm kv^SnIØns‚tbm tim`tbmSpIqSnbh\pw, a‰p
{Klßfm¬ t`Zn°s∏SmØh\pambn kXv]YØn¬ h¿Øn°ptºmƒ
a\pjy¿°v lnXImcnbmWv.

264

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 9

ip{INmcw
1. \mK KssPcm hrXhr£tKmPcZvKh arKmPZl\mJyx
Aizn\ymZyx ssI›nXv {Xn`m {IamZzoYbmx IYnXmx
Aizn\ymZn apX¬ apΩq∂p \£{X߃ {IaØn¬ Hmtcmtcm
hoYnbmWv F∂p ]dbp∂p. C{]Imcap≈ HºXp hoYnIfp≠v. \mKw
KPw, sFcmhXw, hrj`w, tKm, PcZvKhw, arKw, APw, Zl\w.
2. \mKmXp ]h\bmaym\em\n ss]Xmalm{Xn`{Xn kv{Xx
`KmhoYy aizn\yx ]ujvWw tZzNm]n `{Z]tZ.
ss]XmalnIfpsS A`n{]mbØn¬ kzmXn, `cWn, IrØnI \£
{XßfnemWv \mKhoYn. KPw, sFcmhXw, Ej`w F∂o aq∂p hoYn
Iƒ tcmlnWn apX¬ DØc ^m¬Kp\n hsc aqΩq∂p \£{Xßfn¬
InS°p∂p. tKmhoYn, AizXn, tchXn, ]q¿Δ `{Z]mZw, DØc `{Z]mZw
F∂nhbnemWv.
3. PmcZvKhymw {ihWmXv {Xn`wN ssa{Xm[yw
lkvXhnimJm Xzjv{SmWy tPXyjmVmZzbw Zl\m.
XncpthmWw, Ahn´w, NXbw F∂nhbn¬ PmcZvKhn F∂ hoYn.
A\ngw, Xrt°´, aqeØn¬ arKhoYn. AØw, hnimJw, Nn{Xbn¬
APhoYn, ]q¿ΔmjmVw, DØcmjmVw \£{Xßfn¬ Zl\hoYn.
4. Xn{kØn{kkvXmkmw {Iam ZpZMva≤ybmayam¿§ÿmx
Xmkma]ypØca≤y Z£nWmhÿn ssXssIImx
27 \£{Xßsf HºXmbn `mKn®ncn°bm¬ Hmtcm hoYnbpw aqΩq
s∂ÆamWv. aqs∂Æw kqcyam¿§Øns‚ DØc`mKØpw, aqs∂Æw
a≤y`mKØpw, aqs∂Æw Z£nW `mKØpw BWv. Ahbn¬Øs∂
Hmtcm∂pw bYm{Iaw DØcm]Yw, a≤y]Yw, Z£nW ]Yw F∂nßs\
bp≠v. AXmbXv \mKhoYnbn¬ aqs∂Æap≈Xv H∂v DØc am¿§ÿw,
H∂v a≤ya am¿§ÿw, H∂v Z£nW am¿§ÿw- C{]Imcw.
265

{]Imikn‘p

5. hoYnam¿§m\]tc IYb¥n bYmÿnXm ` am¿§kyx
\£{XmWmw XmcmbmtaymØc a≤yamkvXZzXv
F√m \£{XßfpsSbpw \£{X am¿§h¿ØnIfmb tbmKXmcm
KW߃ F{]Imcw DØc a≤ya Z£nW `mKßfn¬ hncmPn°p∂p
thm, kakvX hoYnam¿§ßfpw A{]Imcw hncmPn°p∂p F∂v Nne
hnZzm∑m¿ ]dbp∂p.
6. DØcam¿t§m bmaymZn\nKZntXm a≤yakvXp `mKym≤yx
Z£nW am¿t-§ jmVmZnssIizotZhw IrXmam¿§mx
`cWn apX¬ DØcam¿§hpw, ]q¿Δ ^m¬Kp\n apX¬ a≤ya am¿
§hpw, ]q¿hmjmVw apX¬ Z£nW am¿§hpw Bcw`n°p∂Xmbn Nne¿
IcpXp∂p.
7. tPymXnjamKaimkv{Xw hn{]Xn]Øu\tbmKy akvamIw
kzbtah hnIev]bnXpw In¥p _lp\mw aXw ht£y.
tPymXnjw BKa imkv{XamWv. AXns\ aoamwk sNøm≥ \sΩ
t∏mep≈h¿ tbmKyc√. AXn\m¬, Ejnamcmb At\Iw t]cpsS A`n
{]mb߃ ChnsS ]dbmw. Ahbn¬ \n∂v kzbw sXcs™SpØp sIm
≈pI.
8. DØc hoYnjp ip{Ix kp`n£ inh IrZvKtXmf kvXapZbw hm
a≤ymkp a≤y^eZx IjvS^tem Z£nWmÿmkq.
ip{I≥ DØc hoYnbn¬ DZn°bpw AkvXan°bpw sNøptºmƒ
awKfImcnbmWv. kp`n£w \¬Ip∂h\mWv. a≤ya hoYnbn¬ a≤ya
^ew. Z£nWhoYnbn¬ IjvS^ew.
9. AXypØtamØtam\w kaa≤y\yq\a[a IjvS^ew
IjvSXaw kuaym[ymkp hoYnjp bYm{Iaw {_qbmXv.
B¿{Z apX¬ arKinc phscbp≈ HºXp hoYnbn¬ ip{I≥
DZn°tbm AkvXan°tbm sNbvXm¬ {IaØn¬ AXypØaw, DØaw,
Du\w, kaw, a≤yw, \yq\w, A[aw, IjvSw, IjvSXaw F∂v ^ew.
10. `cWo]q¿Δw afiear£NXpjv°wkp`n£IcamZyw
`wKmwKalnj_mlvfnIIenwK tZtijp`bP\\w
266

{]Imikn‘p

`cWn apX¬ \mep \£{X afießfn¬ ip{I≥ DZn®kvXan°p
tºmƒ, {]Ya hoYnbnse¶n¬ kp`n£w hcpw. F∂m¬ AwKw (_olm¿),
hwKw (_wKmƒ), alnjw, _mlvfoIw (Ct∏mgsØ ]m°nÿm≥),
A^vLm\nÿm≥) IeowKw F∂nhnSßfn¬ `bap≠mhpw.
11. At{XmZnX amtcmtl Z{Ktlmf ]tcmbZnknXw XtXml\ymXv
`{Zmiziqctk\Ibus[bItImSnh¿j \r]m≥
Cu {]Ya afieØn¬ DZn®pb¿∂ ip{Is‚ D]cnbmbn at‰sX
¶nepw {Klaps≠¶n¬, `{Zmizw, iqctk\w, but[bIw, tImSnh¿j
sa∂o {]tZißfnse cmPm°∑m¿°v \miw kw`hn°pw.
12. `NXpjvSbam¿{Zm[yw ZznXob aanXmw_pkky kºssØy
hn{]mWmaip`Icw hntijXmx {Iqc tNjvTm\mw.
B¿{Z apX¬ \mep \£{XßfmIp∂ ZznXob afieØn¬ ip{I
\pZn®kvXan®m¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw. kky kºØp≠mhpw, {_mlva
W¿°v Aip`amWv. hntijn®v P\߃ {Iqc tNjvSIƒ sNøpw: Ah¿
\in°pIbpw sNøpw.
13. At\ym\m{Xm{Imt¥tæOmShnImiz PohntKma¥m≥
tKm\¿±o\oNiq{Zm≥ sshtZlmw izm\mbx kv]riXn
ip{It\msSm∏w B hoYnbn¬ at‰sX¶nepw {Klaps≠¶n¬, tæ
—∑m¿, BcWyI∑m¿, AizPohnIƒ (k©mcnIƒ), \mbv°sf
s°m≠v D]Pohn°p∂ tKma¥∑m¿, [mcmfw tKm°tfmSp IqSnbh¿
(CSb∑m¿), \oN∑m¿, iq{Z¿, hntZl cmPy°m¿ F∂nhscsb√mw A[
¿Ωw kv]¿in°p∂p.
14. hnNc≥ aLmZn ]©IapZnXx kky{]WmiIOp{Ix
£pØkv°c`b P\t\m \otNm∂Xn kwIcIc›
aIw apX¬ Nn{X hsc 5 \£{Xßfn¬ k©cn°ptºmƒ
kakvX [m\yhpw \in°p∂p. hni∏pw, Xkv°c `bhpw P\߃°v
D≠mhp∂p. \oN∑m¿ D∂Xn {]m]n°p∂p. h¿Æ k¶cw D≠mIp∂p.
15. ]n{XmtZyf hjvS_vsZm l¥yt\y\mhnImRvO_c iq{Zm≥
]p{fim]c¥yiqenIh\hmkn {ZhnUkmap{Zm≥.
267

{]Imikn‘p

aLmZnbnse aq∂masØ afieØn¬ ssZXyKpcpsh at‰sX¶n
epw {Klw k‘n®m¬ \mhnI∑m¿, i_c∑m¿, iq{Z¿, ]p{fiw, A]
cm¥w (]ivNna Xocw) F∂nhnSßfnse A∂w, iqenI, h\hmknIƒ,
{ZmhnU∑m¿, kmap{Z∑m¿ F∂nh¿°v \miw kw`hn°pw.
16. kzmXym≤yw`{XnXbw afietaX›Xp¿∞a `bIcw
{_lva£{X kp`n£m`nhr≤tban{Xt`Zmb.
tNmXn, hnimJw, A\ngw, F∂nhbn¬ D≈ NXp¿∞ afieØn¬
ip{I≥ Ncn°ptºmƒ A`bap≠mIp∂p. {_lva£{X∑m¿°v kp`n£
hpw D≠mhpw. F∂m¬ an{X߃ XΩn¬ A`n{]mbt`Z߃ D≠mhpw.
17. A{Xm{Imt¥ arXypx IncmX`¿Ørx ]n\jvSn tN£zmIq≥
{]Xy¥mh¥n]penμ XwKWmivNqc tk\mwivN
NXp¿∞afiew a‰p {Klßfm¬ B{Im¥ambm¬, IncmX
cmPmhn\p arXyp kw`hn°pw. C£zmIpIƒ°pw, {]Xy¥mh¥n, ]pfnμ,
XwKW, iqctk\o hmknIƒ°pw t]mjWw kw`hn°pw.
18. tPyjvTmZyw ]©¿£ £pØkv°ctcmKZw {]_m[ybtX
ImivaocmivaI a’ym≥ kNmcp tZho ah¥owivN.
Xrt-°´ apX¬ XncpthmWw hscbp≈ A©p \£{Xßfn¬
]©a afieØn¬ ipt{ImZbw kw`hn-°ptºmƒ Imivaocw, AivaIw,
a’yw, NmcptZhn, Ah¥n F∂nhnSßfnep≈h¿°p hni∏v, Xkv°c
`bw, tcmKw F∂nhbp≠mhpw.
19. Btcmlf {Xm`ocm≥ {ZhnUmw_jvT {XnK¿Ø kucmjv{Sm≥\mibXn kn‘p kuhocImw ivN Imioizcky h[x
B`oc∑m¿ (Ad_nIƒ ChcpsS tKm{XamWv), BivaI∑m¿, {Zmhn
U∑m¿, Aw_jvT∑m¿, {XnK¿Ø∑m¿, kucmjv{S¿, kn‘p tZi°m¿,
kuhoc tZi°m¿ F∂nh¿°pw At∏mƒ \miImeamWv. ImincmPm
hns‚ h[w Xs∂ kw`hn°mw (Imin cmPhwiw Aw_jvTtKm{XamWv).
20. jjvTw j¨\£{Xw ip`taX\vafiew [\njvTmZyw `qcn[\
tKmIpemIpe a\ev][m\yw IzNnXv k`bw. Ahn´w apX¬ AizXn
hsc Bdp \£{Xßfn¬ k©cn°p∂ ip{I≥ ip`ImcI\mWv. P\
268

{]Imikn‘p

߃ [\[m\y kar≤ntbmSpw [mcmfw tKm°tfmSpw kpJambncn°p∂p.
F¶nepw Nne {]tZißfn¬ `bw D≠mhpw.
21. A{XmtcmtlipenI Km‘mcmh¥bx {]]o≤yt¥
sshtZlh[x {]Xy¥bh\iIZmk ]mcnhr≤nx
`bap≠mIp∂ {]tZi߃- iqenI, Km‘mcw, Ah¥n, ssh
tZlw F∂nhbmWv. ip{I≥ Btcmlw sNbvX ImeØv Ch¿ ]oVnX
cmIp∂p. sshtZl cmPmhv h[n°s∏Sp∂p. {]Xy¥tZiØnse bh\
∑m¿, imI∑m¿, Zmk∑m¿ F∂nh¿°v Cu Imew hnPbØns‚bpw
kar≤nbptSbpw ImeamWv.
22. A]ckymw kmXym≤yw tPyjvTm≤ywNm]n afiew ip`Zw
]n{Xm≤yw ]q¿Δkymw tijmWnbtYm‡ ^eZm\n.
BdmasØ afieØn¬ kzmXnbptSbpw tPyjvT\£{XØns‚
bpw BZnbnse c≠p afie߃ Dƒs∏´ncp∂m¬, Ah ]›na Zni
bn¬ ip`ImcnIfmWv. aL\£{XØns‚ BZyafiew ]q¿ΔZnibn¬
AXy¥ ip`^ew Xcp∂p.
23. ZrjvtSmf \kvXKtXf ¿t° `bIrXv £p{ZtcmKIrXv kakvXalx
A¿≤ Znhkw Ntkμp \r] _e ]pct`ZIrNXp{Ix
kqcy≥ AkvXan°pw aptº ip{Is\°≠m¬ £p{ZtcmKßfpw
`bhpw D≠mhpw. ]IpXn Znhkw ImWpItbm, N{μt\msSmØp ImWp
Itbm sNbvXm¬ cmPm°∑mcptSbpw _ehm∑mcpsSbpw \Kc߃ t`Zn
°s∏Spw.
24. `nμ≥ KtXmf \e¿£w IqemXn {Im¥hmcnhmlm`nx
Ahr‡Xpw K\nav\m\ kamkcnZv`n{`h¥n [m{Xn.
Im¿ØnI \£{XsØ t`Zn®psIm≠v ip{I≥ k©cn°ptºmƒ
IcIsf AXn{Ian® PecminIfmepw hmln\n (\Zn) Ifmepw, Ahy‡
hpw XpwKhpw, \nav\hpw, kahpamb kcnØp°sf, hln® A{`ßfm
epw (taLw) `qan BhrXamIp∂p.
25. {]Pm]tXyiItS `nt∂IrtXzh ]mXIwhkp[m
tIimÿncmIe_eIm]meanh{hXw[tØm.
269

{]Imikn‘p

tcmlnWnbpsS iISsØ `n∂am°n ip{I≥ k©cn°ptºmƒ,
apSnbpw, Aÿnbpw, AXns‚ Jfißfpw, At\Ih¿Æßfpw [cn®
`qan Im]menI{hXw [cn®hsct∏mse ]m]]¶neamhp∂p.
26. kutaym]KtXm ckky kw£bm tbmiv\m kar≤njvSmx
B¿{ZKXkvXptImieIenwKlm kene\nIcIcx
aIbncw \£{XØn¬ ck (Pe) Øn\pw kkyØn\pw \miw.
B¿{Zm \£{XØn¬ tImie IenwKcmPyßfn¬ \mi\jvS߃
D≠mhpw. ag [mcmfw e`n°pw.
27. AivaI sshZ¿`mWmw ]p\¿hkptÿ
kntXalm\h ]ptWy
]ptWy]rjvSm hrjvSn¿ hnZym[cKW hna¿±ivN.
]pW¿XØn¬ ip{I≥ k©cn°ptºmƒ AivaI hnZ¿`tZiß
fn¬ A[¿Ωw D≠mhpw. ]qbØn¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw. F∂m¬ hnZym
[c KW߃ ASn®a¿Øs∏Spw.
28. Bt«jmkp`pPwKaZmcpW ]oVmhlizcivNp{Ix
`nμ≥ aLmw almam{XtZmjIrZv `qcnhrjvSnIcx
BbneyØn¬ k¿∏`bw, ZmcpWamb ]oVIƒ F∂nh kw`hn
°pw. aIcØn¬ almam{X∑m¿ (lkvXn ]mI¿, B\∏m∏m≥) °v tZmj
amWv. ]s£ \√ ag In´pw.
29. `mtKy i_c]penμ {][zwkItcmf w_p\nhl tam£bx
B¿øvasW IpcpPmwKe]m©meLv\x keneZmbn.
]q¿Δ^m¬Kp\nbn¬ i_c∑m¿, ]penμ∑m¿ F∂nh¿°p \miw.
[mcmfw ag In´pw. DØc ^m¬Kp\nbn¬ h¿jw e`n°pw. Ipcp, PwKe,
]m©me tZi°m¿°v \miw `hn°pw.
30. Iuch Nn{XImcmWmw lkvtX ]oVm PekyN \ntcm[x
Iq]IrZfiP ]oVm Nn{Xmtÿtim`\m hrjvSnx
AØsØ ip{I≥ t`Zn°ptºmƒ Iuch∑m¿°pw Nn{XImc∑m¿
°pw ]oVmImeamWv. A∏t∏mƒ Pew \ntcm[n°s∏Sp∂p (ag In´msX
bpw, Peam¿§ßƒ AS™n´pw) Nn{Xbn¬ ip{I≥ \n¬°ptºmƒ Iq]
270

{]Imikn‘p

IrØp°ƒ°pw (InWdp Ipgn°p∂h¿) AfiP߃°pw ]oVmIme
amWv. tim`\amb hrjvSn e`n°pw.
31. kzmXu{]`qXhrjvSn¿ ZqX hWnKv \mhnIm≥ kv]riXy\bx
sF{μmKvt\ ]nkphrjvSn¿ΔWnPmw N`bw hnPm \obmXv.
kzmXnbn¬ ZqX∑m¿, hWn°pIƒ, \mhnI∑m¿ F∂nhsc A\oXn
kv]¿in°pw. hnimJØn¬ kphrjvSnbp≠mhpw. hWn°pIƒ°v `b
ap≠mIpw.
32. ssat{X £{X hntcmt[mtPyjvTmbmw £{XapJy k¥m]x
auenI `njPmw aqte {Xnjz]nssNtXjz\mhrjvSn.
A\pcm[Øn¬ £{Xnbh[w, tPyjvTbn¬ {][m\nIfmb £{Xn
b¿°v k¥m]w, aqeØn¬ {][m\nIfmb sshZy∑m¿°v ]oV: Cu
aq∂p \£{XØn¬ ip{I≥ \n¬°ptºmƒ A\mhrjvSnbp≠mhpw.
33. Bt]y keneP]oVm hntiztihym[mbx{]Ip]y¥n
{ihtW {ihWhym[nx ]mjWvVn `bw [\njvTmkp.
]q¿ΔmjmVØn¬ PeP߃°p ]oV: D{XmSØn¬ hym[n: {imh
WØn¬ {ihtW{μnb hym[n: Ahn´Øn¬ ]mjWvVnIƒ°p (\]pw
kIw) `bw.
34. iXm`njPn iufinIm\massPIss]ZypXPohn\mw ]oVm
Ipcp]m©mema]nItcmXnNmkvan≥ knX kenew.
NXbØn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ iufinIƒ°pw, ]q¿Δ `{Z]mZØn¬
\n¬°ptºmƒ NqXm´°m¿°pw ]oV. Ipcp]m©me tZi°m¿°v ]oV
bpw, \√ agbpw In´pw.
35. Aln¿_p[vt\y ^eaqeXm]Ir[mbn \mw NtchXymw
Aizn\ymwlb]m\mwbmtayXp IncmXbh\m\mw
DØc `m{Z]mZØn¬ ^eaqe߃°pw, tchXnbn¬ Im¬\S°m¿
°pw, AizXnbn¬ Aiz]me∑m¿°pw, `cWnbn¬ IncmX¿°pw, bh\
¿°pw Xm]w G¿s∏Spw.
36. NXp¿±ti]©Zti XYmjvStaXankv{X ]£kyXnYu `rKux kpXx
bZm{htP±¿i\akvXtaXnhmXZmaln hmcoaboh e£ytX
271

{]Imikn‘p

IrjvW]£ NXp¿±in, ]©Zin, AjvSan F∂nhIfn¬ ip{I≥
DZn®kvXan°ptºmƒ `qanbn¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw.
37. Kpcp¿ `rKp¿›m]c]q¿ΔImjvTtbmx ]ckv]cw k]vXa cmin KubZm
XYm{]PmcpKv`btimI]oVnXm\hmcn ]iy¥n ]pcμtcm⁄nXw
hymghpw, ip{I\pw ]q¿Δ ]›na ZniIfn¬ ]ckv]cw Ggmw cmin
bn¬ (180) DZn®m¬, {]PIƒ tcmK`bhpw timIhpw sIm≠v ]oVnXcm
Ipw. ag ImWm≥ IqSn In´pIbn√.
38. bYmÿnXm Poh_p[mckqcyPmx knXky k¿tΔf {K
]Ym\ph¿Øn\x
\r\mKhnZym[c kwKcmkvXZm `h¥n hmXmizk ar{OnXm¥I
hymgw, _p[≥, i\n F∂nh¿ ip{Is‚ A{K]YØn¬ (ap∂n¬)
k©cn°p∂ ]£w \r]∑m¿, \mK¿, hnZym[c¿ F∂nh¿ XΩn¬ bp≤
ap≠mbn \miØn¬ Iemin°pw. hmbp Zpjn°pw.
39. \an{X`mthkplrtZm hyhÿnXmx {Inbmkp kayMv \cXmZznPmsb
\Nmev]a]yw_pZZmXn hmkthm `n\¥n ht{PW incmwkn`q`rXmw.
kplrØp°ƒ an{X`mhØn¬ h¿Øn°pIbn√. ZznP∑mcpw a‰p≈
hcpw Xm¥mßfpsS {InbIsf Dt]£n°pw. C{μ≥ Aev]w ag t]mepw
XcmXmhpw. h{P]mXØm¬ ]¿ΔXßfpsS inc p ]nfcpw (AKv\n
]¿ΔXw).
40. iss\›c tæO _nUme IpRvPcmx Jcmx alntjymf
knX[m\y iqIcm
]penμiq{Zmiz kZ£nWm ]Ymx£bw {hP¥y£na cpZvKtZmZv`sshx
i\n ip{Is‚ apºn¬ k©cn®m¬ tæO∑m¿, KplmhmknIƒ,
B\Iƒ, IgpXIƒ, alnj߃, IdpØ [m\y߃, ]∂nIƒ, ]penμ
∑m¿, iq{Z∑m¿, Aiz߃, Z£nWm]YØnse P\߃ F∂nh¿
t\{X tcmKw sIm≠pw, hmbp tIm]w sIm≠pw tcmK_m[nXcmbn £bw
{]m]n°pw.
41. \nl¥nip{Ix£nXntP {KXx {]Pm lpXmi ikv{X£pZ
hrjvSnXkv°sscx
272

{]Imikn‘p

NcmNcw hy‡ atYmØcm]Yw Zntimf Kv\nhnZyp{ZP
kmN]oVtbXv
ip{I\p apºn¬ sNmΔ k©cn®m¬ AKv\n, Bbp[w, hni∏v, Ahr
jvSn, I≈∑m¿ F∂nhcm¬ {]PIƒ°v henb `bw t\cnSpw. DØcm
]YØnse NcmNc߃°v \miw t\cnSpw. F´pZn°pw AKv\n, hnZypXv,
s]mSn F∂nhIfm¬ ]oVnXamIpw.
42. _rlkv]Xul¥n]pcxÿntXknXx knXw kakvXwZznP
tKmkpcmebm≥
ZniwN]q¿ΔmIcImkrtPmf _pZmKteZm`qcn `th® imcZw
ip{I\p apºn¬ _rlkv]Xn k©cn®m¬ shfp∏p \ndap≈
kakvXhpw, {_mlvaWcpw, ]ip°fpw, t£{Xßfpw, ]q¿ΔZnibpw
\in°p∂p. taL߃ [mcmfw ag h¿jn°p∂p. temI߃°v IWvT
tcmKw D≠mIp∂p. icXv°me [m\y߃ [mcmfw D≠mhp∂p.
43. kutaymf tkvXm Zbtbm ]ptcm`rKpkpX
kymhkvXnX tkvXmbIrXv tcmKm≥ ]nØPImaemw
NIpcptX ]rjvWmXn N ss{KjvaoIw
l\ymXv {]{hPnXmKv\n tlm{XnI`njKvcw
tKm]Pohym≥ lbm≥ sshiym≥Kmx
klhmlss\¿∂c]Xo≥ ]oXm\n]izm±niw.
ip{ImZbØntem, AkvXabØntem, ip{Is‚ ]ptcm`mKØv
_p[s\ I≠m¬, h¿jhpw tcmKhpw D≠mhpw. ]nØ tcmKhpw, Imae
tcmKhpw h¿≤n°pw. {Kojva¿Øphn¬ D≠mhp∂ {Zhy߃ A[nIambn
Dev]∂ßfmhpw. ]cn{hmPI∑m¿, AKv\n tlm{XnIƒ sshZy∑m¿, \S
\¿ØI∑m¿, Aiz߃, sshiy¿, ]ip°ƒ, hml\ßtfmSpIqSn cmPm
°∑m¿, a™ \ndØnep≈ ]Zm¿∞߃, ]›na Zni F∂nh°v \miw
kw`hn°pw.
44. inJn `ba\emt` ikv{XtIm]›ct‡
I\I\nIj Kutc hym[tbm ssZXybqssPy
lcnX I]ne cqt] izmkImk {]tIm]x
]XXn\kene kymZv `kvacq£mknXmt`
AKv\n h¿Æambn ip{Is\ I≠m¬ inJn`bw, c‡h¿Æsa¶n¬
273

{]Imikn‘p

Bbp[ tIm]w, Nps´SpØ kz¿Æw t]mse Kucsa¶n¬ hym[n, lcnX
I]ne h¿Æßfn¬ izmk tcmKhpw, Imk tcmKhpw, `kva h¿Æhpw,
cq£amb AknX h¿Æhpsa¶n¬ ag s]øpIbn√.
45. Z[nIpapZiim¶ Im¥n`rXv kv^pS hnIkXv
InctWm _rlØ\pxkpKXnc hnIrtXm Pbm\znXx
IrXbpKcq]Icx knXmlzbzx
CXn{io hcmlanlncIrXu
_rlXv kwlnXmbmw ip{INmtcm \htam ≤ymbx
ssXcv, Bº¬, Aºnfn F∂nhbpsS Im¥ntbmsS kv^pSambn
hnIkn® IncWßtfmSpw, kpKXntbmSpw, AhnIrXambpw IrXbpK
Ønse cq]w [cn®v Pbm\znX\pw, hnImcclnX\pambn Ncn°p∂
ip{I≥ k¿Δ¿°pw awKfw \¬Ip∂p. ip{Is\ `mcXob¿ AkpcKpcp
F∂p hnfn°p∂p. `mcX `qJfiØn\v 180 amdn InS°p∂ Atkmckv
Zzo]߃ ‘AXem¥’ kap{ZØnemWv. Akpc Kpcphmb abs\∂
Zm\hinev]nbptSXmb Hcp tPymXnj ]≤Xn B `q`mKßfn¬ \ne
\n∂ncp∂p F∂v `mcXw hnizkn°p∂p. atμmZco ]nXmhmb abs‚
hwi°m¿ C∂pw Atacn°bnepw, AXem¥ Zzo]pIfnepap≠v. ip{I
Nmc kwJysb ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ h¿Æn®p ]dIbm¬ ChnsS
Bh¿Øn°p∂n√. F∂m¬ hknjvT ]ueoi, ss]XmalmZnIfpsS
ip{INmchpw, kwJybpw amb≥ kwkvImcØn∂dnbmambncp∂p F∂p
ImWn°p∂ Nne imkv{Xobamb sXfnhpIƒ ChnsS Nq≠n°mWn
°mw. dn®m¿Uv s^bv≥am≥ F∂ temI{]ikvX\mb Bkvt{SmWadp
sS BflIYbn¬ CXns\ ]cma¿in®n´p≠v.
s^bv≥am≥ Hcn°¬ s{UkvU≥ tImUIvkn¬ Nne KWnX]c
amb {]tXyIXIƒ Is≠Øn.
1) 584 F∂ kwJysb amb∑m¿ 236, 90, 250, 8 F∂v \membn
`mKn°p∂p (]© kn≤m¥nI t\m°pI. CtX hn`P\w ImWmw).
2) 2920 s‚ 13 hscbp≈ KpW\∏´nI X∂ncn°p∂p.
3) N{μ{KlW{]hN\Øn\v 11959 ZnhkßfpsS ]´nIbmWv D]
tbmKn°p∂Xv.
4) 91 s‚ KpW\ ]´nI X∂ncn°p∂p. AsX¥n\msW∂v s^bv≥
am\v a\ nemhp∂n√.
274

{]Imikn‘p

ip{Is‚ {`aW kwJy 583.923 BIbm¬ amb∑mcpsS 584 F∂
kwJy kWnX]camb Hcp sX‰mbn´mWv BZyw s^bv≥am≥ IcpXn
bXv. ]ns∂ kq£n®p t\m°nbt∏mgmWv Ah “C‚K¿aƒ´n∏nƒkv”
BWv sX‰√ F∂v At±lw a\ nem°nbXv.
2920 t‚bpw 91 t‚bpw KpW\∏´nI, Cu ]cma¿iw hmbn®t∏mƒ,
Rm≥ H∂v FgpXnt\m°n. AXv`pXmhlhpw ckIchpamb Nne Adn
hpIƒ AsX\n°pX∂p (]´nIIƒ Xmsg ImWpI).
2920 x 1
2920 x 2
2920 x 3
2920 x 4
2920 x 5
2920 x 6
2920 x 7
2920 x 8
2920 x 9
2920 x 10
2920 x 11
2920 x 12
2920 x 13

= 2920
= 5840
= 8760
= 11680
= 14600
= 17520
= 20440
= 23360
= 26280
= 29200
= 32120
= 35040
= 37960

91 x 1
91 x 2
91 x 3
91 x 4
91 x 5
91 x 6
91 x 7
91 x 8
91 x 9
91 x 10
91 x 11
91 x 12
91 x 13

= 91
= 182
= 273
= 364
= 455
= 546
= 637
= 728
= 819
= 910
= 1001
= 1092
= 1183

(ip{INmckwJy x 10)

(`qZn\ kwJybpsS ASpØ kwJy)

275

{]Imikn‘p
91 x 14
91 x 15
91 x 16
91 x 17
91 x 18
91 x 19

= 1274
= 1365
= 1456
= 1547
= 1638
= 1729

s^bv≥am\v 91 s‚ ]´nI F¥ns\∂p a\ nembn√. ]s£ \ap
°Xv a\ nem°mw. 91 slIvktKmW¬ \ºdpIfn¬ 6 -masØ kwJy
bmWv (1.17.19.37.61.91.127......).
H∂p apX¬ Bcw`n®v XpS¿®bmbn ]n≥KmanIfmbn hcp∂ sl
IvktKmW¬ kwJyIfpsS XpI Ft∏mgpw “Iyq_v” Bbncn°pw
(principle of mathematical induction) 91 x 19 F∂ kwJybpsS DØcamb
1729 c≠p {Xnh¿§ßfpsS XpIbmbn c≠phn[w {]ISn∏n°mhp∂ G‰hpw
sNdnb kwJybmWv.
[103 + 93

= 123 + 13
= 7 x 13 x 19
= 7 x 247]

tPymXnj]cambn AXn{][m\amb Cu kwJysb {io\nhmk
cmam\pP≥, lm¿Un°v ]≠v h¿Æn®psImSpØn´p≠v. s^bv≥am≥
Hcev]w ‘tlmwh¿°v’ sNbvXncps∂¶n¬ I≠p]nSnt®s\!
1728 `mcXobcpsS kXybpK kwJybmsW∂p IqSn ]dbptºmƒ
amb∑mcpsSbpw, `mcXobcpsSbpw Ncn{XmXoXamb Bib hn\nabhpw
kº¿°hpw hy‡amIpw.
ip{I, _p[ Nmcßsf _‘n∏n°p∂ Hcp IÆnbmWv Cu ]´nI.
]ueois‚ _p[ NmcØn\p≈ ]´nIbn¬,
456 x 2 = 912
912 x 2 = 1824
1824 x 2 = 3648 F∂v XpScptºmƒ 29184 x 2 = 58368 F∂v In´nbXv
Hm¿°pat√m. 583.68 F∂v Ipd®p IqSn ip{INmcsØ kv^pSw sNøm≥

Cu ]´nI Xs∂bmWv amb∑mcpw D]tbmKn®ncp∂Xv F∂p IcpXm≥
\ymbap≠v.
276

{]Imikn‘p
1. 91 x 4 = 364
1824 x 2 = 3648
[182.4 x 2 = 364.8

(ip{INmc ]´nI)
(_p[Nmc ]´nI)
(BWt√m)

2. 91 x 10 = 910
(ip{INmc ]´nI)
456 x 2 = 912
(_p[Nmc ]´nI)
[(91 x 5) + 1]2 = 912
(91 x 10) + 2 = 912

Cu c≠v DZmlcW߃ _p[Nmc, ip{INmcßsf ]ckv]cw
_‘s∏SpØp∂p. ChbmIs´, 364 F∂ `qZn\kwJytbmSpw _‘
s∏´XmWv. ImeØns‚ h¿§aqeamb 19 sIm≠v 91 s\ KpWn®p In´p∂
c≠p {Xnh¿§ßfpsS XpIbmb (kXybpKkwJy+1) 1729 t\mSpw _‘
s∏´XmWv. KWnX]camb Cu t_m[w DZn® kwkvIrXnIƒ `mcX
Ønepw Atacn°bnepw Ncn{XmXoX Imew apX¬t° D≠mbncp∂p
(Ah¿ XΩn¬ kº¿°hpw ]pe¿Ønbncp∂p F∂Xn\p≈ sXfnhp
Iƒ \mK]©aw, Ncn{XØns‚ CS\mgnbneqsS F∂ c≠p {KŸß
fnembn Rm≥ kamlcn®p sh®n´p≠v).

277

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 10

iss\›cNmcw
1. ivchWm\ne lkvXmt{Zm `cWo `mtKym]Kx
kptXmf ¿°kym {]Npc kentem] KqVmw
ItcmXn [m{Xnw bZn kv\nKv≤x
kqcy ]p{X\mb i\n, XncpthmWw, kzmXn, AØw, B¿{Z, `cWn,
]q¿Δ ^m¬Kp\n \£{Xßfn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ [mcmfw Pew e`n®v
`qan kv\nKv≤ambn Xocp∂p.
2. Aln hcpW ]pcμcssZhtXjp kqt£aIr∂ NmXnPew
£pO{kvXmhrjvSnItcmaqte {]tXyI a]nht£y.
Bbneyw, NXbw, Xrt°´ F∂nhbn¬ k©cn°ptºmƒ i\n
A[nIw h¿jw XcnIbns√¶nepw t£aIrØmWv. aqeØnemsW¶n¬
£pØv, Bbp[ `bw, AhrjvSn. C\n Hmtcm \£{XØn¬ i\n k©
cn°ptºmgp≈ {]tXyI ^e߃ ]dbmw.
3. XpcK XpctKm]NmcI IhnsshZymamXylm°¿tPmf iznKXxbmtay \¿ØI
hmZItKb⁄ £p{Z\uIrXnIm≥
AizXnbn¬ i\n \n¬°ptºmƒ, IpXncIƒ, IpXnc°m¿, Ihn
Iƒ, sshZy∑m¿, a{¥nam¿ F∂nh¿°v lm\n kw`hn°pw. `cWnbnse
¶n¬ \¿ØI∑m¿, D]IcW߃ hmbn°p∂h¿, ]m´pIm¿, sNdnb
h©nIfn¬ D]Poh\w Ign°p∂h¿ F∂nh¿°mWp lm\n.
4. _lpemtÿ ]oVbt¥ kutcf Kv\yp]
Pohn\iz aq]mizmtcmlnWymw
tImiea{ZImin]m©me imISnImx
Im¿ØnIbnse¶n¬ AKv\nsIm≠v D]Pohn°p∂h¿°pw cmPm°
∑m¿°pw lm\n. tcmlnWnbnse¶n¬ tImiew, a{Z, Imin, ]m©mew,
F∂nhnS-ßfnep≈h¿°pw imISnI∑m¿°pw (h≠n°m¿) ]oV.
278

{]Imikn‘p

5. arKinckn h’bmPI bPam\mcyP\ a≤y tZimizm
cu{Ztÿ ]mcXcmaT ssXenIcPINucmiz.
aIbncØnse¶n¬ h’ tZi°m¿°pw, bmPI∑m¿°pw, bPam\
∑m¿°pw, Bcy P\߃°pw, a≤y {]tZiØnse P\Xbv°pw ]oV.
XncphmXncbnse¶n¬ cmaTtZiw, FÆ°m¿, tUm_nIƒ, Xkv°c∑m¿
F∂nh¿°p ]oV.
6. BZntXy]©\Z {]Xy¥kpcmjv{S kn‘p kuhocmx
]ptjymLmfinItLmjnI h\ hWn°nXhIpkpam\n.
]pW¿XØnse¶n¬ ]©m_v, {]Xy¥w, kucmjv{Sw, kn‘p,
kuhoctZißfn¬ ]oV. ]qbØnse¶n¬ L≠maWn ASn°p∂h¿,
s]cpºd sIm´n tLmjn°p∂h¿, bh\¿, hWn°pIƒ, Je∑m¿,
]pjv]߃ F∂nh°p \miw.
7. k¿t∏ Pecplk¿∏mx ]nt{Xy _lvfoI No\m K‘mcmx
iqenI ]mcXsshiymx tImjvTmKmcmWn hWnP›.
BbneyØn¬ ]Xva߃, k¿∏߃, F∂nhbv°pw, aIØn¬
_mlvfoI¿, ssN\°m¿, Km‘mc∑m¿, iqenI∑m¿, ]mcXh∑m¿, ssh
iy¿, `fimc߃, I®hS°m¿ F∂nh¿°pw ]oV.
8. `mtKyckhn{IbnWmx ]Wymkv{Xo I\yIm almcmjv{Sm
BcyavtW \r]KpUeh∂`n £pImw_p\n X£inem.
]qcØn¬ ck߃ hn{Ibw sNøp∂h¿, ]Wy kv{XoIƒ (thiy),
I\yIam¿, almcmjv{SØnse P\߃ F∂nh¿°pw, D{XØn¬ cmPm
°∑m¿, i¿°c, D∏v, `n£p°ƒ, Pew, X£inebnse P\߃ F∂n
h¿°pw ]oV.
9. lkvtX\m]nX Nm{InINuc`njIvkqNIZzn]{Kmlmx
_‘Iyx IuieImamemImcmiz ]oVbt¥.
AØØn¬ Nm{IoI∑m¿ (N{Iw sIm≠v IcIuie hkvXp D≠m
°p∂h¿, N{Iw Nhn´p∂h¿) I≈∑m¿, sshZy∑m¿, kqNnI∑m¿, B\
Isf ]nSn°p∂h¿, _‘n°p∂h¿, Iuie°m¿, ame tIm¿°p∂h¿
Ch¿°v ]oVmImew.
279

{]Imikn‘p

10. Nn{Xmtÿ {]aZmP\teJI Nn{X⁄ Nn{X `mfim\n.
kzmXuamK[ NcZqXkqXt]mXπh\ \Sm[yx
Nn{Xbnse¶n¬ kv{XoIƒ, Nn{XsagpØpIm¿, teJI∑m¿, k©m
cnIƒ F∂nh¿°v At\I {]ImcØnep≈ {Zhy ]oV A\p`hs∏Spw.
tNmXnbn¬ i\n \n∂m¬ aK[w, ZqX∑m¿, Nc∑m¿, kmcYnIƒ, \uI
Ifn¬ k©cn°p∂h¿, \S∑m¿ F∂nh¿°mWv ]oVmImew.
11. sF{μmKv\mtJy ss{XK¿Ø No\IueX Ip¶paw em£m
kkym\yY amRvPnjvTw Iukp`wN£bw bm¥n.
hnimJØn¬ i\n \n¬°ptºmƒ {XnK¿Øw, ssN\, IpeqXw,
F∂o tZi°m¿°pw, Ip¶paw, em£, [m\yw, aRvPnjvTw, Ipkpw_w
F∂nhbv°pw £bImeamWv.
12. ssat{XIpeqX XwKW Jk Imivaocx ka{¥n N{INcmx
C]Xm]w bm¥n N LmfinI hnt`Z› an{XmWmw
A\ngØn¬ \n∂m¬ IpeqXw, XwKWw, Jkw, Imivaocw F∂n
hnSßfnse a{¥nam¿, N{Iw Nhn´p∂h¿, L≠maWn apg°p∂h¿
F∂nh¿°pw Xm]ta¿s∏Spw. an{X߃ XΩn¬ Ielap≠mhpw (N{I
Nc∑mcn¬ N{Iw Np‰n FÆbm´p∂hcpw, N{Iw Np‰n sh≈w h‰n°p∂
hcpw, N{Iw Np‰n a¨]m{Xap≠m°p∂hcpw s]Spw).
13. tPyjvTmkp\r]]ptcmlnX \r]kXvIrX iqcKW Ipet{iWyx
aqteXp Imin tImie ]m©me ^euj[o tbm[mx
tPyjvTbn¬ i\n \n¬°ptºmƒ cmPm°∑m¿, ]ptcmlnX∑m¿,
\r]∑mcm¬ _lpam\n°s∏Sp∂ [oc∑m¿, KWIpe t{iWnIƒ
(k\ymkn aT߃) F∂nh¿°p ]oV kw`hn°pw. aqeØnse¶n¬
Imin, tImiew, ]m©mew, ^e߃, Huj[nIƒ, tbm≤m°ƒ F∂n
hbv°mWv £bw.
14. Bt]y AwKhwK Iuie Kncn{hP amK[]pMvanYnem›
D]Xm]w bm¥nP\m hk¥ntb Xm{amen]vXymwN.
]q¿ΔmjmVØnse¶n¬ AwKw, hwKw, IenwKw, Kncnh{Pw, tImk
ew, amK[w, ]p{fiw, anYnew, Xm{aen]vXn F∂nhnSßfnep≈h¿°v
Xm]w.
280

{]Imikn‘p

15. hntiziztcf ¿°]p{Xizcμcm¿Æm\nl¥n bh\mw›
D÷b\ow i_cm≥ ]mcnbm{XnIm≥ Ip¥nt`mPmw›.
D{XmSØnse¶n¬ D÷bn\n, ]mcnbm{XnIw, Ip¥nt`mPw apXemb
cmPyßfnep≈h¿°pw bh\¿°pw, i_c∑m¿°pw \√ Imea√.
16. {ihtW cmPm[nIrXm\zn {]m{Kb`njIv k]ptcmlnX IenwKm≥
hkpt` aKt[ cmPtbmhr≤nivN [t\jz[nIrXm\mw.
XncpthmWØnse¶n¬ cmPm[nImcnIƒ, {_mlvaW¿, sshZy¿,
]ptcmlnX¿, IenwK¿ F∂nh¿°v k¥m]w t\cnSpw. Ahn´Ønse¶n¬
aK[bnse cmPmhn\v, hnPbhpw [\m[nImcnIƒ°v A`nhr≤nbpap≠m
Ipw.
17. kmtPiXm`njPn `nj°hn iufinI ]Wy\oXn h¿Øm\mw.
Aln_p[vt\y \tSymbm\Icmx kv{Xo lncWywN.
NXbØntem, ]qtcmcp´mXnbntem k©cn°ptºmƒ sshZy∑m¿,
IhnIƒ, iufinIƒ, ]Wy PohnIƒ, \ymbm[n]∑m¿ F∂nh¿°v
hnLv\߃ kw`hn°pw. DØc `m{Z]ZØnse¶n¬ \SnIƒ, k©mcn
Iƒ, kv{Xo, kz¿Æw F∂nhbv°v \miw kw`hn°pw.
18. tchXymw cmP`rXmx {Iu©Zzo]m{inXmx icXvkkyw
i_cmivN \n]oUyt¥ bh\mivN iss\›ssc NcXn
tchXnbnse¶n¬ cmPmhns‚ `rXy∑m¿, {Iu© Zzo]\nhmknIƒ,
icXv°mesØ kky߃, i_c∑m¿, bh\∑m¿ F∂nh¿°p ]oV.
19. bZm hnimJmkp atl{μ a{¥o kpX› `mt\m¿±l\¿ £bmXx
XZm{]Pm\ a\tbmAXntLmcx ]pc{]t`tZm KXtbm¿`taIw
_rlkv]Xn hnimJØn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ i\n Im¿ØnIbn¬
{]thin®m¬ {]PIƒ°nSbn¬ A[¿Ωw DXv`hn°pw. Ah¿ c≠p
t]cpw H∂ns®mcnSØp \n∂m¬ AXntLmcamb coXnbn¬ ]´W߃
\in∏n°s∏Spw.
20. AfiPlmchntPmbXn Nn{Xx £p[v `b Ir[yZn ]oXabqJx
ikv{X `bmbN c‡ kh¿tÆm `kva\nt`m _lpsshc Ic›.
281

{]Imikn‘p

At\Iw Nn{X h¿ÆßtfmsS ImWp∂ i\n AfiP߃°p
hn\miImcnbmWv. ]oXh¿ÆamsW¶n¬ hni∏pw, `bhpap≠m°pw.
`kva h¿Æsa¶n¬ i\n sshcw P\n∏n°pw.
21. sshUqcy Im¥ncaex ip`Zx {]Pm\mw
_mWmXkoIpkpa h¿Æ \n`›ikvXx
]©m]nh¿Æap]KOXn XXv kh¿Æm≥
kqcymflPx £]bXoXn ap\n{]hmZx
ap\nam¿ ]dbp∂p: sshUqcy Im¥n Nn¥n Aae\mbn, _mW∏q
hns‚tbm, AXko IpkpaØns‚tbm h¿ÆtØmSp IqSn DZn°p∂
i\n {]PIƒ°v AXoh ip`{]ZmbIamsW∂v. shfp∏v, Nph∏v, a™,
Idp∏v, \m\mh¿Æw F∂o h¿Æßfn¬ i\nsb I≠m¬ {IaØn¬
{_mlvaW¿, £{Xnb¿, sshiy¿, iq{Z¿, k¶c h¿Æ°m¿ F∂n
h¿°v \miw kw`hn°pw.
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu_rlXv kwlnXmbmw iss\›c
NmtcmZitamf A≤ymb.

282

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 11

tIXpNmcw
1. Km¿§obw inJnNmcw ]cmicaknXtZheIrXw N
A\ymw› _lq¿ ZrjvSzm {InbtX Aba\mIpe›mcx
Km¿§n, ]cmic≥, AknX≥, tZhe≥, apXemb ap\namcpw a‰t\I
imkv{X⁄cpw Z¿in®v \n›bn® {]Imcap≈ inJnNmcs Ø
]dbp∂p.
2. Z¿i\akvXatbm hm\KWnX hn[n\mky iIytX ⁄mXpw
Znhym¥co£ `uamkv{Xnhn[mxkyqx tIXthmbkvamXv
tIXphns‚ DZbmkvXabßsf shdpw KWnXw sIm≠p am{Xw
Adnbm\mhpIbn√. ImcWw Znhyw, A¥co£w, `uaw F∂v aq∂p
hn[ tIXp°fp≠v.
3. AlpXmtiA\ecq]wbkvanw XXv tIXpcq]tathm‡w
JtZymX ]nimNmeb akncXv\mZo≥ ]cnXyPm
JtZymXw (an∂man\pßv), ]nimNmebw (s]m´nNq´v), Akn, cXv\w
F∂nhsbmgnsI AKv\n kam\ambn Pzen°p∂ k¿Δ ]Zm¿∞ßfpw
tIXp cq]ßfmWv.
4. [zP ikv{X`h\XcpXpcK IpRvPcmtZyjz Ym¥co£mkvtX
Znhym \£{Xÿm `uamx kypctXmA\yYm inJn\x
sImSn, Bbp[w, Krlw, hr£w, IpXnc, B\ apXembhbpsS
BIrXnbn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂ tIXp A¥co£P\yamb tIXphmWv.
Znhyambn \£{X߃°nSbn¬ Ccn°p∂ tIXp Znhy tIXphmWv.
Chb√mØhsb√mw `ua tIXp°ƒ BWv.
5. iXtaIm[nI tatI kl{ka]tc hZ¥n tIXp\mw
_lpcq]taItah{]mlap\n¿∂mcZx tIXpw.
]finX∑m¿ `n∂m`n{]mb°mcmWv. Nne¿ 111 Xcw tIXp°sf
h¿Æn°p∂p. a‰p Nne¿ Bbncw tIXp°sf h¿Æn°p∂p. \mcZ ap\n
283

{]Imikn‘p

]dbp∂p:- tIXp Ht∂bp≈q AXp _lpcq]Øn¬ {]Xy£s∏SpI
bmWv.
6. btZytImbZn _lhx Inat\\ ^ewXp
k¿ΔYmhmNyw DZbmkvXassbx ÿmss\x
kv]¿ssi cm[qass\h¿ssÆ
Ht∂m ]etXm Bhs´, DZbw, AkvXabw, ÿm\w, kv]¿iw,
[qah¿Æw, ChbpsS ^ew- C{Xbpw ]dtb≠Xp≠v.
7. bmh¥ylm\n Zrtiym amkmkvXmh¥ Gh^e ]mIx
amsskc_vZmw ›htZXv {]YamXv]£{XbmXv]cXx
F{X Znhkw tIXp ZriyamIp∂pthm A{Xbpw amktØ°mWv
AXns‚ ^ew ImWpI. tIXp AkvXan®v 45 ZnhkØn\Iw ^e߃
ImWm≥ XpSßpw.
8. {lkzX\px {]k∂x kv\nKv[ kvXrPqcpNnc kwÿnXx ip¢x
DZntXm hm]y`nZrjvSx kp`n£kuJymhll tIXpx
sNdpXpw, {]k∂hpw, kv\nKv[hpw (tcmaw AYhm hmen√mØXv)
kcfhpw at\mlchpw shfpØXpw Bbn DZn®p ImWp∂ tIXp
kp`n£ ZmbI\pw, kuJy ZmbI\pamWv.
9. D‡ hn]coXmcqt]m\ ip`Itcm [qa tIXpcXv ]∂x
C{μmbp[m\pImco hntijtXm Zzn{Xn Nqtemhm.
CXn\p hn]coX cq]amb tIXp ‘[qatIXp’ F∂dnbs∏Sp∂p.
AXv ip`Ica√. C{μ[\p p t]mse hf™pw, ct≠m, aqt∂m hmep
ItfmSpIqSnbpw ImWp∂ [qatIXp H´pw ip`Ica√.
10. lmcaWn tlacq]mx IncWmJymx ]©hnwiXn kinJmx
{]mK]cZntim¿Zriym \r]Xn hntcm[m hlmchnPx
lmcw, aWn, kz¿Æw F∂nhbpsS cq]Øn¬ IncWßtfmsS, 25
inJItfmsS ]q¿Δ, ]›na ZniIfn¬ DZn°p∂ tIXp kqcy\n¬ \n∂v
P\n® tIXphmWv. CXn\v IncWw F∂pw t]cp≠v. CXv DZn°ptºmƒ
cmPm°∑m¿°v ]ckv]c sshcw D≠mhp∂p.
284

{]Imikn‘p

11. ipIZl\ _‘p Poh Iem£m £XtPm]am lpXmi kpXmx
BKvt\bmw Zriyt¥Xmh¥kvtX A]ninJn `bZmx
XØ, AKv\n, sNºcØn∏qhv, em£, c‡w F∂nht]mse ImWp
∂Xv AKv\nbn¬ \n∂p P\n® tIXphmWv. Ch Ccp]Ø©p Xcap≠v.
Ch DZn°ptºmƒ AKv\n`bw D≠mhpw.
12. h{I inJmarXypkpXmcq£mx IrjvWm›tX A]nXmh¥x
Zriyt¥ bmaymbmw P\ac ImthZn\ kvtXN.
h{IinJItfmSpw cq£amb IrjvW h¿ÆtØmSpw IqSnb 25
tIXp°ƒ Z£nW Zn°n¬ ImWmw. Ch arXyphn¬ \n∂v P\n®hcmWv.
Ch¿ DZn°ptºmƒ P\߃ acn°p∂p.
13. Z¿∏W hrØmImcm hninJmx ImcWm\znXm [cmX\bmx
£pZv`bmZmZzmhnwiXn sscim\ym aw_pssXe \n`mx
Z¿∏Ww t]mse tKmfmImcambn, inJmclnXambn, IncWßtfm
sS, Pehpw FÆbpw \nd™Xpt]mse Cuim\Znibn¬ ImWp∂ 32
Xcw tIXp°ƒ `qanbn¬ \n∂p Xs∂ D≠mbhbmWv. Ah DZn°p
tºmƒ Zp¿`n£w D≠mhp∂p.
14. iinIncWPXlnaIpapZIpμIpkptam]amx kpXmxiin\x
DØctXm Zriyt¥{Xbx kp`n£m hlx inJn\x
N{μIncWw, sh≈n, a™v, Bº¬, ap√∏q F∂nhbv°v kZri
ambn DØc Zn°n¬ ImWp∂ aq∂p hn[w tIXp°ƒ N{μ\n¬\n∂p
P\n®hcmWv. Ah¿ kp`n£w \¬Ip∂p.
15. {_lvakpX GIGh {Xn»ntJmh¿Ækv{Xn`nbpK¥Icx
A\nbXZn°v kw{]`thm hnt⁄tbm {_lva ZfimJyx
{_lva ]p{X\mbn, {_lvaZfisa∂ t]cn¬ bpKm¥Imcnbmbn
DZn°p∂ Hcp tIXphp≠v. CXn\v GXp Zn°nepw {]`hnbv°mw. aq∂p
inJbpw aq∂p h¿Æhpw CXn\p≠v.
16. iXa`nlnX taIktaX taXtZtI\ hnclnXm\y kvamXv.
IYbntjytIXq\mw iXm\n\he£ssWx kv]jvssSx
Cßs\ 111 tIXp°sf h¿Æn°p∂p. 899 tIXp°fpsS kv]jvS
e£Ww ]dbs∏´n´p≠v. Ahsb C\n ]dbmw.
285

{]Imikn‘p

17. kussayimt\ymcpZbw ipIvckpXmbm¥n NXpc ioXymJyx
hn]peknX XmcImkvtX kv\nKv≤m› `h¥n Xo{h ^emx
DØc Znibnepw Cuim\ tImWnepw DZn°p∂ tIXp°ƒ ip{I
\n¬ \n∂p≠mbhcmWv. Ah¿ 84 t]cp≠v. henbXpw, shfpØXpw,
\£{X Xp√yhpw, kv\nKv≤hpamb Ch¿ Xo{h ^e߃ Xcp∂hcmWv.
18. kv\nKv≤m {]`mktaXm ZzninJmx jjvTnx iss\›cmwKcplmx
AXnIjvS ^emXriym k¿Δss{XtX I\I kw⁄mx
kv\nKv≤hpw {]`mktaXhpw c≠p inJbp≈Xpamb 60 tIXp°ƒ
i\n ]p{X∑cmWv. Ch¿ k¿Δ{X ImWs∏Sp∂p. AXn IjvS^ew
Xcp∂p. Chsc ‘I\I’sa∂p hnfn°p∂p.
19. hnINm\maKpcpkpXmx knssXIXmcmx inJm]mcnXy‡mx
jjvTn ]©`nc[oImkvanKv≤mbmaym{inXmx ]m]mx
inJIfn√msX shfpØ \ndtØmSpIqSn GIXmcØn\p kZriy
ambn Z£nWZnibn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂ 65 tIXp°fp≠v. Ch¿ hnINsa∂
dnbs∏Sp∂p. Ch DZn°ptºmƒ `qanbn¬ ]m]w h¿≤n°p∂p.
20. \mXnhy‡m kq£vam Zo¿Lmx ip¢m btYjvS Zn°v {]`hm
_p[Pm kvXkv°ckw⁄mx ]m]^em kvtXzI]©miZv
A[nIw hy‡a√msX kq£vahpw Zo¿Lhpw shfpØXpambn
CjvSap≈ Zn°n¬ ImWs∏Sp∂ 51 tIXp°ƒ ‘Xkv°c’sa∂p hnfn°
s∏Sp∂p. _p[\n¬ \n∂p≠mb Ch¿ ]m]^ew Xcp∂p.
21. £XPm\em\p cq]mkv{XnNqeXmcmx IpPmXvaPmx jjvTnx
\mav\mNIu¶pamkvtXkuaymimkwÿnXmx ]m]mx
c‡ h¿Ætam, AKv\n h¿Ætam Bbn, aq∂p hmepItfmsS \£
{Xkam\ambn 60 tIXp°ƒ DØc Znibnep≠v. “Ip¶pa”sa∂dnbs∏
Sp∂ Ch¿ sNmΔbn¬ \n∂v Dev]mZn∏n°s∏´hcmWv. Ch¿ ]m] ^ew
Xcp∂p.
22. {XnwiXy[nIm cmtlmkvtX Xmak IoeIm CXnJymXnx
chn iinKmZriyt¥ tXjmw ^ea¿° Nmtcm‡w.
Xmak IoeI߃ F∂ t]cn¬ 3 x 30 tIXp°fp≠v. Ah¿
cmlphn¬ ÿnXn sNøp∂p. Ah¿ N{μ kqcy afießfn¬ ImWs∏
286

{]Imikn‘p

Sp∂p. Chsc A¿°NmcØn¬ ]cma¿in®p (A≤ymbw 3-¬ 7-mw t«mIw
apX¬ Chsb ]cma¿in°p∂p≠v).
23. hnwiXy[nI a\yOXaKv\n hnizcq] kw⁄m\mw
Xo{hm\e `bZm\mw Pzmemamem IpeX\q\mw.
Xo PzmeIfpsS Hcp ame t]mse ImWp∂Xpw “hnizcq]”sa∂p
t]cp≈Xpambn 120 tIXp°fp≠v. Ah Xo{hamb AKv\n`bw D≠m
°p∂p.
24. iymamcpWmhnXmcm›ma cq]m hnIo¿Æm Zo[nXbx
AcpWmkymhmtbmx k]vXk]vXXnx ]m]Zm ]pcpjmx
iymamcpW h¿ÆØn¬ Nmac cq]Øn¬ IncWan√mØ Fgp]
tØgv tIXp°ƒ hmbphn¬ \n∂p≠mbhbmWv. “AcpW”F∂ Ch
]m]^ew Xcp∂p.
25. Xmcm]pRvP \nImimKWIm\ma {]Pm]tXjvSu
tZzNitX NXpc[ntI NXpc{km {_lvak¥m\mx
Xmcm ]pRvP kam\ambn F´p {]Pm]Xn]p{X∑mcp≠v. Ahsc
‘KWI’∑msc∂p hnfn°p∂p. 204 t]¿ {_lvak¥m\ßfmbn´v thsd
bpap≠v.
26. IwIm\ma hcpWPm Zzm{XnwiZzwiKpeva kwÿm\mx
iinhXv {]`mktaXmkvXo{h^emx tIXhx t{]m‡mx
hcpW ]p{X∑mcmbn 32 tIXp°fp≠v: ‘IwIm’ F∂v t]cv. N{μ
kam\amb Im¥nbp≈ Ch¿ Aip`^eZmbnIfmWv.
27. jÆmhXnxImekpXmx I_‘kw⁄mx I_‘ kwÿm\mx
Nfimx`b{]Zmx kyq cq]XmcmivN tXinJn\x
I_‘kam\amb BImcw [cn®v “I_‘”sa∂pt]cp≈ 96
tIXp°ƒ ImeØns‚ ]p{X∑mcmWv. Nfi∑mcpw, `b{]Zcpw Bb
Ch¿°nSbn¬ Ip cq][mcnIfmbn \£{Xßfpap≠v.
28. ip¢hn]psseIXmcm\hhnZnimwtIXhxkapXv]∂mx
Ghw tIXpkl{kw hntijtajmatXmht£y.
287

{]Imikn‘p

shfpØXpw hn]pehpamb \£{Xßsft∏mse HºXp tIXp
°ƒ hnZniIfn¬ Dev]∂ambhcmWv. C{]Imcw BsI kl{kw tIXp
°fp≠v. Chbn¬ khntijambhsb C\n ]dbmw.
29. DZImbtXmalm≥ kv\nKv≤ aq¿Ønc]tcmZbo hkm tIXpx
kZyxItcmXnacIwkp`n£a]ypØaw IpcptX.
]Sn™mdp`mKØv DZn®v DØcZn°n¬ AkvXan°p∂ alØpw
kv\nKv≤aq¿Ønbpamb tIXp hkmtIXp F∂dnbs∏Sp∂p. amcIsa¶n
epw CXv DØaamb kp`n£w \¬Ip∂p.
30. X√£tWm ÿntIXpx kXpcq£x £p{Zbmhlx t{]m‡x
kv\nKv≤kvXmXrIv {]mNymwikv{XmtJymUacacImb.
CtX e£WtØmsS cq£hpw £p{Zhpw kv\nKv≤hpambn ]Sn
™mdpZn°p∂ “ikv{X”sa∂ tIXp k¿Δhpw XeIogm°p∂p: amcI
hpamWv.
31. Zrtiymamhmkymbmw I]metIXpx k[q{a civan inJx
{]mMvx\`tkm¿≤ hnNmco £p≥ acImhrjvSntcmKIcx
Aamhmknbv°v BImiØns‚ ]q¿Δ`mKØv kl{kcivanItfm
Spw [mcmfw inJItfmSpw DZn°p∂ I]me tIXp hni∏pw, acWhpw
tcmK`bhpw sIm≠phcp∂p.
32. {]mssKzizm\cam¿t§ iqem{Kx kymhcq£Xm{am¿®nx
\`kkv{Xn`mK Kman cu{Z CXn I]meXpey^ex
]q¿Δ Znibn¬ Z£nW am¿§Øn¬ iqem{Kwt]mse cq£ambpw
Xm{ah¿ÆØnep≈ IncWßtfmSpw IqSn BImiØns‚ aq∂p`mKw
hsc k©cn°p∂Xv cu{Zsa∂ tIXphmWv. CXpw I]meXpeyamb
^ew Xcp∂p.
33. A]ckymw NetIXpx inJbm bmaym{KbmMvKptem
{OnXbmKtO[yYmbtYmZIXYmssZ¿LyambmXn.
GsXmcp [q{ah¿Æ\mb tIXp ]ivNna Zn°n¬ DZn®v Z£nW
Zn°ns‚ HcwKpew DbcØn¬ inJItfmsS \n¬°p∂pthm, DØc Zn°n
te°v bYm{Iaw hf¿∂psIm≠v k©cn°p∂pthm AXns\ NetIXp
F∂v ]dbpw.
288

{]Imikn‘p

34. k]vXap\o≥ kwkv]riy{[pha`nPnXtah N{]Xn\n hrØx
\`tkm¿≤am{XanXzmbmtay\mkvXw kap]bmXn.
NetIXp DØcZn°n¬ k]vX¿jnafiew kv]¿in®v A`nPnØn
t\bpw kv]¿in®v BImiØns‚ Hcp hiØpIqSnt]mbn Z£nWZni
bn¬Øs∂ AkvXan°p∂p.
35. l\ymZv {]bmKIqemXv bmhZh¥ow N]pjv°cmJymw
DZK]nN tZhnIma]n`qbnjvTw a≤ytZimJyw.
{]bmKXocw apX¬ Ah¥n hscbpw, ]pjv°chpw, hS°phiØv
tZhnIm\Znhscbpw a≤y{]tZihpw Cu tIXp l\nbv°p∂p.
36. A\ym\]nNk tZim≥ IzNnXv
IzNnZz¥ntcmKZp¿`nss£x
Ziamkm≥ ^e]mtImkyssIivNnZjvSmZit{]m‡x
Cu tZißfn¬ tcmKhpw Zp¿`n£hpw ]ØpamktØbv°p≠mhp
sa∂v Nne ]finX¿ ]dbp∂p. A√ ]Xns\´pamktØ°v F∂v a‰p
Nne ]finX¿ ]dbp∂p.
37. {]mK¿≤cm{XZrtiymbmaym{KxtizXtIXpc\yivN
I CXnbpKmIrXnc]tcbpK]Øu k]vXZn\ Zriyux
]q¿ΔZn°n¬ A¿≤cm{Xnbn¬ Zriyambn Z£nW Zn°ns‚ ]ptcm
`mKØpImWp∂ tizX tIXp “I” F∂ bpKmIrXnbp≈XmWv ({_
lvanbnse + F∂ ‘Ipcnin’s‚ BIrXn) bpKw amdp∂ thfbn¬ CXv
Ggp Znhkw ZriyamIpw.
38. kv\nKv≤u kp`n£ inhZm[nIw ZriytXI\mambx
Zih¿jmWy]Xm]w P\bXn ikv{X{]tIm]IrXw.
kv\nKv≤hpw kp`n£ awKfIchpamWv ‘I’ F∂ t]cp≈ Cu
tizXtIXp. F∂m¬ 7 ZnhkØne[nIw \n∂m¬, ]Øph¿jtØ°v
Xm]ap≠mhpw, Cu Xm]w Bbp[Øm¬ {]tIm]n∏n°s∏´Xmhpw.
(kmbp[ hnπhw- bp≤w)
39. tizX CXn PSmImtcmcp£x
kymthmhnb{Xn`mKKXx
hn\nh¿ØtXf ]khyw {Xn`mKtijmx{]PmxIpcptX.
289

{]Imikn‘p

PSmcq]Øn¬ cq£ambn iymah¿Æambn BImiØns‚ aq∂p
`mKßfn¬ sN∂pXncn®phcp∂Xv ‘tizX’sa∂ tIXphmWv. CXv {]P
Isf \in∏n°p∂p.
40. B[q{abmw Xp inJbm Z¿i\ambmXn IrØnIm kwÿx
t⁄bxk civantIXpx tizXkam\w ^ew [tØ.
[q{ah¿Æamb inJItfmsS, Im¿ØnIm \£{XØn¬ ImWp
∂Xv ‘civantIXp’hmWv. CXv ‘tizX’Øn∂p kam\amb ^ew Xcp∂p.
41. {[phtIXp c\nbXKXn{]amW h¿ÆmIrXn¿`hXn
hnjzImZnhym¥cn£`utam`hXybw kv\nKv≤ CjvS^ex
{[phtIXphns‚ KXn, {]amWw, h¿Æw, BIrXn F∂nh A\n
bXamWv. AXv Znhytam A¥co£tam `uatam BImw. kv\nKv≤amb
CXv CjvS^ew Xcp∂p.
42. tk\mwtKjp \r]mWmw
KrlXcpssitejpNm]ntZim\mw
KrlnWm ap]kv°tcjphn\min\mw Z¿i\w bmXn.
CXv hn\miw kw`hn°m≥ t]mIp∂ \r]∑mcpsS tk\mwK߃
t°m, hn\miw kw`hn°p∂ Krlw, hr£w, ssiew, tZiw F∂nh
bvt°m, apIfnembn ImWs∏Spw. \in°m≥ t]mIp∂ KrlØns‚ DSa
ÿ\m¬ ImWs∏Spw.
43. IpapZCXnIpapZIm¥n¿ΔmcpWymw{]mIvOntJm\n imtaImw
ZrjvSx kp`n£aXpewZiIne h¿jmWnkItcmXn.
IpapZIm¥ntbmSpIqSn ]ivNnaZn°n¬ \n∂v Ingt°m´p \o≠ inJ
ItfmSpIqSn H‰cm{Xn ImWp∂XmWv IpapZtIXp. CXv ]Øph¿j
tØbv°v AXpeyamb kp`n£w \¬Ipw.
44. kIrsZIbmaZriyx kpkq£va Xmtcm]tcW aWntIXpx
EPo inJmky ip¢mkvXt\mZvKXm£oc[mtch.
kpkq£vaamb \£{Xw t]mse ]ivNna Zn°n¬ Hcp bmaw am{Xw
ImWp∂Xv aWntIXphmWv. kvXt\mZvKXamb £oct]mse EPphpw
shfpØXpamWv CXns‚ inJnIƒ.
290

{]Imikn‘p

45. DZbt∂hkp`n£w NXptcmamkm≥ ItcmXyku km¿≤m≥
{]Zp¿`mhw {]mbx ItcmXn N £p{Z P¥p\mw.
aWntIXp DZn®m¬ \mepamktØbv°v kp`n£amWv. ]s£ CXn
s‚ ^ew (kp`n£w) £p{ZP¥p°ƒ°mWv: (a\pjy¿°√).
46. PetIXpc]nN]›mXv
kv\nKv≤xinJbm]tcWtNm∂Xbm
\h amkm≥ kkp`n£w ItcmXn im¥nwNtemIky.
apIfn¬ [mcmfw inJItfmSpw Xmsg kv\nKv≤ambn sam´bmbpw
Ccn°p∂Xv PetIXp. CXv DZn®m¬ HºXpamkw kp`n£amWv. k¿Δ
temI߃°pw im¥n e`n°pw.
47. `hsIXptcIcm{Xw Zriyx{]mIv kq£vaXmcIxkv\nKv≤x
cnemip tem]abm {]Z£nWmh¿ØbminJbmx
H‰ cm{Xnam{Xw ZriyamIp∂Xpw, ap≥`mKw kq£vaXmc kZri
hpw kv\nKv≤hpambncn°p∂Xpw, ]n≥`mKw knwlhmept]mencn°p∂
Xpw, Z£nW`mKtØ°v inJ \o≠Xpamb tIXp `htIXphmWv.
48. bmhXv Gh aplq¿Øm≥ Z¿i\ambmXn \n¿±nti≥ amkm≥
XmhZXpekp`n£w cqt£ {]mWm¥nIm≥ tcmKm≥
`htIXp F{X aplq¿Øw Zriyamtbm A{Xbpw amkw kp`n£
ap≠mhpw. AXv cq£ambn I≠m¬ {]mWm¥Ißfmb tcmK߃
D≠mhpw.
49. A]tcW ]ZvatIXp¿ΩrWme Kutcm`th∂nimtaImw
k]vXItcmXn kp`n£w h¿jmWyXnl¿jbp‡m\n.
arWmfw t]mse shfpØv ]›naZn°n¬ Hcp cm{Xn am{Xw Im
Wp∂ ]fltIXp Ggph¿jtØ°v kp`n£hpw agbpw B\μhpw
\¬Ipw.
50. Bh¿Ø CXn\nim¿t≤ khyintJmf cpW\nt`m ]tckv\nKv≤x
bmhXv e£Wm≥ k ZriykvXmh≥ amkm≥ kp`n£Icx
\nim¿≤whsc khyinJItfmSv AcpWh¿Æambpw Hcp `mKw
kv\nKv≤ambpw ImWp∂Xv “Bh¿Ø”amWv. CXv F{X £Ww
ImWp∂p thm A{Xbpw amkw kp`n£ap≠mhpw.
291

{]Imikn‘p

51. ]ivNmXv k‘ymImte kwh¿tØm\ma[q{aXm{ainJx
B{Iay hnbXv{Xywiw iqem{KmhÿntXm cu{Zux
[q{a Xm{ah¿Æßfnep≈ inJtbmSpIqSn `b¶c cq]Øn¬
BImiØns‚ {Xn`mKsØ B{Ian®v iqem{Kkam\ambn k‘ym
ImeØv ]›naZn°n¬ ImWs∏Sp∂ tIXp “kwh¿Ø”amWv.
52. bmhXv Gh aplq¿Øm≥ Zrtiymh¿jmWnXmh¥n
`q]mivNkv{X \n]mssXcpZb¿£w Nm]n]oVbXn.
F{X aplq¿Øw CXv ZriyamIp∂pthm A{Xbpw h¿jw cmPm°
∑m¿ bp≤wsIm≠v ]oVnXcmIp∂p. AXns‚ DZbImeØv F{X \£
{Xw h¿Øam\ambncn°p∂pthm, B P∑¿jßfn¬ Bscms° P\n®n
´pt≠m, Ahcpw ]oVnXcmhpw.
53. tb ikvXmkvXm≥ lnXzmtIXp`ncm[q antX Yhm kv]rjvtS
\£t{X `hXn ht[m tbjmw cm⁄mw {]ht£yXm≥
GsX√mw \£{Xßfn¬ tIXp B[qa\w sNbvItbm kv]jvSam
Itbm sNøpIbm¬, GsX√mw cmPm°∑mcpsS h[w kwhZn°p∂p
F∂v C\n ]dbmw.
54. Aizn\ym aivaI]w `cWojp IncmX ]m¿∞nhw l\ymXv
PePmPohm[n]wXYm¿{Zmkp
BZntXyf ivaI\mYw ]ptjyaK[m[n]w l¥n.
AizXnbn¬ AivazIcmPmhv, `cWnbn¬ IncmXcmPmhv, Im¿ØnI
bn¬ IenwKcmPmhv, tcmlnWnbn¬ iqc tk\m]Xn. arKinc n¬ Dio
\c≥, XncphmXncbn¬ a’ycmP≥, ]p\¿hkphn¬ AivaIcmP≥,
]qbØn¬ aK[cmPmhv.
55. AkntIiw `uPwtK ]nt{Xf wKw ]mfiy\mYa
]n`mtKy
Hu÷b\n IkmcyavtWm kmhnt{X ZfiIm[n]Xnw.
BbneyØn¬ AkntIi≥, aIØn¬ AwKcmP≥, ]qcØn¬
]mfiycmPmhv, D{XØn¬ D÷bn\n cmPmhv, AØØn¬ ZfiIm[n
]Xn.
292

{]Imikn‘p

56. Nn{Xmkp Ipcpt£{Xm[n]ky acWw kamZntcmØPvR
ImivaocI Imwt_mPu\r]Xn {]m`RvPt\ \ kvXx
Nn{Xbn¬ Ipcpt£{Xm[n]∂p acWw; kzmXn \£{XØn¬
Imivaocw, Imwt_mPw F∂o tZißfnse cmPm°∑m¿°pw \miw.
57. C£zmIpcXv\\mYult\y tX bZn`thZv hnimJmkp
ssat{X]p{fim[n]Xn tPyjvTmkzY km¿Δ`uah[x
hnimJØn¬ C£zmIp, cXv\I\mY∑m¿, A\ngØn¬ ]p{fim[n
]Xn, tPyjvTbn¬ N{Ih¿Ønam¿.
58. aqtef {‘ a{ZI]XnPetZthImint]macWmtaXn
but[cyIm¿÷p\mb\in_n ssN[ym≥ sshiz tZthN.
aqeØn¬ B{‘Iw, a{ZIw F∂nhbpsS cmPm°∑m¿, ]qcmS
Øn¬ Imin]Xn, D{XmSØn¬ tbm[, cmP≥, A¿÷p\mb\≥, in_n,
ssNZn\r]≥.
59. l\ymXv ssIIb\mYw ]m©\Zwknlem[n]whmwKw
ss\anj\r]w IncmXw{ihWmZnjpjSvkznam≥ {Iaix
XncpthmWw apX¬ 6 \£{Xßfn¬ {IaØn¬ tIIb≥, ]©
\Z≥, knwlf≥, hwK≥, ss\anjmcWy≥, IncmX≥ F∂nh¿.
60. D¬°m`nXmUnXinJxinJo inJx inhXtcmf `nhrjvtSmbx
Aip`xk Gh tNmemhKmWknXlqWNo\mw.
tIXphns‚ inJ D¬°Ifm¬ XmUn°s∏´m¬
awKfIcamWv. [mcmfw ag In´pw. F∂m¬ tNmf, A^vLm≥,
knX, lqW, No\tZi߃°v AawKfamWv.
61. \{ambXx inJninJm`nkrXmbtXmhmE£w
NbXkv]riXnXXv IYnXmwiz tZim≥
Znhy{]`mh \nlXm≥kbYm KcpXvam≥ `pwt‡
KtXm \c]Xnx ]ct`mKn t`mKm≥.
CXn {iohcml anlncIrXu_rlXv kwlnXmbmw
tIXp Nmc GImZtim≤ymbx
tIXphns‚ inJ GXp tZitØ°v Nq≠ntbm Ip\nt™m Ccn°p
∂pthm, GXp tZikw_‘nbmb \£{XsØ kv]¿in°p∂pthm B
293

{]Imikn‘p

tZi߃ AXns‚ Znhy{]`mhØm¬ \in∏n°s∏Sp∂p. KcpU≥ k¿∏
ßsf `pPn°p∂Xpt]mse cmPm°∑m¿ B Ahkcw Adn™v AXmXv
tZißsf B{Ian®v Pbn®v ]ct`mKw `pPn°p∂p.
hcmlanlncs‚ ImeØv tIXphns‚ h¿§oIcWhpw \nco£W
hpw F{Xam{Xw ]ptcmKan®ncp∂p F∂pw Cu h¿§oIcWw (classification) Km¿§n, tZhe≥, ]cmic≥, AknX≥, apXemb ]q¿ΔnIcpsS
ImetØ Ds≠∂pw D≈ hkvXpX BZyw a\ nem°Ww.
an∂man\pßpw s]m´n®q´pw (ivaim\Øn¬ Xnfßp∂ t^mkv
^dkv) hmfpw cXv\hpsamgnsI k¿Δ {]Imißtfbpw tIXphns‚
h¿§oIcWØn¬ s]SpØpIbm¬ [qatIXp (Comet), meteorites,
asteroids, fireballs, dark elouds, counterglow and glow Chsb√mw tIXp
hmWv (hcmlanlncs‚ classification ¬ Chsb√mw s]Sp∂p). \mep
hn[w ¢mkn^nt°j≥ hcmlanlnc≥ ]dbp∂p≠v. Cu \mep h¿§o
IcW߃ Km¿§n, ]cmic≥, AknX≥, tZhe≥ F∂nhcpsS BhWw.
Cu \ment\bpw GIoIcn°p∂ Hcp AssZzX kn≤m¥w \mcZt‚Xm
bn´pw AhXcn∏n°p∂p.
I. tIXp (Km¿§n)

Znhyw

A¥co£w

kucbqYØn\∏pdsØ
\£{X]Yßfn¬ \n∂v
hfsc°mew IqSptºmƒ
{]Xy£s∏Sp∂h

`uaw

kucmI¿jWØm¬ Xcn
∏Wambn A¥co£Øn
te°v CSbv°nsS {]hln
°p∂h (kqcy≥ a‰p{Kl
߃ F∂nhbpsS ]Yß
fn¬ \n∂v).

`qanbn¬ \n∂pXs∂
D≠mbn `qanbpsS A¥
co£Øns‚ XmgsØ
`mKØv ImWp∂ {]Xn`m
k߃

II. 111 Xcw tIXp°ƒ (]cmic≥)

t]cv

FÆw

DXv`hw Zni

h¿Æw

^ew

IncWw

25

kqcy≥

Ing°v
]Sn™mdv

lmc, aWn
tlaw

]ckv]c
sshcw

BKvt\bw 25

AKv\n

----

XØ∏®,
AKv\n, em£,
sNºcØn∏q
c‡w

AKv\n`bw

294

{]Imikn‘p
h{IinJ

25

arXyp

sX°v

hninJ

32

`qan

Nm{μw

3

N{μ≥

hS°p
Ing°v
hS°v

{_lva
Zfiw

1

{_lvamhv GXp
Zn°nepw

cq£amb
IrjvWh¿Æw
IÆmSnbn¬
Pehpw FÆbpw
N{μIncWw
Bº¬, sh≈n
a™v, ap√∏qhv
aq∂phÆw
aq∂pinJ

acWw
Zp¿`n£w
hni∏v
kp`n£w

bpKmhkm\w

III. Bbncw Xcw tIXp°ƒ (AknX≥

t]cv

Zni

NXpc
ioXn

24

henb shfpØ
\£{Xw t]mse

60

<0> kv\nKv[w, 2 inJ, {]`

hnIN

hS°v,
ip{I≥
hS°p
Ing°v
GXp Zn i\n
ibnepw
Z£nWw Kpcp

65

XkvIcw

------

_p[≥

51

Ip¶paw

DØcw

sNmΔ

60

Xmakw

A¿°,
N{μ
afie
߃

cmlp

3 x 30

hnizcq]w
AcpW
KWIw
{_lva
k¥m\w
IwIm
I_‘w

-------------

---hmbp
{]Pm]Xn
{_lvaw

120
77
8
204

shfpØ henb \£{Xw
t]mse. inJbn√.
Ahy‡w, kq£vaw, Zo¿Lw
shfpØ \ndw
c‡w, AKv\n F∂nhbpsS \ndw
3 hmep≈ \£{Xw t]mse
k¿∏w, Pzme, I_‘w, Im°,
O{Xw, [zPw, Nmacw, hr£w,
IpXnc, B\, kv^penwKw, [qaw
F∂ BIrXnIƒ, IrjvWw, a™,
Nph∏v sh≈ F∂o \nd߃
Pzmemame
iymamcpW, Nmac cq]w
Xmcm]pRvP kam\w
Xmcm]pRvP kam\w

-------

hcpWw
Ime

32
96

I\Iw

hnZni߃ ----

DXv`hw

kwJy cq]w

hnZninIƒ 9
295

N{μkam\w
Nfi∑mcpw, Ipcq] [mcnIfmb
\£{Xßfpw
shfpØv \£{X kZri¿

{]Imikn‘p

896 +
111
BsI
1007
BsI 1007 BWv ]d™ncn°p∂Xv (1000 A√)
IV. khntijambn \nco£n°s∏´v \maIcWw

sNøs∏´n´p≈ 16 tIXp°ƒ
t]cv

DZb
Zni

AkvXab
Zni

BImiØn cq]w
¬ hym]vXw

hkmtIXp ]Sn™mdv

DØcw

------

ikv{Xw

]Sn™mdv

DØcw

------

I]mew

Ing°v

------

------

cu{Zw

Ing°v

Z£nWw

3/4 `mKw

NetIXp

]Sn™mdv

Z£nW Zn°n
s‚ HcwKpew
DbcØn¬,
AhnsS \n∂v
DØcZn°nte
°v hf¿∂p
sIm≠v k©
cn°p∂p. A
kvXabw sX
°pXs∂
Z£nW Zn°n
s‚ ]ptcm`m
KØv ImWpw

k]vX¿jn
afiehpw
A`nPn∑fi
ehpw kv]¿
in°p∂p

‘I’({InkvXp Ing°v

P\n®t∏mƒ
DZn®Xv)

tizXw

------

------

civan
tIXp

Im¿ØnI\ -----£{XØn¬

------

3/4 `mKw

-----296

alØv, kv\nKv≤w
(hmen√)
cq£w, £p{Zw
kv\nKv≤w
[mcmfw civanItfmSpw
inJItfmSpw IqSn
Aamhmkn \mfn¬
iqem{Kw t]mse,
cq£amb Xm{ah¿Æw
[q{a h¿Æw

kv\nKv≤w+ F∂
bpKmIrXn (Ipcnip
t]mse) bpKw amdp∂
thfbn¬ 7 Znhkw Im
Wpw (A¿≤cm{Xn°v)
PSt]mse cq£w,
iymaw
[qah¿Æamb inJ

{]Imikn‘p
(A\nb
XambXv)
]Sn™mdv

------

------

------

------

]Sn™mdv

------

------

Pe
tIXp

------

------

------

`h
tIXp

------

------

------

]fl
]Sn™mdv
tIXp
Bh¿Øw

------

------

kwh¿Øw ]ivNna
Zn°v

------

3/4 `mKw

{[ph
tIXp
IpapZ
tIXp
aWn
tIXp

kv\nKv≤w
(hmen√)
Ingt°m´p \o≠ inJ
H‰cm{Xn ImWpw
kq£va\£{Xw t]m
se, EPphpw shfpØ
Xpamb t\¿Ø inJ
Iƒ, H‰ bmaw am{Xw
ImWpw
apIfn¬ [mcmfw inJ
Xmsg kv\nKv≤w
(Nqep t]mse)
H‰cm{Xnam{Xw ImWpw
ap≥`mKw kq£vaXmc
kZriw, kv\nKv≤w- ]n
≥`mKØv knwlhmep
t]mse-hmev Zn£nW
Zn°nte°v \o≠ncn°pw
Hcp cm{Xn arWmfw
t]mse shfpØXv
\nim¿≤w hsc Im
Wmw. Hcp `mKw kv\n
Kv≤w. adp`mKw khy
amb inJIƒ. AcpW
h¿Æw
[q{a Xm{a h¿Æß
fn¬ inJ iqem{Kw
t]mse k‘ym
thfbn¬

C∂v \mw tImsa‰pIƒ°v Ah I≠p]nSn®hcpsSsbm, I≠p ]nSn
°s∏´ sIm√Øns‚sbm t]cv \¬Ip∂p. ]≠p≈h¿ kmb\ImeØn
t\m, AXmXv ImesØ hy‡nIƒs°m A√ {]m[m\yw sImSpØncp
∂sX∂v AhcpsS \maIcWØn¬ \n∂p hy‡amIp∂p. F√m tIXp
hpw IjvS∏mSpsIm≠phcp∂hb√ F∂pw, kp`n£w sIm≠phcm\pw
Ahbv°v km[n°psa∂pw ]≠p≈h¿ IcpXn. bpK]cnh¿Ø\Øns‚
apt∂mSnbmbn Ing°pZn®v, sX°p`mKØv ZriyamIp∂ ‘I’ ({_lvaen]n
bn¬ + F∂mWv IImcw FgpXpI) BWv ‘Ipcnins‚ {]hmNI’bmbn
297

{]Imikn‘p

Adnbp∂ {InkvXpakv \£{Xw. bpK ]cnh¿Ø\thfbn¬ 7 Znhkw
CXv I≠m¬ ]pXpbpKw \∂mbncn°pw. ]ØpZnhkw I≠m¬ kmbp[
hnπhßfpw bp≤ßfpw D≠mhpw; ]pXpbpK∏ndhn \mi\jvSØneqsS
bmbncn°pw.
B[p\nI imkv{X {]Imcw Nne tImsa‰pIfpw AhtbmSp _‘
s∏´ ao‰ntbmdpIfpw:Comet

1. 1861 I
2. 1910 II lmen
3. 1862 III
4. 1866 I sSw]¬

ao‰ntbm¿ (Activity IqSpX¬)
endnUpIƒ (sshimJØn¬
G‰hpw A[nIw)
Kma AIzmdnUpIƒ (sshimJw, tPyjvTw)
HmdntbmWnUpIƒ (Aizn\w, Im¿ØnIw)
kzn^vSv S¿´n¬ s]¿knUvkv ({imhWw)
ensbmWnUvkv (Im¿ØnI,
B{Klmb\w)
_q´nUvkv (BjmVw)

5. 1951 VI t]m¨kv
hn∂s°
6. 1946 V Knbt°m_n\n {Umt°mWnUpIƒ (Bizn\w)
kn∂¿
7. 1911 ii KIES
HmdnKnUvkv, (`m{Zw)
B≥t{UmsaUnUvkv (Im¿ØnIw,
8. 1852 III _nbe
B{Klmb\w)
9. 1954 IX F≥tI
tSmdnUpIƒ (Bizn\w,
Im¿ØnIw)
10. jqta°¿ sehn (1994)
11. lb°pXms°
12. lment_m∏v (C/1995-01)
13. HmÃn≥

II hymgØns‚ afieØn\∏pdØp\n∂v hcp∂h:-

endnUvkv, Kma AIzmdnUvkv, HmdntbmWnUvkv, s]¿knUvkv,
ensbmWnUvk-v AhbpsS G‰hpw ASpØ \£{X kaql߃ Xmsg
]dbp∂p.
298

{]Imikn‘p

endnUvkv

entd

HmdntbmWnUvkv

HmdntbmWnkv

Kma AIzmdnUvkv

AIzmdn
kvt°m¿∏n
s]¿kn
entbm\nkv

s]¿knUv
entbmWnUvkv

(XncpthmW) Ahn´w
F∂nhbv°nSbn¬ A`nPn
Øn\p kao]w
tcmlnWn, aIocw, Xncphm
Xnc apXembhbv°v ASpØv
NXbw
A\ngw
aIw, ]qcw, k]vX¿jn
F∂nhbv°SpØv.

hymgØns‚ {`aW XetØmSSpØv InS°pIbm¬ hymgØm¬
{`aW]Yw CSbv°nsS {]tNmZnXamhp∂ tPmhnb≥ IpSpw_w.
t]cv
B≥t{UmsaUnUv
_q´nUv
{Umt°mWnUvkv

ASpØ \£{Xw
B≥t{UmsatU D{X´mXn, tchXn, AizXn
D¿tkatPmdnkv kzmXn, k]vX¿jn
{Umt°mWnkv

`q{`aW]YØnt\mSSpØp InS°p∂h (sNdnb {`aWImew)
hn¿KntbmWnUvkv
sU¬´mIzmdnUvkv
kvt°m¿]n
tbmWnUv
sPan\nUv

hn¿Pn\okv
AIzmdn
kmPnt‰dnssb
sPant\mdw

AØw, Nn{X
Ahn´w, NXbw
aqew, ]qcmSw, D{XmSw
F∂nhbv°SpØv
aIocw, B¿{Z, iq\I Xmcw

lment_m∏v Hcp PetIXphpw, HmÃn≥ Hcp NetIXphpw Bbncn
°Ww.
tIXphns‚ ]cymbamWp inJn. inJ F∂m¬ apSn. inJn apSnbp
≈Xv. {Ko°pIm¿ AhcpsS `mjbn¬ kometes (\o≠ apSnbp≈Xv) F∂v
X¿÷a sNbvXXmWv tImsa‰v. e£°W°n¬ tImsa‰pIƒ {`aWw
sNøp∂ps≠∂pw Ahbn¬ hfsc Ipds®Æw am{Xta ]mivNmXy im
kv{Xw ]T\ hnt[bam°nbn´p≈q F∂pw Hm¿°Ww. Cw•≠nse ‘sk
°≥Uv tdmb¬ Bkvt{SmWa¿’ Bbncp∂ k¿ FUva≠v lmen 1682
299

{]Imikn‘p

¬ I≠ tImsa‰v 1607, 1531, 1456, 1378, 1301 h¿jßfn¬ h∂ AtX tIm
sa‰msW∂v Is≠ØnbXn\p ]n∂n¬ C¥y≥ tImf\nItfmSv Cw•≠n
\p≠mb klhmkØns‚ {]tNmZ\w D≠mbncp∂Xmbn kwibnt°
≠Xp≠v. tImfss\k¿ tImfs\kvUnt\°mƒ (bPam\≥ ASnatb
°mƒ) tIa\mhWsa∂ B{KlØnt‚Xmb Hcp C≥^ocntbmdn´n
tImwπIvkv 1705-¬ lmen FgpXnb Hcp hmIyØn¬ Rm≥ ImWp∂p.
B hmIyw CXmWv:- “Candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge
that this was first discovered by an English man.” Km¿§y, ]cmic, AknX,
tZhe, \mcZ, hcmlanlncmZnIƒ ]t≠bv°p ]t≠ \nco£n®v h¿Æn
®v h¿§oIcn®psh® Hcp {]Xn`mksØ Hcp ap∂qdp h¿jsØ \nco
£W ]mcºcyØn\pam{Xw AhIminIfmb ]m›mXycptSsX∂v
DSs\ AwKoIcn®psImSp°m\p≈ _u≤oIamb ASnaØhpw, bPam\
kvt\lhpw (Hcp]t£ Adnhn√mbvabpw) C∂pw \Ωƒ sIm≠p \S
°p∂p. CtX _u≤oIamb ASnaØw \mw shfpØhcmb {KokpIm
cpsS apºnepw At\Iw afießfn¬ ImWn°p∂p≠v: saUnkn\pw
Bkvt{SmWanbpw AS°w!!

300

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 12

AKkvXyNmcw
1. `mt\m¿ h¿Xva hn[mX hr≤inJtcm hn‘ymNex kvXw`ntXm
hmXm]n¿ap\n Ip£n`nXv kpccn]p÷o¿Æ› tb\mkpcx
]oXizmw_p \n[nkvXt]mf Aw_p\n[n\m bmaymN ZnKv`qjnXm
XkymKkvXapt\x ]tbmZypXn IrX›mcx kamkm Zbw.
kqcymhcWsØ XSpØpsIm≠v Dbcp∂ hn‘ymNesØ kvXw`n
∏n®h\pw, tZh∑mcpsS i{Xphmbn ap\namcpsS Ip£n ]nfcp∂ hmXm]n
F∂ Akpcs\ Po¿Æn∏n® (Zln∏n®) h\pw, X] mIp∂ Pe \n[n
bm¬ a™°Sens\ h‰n®v Z£nW Zn°n¬ hncmPn°p∂h\pw, ]m¬
t]mse shfpØ {]ImiØm¬ Z£nWZn°n\v Ae¶mc cXv\ambh\p
amb AKkvXy ap\n°v {]Wmaw sNm√n AKkvXyNmcw h¿Æn°m≥
Bcw`n°p∂p.
2. kapt{Zm A¥x ssie¿ΩIc \JimXvJmX inJsscx
IrXkvtXmtbmOn¥ymx k]Zn kpXcmw tb\ cpNncx
]X≥ap‡m anss{ix{]hcaWn cXv\mw_p\nhsslx
kpcm≥{]XytZjvSpw knXaIpScXv\m\nh ]pcm
IncoS cXv\ [mcnIfmb tZh∑msct∏mepw a\pjy¿ \ncmIcn°p
amdv, ]q¿ΔImeØv, kap{Zm¥ÿambXpw, aIcØns‚ \Jw ]Xn™
inJctØmSp IqSnbXpamb ssieØn¬ at\mlcamb apØpt]mse
bpw t{ijvTambn´p≈ aWncXv\߃ Dev]mZn∏n®Xpt]msebpw Cu
\£{Xw DZn°p∂p.
[aIcsa∂ ]ZØn\v ChnsS aIc a’ysa∂pw aIc cmin F∂pw c≠¿∞w]

3. tb\ Nmw_plctWf A]nhnμpssa¿`q[sscx kaWn cXv\ hnμpssax
\n¿§ssX kvXZpcssK› cmPnXx kmKtcm [nI Xcw hncmPnXx
Aw_p (Pew) apgph\mbn lcn°s∏´n´pw, Pecmintb°mƒ cpNnc
amb Pe \n[nbmIp∂ aWn, cXv\w, hn{Zpaw, ]pdØph∂ DcK߃
F∂nhtbmSp tN¿∂ kmKcw A[nI Xcw {]tim`n®p.
301

{]Imikn‘p

4. {]kv^pcØnanPte `PnlyKx
£n]vX cXv\ \nKtcm atlmZ[nx
B]mZmw ]ZKtXm ]nbm]n tXmtb\
]oXkentemf ac{inbw
{]kv^pcn°p∂ Pe lkvXnIfmepw, \mKßfmepw, ad™p InS
°p∂ cXv\tiJcßfmepw, IpSn®p h‰n°s∏´ atlmZ[nbnse a™
\ndap≈ sh≈w (AKkvXy\m¬ IpSn°s∏SpIbm¬) AarXamb
{iosb {]m]n®p.
5. {]NeØnan ip‡n iwJ NnXx kente ]lrtX ]n]Xnx kcnXmw
kXcw KwkntXmXv]e lwk`rXx kckx icZnh _n`¿Øn cpNw.
kcnØp°fpsS ]Xnbmb kap{Zw kenew apgph≥ A]lcn°s∏
´n´pw, {]Neamb Xnan, ip‡n, iwJv, F∂nhIfm¬ hym]vXambn kX
cwKhpw ip{` h¿Æhpw lwk IaemZnIfm¬ tim`nXhpamb kc n
s‚ tim` [cn®p.
6. XnanknXmw_p[cw aWn XmcIw
kv^SnI N{μ a\w_p ic±ypXn
^Wn^tWm ]e civan inJn {Klw
IpSne tKi hnb® NImcb
sh¨taLßsf [cn® aWnXmcIw DZn®p. kv^SnI h¿Æhpw,
Aw_p clnXhpw, icZypXn Nn∂p∂Xpamb icXv°me N{μ\pw h∂p.
^WnbpsS ^WØnse civan XqIp∂ inJn {Klw (Pzmem {Klw)
IpSneamb (hf™) icXv°me hnlmb n¬ sXfn™p.
7. Zn\IccYam¿§ hnOnØtbf {ip≤yXw
b®eOywKapZv {`m¥hnZym[cmw
kmhk‡ {]nbmhy{KZØmw ItZlmhew_mw_cm
iyp{OntXm≤qb am\[zssPx tim`nXw
IcnISaZaniz c‡mhtelm\p hmkm\p kmcn
Zzntc^m heot\mØamwssKx
IrXm≥ _mW]pjvs]cnthmØwkIm≥
[mcbZv`n¿ΩrtKss{μx k\mYo IrXmwX¿±co \n¿Qcw
KK\Xeanthm√nJ¥w {]hrss≤¿§302

{]Imikn‘p
-PmIrjvS ^p√ {Zpa {Xmk

hn{`m¥ aXZzntc^m heo KoX a{μ kzss\x
ssieIqssSkvX c£¿£ im¿±qe imJmarKm≤ym knssXx
clkn aZ\ k‡ bmtchbm Im¥tb thm] KqUw
kpcm≤ymkntXm [ym\awt`m i\m\∂ aqem\nemlmc
hn{]m\znXw hn‘yakvXw` b[yizXtkymZbx {iqbXmw
kqcy cYØns‚ am¿§w hntOZn®psIm≠v Dbcp∂ Nen°p∂
sImSpapSn, DZv{`m¥cmb hnZym[c∑mcpsSbpw AhcpsS {]nbamcpsSbpw
tZlßsf Ahew_n® hkv{X߃ ]d∂p t]mIpIbm¬ At\Iw
sImSn°qd sI´nb [zPßfm¬ tim`n®p. KplIfn¬ hkn°p∂ knwl
ßfpsS akvXIØn¬, _mW∏pame Nm¿Øn HgpIp∂ B\IfpsS
aZPew Ie¿∂ c‡Øns‚ K‘w tI´v hs∂Ønb {`acßfpsS Km\
\n¿Qcw apgßn, BImiw apJcnXambn. B\Ifm¬ BIrjvSamb
]qØ acßfpsS Np‰pw {Xkn®v hn{`m¥cmbn. aZaØcmbn ]d°p∂
{`acßfpsS KoXa{μ kzcw: ssite{μIqSØn¬ hkn°p∂ c£ p
Iƒ, E£ßƒ, im¿±qe߃, imJm arK߃ F∂nhcpsS \mZ߃.
ChtbmSp IqSnb ssite{μ\mYs\ clkyambn, aZ\mk‡bmb,
Im¥bmb tchm \Zn (\¿ΩZ) ]pWcth, kpc∑mcpw [ym\n°p∂, Pew
am{Xw IpSn®pw ^eaqemZnIfpw AKv\nbpw am{Xw Blcn®pw hn{]∑m¿
hkn°p∂, hn‘y ]¿ΔXsØ Iº\w sIm≈n®psIm≠v DZn°p∂
hs‚ hrØm¥w tI´mepw!!
8. DZtb Napt\c KkvXy\mav\x IpkpamtbmK ae{]ZqjnXm\n
lrZbm\nkXmanh kz`mhmXv ]pXcw_q\n`h¥n \n¿Ωem\n
F{]Imcw, Zp¿÷\ kamKaw sIm≠p≈ Zpjn® lrZbw km[p
P\ßsf ImWptºmƒ ]hn{Xamhp∂pthm A{]Imcw AKkvXyap\n
bpsS DZbØn¬, h¿j°mesØ amen\yßsf√mw \oßn Pew kzm`m
hnIambn \n¿Ωeambn Xocp∂p.
9. ]m¿izZzbm[njvTnX N{IhmIm
am]pjvWXn kkz\ lwk ]w‡nw
Xmw_qe ct‡mXv°jnXm{KZ¥n
hn`mXn tbmtjh kcnXv klmkm
Xmw_qe c‡Øm¬ Nph∂ A[c߃°nSbn¬ ]p©ncn XqIp∂
kpμcnbpsS apØWn∏√pt]mse, ]m¿izZzbßfn¬ N{IhmIßfpw
303

{]Imikn‘p

a≤yØn¬ kzcw XqIp∂ lwkßfpambn kcnØv Nncn®psIm≠v tim`n
°p∂p.
10. Cμohcmk∂kntXmev]em\znXm
kcnZv {`aXv jSv]Z]w‡n {`qjnXm
k{`qeXm t£]ISm£ ho£Wm
hnZKv≤tbmtjh hn`mXn kkvacm.
Cμohcßfpw tizX]flßfpw \nd™v, {`aWw sNøp∂ {`acmZn
jUv]Z߃ tN¿∂ kc v, {`qeXbpsS ISm£ ho£Wßfm¬ hio
Icn°p∂Xn¬ hnZKv≤bmb kv{Xosbt∏mse {]tim`n°p∂p.
11. Ctμmx ]tbmZhnKtam]lnXmw hn{`qXnw
{ZjvSw XcwKhebm IpapZw \nimkp
D\vaenbXyen\oeZew kp]£va
hm]o hntemN\ anhmknXXmcIm¥w.
taLsamgn™ BImiØnse N{μ\mIp∂ B`cWw Z¿in®v
XcwKßfmIp∂ hfIƒ Inepßp∂ Iman\nbmb kc v, h≠pIfm
Ip∂ Ca®m¿tØmSpIqSnb \oe ZeßfmIp∂ IpapZ°ÆpIƒ Xpd∂v,
t\m°n.
12. \m\mhnNn{Xmw_pPlwk tImIImcfi
hm]q¿Æ XSmIlkvXm
cXvss\x {]`pssXx Ipkpssax ^sse›
`q¿ΔOXo hm¿L aKkvXy\mavt\.
\m\mhn[ßfpw hnNn{Xßfpamb Aw_pP߃, lwk߃, N{I
hmI߃, Icfi]£nIƒ F∂nhbm¬ ]q¿Æamb XSmIlkvXß
fn¬ cXv\ßfpw ]pjv]ßfpw ^eßfpw G¥nb `qaotZhn AKkvXy
ap\nbv°v A¿Lyw \¬Ip∂p.
13. kene aac]m⁄ tbm⁄nXw
bZz\ ]cnthjvSnXaq¿Øn`n¿`pPwssKx
^WnP\nX hnjmKv\n k{ºZrjvSw
`hXn inhw XZKkvXy Z¿it\\.
C{μm⁄bm¬ h¿jn® Pew, taL]cnthjvSnXaq¿Ønbmb
304

{]Imikn‘p

`pPwKØns‚ ^WØn¬\n∂p P\n® hnjmKv\nsb Z¿in°m\mhp∂
kabambn´pt]mepw, AKkvXy Z¿i\w tlXphmbn awKfambn `hn®p.
14. kvacWZ]n ]m]a]mIpcptX InapX
kvXpXn`n¿ hcpWmwKcplx
ap\n`nxIYntXm ky bYm¿Lyhn[nx
IYbman XssYh \tcμlnXw.
hcpWmwKØn¬ \n∂pXv`hn® GsXmcp almap\nbpsS kvacW
sIm≠pXs∂ k¿Δ]m]hpw \in°p∂pthm, B ap\nbpsS kvXpXnbpw
A¿Lyhn[nIfpw ]≠v ap\nam¿ ]d™Xpt]mse, cmPmhns‚ lnXØn
\mbn´v ]dbp∂p.
15. kwJymhn[m\mXv {]XntZiaky
hn⁄mb kμ¿i\amZnti⁄x
Xt®m÷b\ymaKXkyI\ymw
`mssKx kzcmssJyx kv^pS`mkv°cky
]finX∑m¿ kwJymhn[m\wsIm≠v Hmtcm tZiØnepw AKkvXy
Z¿i\w D≠mhp∂ Imew Adn™ncn°p∂p. kqcy, kv^pSw Ggv `mK
amIptºmƒ D÷bn\nbn¬ I∂ncmin BKXamhptºmƒ AKkvXys\
Z¿in°mw.
16. CujXv {]`nt∂f cpWcivanPmsse¿∂tif ‘Imtc ZniZ£nWkymw
kmwh’cm thZnX ZnKvhn`mtK
`qt]m¿L ap¿hymw {]bXx{]bivtNXv.
A°meØv kqcys‚ AcpW civanPmew am™v A‘Imcw
]c°ptºmƒ, kwh’c∑mcm¬ Adnbs∏´ ZnKvhn`mKßfn¬ Z£nW
Znibn¬ cmPm°∑m¿ `qanbn¬ AKkvXy ap\nbv°mbn A¿Lyw ka¿
∏n°Ww.
17. ImtemZv`shxkpc`n `nxIpkpssax^seO
cXvss\O kmKc`sshx I\Imw_c ivNx
t[\zm hrtjW ]cam∂bpssXivN
`ss£y¿ZvZ ≤y£ssXx kpc`n[p]hnte]ss\ivN
305

{]Imikn‘p

icXv°meØp≠mhp∂ kpc`ne ]pjv]߃, ^e߃, kmKc`h
ßfmb cXv\߃, kph¿Æ hkv{X߃ (Ikhv), ]ip°ƒ, Ej`
߃, ]cam∂ bp‡ßfmb `£y߃, ssXcv, A£Xw, kpc`neamb
[q]w, Nμ\w F∂nhbmWv A¿Lyambn `qanta¬ shbvt°≠Xv.
18. \c]Xncnaa¿Lyw {i≤[mt\m Z[m\x
{]hnKXKZtZmtjm \n¿÷nXmcmXn]£x
`hXn bZn N Z[ymXvk]vXh¿jmWnkayKv
Pe\n[nck\mbmxkzmanXmw bmXn`qtax
{i≤m]q¿Δw A¿Lyw \¬Ip∂ cmPm°∑m¿ k¿ΔtZmjßfpw
ian®v, i{Xp°sf Pbn°p∂p. C{]Imcw XpS¿®bmbn Ggph¿jw A¿
Lyw \¬Ip∂h¿ kap{Zck\bmb `qanbpsS kzman (N{Ih¿Øn)
bmbnØocpw.
19. ZzntPmbYmem`ap]mlrXmLx
{]m]vt\mXn thZm≥ {]aZmiz]p{Xm≥
sshiy› Kmw `qcn[\wNiqt{Zm
tcmK£bw [¿Ω^ew Nk¿tΔ.
{_mlvaW¿°v, X߃°p In´nbsX√mw A¿Lyambn AKkvXy
\p \¬Ip∂ ]£w, thZ⁄m\w {]m]n°pIbpw {]a \¬Ip∂hsf
`mcybmbn {]m]n°bpw Ahfn¬ k¬]p{Xem`w D≠mIbpw sNøpw.
sshiy≥ sNbvXm¬ [mcmfw ]ip°fpw [\hpw e`n°pw. iq{Z≥ sN
bvXm¬ k¿ΔtcmKlcamWv. k¿Δ¿°pw AXv [¿Ω^ew \¬Ipw.
20. tcmKm≥ ItcmXn ]cpjx I]nekvXzhrjvSn
[qt{am Khmaiq`IrXv kv^pctWm`bmb
amRvPnjvScmK kZrimx £p[amlhmwivN
IpcymZWpivN]pctcm[aKkvXy\mav\m.
AKkvXyXmcw ]cpjambn°≠m¬ tcmKhpw, I]neh¿Æsa¶n¬
AhrjvSnbpw [q{asa¶n¬ I∂pImenIƒ°v Aip`hpw kv^pcWw
(Iº\w) sNbvXm¬ `bhpw, aRvPnjvT\ndsa¶n¬ hni∏pw, sNdpXmbn
°≠m¬ ]pctcm[hpw ^ew.
21. imX Ipw`kZrimxkv^SnIm`kvX
]cy∂nhalnw IncWussLx
306

{]Imikn‘p

ZriytX bZnXXx{]Npcm∂m
`p¿ `hXy `btcmK P\mVbmimXIpw` kZrihpw kv^SnIm`hpambn AKkvXy ap\n`qansb
IncWßfm¬ X]n∏n®pI≠m¬, [mcmfw A∂w D≠mhpw. `bhpw tcm
Khpw AI∂ `qan P\ \n_nVamhpw.
22. D¬°bm hn\nlXx inJn\mhm
£p{Zbw acItahN[tØ
ZriytXk Ine lkvXapss]Xn
CXn {iohcmlanlnc IrXu_rlXv
kwlnXmbm aKkvXyNmscm ZzmZtim≤ymbx
D¬°Ifm¬ hn\nlXamtbm inJntbmSpIqSntbm I≠m¬ hni
∏pw acWhpw ^ew. kqcy≥ I∂ncminbn¬ {]thin°ptºmƒ am{Xsa
AKkvXys\ k¿Δcpw ImWq. tcmlnWnbn¬ {]thin°ptºmƒ AK
kvXy≥ AkvXan°bpw sNøpw.
ChnsS hcmlanlnc≥ imkv{X⁄t\°mfp]cn Ihnbmbn´mWv
{]Xy£s∏Sp∂Xv. AKkvtXymZbsØbpw AKkvXyNmcsØbpw
Npcp°n∏d™v AKkvtXymZbImesØ `qanbnse EXpt`ZtØbpw,
AKkvXyNmcsØ BZyambn ]d™ AKkvXyap\nbpsS Ncn{XtØ
bpw IqSpX¬ {]kvXmhn°p∂p.
a™°S¬ (yellow sea) h‰n®v ssN\bnseØnb Ncn{X]pcpj
\mb AKkvXy\pw At±lw \nco£n®v, KWnXkn≤m¥ {]Imcw Nmcw
kv^pSw sNbvsXSpØ AKkvXyXmchpw H∂mbnØocp∂ {]{Inb \mw
ImWp∂p. `mKhXØnse ic¬°me h¿Æ\t]mse cpNncamWv AK
kvtXymZbØnse ic¬°me h¿Æ\. ic¬°meØmWv AKkvtXym
Zbw. IpSneamb ic¬°me hnlmb n¬ aWnXmcIamb AKkvXy
t\msSm∏w Hcp \mƒ DZnbv°p∂ inJn{Klw (Pzmem{Klw) F∂ tPymXn
 ns\ hcmlanlnc≥ {]Xn]mZn°p∂p≠v. aIcamkØn¬ ImWp∂
aIc \£{Xhpw aIctPymXn pamWv Cu {]Xn]mZy߃. Cu AK
kvXy Z¿i\hpw tPymXnZ¿i\hpw t\Sn ]m]ap‡cmhm≥ As∂∂
t]mse C∂pw k¿Δcpw tamln°p∂p.
]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ I¿°nSIcmin `mKØmWv AKkvtXymZb
sa∂p ]dbpIbp≠mbn. “AioXn`mssK¿øm`ymbmaKkvXym anYp\m¥
KXmx” (anYp\cminbpsS A¥y`mKØp\n∂v 80 Awiw Z£nW hnt£
307

{]Imikn‘p

]Øn¬ ImWp∂ \£{XamWv AKkvXy≥) F∂pw “kzmXyKkvXy
arKhym[ Nnt{Xm tPyjvTmx ]p\¿Δkp. A`nPnZv {_lvalrZbw {Xtbm
Zi`ncwissIx” (kzmXn, AKkvXy≥, arKhym[≥, Nn{X, tPyjvT, ]p\¿
hkp, A`nPnØv, {_lva lrZbw F∂o F´p \£{X߃ 13 Awi
ImemwiØn¬ DZn®kvXan°p∂p) F∂pw kqcy kn≤m¥w ]dbp∂p.
imXIpw`kZriw F∂Xn\v kph¿Æ cu]ytbm¿Zztbmc]n
hmNIx A{XXp cq]yhmNIx F∂v atlmev]e.
`mcXØns‚ sXs° ap\ºmb I\ymIpamcnbn¬ 10°-13° hsc
A£mwiØnep≈ Hcp Db¿∂ _nμphn¬ \n∂v \nco£n®m¬ (AK
kvXyIqSw, i_cnKncn) (75°-76° tcJmwiw) ImWp∂ AKkvtXymZb
sØ ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ]d™p. AKkvXy al¿jn F∂ Ncn{X
]pcpjs‚ \nco£Wÿm\amWXv. 23 1/2° DØc A£mwiØnep≈
D÷bn\nbnep≈h¿°v 90° tcJmwiw 80° Z£nW A£mwiØnep-≈
AKkvXys\ ImWm≥ XpSßp∂Xv Ft∏mƒ F∂v ChnsS ]d™ncn
°p∂p.

308

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 13

k]vX¿jnNmcw
1. sskImheoh cmPXn kkntXmev]eamen\o klmtkh
\mYhXoh NZn ssKyx Iut_co k]vX`n¿ ap\n`nx
2. {[ph\mb tIm]tZim∂cn\¿Øo thmØcm{`aZv`nivN
ssbivNmcalw tXjmw IYbntjy hr≤Km¿§ aXmXv.
tiztXmev]e amen\nbpw aμlmktemebpw Iut_cnbpw k\mY
bpamb k]vX¿jn afiew {[phs\∂ \mYs‚ D]tZim\pkcWw
DØcZn°n¬ {`aWw sNbvXv \rØw shbv°p∂Xmbn hr≤ Km¿§ap\n
bpsS aXw A\pimkn°p∂p (Z£nW {[phsØ \£{X kaql kln
Xw AKkvXy≥ h¿Æn®p. DØc {[phsØ hr≤ Km¿§y\pw).
3. Bk≥ aLmkpap\bx imkXn
]rYznw bp[njvTntc\r]Xu
jUvZznI]RvPZznbpXx iIImekvXky cm⁄ivN.
bp[njvTncs‚ `q`cW ImeØv aIw \£{X kaqlØn∂SpØv
k]vX¿jnIƒ FØn. iIw 2526 te°v iIm_vZw tN¿Øm¬ bp[n
jvTncImew In´pw.
4. sFssIIan\rt£ iXw iXwtX Nc¥n h¿jmWmw
{]mKpØc XivssNtX ktZmZbw tX kam≤znImx
Hmtcmtcm \£{XØn¬ \qdp\qdp h¿jw hoXw k©cn°p∂p
k]vX¿jnIƒ. Ah¿ DØc ]q¿Δ Znibn¬ km≤znbmb Acp‘Xntbm
sSm∏w kZm DZn°p∂p.
5. ]q¿Δ`mtK `Khm≥ acoNnc]tcÿntXm
hknjvtTmf kvamXv XkymwKncmkvXtXmf
{XnkvXkymk∂x ]pekvXyivNx ]pelx {IXpcnXn
`Khm\mk∂m\p {ItaW ]q¿ΔmZymX{X
hknjvTw ap\nhc ap]m{inXmcp‘Xo kzm≤zo.
]q¿Δ`mKØv `Khm≥ acoNn. acoNnbpsS ]ivNna`mKØv hkn
jvT≥, AXn\p ]n∂n¬ AwKnc v, ]ns∂ A{Xn, A{XnbpsS ASpØv
309

{]Imikn‘p

]pekvXy≥, ]pel≥, {IXp- Cßs\ {Iam\pkmcw ]q¿ΔZnibn¬
XpSßn k]vX¿jnIsf ImWmw. Ah¿°nSbn¬ hknjvT \£{XsØ
D]m{ibn°p∂ km≤znbmb Acp‘Xo \£{Xhpw D≠v.
6. D¬°mi\n [qamss[y¿lXm hnh¿Æmhncivatbm {lkzmx
l\ypx kzwkzw h¿§ hn]pemx kv\nKv≤mivNXXv hr≤tbx
Cu \£{X kaql߃ D¬°, i\n, [qaw, F∂nhbm¬ lX
ambpw hnh¿Æambpw civan lo\ambpw I≠m¬ AhchcpsS h¿§ß
sf l\n°p∂p. hn]pehpw kv\nKv≤hpambn°≠m¬ Xm¥mßfpsS
h¿§sØ A`nhr≤ns∏SpØp∂p.
7. K‘¿Δ tZhZm\hat{¥mj[nkn≤ b£ \mKm\mw
]oVmItcmacoNnt⁄tbm hnZym[cmWmw N.
acoNn taev]d™ {]Imcw I≠m¬ K‘¿Δ, tZhZm\h, kn≤,
b£, \mK, hnZym[cm[nIƒ°pw b{¥uj[߃°pw ]oV.
8. iIbh\ ZcZ]mcX Imwt_mPmw
kvXm]km≥ ht\mt]Xm≥
l¥n hknjvtTm`nltXm hnhr≤n
tZmcivan kº∂x
hknjvTs\¶n¬ imI∑m¿, bh\∑m¿, ZcZ∑m¿, ]mcX∑m¿,
Imwt_mP∑m¿, h\hmknIfmb X]kznIƒ F∂nh¿°mWv ^ew In´pI.
9. AwKnctkm⁄m\bpXm [oat¥m
{_mlvaWmivN \n¿±njvTmx
At{X Im¥mc`hmPePm\ywt_m\n[nxkcnXx
AwKncsk¶n¬ ⁄m\nIƒ, _p≤nam∑m¿, {_mlvaW¿ F∂nh¿
°pw A{Xnsb¶n¬ Im´nepw PeØnepw \n∂v D≠mbh, Pe\n[n (kap
{Zw), ]pg F∂nhbv°pw ^ew.
10. c£x ]nimNZm\hssZ\y`pPwKmx kvarXmx
]pekvXyky ]pelkyXp aqe^ew
{ItXmkvXp b⁄mkb⁄`rXx
]pekvXys\¶n¬ cm£k∑m¿, ]nimNp°ƒ, Zm\h∑m¿, ssZXy¿,
\mK߃ F∂nhbv°pw, ]pels\¶n¬ aqe^e߃-°pw {IXpsh¶n¬
b⁄Øn\pw b⁄I¿Øm°ƒ°pw taev]d™ ^e߃ ]dbWw.
310

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 14

Iq¿Ω hn`mKw
1. \£{X {Xb h¿ss§cmKvt\bmss≤y¿ hyhÿnssX¿∂h[m `mcXh¿tj a≤ymXv{]mKmZn hn`mPnXmtZimx
apΩq∂p \£{X߃ hoXw Hmtcmtcm h¿§amWv. C{]Imcw
HºXp h¿-§ßfp≠v. Cu h¿§ßfpsS Bcw`w Im¿ØnI \£{XØn
emWv. `mcX h¿jsØ Ing°p apX¬ {]Z£nW{Iam\pkmcambn
CXn\m¬, tZißfm°n hn`Pn®ncn°p∂p.
2. `{Zmcn taZamfihykmez\o t]m÷nlm\kw JymXmx
acph’ tLmjbmap\ kmckzX a’yam≤yanImx
3. amYpc tIm]tPymXnj [¿ΩmcWym\n iqctk\mivN
Kuc{Kothmt±lnI ]mfip KpUmiz∞]m©memx
4. kmtIXIwI Ipcp ImetImSn IpIpcmivN ]mcnbm{X
\KxHuZpw_c Im]njvTe KPmlzbmivtNXn a≤yanXw.
Im¿ØnI, tcmlnWn, aIocw \£{Xßfn¬ hncmPn°p∂
{]tZi߃:`{Zw, AcntaZw, amfihyw, kmezw, \o]w, D÷nlm\w, kwJymXw,
acp, h’tLmjw, bmap\w, kmckzXw, a’yw, am≤yanIw, amYpcw,
D]tPymXnjw, [¿ΩmcWyw, iqctk\w, kuc{Kohw, Dt±lnIw,
]mfipKpU, AizXy, ]m©mew, kmtIXw, IwIw, Ipcp, ImetImSn,
IpIpcw, ]mcnbm{X\Kw, HuZpw_cw, I]njvTew, lkvXn\mtZiw Ch
a≤yatZi߃.
5. AY ]q¿Δkym aRvP\ hrj`≤zP ]flameyhZvKncbx hym{LapJ kq£va I¿ΔS Nm{μ]pcmxiq¿∏ I¿Æm ivN.
6. JkaK[ in_ncKncnanYne kaXsSuw KmizhZ\Z¥pcImx
{]mKvtPymXnjeulnXy£otcmZ kap{Z ]pcpjmZmx
311

{]Imikn‘p

7. DZb Kncn`{Z KuVs]ut{fimXvIeImintaI emw_jvTm!
GI]Z Xm{a en]vXnItImieIm h¿≤am\ivNx
XncphmXnc, ]pW¿Xw, ]qbw \£{Xßfn¬ hncmPn°p∂ {]tZ
i߃:Ing°phiØv ARvP\ ]¿ΔXw, Ej`[zPw, ]flw ameyhm≥
Kncn, hym{LapJw, kq£vaw, I¿ΔSw, Nm{μ]pcw, iq¿∏I¿Æw, Jkw,
aK[, in_ncKncn, anYne, kaXSw, HuZv, AizhZ\w, Z¥pcIw, {]mKv
tPymXnjw, eulnXyw, £otcmZ kap{Zw, ]pcpjmZw, DZbKncn, `{Z
KuUIw, ]u{fiw, DXv°ew, Imin, taIe, Aw_jvTw, GI]Zw,
Xm{aen]vXnIw, tImieIw, h¿≤am\w.
8. BKvt\bmw Znin tImieIenwKhw tKm]hwKPw
cmwKmx iuenIhnZ¿` h’m{‘tNZnImt›m¿≤ IWvTm›.
9. hrj\mentIc N¿ΩZzo]mhn‘ym¥hmkn\mkv{Xn]pcnca›p[ctlaIqShyme {Kohm alm{Kohmx
10. Injv°n‘mIWvTIÿe \njmZcmjv{SmWn ]pcnI Zmim¿Æmx
kl\{K]¿Æi_ssc cmt«jmt[y {XntItZimx
Bbneyw, aIw, ]qcw F∂o \£{Xßfn¬ hncmPn°p∂ {]tZi
߃:AKv\ntImWnep≈ tImiew, IenwKw, hwKw, D]hwKw, PTcw,
AwKw, iueoIw, hnZ¿`w, h’w, B{‘, tNZn, Du¿≤zIWvTw, hr£w,
\mentIcw, N¿ΩZzo]w, hn‘ymNe \nISw, {Xn]pcn, iva{iq[cw, tla
IqSw, hyme{Kohw, alm{Kohw, Injv°n‘m, IWvIÿew, \njmZ
cmjv{Sw, ]pcn, Zim¿Æw, \{K]Ww, i_cw.
11. AY Z£ntW\ e¶m ImemPn\ kuco Io¿ÆXmenISmx
Kncn\KcaeI Z¿Zpc atl{μamen‘ymacpIOmx
12. IwISSwIWh\hmkn in_nI ^WnImctImw IWm`ocmx
BIc thWmh¥ IZi ]pctKmK\¿±tIcfIm.
13. I¿ÆmSI almShn Nn{XIqSm \mknIymtIm√Kncn tNmemx
{Iu©Zzo]m PSm[c Imthtcym EjyaqI›.
D{Xw, AØw, Nn{X F∂o \£{X-ßfn¬ hncmPn°p∂h:312

{]Imikn‘p

Z£nW `mKØv e¶, ImemPn\w, kucoIo¿Æn (Nq¿Æn°c),
XmenISw, Kncn\Kcw, aebw, Z¿±pcw, atl{μw, acpIOw, IwISw,
SwIWw, h\hmkn, in_nIw, ^WnImcw, tIm¶Ww, B`ocw, BImcw,
thW, Bh¥Iw, Zi]pcw, tKm\¿±w, tIcfIw, I¿ÆmSIw, almShn,
Nn{XIqSw, \mknIyw, tImeKncn, tNmfw, {Iu©Zzo]w, PSm[cw,
Imthcn, EjyaqIw.
14. sshUqcy iwJ ap‡m {XnhmcnNc [¿Ω ]´\Zzo]mx
KWcmPy IrjvWmth√qc ]ninI iq¿∏m{Zn Ipkpa \Kmx
15. Xpw_h\Im¿ΩtWbIbmtaymZ[nXm]km{iam EjnImx
Im©oacpNo ]´\tN¿tøm¿øI knwlem Ej`m.
16. _etZh ]´\wZfiImh\ XnanwKnemi\m `{Zmx
ItOm AY IpRvPc[cokXm{a]¿ÆoXn hnt⁄bmx
sshUqcy iwJ ap‡m IctZiw, A{Xym{iaw, hmcnNcw, [¿Ω
]´\ Zzo]w, KWcmPyw, IrjvW, theqcv, ]ninIw, iq¿∏m{Zn, Ipkpa
\Kw, Xpºh\w, Im¿ΩtWbIw, Z£nW kap{Zw, Xm]km{iaw,
EjnIw, Im©n, acpNn]Ø\w, tNbw, BcyIw, knwlew, Ej`w,
_etZh ]Ø\w, ZfiImh\w, XnanwKemi\w, `{ZIOw, IpRvPc
[cn, Xm{a]¿Æn.
17. ss\cyXmw ZnintZimx ]lvehImt_mP kn‘p kuhocmx
hUhm apJmchmw_jvSI]ne\mco apJm\¿Ømx
18. t^WmKncn bh\amIcI¿Æ {]mthb ]mcmic iq{Zmx
_¿∫c IncmXJmfi{Ihymiym`oc N©pIx
19. tlaKncn kn‘pIme IsschXI kpcmjv{S _mZc {ZhnUmx
kzmXymt≤y `{XnXtb t⁄b› alm¿Æ thmss{Xhm.
tNmXn, hnimJw, A\ngw F∂o \£{Xßfn¬ hncmPn°p∂h:ss\crXn Znibn¬ ]√hw, Imwt_mPw, kn‘p, kuhocw, _Uhm
apJw, ALw, Aw_jvTw, I]new, \mcoapJw, B\¿Øw, t^WKncn,
bh\w, amIcw, I¿Æ{]mthbw, ]mcmicw, iq{Zw, _¿∫cw, IncmX
Jfiw, {IhymZw, B`ocw, NwNqIw, tlaKncn, kn‘p ImeIw, ssch
XIw, kpcmjv{Sw, _mZcw, {ZhnUmZn tZiw, alm¿Æhw (almkap{Zw).
313

{]Imikn‘p

20. A]ckym≥ aWnam≥ aLhm≥ h\uLx £pcm¿∏tWm AkvXKncnx
A]cm¥I im¥nIssllb {]kvXm{Znthm°mWmx
21. ]©\ZcaT]mcX Xmc£nXnPqwK sshiy I\I iImx
\n¿ΩcymZmtæssOtb ]›na Zn°v ÿnXmtÿN
Xrt°´, aqew, ]qcmSw \£{Xßfn¬ hncmPnXamb {]tZi߃:]›naZnibn¬ aWnam≥, aLhm≥, h\uLw, £pcm¿∏Ww,
AkvXKncn, A]cm¥Iw, im¥oIw, ssllbw, {]ikvXm{Zn, thm°m
Ww, ]©\Zw, caTw, ]mcXw, Xmc£nXn, PrwKw, sshiyw, I\Iw,
iIw, \n¿ΩcymZamb tæOtZiw.
22. Znin ]›ntamØckymw, amfihy Xpjmc Xmele a{Zmx
AivaI IqepXelU kv{Xo cmPy\rknwl h\Jÿmx
23. thWpaXo^¬KpeIm Kpcplm acpIp’N¿ΩcwKmIym GIhntemN\m iqenI Zo¿L{KohmkytIim›.
D{XmSw, XncpthmWw, Ahn´w \£{XØn¬ hncmPn°p∂h:]›ntamØc Zn°nembn amfihyw, Xpjmcw, Xmew, lew, a{Z,
AivaIw, IpeqXw, elUw, kv{XocmPyw, \rknwlh\w, JkvXw,
thWpaXn, ^¬KpeIw, Kpcqlw, acpIp’w, N¿ΩcwKw, GIhntemN
\w, iqeoIw, Zo¿L {Kohw, BkytIiw.
24. DØcXx ssIemtkm lnahm≥ hkpam≥ Kncn¿≤ \pjvamw›
{Iut©mtacpx IpchkvXtYmØcm£p{Z ao\m›.
25. ssIIb hkmXnbmap\t`mK {]ÿm¿÷p\mb\m Kv\o{[mx
BZ¿im¥ Zzo]n{XnK¿Ø XpcKm\\miz apJmx
26. tIim[c Nn]nS\mknI Zmtkc IhmS [m\ ic[m\mx.
X£inem]pjv°emhXssIemhX IWvT[m\m›.
27. Aw_ca{ZIameh ]uch _OmcZfi ]nwKeImx
amWhelqW tImle ioXI amfihy `qX]pcmx
28. Km‘mc btimhXn tlaXme cmP\yJNc KhymOx
but[bZmktabx iymaIx t£a [q¿ØO.
NXbw, ]qtcmcp´mXn, D{X´mXn \£{Xßfnse tZi߃:314

{]Imikn‘p

DØc Znibn¬ ssIemkw, lnahm≥, hkpam≥, [\pjvam≥,
{Iu©w, tacpKncn, DØcIpcp, £p{Z ao\w, ssIIbw, hkmXn, bmap\w,
t`mK{]ÿw, A¿÷p\mb\w, AKv\o{[w, BZ¿iw, A¥Zzo]w, {Xn
K¿Øw, XpcKm\\w, AizapJw, tIi[cw, Nn]nS \mknIw, ZmtkcIw,
hmS[m\w, kc[m\w, X£ine, ]pjv°emhXw, ssIemhXw, IWvT
[m\w, Aw_cw, `{ZIw, amƒhw, ]uchw, IOmcw, Z¥]nwKeIw, am\w,
lew, lqWw, tImlew, ioXew, amfihyw, `qX]pcw, Km‘mcw,
btimhXn, tlaXmew, cmP\yw, JNcw, Khyw, but[bw, Zmktabw,
iymaIw, t£a[q¿Øw.
29. sFim\ymwtacp I\jvScmPy ]ip]meIocImivaocmw
A`nkmc ZcZXwKW IpeqX sskcnt{‘ h\cmjv{Smx
30. {_lva]pc Z¿ΔUmac h\cmPyIncmXNo\IuWnμmx
`√m]temePSkpcIp\TJktLmj IpNnImJymx
31. GINcWm\p hnizmx kph¿Æ `q¿h kph\w ZnhnjvTm®x
]uch Noc\nhk \{Xnt\{X apRvPm{Zn K‘¿hmx
tchXn, AizXn, `cWn \£{Xßfnse tZi߃:Cuim\tImWn¬ tacpIw, \jvScmPyw, ]ip]mew, Iocw, Im
ivaocw, A`nkmcw, ZcZw, XwKWw, IpeqXw, sskcn‘vcw, h\cmjv{Sw,
{_lva]pcw, Zm¿ΔUmacw, h\cmPyw, IncmXw, No\w, IuWnμw, `√m]w,
temePSw, kpcIp\Tw, Jkw, tLmjw, IpNnIw, GINcWw, A\p
hnizw, kph¿Æ`q, hkph\w, ZnhnjvTw, ]uchw, Nnc\nhk\w, {Xn
t\{Xw, apRvPm{Zn, Km‘¿Δw.
32. h¿ss§cmKvt\bmssZyx {Iqc{Kl ]oUnssXx {ItaW
\r]mx ]m©mtem amK[nI IenwK› £bw bm\n.
33. Bht¥mf AYm\¿tØmarXypw NmbmXnkn‘pkuhoc
cmPmNlmc lucm `t{Ztim A\y› IuWnμx
CXn {io hcml anlncIrssX _rlXv kwlnXbmw
Iq¿Ω hn`mK›Xp¿±timf A≤ymbx
BKvt\bmZnIfmb \£{Xh¿§ßfn¬ {Iqc {KlßfpsS ]oU
ImWp∂ ]£w bYm{Iaw ]m©mew, amK[oIw, IenwKw, Ah¥n,
315

{]Imikn‘p

B\¿Øw, kn‘p kuhoc߃, lmclucw, `{Zw, IuWnμw F∂nhnS
ßfnse cmPm°∑m¿°v \miap≠mIp∂XmWv.
Iq¿Ω hn`mKw `mcXØn¬ thZImew apX¬ {]NmcØnencp∂
Hcp Xcw `q]S \n¿ΩnXnbmWv. Hcp “sS{Sm sl{U¨” BWv Iq¿Ωw
(Ba). BabpsS ]pdwtXmSns\ HºXp ka`mKambn hn`Pn°mw. A¿≤
tKmfmIrXnbnep≈ AXns\ F´p ZniIfn¬ F´p`mKhpw, a≤yØn¬
Hcp tacpJfihpambn hn`Pn°Ww. Hcp tKmf t£{XsØ Cßs\
hn`Pn®mWv BZysØ a\p Xs‚ ]p{X∑m¿°v \¬InbXv. `qtKmfsØ
sb∂ t]mse Hmtcm {]tZisØbpw Iq¿Ω hn`mKa\pkcn®v hn`Pn
°mw (temjphns\ Ipdn®v ]fl kn‘phn¬ ]d™Xv hmbn°pI).

Hmtcm `mKtØbpw Zo¿L NXpcam°n AXn¬ \n∂v Hcp Iyq_v
hcbv°pI. 9 x 8 = 72 apJw In´pw. CXns\ Bkv]Zam°nbmWv Ab
\mwi KWnXw.
1° k©cn°m≥ 72.2 h¿jw FSp°p∂ Hcp _nμp 25992 h¿jØn¬
360° k©cn°pw. AXn\m¬, 25992 apX¬ 26000 h¿jw hsc ‘precision
of equiox’ F∂p hnfn°p∂ Ab\mwi {IaoIcW Imeambn IW°m
°p∂p.
CXnt\mSv {Im¥nt`Z\ _nμphns‚ ]cn{`aW ImesØ IqSn
tN¿°pI.
76 h¿jØnsemcn°¬ (ImeØns‚ h¿§aqeamb 19 x 4) 1° k©
cn°p∂ {Im¥nt`Z\ _nμp 27360 h¿jØn¬ 360° t]mIpw. icmicn
FSpØm¬
25992 + 27360/2 = 26676
AXn\m¬ Nne¿ 27000 h¿jw F∂v Iq´p∂p. e¶bnsem, sXs°
C¥ybntem Ccp∂v \nco£n°ptºmƒ D{Xw, D{X´mXn BIvknkv tc
Jmwihpw, aIw, hnimJw BIvknkv A£mwihpw BWv. AhcpsS
tacp Zfiw a≤ytZi°mcptSXmbncn°n√ (a≤y tcJaqew ]pW¿Xa√,
hnimJw aIw BWv).
316

{]Imikn‘p

CXv Hcp t^m¿apebmWv. CXph®v GXp {]tZiØncp∂pw, Ime
]pcpj\p kam¥cambn hmkvXp ]pcpjs\ hcbv°mw. F{X sNdnb
`q`mKtØbpw Cßs\ hn`Pn°mw.
e¶bnsebpw Z£nW `mcXØnsebpw BfpIƒ abZm\hs\∂
]›na tZiØpImc\pw (Atkmckv, AXem¥ Zzo]pIfn¬ \n∂p IpSn
tbdnb inev]n; Atacn°≥ ab kwkv°mcw ChcpsS kw`mh\bmWv).
a≤y `mcXØnse tPymXnjnIƒ°pw X߃°pw kzoImcyamb Im¿
ØnI, aqew, BIvknkv kzoIcn®p. DØc `mcXØnep≈h¿ Ahn´w,
Bbneyw, tchXn, Xrt°´, BIvknkpIfpw, XncpthmWw, AizXn
F∂o a≤ytcJbpw FSp°p∂hcmWv. DØc Z£nW Zn°pIƒ XΩn
ep≠mb sNdnb A`n{]mb hyXymkw C∂pw Adnhn√mØ Ipsd Bfp
Iƒ Ab\mwi X¿°hpw, ]©mwK X¿°hpambn s]cp∏n®p sIm≠p
\S°p∂p!
t{jmUnwKdpsS XcwK bm{¥nI \ymb {]Imcw n kwJy {Zhy _nμp
°fp≈ Hcp bm{¥nI knÃw KWnX]cambn´v, {Xnam\ßfp≈ tZi Øn¬
(space) Nen°p∂ H‰ {Zhy _nμp (masspoint) hn\v kam\amWv.
n = 9 F¶n¬
3n = 27

4 cmin°v 9 \£{Xw (27) hoXap≈ cminN{Iw. CØcw Hcp single
mass point BWv. AizXn, aIw, aqew- 0°, 120°, 240° - Hcp ka`pP
{XntImWØns‚ 3 tImWpIfmWv. Cßs\ 9 {XntImWw hcbv°mw
({ioN{IØn¬ F∂ t]mse).
AizXn

aqew

aIw

Ch ]ckv]cw co-ordinate system BIbm¬, H∂p ÿew amdptºmƒ
at‰Xn\pw ]cnkv]μw hcpw. AXn\m¬ Ch \ncb\Øn¬ (inertia) BWv.
cmin N{Iw C{]Imcw \ncb\amWv. At∏mƒ ]ns∂, Ab\mwiX¿°
Øn\p {]k‡nbn√.
`qanbpw kqcy\pw XΩntem, `qanbpw \£{Xhyqlhpw XΩntem
D≈X√ bYm¿∞ precision of equinox. \ncb\amb {_t“m¿÷sØ
{]Xn^en∏n°p∂ \ncb\ cminN{Ihpw, AXns‚ (Du¿÷Øns‚)
317

{]Imikn‘p

A`nhy‡nbmb {Kl kmb\ Ne\hpw XΩnemWv. AXmIs´ km[m
cW hyhlmcnI PohnXØns\m PmXI KW\Ønt\m Bhiyhpan√.
]ns∂, kmb\ KWnXØnt‚bpw ]©mwKØnt‚bpw Bhiy
sa¥v? shdpsX ]ckv]cw X¿°n°m\pw, Rm≥ ‘C∂Xv’ I≠p]nSn®p
F∂v hoºp ]dbm\pw, apºp t]mbhcpsS Imev]mSpIsf Nhn´n \S∂n
´pw Ahsc \nμn°m\pamtWm? A√, \ncb\sØ {Kln°Wsa¶n¬
BZyw kmb\sØ Ipdn®v t_m[ap≠mhWw (Dialectics). apºp≈
Imetam ]n≥]p≈ Imetam C√-- ImetZi ss\c¥cyØn¬ “Zn°v
tZi ImeKXn ^e iq\y” amb ]cam¿∞ kØbmb {_lvata D≈q.
B {_lvasa∂ Du¿÷sØ (E) Adnbm≥ {ZhysØbpw (mass) AXn
s‚ Ne\tØbpw, Ne\ thKØns‚ h¿§tØbpw (c2) AdnbWw.
E = Mc2

{_lvaw = {_lva {Zhyamb {]]©w x Ne\ thKXbpsS h¿§w
\ncb\w = kmb\w
{_lvaw = {]]©w AYhm {]IrXn, {_lvaa√msX as‰m∂n√.
k¿Δw {_lvaabw. {_lvaabamb Cu NnZm\μ kmKcØn¬ Rm\m
Ip∂ IWhpw Hcp Xp≈n. Alw {_lvaw Akvan.
Cu “thZt\{Xw” Xpd°m≥ am{XamWv kmb\Øns‚ Dt±iw:
e£yhpw.

318

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 15

\£{Xhyqlw
1. BKvt\tbknX IpkpamlnXmKv\n a{¥⁄ kq{X `mjy⁄m
BIcnI\m]n XZznP LSImc ]ptcmlnXm_vZ⁄m
shfpØ ]pjv]w, AKv\n tlm{XnIƒ, a{¥⁄∑m¿, kq{X`mjy
⁄m\nIƒ, BIcnI∑m¿, ZznP∑m¿, Ipw`Imc∑m¿, ]ptcmlnX∑m¿,
A_vZ⁄∑m¿ Ch¿s°ms° BKvt\b tImWpw, Im¿ØnI kaql
hpamWv B{ibw.
2. tcmlnWymw kp{hX ]Wy`q][ \ntbmK bp‡ imISnIm;
tKmhrj PeNc I¿jI intem®ssb›cykº∂m
kp{hX¿, ]Wy hkvXp°ƒ, cmPm°∑m¿, [\nI∑m¿, tbmK
bp‡¿, tKm°ƒ, hrj߃, PeNc߃, I¿jI¿, intem®b߃,
Ncykº∂¿ F∂nh¿ tcmlnWo kaqlØns‚ A[o\XbnemWv.
3. arKinckn kpc`n hkv{Xm_vP Ipkpa^e cXv\h\Nc hnlwKm;
arKtkma]oYn Km‘¿Δ ImapI teJlmc›.
kpc`n, hkv{Xw, ]fl Ipkpaw, ^ew, cXv\w, h\Ncw, ]£nIƒ,
arK߃, tkma]∑m¿, K‘¿Δ∑m¿, ImapI∑m¿, FgpØpIƒ sIm≠p
t]mIp∂h¿ (C°meØv t]mì Un∏m¿´vsa‚pIm¿) F∂nh¿ arK
inc n\v A[o\amWv.
4. cut{Zh[_‘m\rX]c ZmckvtXb imTyt`ZcXmx
Xrj[m\y Xo£vWma{¥m`nNmc thXme I¿Ω⁄x
h[w, _‘w, AkXyw, ]cZmclcWw, imTyw, t`Zw F∂nhbn¬
cXnbp≈hcpw, sNdpXcw [m\yßfpw, Xo£vW a{¥w sIm≠v B`nNmc
I¿Ωw sNøp∂hcpw, thXmfI¿Ω ⁄m\nIfpw XncphmXncbv°v
A[o\amWv.
5. BZntXy kXyuZmcyiuNIpecq] [obtim¿∞bpXmx
DØa[m\yw hWnPx tkhm`ncXm; kinev]nP\mx
319

{]Imikn‘p

kXyw, HuZmcyw, siuNw, Ipew, cq]w, [o, bi v, A¿∞w F∂o
KpWßtfmSpIqSnb a\pjycpw, DØa [m\yßfpw hWnPßfpw,
tkh\ Xev]ccpw, \√ inev]n P\ßfpw ]pW¿XØnt‚XmWv.
6. ]ptjybhtKm[qamx imeo£ph\m\n a{¥ntWm `q]m
kentem]Pohn\x km[hizbt⁄b jvSnk‡mivN
bhw, tKmXºv, imens\√v, Icnºv, a{¥nam¿, `q]∑m¿, kentem]
PohnIƒ, km[p°ƒ b⁄Ønepw CjvSnbnepw Bk‡nbp≈h¿
F∂nh¿ ]pjyØnt‚XmWv.
7. AlntZh Ir{Xna Iμaqe^e IoS]∂KhnjmWn
]c[\lcWm`ncXm kvXpj [m\yw k¿Δ`njPivN.
Ir{Xnaambn Dev]mZn∏n°s∏´ Iμ߃, aqe߃, ^e߃, IoS
߃, ]∂K߃, hnj hkvXp°ƒ, Xrj [m\y߃, ]c[\w lcn°p
∂Xn¬ Xmev]cyap≈h¿, k¿Δ sshZy∑m¿ F∂nhcmWv BbneyØn
t‚Xv.
8. ]nt{X [\[m\ymVymx tImjvTmKmcmWn ]q¿ΔXm{ibnWx
]nXr`‡ hWn°v, iqcx {IhymZmx kv{XoZzntjma\pPmx
aIw \£{XØn¬ [\[m\ymVy∑m¿, `fimc߃, apºp≠m
bn´p≈ kwkv°mcßsf (Traditions) _lpam\n°p∂hcmb ]nXr
`‡¿, hWn°pIƒ, iqc∑m¿, {IhymZ∑m¿, kv{Xo hntZzjnIfmb
a\pjy¿ F∂nh¿°mWv ÿm\w.
9. {]mIv^¬Kp\ojp \SbphXo kp`K Km‘¿Δ inev]n ]Wym\n
I¿∏mk ehWam£nI ssXem\n IpamcImizm]n.
\S∑m¿, bphXnIƒ, kp`K∑m¿, KmbI∑m¿, inev]nIƒ, ]cpØn
hkv{Xw, D∏v, tX≥, ssXe߃, IpamcKW߃, Aiz߃ F∂nh
]q¿Δ ^m¬Kp\n°p≈XmWv.
10. BcyavtWmam¿±htimNho\nb]mjWvUnZm\
imkv{XcXmx tim`\[m\yalm[\ [¿Ωm\pcXmx ka\rtP{μmx
D{XØn\v am¿±hw, ]hn{XX, hn\bw, \mkvXnIXzw, Zm\ioew,
imkv{Xm`ncpNn, tim`\[m\y߃, alm[\w, [¿Ωm`ncpNn F∂nh
tbmSp IqSnb P\ßfpw cmPm°∑mcpw.
320

{]Imikn‘p

11. lkvtX XkvIc IpRvPc cYnIalmam{X inev]n ]Wym\n
Xrj [m\yw £pXbp‡mhWnP kvtXtPmbpXmizm{X
I≈∑m¿, B\Iƒ, cYnIƒ, alma{¥nam¿, inev]nIƒ, ]Wy
߃, Xrj[m\y߃, hni∏p≈h¿, hWnP∑m¿, tXtPmbp‡¿ F∂n
h¿ AØØnt‚XmWv.
12. Xzmjvt{S`qjWaWncmKteJyKm‘¿Δ K‘
bp‡n⁄mKWnX]SpX¥phmbm; imemIymcmP[m\ym\n.
Nn{X\£{XØn¬ B`cW߃, aWnIƒ, AwKcmK߃, teJy
߃, Km‘¿Δ hyhlmc߃, K‘bp‡n⁄m\nIƒ, KWnX]Sp
°ƒ, XpWn s\øp∂h¿, imemIyX{¥⁄cmb sshZy∑m¿, cmPm°
∑m¿, [m\y߃.
13. kzmXukzK arKXpcKmhWntPm[m\ym\n hmX_lpem\n
AÿnckulrZeLp kXzXm]km; ]Wy Ipie›;
tNmXnbn¬ kzKw, arKw, XpcwKw, hmWnPw, [m\yw, Imt‰m´w
[mcmfap≈ ÿe߃, Aÿncßfmb kplrZv _‘߃, eLpkXz
ap≈ (eLp kzm`mhnIfmb) Xm]k¿ ]Wy Ipie∑m¿ F∂nh¿.
14. C{μmKv\nssZhssX c‡]pjv]^eimJn\; kXne apZvKm;
Im¿ΩmkamkNWIm, ]pcμclpXmi `‡m›.
hnimJØn\v c‡]pjv]w, ^e߃, imJnIƒ, F≈v, apZvKw,
]cpØn, NW, AKv\n`‡∑m¿ F∂nh¿.
15. ssat{X iucyktaXm KW\mbIm km[ptKmjvTnbm\cXm;
tb km[hiz temtI k¿Δw NicXvkapXv]∂w
A\ngØn¬ iucyap≈h¿, KW\mbI∑m¿, km[pkwL߃,
aThmknIfpw k¿ΔtemIk©mcnIfpamb km[p°ƒ, icXvImeØn
ep≠mb hkvXp°ƒ F∂nh.
16. ]sscfμssc fXniqc; IpehnØbtimf \nXz: ]ckzlrX
hnPnKojthm \tc{μ; tk\m\mwNm]nt\Xmc;
Xrt°´bn¬ AXniqc∑m¿, IpehnØp°ƒ, bi p≈h¿, ]c
kzØv lcn°p∂h¿, hnPnKojp°fmb cmPm°∑m¿ tk\m\mbI∑m¿.
321

{]Imikn‘p

17. aqte t`jPm`njtPm KWapJymx Ipkpa aqe ^e hm¿Ømx
_oPm\yXn[\bp‡m; ^eaqssetcy Nh¿Øt¥.
aqeØn¬ k¿Δ t`jPßfpw `n£°pIfpw, KWapJy∑mcpw,
]pjv]w, Ingßv, ^ew, CeIƒ, hnØpIƒ F∂nhbpw AXn[\hm∑m
cpw, ^eaqeßfm¬ D]Pohn°p∂hcpw.
18. Bss]y arZthm Peam¿§Kman\x kXyiuN [\ bp‡mx
tkXpIchmcoPohI^eIpkpam\ymw_pPmXm\n
]qcmSØn¬ arZpioecpw Peam¿§ØneqsS k©cn°p∂hcpw
kXyw, iuNw, [\w F∂nhtbmSp tN¿∂hcpw, tkXp sI´p∂hcpw,
Pew sIm≠v D]Pohn°p∂hcpw, ^eßfpw, ]q°fpw, XmacIfpw.
19. hntiziztc almam{Xa√ IcnXpcK tZhXm`‡x
ÿmhctbm≤m t`mKm\znXm›tb NuPkmbp‡mx
D{XmSØn¬ alma{¥n, a√≥, B\, IpXnc, tZhXm `‡∑m¿,
ÿmhc hkvXp°ƒ, tbm≤m°ƒ, t`mKm\znX¿, HmP p≈h¿.
20. {imhtW ambm]Sthm\ntXym[yp‡m›I¿Ω kpka¿∞m
D’mln\mx k[¿tΩm`KhXx kXyhN\m›
XncpthmWØn¬ ambmhnZybn¬ ]Sp°ƒ, \nXyhpw DtZymKw
sNøp∂h¿, I¿ΩIpie¿, D’mlnIƒ, [¿aSanjvT¿, `mKhX∑m¿,
kXyhm°pIƒ.
21. hkpt`amt\m∑p‡mx ¢o_mizekulrZmxkv{XnbmwtZzjym
Zm\m`ncXm _lp¿ΔnØwkwbpXmx ia]cm›\cm.
Ahn´Øn¬ am\w t]mbh¿, \]pwkI߃, N©e kulrZ
tØmSp IqSnbh¿, kv{XotZzjnIƒ, Zm\ioe¿, _lphnØ kwbpX¿,
iaKpWap≈h¿.
22. hcptWti]minIa’y_‘PePm\n PeNcm PoJm
kuImcnIcPIiufinI imIp\nIm›m]n h¿t§f kvan≥
NXbØn¬ hym[∑m¿, a’y_‘\w sNøp∂h¿, PeP hkvXp
°ƒ, PeNc PohnIƒ, kuImcnI∑m¿ (]∂n hf¿Øp∂h¿), Ae°p
Im¿, iufinIƒ, imIp\nI∑m¿.
322

{]Imikn‘p

23. BtP Xkv°c]ip]me lnwkv{XIo\mi \oNiwtNjvTmx
[¿Ω {hssX¿ΔnclnXm \nbp≤Ipie› a\pPmx
]qtcmcp´mXnbn¬ I≈∑m¿, CSb∑m¿, lnwk sNøp∂h¿, Io
\mi∑m¿, \oN∑m¿, iTtNjvS°m¿, [¿Ω{hXan√mØh¿, a√bp≤
Ipie∑m¿.
24. Aln¿_p[vt\y hn{]x {IXpZm\Xt]mbpXm alm hn`hx
B{ianWx ]mjfim \tcizcm kmc[m\yw N.
D{X´mXnbn¬ b⁄w, X] v, Zm\w F∂nhtbmSp IqSnb alm
hn`h imenIƒ, B{ianIƒ, cmPm°∑m¿, {_mlvaW¿, ]mjfinIƒ,
t{ijvT [m\y߃.
25. ]ujvtWkene P^e Ipkpa ehW aWn iwJ au‡n Im_vPm\n
kpc`n Ipkpam\n K‘mhWntPm\u I¿Æ[mcmivO.
tchXnbn¬ Ptemev]∂߃, Ipkpa߃, ^e߃, D∏v, iwJv,
cXv\w, apØv, Xmac, kpc`ne ]pjv]߃, kpK‘ hkvXp°ƒ, hWn
°pIƒ, \uIIfn¬ k©cn°p∂h¿.
26. Aizn\maizlcmx tk\m]XnsshZytkhImkvXpcKx
XpcKm tcml›hWn{Kqt]mt]XmkvXpcKc£x
AizXnbn¬ IpXncIsf lcn°p∂h¿, tk\m]Xnam¿, sshZy
∑m¿, tkhI∑m¿, IpXncIƒ, AizmcqV¿, hWn°pIƒ, cq]hm∑m¿,
Aizc£I¿.
27. bmtayfkrIv]ninX`pPx{Iqcmh[_‘XmU\mk‡m
Xrj[m\yw\oNIptemXv`hm hnlo\m›ktXy\m
`cWnbn¬ c‡amwkmZnIƒ `pPn°p∂h¿, {Iqc∑m¿, h[w, _‘
\w; XmU\w F∂nhbn¬ Bk‡nbp≈h¿, Xrj[m\y߃, \oN
IptemXv`h¿, kXyan√mØh¿.
28. ]q¿Δm{Xbw km\ea{KPm\mw cm⁄mw
Xp]ptjyW ktlmØcmWn
323

{]Imikn‘p

k]ujvWssa{Xw ]nXrssZhXwN
{]Pm]tؿ`wNIrjohem\mw.
29. BZnXylkvXm `nPnZmizn\m\n
hmWnKv P\m\mw {]hZ¥n`m\n
aqem{Xn t\{Xm \nehmcpWm\n
`m\yp{KPmtX{]`hnjvWpXmbmw.
]q¿Δ ^m¬Kp\n, ]q¿ΔmjmVw, ]q¿Δ`{Z]mZw, Im¿ØnI F∂nh
{_mlvaW¿°pw DØc ^m¬Kp\n, DØc BjmVw, DØc `{Z]mZw,
]pjyw F∂nh £{Xnb¿°pw A[nImcnIfmWv. tchXn, A\pcm[,
aIw, AizXn F∂nh sshiy¿°mWv. aqew, B{Z, kzmXn, iXm`njw
F∂nh D{KPmXnIƒ°mWv.
30. kutay{μNn{Xmhkp ssZhXm\n
tkhmP\kzmay]p]mKXm\n
km¿∏ hnimJ {ihtWm `cWy›fime
PmtXcnXn \n¿±nim¥n.
aIocw, Xrt°´, Nn{X, Ahn´w F∂nh tkhI∑mcpsS kzman
bmWv. Bbneyw, hnimJw, XncpthmWw, `cWn Nfime∑mcpsS kzman
bmbn \n¿t±in°s∏´ncn°p∂p.
31. chn chnkpXt`mKamKXw £nXn
kpXt`Z\h{IZqjnXw
{KlWKXatYm¬°bm lXw
\nbXapjmIc]oUnXw NbXv.
32. XZp]lXanXn{]N£tX {]IrXn hn]cybbmXtahhm
\nKZnX]cnh¿§ZqjWw IYnX hn]cybKw kar≤ytb
CXn{iohcml anlncIrXu _rlXv
kwlnXmbmw \£{Xhyql; ]©Ztim≤ymb;
GXp \£{Xw kqcy\n¬ \n∂pw i\nbn¬ \n∂pw ap‡hpw, sNmΔ
bm¬ t`Zn°s∏´Xpw h{IZqjnXhpw, {KlWw kw`hn°p∂Xpw D¬°
Ifm¬ ]oUn∏n°s∏´Xpw Bbn°mWp∂pthm AX\pkcn®v AXmXv
324

{]Imikn‘p

\£{Xßfm¬ kqNnXamb h¿§ßƒ°v {]IrXnhn]cybtam, kar≤n
tbm ]dbmw.
Iq¿Ω hn`mKØn¬ \£{Xm\pkrXamb map (`q]Sw) D≠m°n.
\£{XhyqlØn¬ AXXp {]tZißfn¬ ImWp∂hbpw AhbpsS
kz`mhhpw ]d™p. CX\pkcn®v A°meØpw a≤yaZ£nW ]q¿Δ
tZißfnemWv {][m\ambn´v Z¿i\ßfpw imkv{Xßfpw `cWkwhn
[m\ßfpw Ct°mWanbpw `fimchpw F√mw ÿnXn sNøp∂Xv.
A¿∞ imkv{XØnepw CXns‚ sXfnhpIƒ ImWmw.

325

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 16

{Kl`‡n
1. {]mMv \¿ΩZm¿≤, timsWuwKhwK
kplvamx IenwK _mÀoImxiI
bh\aK[ i_c {]mKvtPymXnjNo\Imwt_mPmx
2. taIe IncmXhnSIm _lnc¥x
ssiePm ]penμmivN {ZhnUm\mw
{]mK¿≤w Z£nWIqew Nbap\mbmx
3. Nwt_mZpw_c Iuimºn tNZnhn‘ym
`hnIenwKmivN ]p{fim tKmemw
iqe{io ]¿ΔX h¿≤am\mivN
4. C£paXoXyY Xkv°c ]mcXIm¥mc
tKm]_oPm\mw Xrj[m\y ISpI
XcpI\IZl\ hnjkaciqcmWmw
5. t`jPnjIv NXpjv]ZIrjnIc
\r]lnw{kbmbNucmWmw
hymemcWybtimbpX Xo£vWm\mw
`mkv°cx kzman,
\¿ΩZbpsS ]q¿Δm¿≤w, timWw, AwKw, hwKw, kplvaw, IenwKw,
_mÀoIw, iIw, bh\w, aK[w, i_cw, {]mKv tPymXnjw, ssN\,
Imwt_mPw, taIew, IncmXw, hnSIw, KncnbpsS A¥¿, _ln¿`mK
߃ (Kncn{hPw), ]penμw, {ZmhnUtZiØns‚ ]q¿Δm¿≤w, bap\bpsS
sXt°ØSw, Nw_m, DZpw_cw, Iuimw_n, tNZn, hn‘yShn, IenwKw,
]p{fiw, tKmemwKqew, {io]¿ΔXw, h¿≤am\w, C£paXoXocw F∂o
tZi߃°pw, Xkv°c∑m¿, ]mcX∑m¿ (ap°ph¿), Im¥mc∑m¿, tKm]
_oP߃, Xrj[m\yw, ISp°macw, I\Iw, AKv\n, hnjw, bp≤hoc
∑m¿, Huj[߃, sshZy∑m¿, NXpjv]Z߃, I¿jI¿, cmPm°∑m¿,
lnwkI∑m¿, Imfk¿∏mZnIfpw Zwin°p∂ P¥p°ƒ F∂nhbv°pw
Xo£vWßfmb Im´phn`h߃°pw kzman kqcy\mWv.
326

{]Imikn‘p

6. Kncn kene Zp¿§ tImie acpIO kap{Z tcmaI Xpjmcmx
h\hmkn XwKWle kv{XocmPy alm¿Æh Zzo]mx
7. a[pcck Ipkpa^e kene ehWaWniwJsau‡nIm_vPm\mw
imenbshuj[n tKm[qatkma]m{IZhn{]mWmw
8. knXkp`KXpcKcXnIcbphXnNaq\mYt`mPy hkv{XmWmw
irwKn \nimNc I¿jIb⁄hnZmw Nm[n]›{μ;
]¿ΔXw, Pew, Zp¿§w, tImkew, acpIOw, kap{Zw, tcmaIw, Xpjm
cw, h\hmkn, XwKWw, lew, kv{XocmPyw, alm¿ÆhZzo]߃, a[pc
ckw, Ipkpaw, ^ew, PeehWw, aWn, iwJv, apØv, ]flw, imen,
bhw, tKmXºv, tkma]cmb {_mlvaW¿, shfpØp `wKnbp≈ IpXnc
Iƒ, cXn DW¿Øp∂ bphXnIƒ, tk\m]Xn, `£Ww, hkv{Xw, irwKn,
\nimNc¿, I¿jI¿, b⁄hnØpIƒ ChcpsS kzman N{μ\mWv.
9. timWky \¿ΩZmbm `oacYmbmt›]›nam¿≤ÿmx
\n¿Δn‘ym th{XhXo in{]m tKmZmhcothWm
10. aμmIn\o ]tbmjvWo alm\Zo kn‘pamexo]mcmx
DØw ]mfiyatl{μm{Zn hn‘ymaetbm]Kmt›em.
11. {ZhnUhntZlm{‘mivaIm`mkm]pcsIuwIWmx ka{¥njnIm
Ip¥etIcfZfiIIm¥n]pctæOkwIcPmx
12. \mknIyt`mKh¿≤\hncmS hn‘ym{Zn ]m¿izKmtZimx
tbN ]n_¥n kptXmbmw Xm]nw tbNm]n tKmaXo kenew
13. \mKc IrjnIc]mcX lpXmi\mPohncm{X]m¿Øn\mw
BShnIZp¿§ I¿ΔSh[I\riwkmhen]vXm\mw
14. \c]Xn Ipamc IpRvPc Zmw`nIUnw`m`nLmX ]ip]m\mw
c‡^e Ipkpahn{Zpa Naq]KpUaZy Xo£vWm\mw.
timW, \¿ΩZ, `oacYn F∂nhbpsS ]Sn™msd Icbnep≈h¿,
\n¿hn‘y, th{XhXn, in{]m, tKmZmhcn, thWm\Zn, aμmIn\n, ]tbm
jvWn, alm\Zn, kn‘p, ameXn, ]mcm\Zn (]mcX∏pg- `mcX∏pg), DØc
]mfiytZiw, atl{μKncn, hn‘y≥, aeb]¿ΔXØns‚ Xmgvhc,
tNmfw, {ZmhnUw, hntZlw, B{‘w, AivaIw, `mkm]pcw, sIm¶Ww,
ka{¥njnIw, Ip¥fw (I¿ÆmSIw), tIcfw, ZfiIw, Im¥n]pcw,
tæOw, k¶c\mSpIƒ, \mknIyw, t`mKh¿≤\w, hncmSw, hn‘ys‚
]m¿iztZi߃, X]Xn, tKmaXo\ZnIfnse Pew IpSn°p∂h¿, \Kc
327

{]Imikn‘p

hmknIƒ, Irjn°m¿, ]mcX∑m¿, AKv\nsb D]Pohn°p∂h¿, cm{Xn
k©cn°p∂h¿, h\NmcnIƒ, Zp¿§ I¿ΔSßfn¬ ]m¿°p∂h¿,
lnwkn°p∂h¿, K¿Δp≈h¿, cmPm°∑m¿, Ipamc∑m¿, B\Iƒ, Zw`p
≈h¿, ]ip]me¿, {hWnX¿, Nph∂ ]q°fpw ]gßfpw, ac߃,
tk\m]Xn, i¿°c, aZyw, Xo£vWw15. tImi`h\mKv\n tlm{XnI[mXzmIc imIy`n£pNucmWmw
iwZo¿Lsshc _lzmin\mwN hkp[mkptXmf [n]Xn.
`fimcw, hoSv, AKv\ntlm{Xn, [mXp°sfs°m≠v ]Wnbp∂h¿,
imIy`n£p°ƒ, tNmc∑m¿, iT∑m¿, Zo¿LsshcnIƒ, A[nIw Xn∂p
∂h¿ ChcpsS kzman `qan ]p{X\mb sNmΔbmWv.
16. seulnXyx kn‘p\Zx kcbq¿ Kw`ocnImcYmlymN
IwKm sIuinIymZymx kcntXm sshtZlImwt_mPx
17. aYpcmbmx ]q¿Δm¿≤w lnahZv tKma¥Nn{XIqSÿmx
skuacmjv{StkXp Peam¿§]Wy_ne]¿ΔXm{ibnWmx
18. DZ]m\b{¥ Km‘¿ΔteJyaWncmKK‘bp‡nhnZx
BteJyi_vZ KWnX{]km[Imbpjyinev]⁄mx
19. Nc]pcpj IplI PohI inipIhniw kqNIm`nNmccXmx
ZqX \]pwkIlmky⁄ `qXXt{¥{μPme⁄mx
20. Bc£I\S\¿ØILrXssXe kvt\l_oPXn‡m\n
{hXNmcnckmb\ Ipiethkcm›{μ]p{Xky.
eulnXy, kn‘p\Zw, kcbq, Kw`ocI, cYmlzm, KwK, IuinIn,
Imwt_mPw, sshtZlw, aYpcbpsS ]q¿Δm¿≤w, lnamebw, tKma¥w,
Nn{XIqSw, tkXp, Peam¿-§ßƒ, ]Wy߃, _neßfnepw, aeIfnepw
Pohn°p∂h¿, kuacmjv{Sw, ]finX∑m¿, \bX{¥⁄¿, Km‘¿Δ
∑m¿, kwKoXw, Nn{XsagpØv, aWn, cmKw, K‘w ChbpsS bp‡n Adn
bp∂h¿, BteJ\w sNøp∂h¿, i_vZimkv{Xw, KWnXw, {]km[\w,
inev]w F∂nhbn¬ {]mKXv`yw t\Snbh¿, k©cn°p∂ ]pcpj∑m¿,
Kplma\pjy≥, inip°ƒ, IhnIƒ, iT∑m¿, kqNI∑m¿, A`nNmccX
∑m¿, ZqX∑m¿, \]pwkI߃, lmky⁄∑m¿, `qXX{¥hpw, C{μPm
ehpw Adnbp∂h¿, c£I∑m¿, \S∑m¿, \¿ØI∑m¿, s\øv, ssXew,
FÆ°pcp°ƒ, Ibv]pckw, {hXNmcnIƒ, ckmb\Ipie∑m¿, thkc
߃ Chsbms° N{μ]p{X\mb _p[s‚ A[o\XbnemWv.
328

{]Imikn‘p

21. kn‘p\Z ]q¿Δ`mtK a[pcm ]›m¿≤ `cXkuhocmx
kv{XpKvt[mZo Nyhn]mikcnOX{ZpcaTkmezmx
22. ss{XK¿Ø ]uchmw_jvT]mcXmhmS[m\ but[bm
kmckzXm¿÷p\mb\a’ym¿≤ {Kmacmjv{SoWn.
23. lkvXypiz ]ptcmlnX`q]a{¥n amwKey ]ujvSnImk‡m
ImcpWykXyiuN{hXhnZymZm\ [¿ΩbpXmx
24. ]ucalm[\i_vZm¿∞ thZhnZptjm`nf Nmc \oXn⁄mx
a\ptPiztcm]IcWw O{X[zPNmacm[yw N.
25. ssitebI amwkoXK c IpjvTckssk‘hm\n h√oPw
a[pc cka[qOnjvSm\n tNmcIt›Xn Pohky.
kn‘p\ZnbpsS ]q¿Δ`mKw, a[pcbpsS ]›na`mKw, `cXkuhocw,
kv{XpKv[Øns‚ DØc`mKw, hn]mi, iX`{Zp, cmaTw, kmezw, ss{X
K¿Øw, Aw_jvSw, ]mcXw, hmS[m\w, but[bw, kmckzXw, A¿÷p
\mb\w, a’cmPyØnse ]IpXn {Kmaßfpw cmjv{Sßfpw, B\Iƒ,
IpXncIƒ, ]ptcmlnX∑m¿, `q]∑m¿, a{¥nam¿, amwKey ]ujvSnIß
fn¬ Bk‡¿, IcpW, kXyw, iuNw F∂o {hX߃ A\pjvTn®v
hnZymZm\sa∂ [¿Ωm\pjvTm\w sNøp∂ ]uc∑m¿, alm[\w, i_vZm
¿∞hpw thZhpw {Kln® hnZz÷\߃, B`nNmc \oXn⁄∑m¿, a\p
jy¿°pw Cuizc\pw D]IcWßfmb O{Xw, [zPw, Nmacw F∂nh,
]¿ΔXØn¬ D≠mhp∂ ssitebI߃, PSma©n, XIc, IpjvSw,
ckw, ssk‘hw, h√nPw (h√nbn¬ \n∂p≠mbXv), a[pcckw, a[p
OnjvSw, tNmc∑m¿- Ch¿ _rlkv]XnbpsS A[o\ØnemWv.
26. X£ine am¿ØnIm hk_lpKncnKm‘mc ]pjvIem hXImx
{]ÿeamehssIIbZmim¿tÆmio\cmx in_bx
27. tb N ]n_¥n hnXkvXmancmhXnw N{μ`K kcnXwN
cY cPXmIc IpRvPc XpcKalmam{X[\bp‡mx
28. kpc`nIpkpam\pte]aWn h{Phn`qjWmw _pcpl iømx
hcXcpWbphXn Imtam]IcW arjvSm∂ a[pc`qPx
29. DZym\ keneImapIbix kpJuZmcycq]kº∂mx
hnZzZamXy hWnKvP\ LSIrOn{XmfiPmkv{Xn^emx
30. Iutib ]´Iw_e]t{Xm¿ÆnItcm{[]{X tNmNm\n.
PmXo^em KpcphNm]n√yizμ\wN `rtKmx
329

{]Imikn‘p

X£ine, am{XnImhXw, _lpKncn, Km‘mcw, ]pjv°em{hXw,
{]ÿew, amƒh, tIIbw, Zim¿Æw, Dio\cw, in_ntZiw: hnXkvX,
CcmhXn, N{μ`mK F∂o \ZnIfnse Pew ]m\w sNøp∂ {]tZi߃,
cYw, sh≈n, B\, IpXnc, ]m∏m∑m¿, [\hm∑m¿, kpc`ne ]pjv]߃,
A\pte]\߃, aWn{hP hn`qjW߃, ]flw, iø, t{ijvTIfpw
XmcpWyap≈hcpamb bphXnIƒ, Imtam]IcW߃, arjvSm∂w,
a[pc `p°pIƒ, DZym\w, kenew, ImapI∑m¿, bi v, kpJw, HuZmcyw,
cq] kº∂¿, hnZzm∑m¿, AamXy∑m¿, hWnKv P\߃, IpSap≠m°p
∂h¿, Nn{XmfiP߃, {Xn^e (ISp°, s\√n°, Xm∂n°), h¿Æ
]In´p≈ hkv{X߃, Iwºf߃, ]{X߃, PmXo^ew (nutmeg)
AYhm PmXn°, AKcp, hN, ]n∏en, Nμ\w F∂nh ip{Is‚ A[o\
ØnemWv.
31. B\¿Øm¿∫pZ ]pjv°c kucmjv{Sm`oc iq{Zssch XImx
\jvSmbkvan≥ tZti kckzXo ]›ntamtZix
32. Ipcp`qanPmx {]`mkwhnZnim thZkvarXnaloXSPmx
Jeamen\\oNssXeoIhnlo\ktXym]lX]pwkvXzmx
33. _‘\imIp\nImipNn ssIh¿Ønhncq] hr≤ kuIcoImx
KW]qPy kvXzenX{hXi_c ]penμm∞ ]mcolo\mx
34. ISpXn‡cmkmb\ hn[hmtbmjntXm `pPKXkv°c alnjyx
JcIc` NWIhmXpe\njv]mhmizm¿° ]p{Xky.
B\¿Øw, A¿∫pZw, ]pjv°cw, kucmjv{Sw, B`ociq{Zw, ssch
XIw, kckzXo \Zn \jvSambnt∏mb tZi߃, ]›na tZi߃, Ipcp
t£{Xw, {]`mkw, hnZnim, thZkvarXn, aloXSØn¬ (`qanbn¬) P\n
®h, Jew, aen\w, \oNw, kvt\l hnlo\w, kXyan√mØXv, ]pcpjXzw
\in®Xv, _‘\w, imIp\oIw (hym[≥), AipNn, ssIh¿Øw, hncq]w,
hr≤w, kuImcnIw, KW]qPyw, kvJenX{hXw, im_cw, ]pfnμw,
A¿∞]mcolo\w (Zcn{Zw), ISp, Xn‡w, ckmb\w, hn[hbmb kv{Xo,
`pPKw, Xkv°cw, alnjw, IgpX, Ic`w, NWIw, ]´mWn]bdv- Ch
kqcy]p{X\mb i\nbptSXmWv.
35. Kncn inJc IμcZcn hn\nhnjvSmtæOPmXbiq{Zmx
tKmambp`£iqenIthm°mWmiz apJhnIemwKmx
36. Ipe]mwk\lnw{kIrXLv\ Nuc \nxkXyiuNZm\mizx
JcNc\nbp≤hnØo{htcmjK¿`mibm\oNmx
330

{]Imikn‘p

37. D]lXZmw`nIcm£k \n{Zm_lpemiz P¥hx k¿tΔ
[¿tΩWN k¥y‡mamjXne›m¿°i inckvt{Xmx
KncninJc߃, Iμc߃, KplIfnencn°p∂ avtfOPmXn°m
cmb iq{ZKW߃, tKmambp, `£, iqen, thm°mW, AizapJ, hnI
emwK, Ipe\miI∑m¿, lnwkn°p∂h¿, IrXLv\¿, tNmc∑m¿, kXy
iuNZm\ clnX¿, IgpX∏pdØp k©cn°p∂h¿, bp≤Øn\p Xømdm
bh¿, Xo{h tcmjtØmSpIqSnbh¿, \oN K¿`mibßfn¬ P\n°p∂
h¿, D]lX∑m¿, Zw`p≈h¿, cm£k≥, A[nIw Ddßp∂h¿, P¥p
°ƒ, [¿Ωw XyPn®h¿, amjw, Xnew F∂nh kqcy N{μmbp[amb
cmlphns‚ hiKcmWv.
38. KncnZp¿§ ]√htizXlqW tNmemhKmWacpNo\mx
{]Xy¥ [\natlOhyhkmb]cm{Itamt]Xx
39. ]cZmc hnhmZcXmx]cmfiIIpXqlem atZm’n‡mx
ap¿Jm[m¿ΩnIhnPnKojh›tItXmx kamJymXmx
40. DZbkatbbx kv\n≤mwip¿Ωlm≥ {]IrXnÿntXmb
ZnN \ltXm\n¿LmtXmev°mctPm {Kla¿±ss\x
kz`h\ KX; tkz® {]m]vX; ip`{Klho£nX; k`hXn
inhkvtXjmw tbjmw {]`p; ]cnIo¿ØnX;
KncnZp¿§ßƒ, ]√h∑m¿ tizX∑m¿ (sh≈°m¿), lqW∑m¿,
tNmf∑m¿, AhKmW∑m¿ (A^vKm∑m¿), acptZi°m¿, [\nIƒ, atl
Obm¬ hyhkmbw sNøp∂h¿, ]cm{IanIƒ, ]cZmcßfnepw hnhmZ
ßfnepw cXnbp≈h¿, ]cmfiI IqXqle¿, aZw sIm≠v K¿Δv ]nSn®
h¿, aq¿J∑m¿, [m¿ΩnI∑m¿, hnPnKojp°ƒ- Ch¿ tIXphns‚ A[o\
ØnemWv.
GsXmcp {Klw DZbkabØv kv\nKvZmwiphmbn alØmbn kz
{]IrXnÿnX\mbn, \n¿LmXw, D¬°[qfn F∂nhbm¬ XmUn°s∏Sm
ØXmbn, kzt£{XØn¬ {]thin®v, D®ÿ\pw, ip`{Klho£nX\p
ambn \n¬°p∂pthm, B{Klw GtXXp tZi߃°pw hkvXp°ƒ°pw
Xm≥kzmantbm, B tZi߃°pw hkvXp°ƒ°pw inhw (awKfw)
Xcp∂p.
41. A`nlnX hn]coXe£ssW; £bap]K›XnXXv
]cn{Klx Uac`bKZmXpcm P\m\c]Xb›`h¥n ZpxJnXm;
331

{]Imikn‘p

CXn∂p hn]coX e£W߃ AXmXp hkvXp°ƒ°p £bw
hcpØp∂p. B Imeßfn¬ B{Ian°s∏´ P\Xbpw \r]∑mcpw ZpxJn
Xcmbn `hn°p∂p.
42. bZn\cn]q IrXw`bw \r]mWmw
kzkpXIrXw\nbamZaXyPw hm
`hXnP\]ZkyNm]yhrjvSym Ka\a]q¿Δ ]pcm{Zn\nav\Kmkp
CXn {iohcml anlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
{Kl`‡tbm\max tjmUtim≤ymbx
Ft∏mƒ cmPm°∑m¿°v kz¥w ]p{X∑mcn¬ \nt∂m, i{Xp°fn¬
\nt∂m `bw P\n°p∂pthm, Ft∏mƒ AhrjvSn aqew cmPyw ]´nWn°v
hnt[bamIp∂pthm, At∏mƒ B P\]Zw hn´v A]q¿Δßfmb ]pcßfn
te°pw A{ZnIfnte°pw, \ZoXocßfnte°pw amdn ]m¿°Wsa∂mWv
\nbaw.
i{Xp°fpsS `bØn¬ \n∂v c£ t\Sm≥ KncnZp¿§ßfnepw,
B{IanIfmb ]p{X∑mcn¬ \n∂pw c£ t\Sm≥ hntZißfnepw, Ahr
jvSnbpw £mahpw XSbm≥ \ZoXocßfnepw amdn ]m¿°pI F∂Xv
Hcp ]gb ]XnhmWv. A¿∞ imkv{XØn¬ Cu KncnZp¿§ßtfbpw
c£mÿm\ßtfbpw a‰pw NmWIy≥ hnhcn®n´p≠v.
tamlRvtPmZmtcm, lmc∏ F∂o P\]Z߃ Hcp i{Xphnt‚bpw
B{IaWw IqSmsX Dt]£n°s∏´XmsW∂ Hcp hmZKXnbp≠v. £ma
`bw sIm≠v, tPymXnj {]hN\sØ am\n®v, ‘A`b’ÿm\tØbv°v
A`bm¿∞nIfmbn Hcp P\]Zw amdnØmakn°p∂ ]Xnhps≠∂v
hcmlanlnc≥ Nq≠n°mWn°p∂ ÿnXn°v kn‘p \ZoXS kwkv°m
cw Dt]£n® P\]Z-ßsf Hcn°¬ IqSn hnebncptØ≠Xp≠v. kc
kzXn HgpInbncp∂ ‘\jvS tZiw’ F∂ ]cma¿ihpw {it≤bamWv.
I¿° tZiw (Km¿§ tZiw) F∂ t]cn¬ `mcXob kwkv°mc
߃°v Nnc]cnNnXamb bq{^´nkv ssS{Kokv XocØv I¿°anjv
(Carchemish) F∂ KncnZp¿§Øn\v _n.kn. 2500 h¿jw ]g°ap≠v.
CuPn]vXnse tZho`‡cmb s\m_Ømbv (Nobatai) F∂ \p_ob∑m
cpsS PeZp¿§hpw. Chcpw I¿°tZisØ lnss‰‰pIfpw XΩnep≈
_‘hpw Ncn{X{]kn≤amWv (\_mØnb∑m¿ F∂v s\m_ØmbvIsf
Jpdm≥ hnfn°p∂p). _n.kn. 1200 ¬ I¿° tZi°m¿ apjv°n F∂
332

{]Imikn‘p

Hcp ]pXnb hwihpambn c‡_‘w ÿm]n®Xmbn Nne Ncn{XImc
∑m¿ ]dbp∂p. apjv°nIƒ AYhm aqjI cmPhwihpw \_mØnb∑m¿
F∂ ‘\ºqcn’ A¥WcpsS hwihpw hmkvXhØn¬ ]t≠ _‘ap≈
hcmWv. CXv {InkvXphn\v aqΔmbnctam Aømbnctam ]g°ap≈ _‘w.
AXns\ Cu {K\vYØn¬ hnkvXcn°m≥ km≤ya√ (‘Ncn{XØns‚
CS\mgnbneqsS’ F∂ {KŸØn¬ CXv khnkvXcw {]Xn]mZn°mw).

333

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 17

{Klbp≤w
1. bp≤w bYmb `mhm `hnjy ZmZniytX{XnImess⁄
XZzn⁄m\mw IctW abmIrXw kqcykn≤m¥mXv.
{XnIme⁄∑m¿ bp≤w Ft∏msgt∏mƒ `hn°pw F∂p ]d™n
´p≠v. F∂m¬ cNn°s∏´ IcW* {KŸØn¬ (]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬)
kqcykn≤m¥ {]Imcap≈ {Klbp≤hn⁄m\w ]dbs∏´p Ign™p.
2. hnbXnNcXmw {KlmWm ap]cyp]cymfl am¿§ kwÿm\mw
AXnZqcmZrKvhnjtb kaXm anhkw{]bmXm\mw.
*kqcykn≤m¥{KlbpXy[nImcØn¬ awKemZn]©{Klw awK
emZn ]©{KlßtfmsSmØp I≠m¬ bp≤w: N{μs\mØp I≠m¬
kamKaw; kqcys\mØp I≠m¬ AkvXa\w.
{Kl߃ H∂n\p apIfn¬ H∂mbn Xm¥mßfpsS am¿§Øn¬
(I£ybn¬- ÿnXn sNbvXv k©cnbv°bmWv. AXnZqcØn¬ \n∂pw
Z¿»n°ptºmƒ kaXsb (kaÿm\sØ- Htc ÿm\sØ) {]m]n
®Xpt]mse tXm∂pIbmWv. CXns\bmWv {Klbp≤sa∂p ]dbp∂Xv.
3. Bk∂ {IatbmKZvt`tcmt√Jmw ipa¿≤\m]ksshybp±w
NXpjv{]Imcw ]cmicmssZ¿Ωp\n`ncp‡w
]cmicmZnIfmb al¿jnam¿ Bk∂amb {IatbmKØm¬
Dt√Jw, Awipa¿≤\w, t`Zw, A]khyw F∂v \mephn[w {Klbp≤
ßsf ]d™n´p≠v.
4. t`tZhrjvSnhn\mtimt`Z; kplrZmw almIpe\mwN
Dt√tJ ikv{X `bw a{¥nhntcm[x{]nbm∂Xzw.
t`ZØn¬ hrjvSn\mihpw, kplrØp°ƒ°pw almIpe߃°pw
CSbn¬ `n∂n∏pw kw`hn°pw. Dt√JØn¬ Bbp[ `bhpw a{¥n hntcm
[hpw Zp¿`n£w tlXphmbn A∂Øn¬ sImXnbpw D≠mhpw.
5. Awiphntcm[ bp≤m\n `qXmw ikv{XcpIv£p Zha±x
bpt≤ Nm]y]kthy`h¥n bp≤m\n `q]m\mw.
334

{]Imikn‘p

Awip hntcm[Øn¬ cmPm°∑m¿ XΩn¬ cq£amb Bbp[
bp≤w kw`hn°pw. tcmKw, hni∏v, Aha¿±\w F∂nh D≠mhpw. A]
khyØnepw `cWm[nImcnIƒ ]ckv]cw bp≤w sNøpw.
6. chn cm{Itμma≤y ]ucx ]q¿Δ ]tcÿntXmbmbn
]ucm _p[KpcpchnPm \nXyw ioXmwipcm{Imμmx
kqcy≥ a≤ymlv\Øn¬ B{Im¥cmWv. _p[\pw, Kpcphpw, i\n
bpw kZm]uc {KlßfmWv. N{μ≥ \nXyhpw B{Iμ\mWv.
7. tIXp IqP cmlp ip{Imbmbn\ GtXlXm{Klml \ypx
B{Iμbmbn ]ucmƒ Pbnt\m PbZmx kzh¿§kyx
tIXp, sNmΔ, cmlp, ip{I≥ ChcmWv bmbn (]m]) {Kl߃.
ChbpsS lXysIm≠v, bmbn, ]uc{Kl߃ {Iam\pkmcw \mi
{]m]vXn ASbp∂p. Pbw sIm≠v, kzh¿§ßƒ°v Pbw \¬IpIbpw
sNøp∂p.
8. ]utc ]utcWltX ]ucmx ]ucm≥ \r]m≥ kn\n Lv\¥n
Ghw bmaym{Iμu \mKcbmbn {Klmss›hx
]uc\m¬ ]uc≥ l\n°s∏Sptºmƒ ]uc∑m¿ AhcpsS `cWm[n
]XntbmSpIqSn \miaSbp∂p. C{]Imcw bmbn{Klhpw B{Iμ\pw IqSn
tbm ]uc\pw bmbnbpw IqSntbm ]ckv]cw l\n®mepw Xm¥mßfpsS
`cWm[n]∑m¿°v \miw hcpw.
9. Z£nWZnIvÿ; ]cptjm th]Ypc{]m]yk∂nhrtØmWpx
AXnKqtVm hnIrtXm \njv{]t`m hnhƛbxkPnXx
]cpjambpw th]YpthmsS Iºmbam\ambpw, A{]m]yhpw k∂n
hrØhpw AWphpw Bbpw A[nKqVambpw hnIrXambpw \njv{]`am
bpw hnh¿Æambpw Hcp{KlsØ Z£nW`mKØv I≠m¬ AXv {Kl
bpKØm¬ ]cmPnX\mWv.
10. D‡hn]coXe£W kºt∂m PbKtXm hn\njvS;
hn]pemx kv\nKvt[m [rXnam¿ Z£nWZnIv kvtYm]nPbbp‡x
CXn\p hn]coXamb e£Wßfp≈ {Klw hnPbnbmWv. hn]pe
hpw kv\nKv≤hpw [rXnam\pambn Hcp {KlsØ, (AXv Z£nW `mKØm
bmepw) I≠m¬ AXv hnPbnbmWv.
335

{]Imikn‘p

11. Zzmh]nabqJ]r‡uhn]peukv\nKv≤u kamKta `hXx
X{Xmt\ym\y{]oXn¿Δn]coXm ]mfl]£Lv\u.
Ccp {Kl߃ abqJßtfmSp IqSn hn]pehpw kv\nKv≤hpambn
]ckv]cw kamKaw sNøptºmƒ Ah¿°v XΩn¬ At\ym\yw {]oXn
kw`hn°p∂p (Ah¿ bp≤w shSn™v kJyw sNøp∂p). hn]coXsa
¶n¬, Bfl]£sØØs∂ l\n°pIbpw sNøp∂p.
12. bp≤w kamKtamhm b≤yZzb‡uXpe£ssW¿`hXx
`qhn`q`rXm a]nXYm ^emahy{Kw hn\n¿t±iyw.
bp≤amtWm kamKaamtWm kw`hn®Xv F∂X\pkcn®v e£W
߃ sh®p thWw `qanbnse `cWm[n]∑mcpsS bp≤hpw ssa{Xnbpw
]dbm≥.
13. KpcpWmPntX h\nkrssX_mÀoIbmbn t\mKv\n hm¿Øm›
iintP\kqctk\x IenwKkmezm› ]oUytX
Kpcp sNmΔsb Pbn®m¬ _mÀoI tZiØp≈ ]m]n P\߃°p
AKv\n]oUbp≠mbn F∂ hm¿Ø tIƒ°pw. _p[\mWv Pbn®sX
¶n¬ kqctk\∑m¿, IenwK∑m¿, kzme∑m¿ F∂nh¿°mWv ]oV D≠m
hpI.
14. kutcWmtchnPntX Pb¥n ]ucmx{]Pm› koZ¥nx
tImjvTmKmctæO£{Xb Xm]› ipIvcntX.
i\nbm¬ Pbn®p I≠m¬ ]uc∑m¿°p hnPbw: {]PIƒ°p
ZpxJw, ip{I\m¬ Pbn°s∏´m¬ tImjvTmKmc߃°pw, tæO∑m¿°pw,
£{Xnb∑m¿°pw Xm]w.
15. `uta\ltX iintPhr£kcnØm] kmivaI \tc{μmx
DØc Zn¬ÿmx{IXp Zo£nXm› k¥m]ambm¥n{Klbp≤Øn¬ sNmΔbm¬ _p[≥ h[n°s∏´m¬ hr£w, \Zn,
X]kznIƒ, AivaI∑m¿, \tc{μ∑m¿ DØc Zn°nse b⁄߃,
Zo£nX∑m¿ F∂nh¿°v k¥m]w kw`hn°pw.
16. KpcpWm_pt[PntXtæO iq{Z Nucm¿∞bp‡]uc P\mx
ss{XK¿Ø ]m¿ΔXobmx ]oUyt¥y IºtXNalo.
336

{]Imikn‘p

Kpcphm¬ _p[≥ Pbn°s∏´m¬ tæO¿, iq{Z≥, tNc∑m¿, [\hm
∑mcmb ]ucP\߃, ss{XK¿Ø tZi°m¿, ]¿ΔX tZi°m¿- F∂n
hbv°v ]oV kw`hn°pw. `qIºw D≠mhpw.
17. chntP\_pt[[zkvtX \mhnItbm[m_vPk[\ K¿`nWyx
`rKpWmPntXKv\n tIm]xkkymw_pZbmbn hn≤zwkx
i\nbm¬ Pbn°s∏´m¬ \mhnI∑m¿, tbm≤m°∑m¿, PeP
hkvXp°ƒ, [\hm∑m¿, K¿`nWnIƒ F∂nh¿°v ]oV. ip{I\mse
¶n¬, AKv\n tIm]w, kky߃°pw, taLh¿jßfm¬ bmbn P\ß
ƒ°pw ]oU.
18. PothipIvcm`nltXIeqX Km‘mcssIIbma{Zmx
imezmh’m hwKm Kmhx kkym\n\iy¥n.
ip{I\m¬ Kpcp A`nKX\mhp∂ ]£w IpeqXw, Km‘mcw, tI
Ibw, am{Z, imeyw, h’w, hwKw F∂o tZißfpw, ]ip°fpw, {Kma
ßfpw, kkyßfpw \in®p t]mIpw.
19. `uta\ltXPothat≤ymtZtiktcizcmKmhmx
kutcWNm¿÷p\mb\hkmXn but[bin`n hn]vcmx
sNmΔbm¬ Kpcp l\n°s∏Sptºmƒ a≤y tZiØnse \tcizc
∑mcpw, ]ip°fpw: i\nbm¬ l\n°s∏Sptºmƒ A¿÷p\mb\w,
]kmXn, but[bw, in_n, hn{]KWßfpw \in∏n°s∏Spw.
20. iinX\tb\m]nPntX_rlkv]XutaOkXy ikv{X`rXmx
D]bm¥na≤ytZi› kw£bwe® `‡n^ew
_p[\m¬ Kpcp Pbn°s∏´m¬ tæO∑m¿, kXyw, ikv{X[mcnIƒ
F∂nhbv°pw, a≤y{]tZiØnse k¿ΔØn\pw £bw kw`hn°pw.
21. ipt{I _rlkv]XnltXbmbn{tijvTm hn\miap]bmXn
{_lva£{Xhntcm[x kenewN\ hmkh kvXy PXn.
Kpcphm¬ ip{I≥ lX\mbm¬ t{ijvT∑mcmb ‘bmbn’Iƒ°v
hn\miap≠mhpw. {_lva£{X߃°nSbn¬ hntcm[w P\n°pw. C{μ≥
kenew (ag) h¿jn°pIbn√.
337

{]Imikn‘p

22. tImieIenwK hwKmh’ a’ym›a≤ytZibpXmx
alXnw {hP¥]oUmw \]pwkIm iqctk\m›.
tImkew, IenwKw, hwKw, h’w, a’yw, a≤ytZiw, iqctk\w
F∂nhnSßfnse P\߃°pw \]pwkIKW߃°pw alm]oUIƒ
kw`hn°pIbpw sNøpw.
23. IpPhnPntX`rKpX\tb _eapJyht[m \tc{μ kw{Kmamx
kutay\]m¿ΔXobmx £ochn\mtimev] hrjvSn›
IpP\m¬ ip{I≥ Pbn°s∏´m¬ _eapJy∑m¿°v (tk\m]Xn)
h[hpw, cmPm°∑m¿°v bp≤hpw ^ew. _p[\m¬ Pbn°s∏´m¬
]¿ΔX tZi߃°v IjvS∏mSp≠mIpw, ]m¬ Ipdbpw, Aev] hrjvSn
kw`hn°pw.
24. chntP\kntXhnPntXKWapJymx ikv{XPohn\x£{Xw
Pem›\o]oUyt¥ kmam\yw `‡n^ea\yXv.
i\nbm¬ ip{I≥ Pbn°s∏´m¬ KWapJy∑m¿, Bbp[w sIm≠v
D]Pohn°p∂h¿, £{Xnb∑m¿, PeP߃ F∂nhbv°v ]oV. A∂w
kmam\yambn e`n°pw.
25. AkntX kntX\ \nlntX¿≤
hrjvSn cln hnliam \n\mw ]oV
£nXn tP\SwIWm{‘uVv Imin
_mÀoImtZim\mw.
knXm¬ (ip{I≥), AknX≥ (i\n), l\n°s∏´m¬ Aln, hnl
Kw, A`nam\nIƒ F∂nh¿°v ]oV (Adnhpw Adhpw D≈ hnthIn
Ifmb [¿ΩnjvT\mWv k¿∏w AYhm \mKKWw. kzX{¥k©mcn
bmWv ]£n). IpP\m¬ i\n l\n°s∏´m¬ SwIWw, B{‘, DUv°
ew, Imin, _mÀoI tZiw F∂nh¿°mWp ]oV.
26. kutay\]cm`qtXatμw KhWn Kznhnlw Kw]ip\mKmx
k¥m]yt¥KpcpWmkv{Xn _lpemalnjIim›x
_p[\m¬ i\n ]cmPnX\mbm¬ AwKtZiw, hWn°pIƒ, hnlwK
߃, ]ip°ƒ, \mK߃ F∂nhbv°v k¥m]w t\cnSpw. Kpcphmse
¶n¬, kv{XoIƒ, _lpe߃, alnjI߃, iI∑m¿ F∂nh¿°mWv
k¥m]w.
338

{]Imikn‘p

27. Abw hntitjm`nlntXm lXm\mw
IpP⁄hmKoiknXmknXm\mw
^ew XphmNyw {Kl`‡n tXm\y[yYm
XYmLv\¥n KXmx kz`‡nx
CXn{io hcmlanlnsscIrXu _rlXv
kwlnXmbmw {Klbp≤x k]vXZtim≤ymbx
sNmΔ, _p[≥, hymgw, ip{I≥, i\n F∂o ]©{Kl߃ ]c
kv]cw ]\n°p∂XpsIm≠p≈ khntijamb {Klbp≤^eßfmWv
ChnsS ]dbs∏´Xv. {Kl߃ At\I ÿm\ßfn¬ bp≤ßfnte¿
s∏´v AXmXp ÿm\߃°v \nbXamb ]Zm¿∞߃°v \miw kw`hn
∏n°pw. AXn\m¬ GXp t£{XØn¬ GXp \£{X ]ZØnemWv {Kl
bp≤w kw`hn®Xv F∂pIqSn \nco£n®dn™n´p thWw ^ew {]hNn
°phm≥!

339

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 18

N{μ{Kl kamKaw
1. `m\mwbYm kw`hapØtcWw bmtXm
{KlmWmw bZnhmiim¶x
{]Z£nWwX NXr`Ir∂cmWmw bmtay
\tbmtXm∂inhx iim¶x
{KlßfptStbm \£{X hyqlßfptStbm DØc `mKØmbn´v
N{μ≥ k©cn°p∂]£w, B k©mcØn\v “{]Z£nWw” F∂ t]cv
]dbpw. AXv a\pjy¿°v ip`IcamWv. adn®v Z£nW `mKØp≈ N{μ
Ka\w a\pjy¿°v awKfIca√.
2. N{μambZnIpPky bmXyZIv ]m¿ΔXob
_eimeo\mw Pbx
£{Xnbmx {]apZnXmx kbmbnt\m
`qcn[m\yapZnXmhkp‘cm.
sNmΔbpsS DØc `mKØmbn N{μ≥ k©cn®m¬ _eimen
Ifmb ]m¿ΔXnb¿°v Pbw e`n°pw. XßfpsS “bmbn” (]m]n) ItfmSp
IqSn £{Xnb∑m¿ B\μn°pw. ]rYzn[m\y kºtØmSp IqSn l¿jnX
bmbn Xocpw.
3. DØcXx kzkrXky iim¶x
]ucPbmb kp`n£Ic›
kky› kkyNbw IpcptX P\Nm¿±n
tImiNbw N \cm[n]Xo\mw
N{μ≥ _p[s‚ DØc`mKØv k©cn°ptºmƒ ]uc∑m¿°v Pb
hpw, kp`n£hpw D≠mhpw. kky h¿≤\hn\m¬ cmPm°∑mcpw
B\μn°pw.
4. _rlkvtXcpØctK iimt¶
]ucZznP £{Xnb ]finXm\mw
340

{]Imikn‘p

[¿Ωky tZikyNa≤yaky hr≤nx
kp`n£w apZn\m {]Pm›
_rlkv]XnbpsS DØc`mKØp k©cn®m¬ ]uc∑m¿, ZznP∑m¿,
£{Xnb¿, ]finX∑m¿, a≤y tZiØnse [¿Ωw F∂nhbv°v hr≤n
kw`hn°pw. kp`n£w sIm≠v {]PIƒ B\μn°pw.
5. `m¿hky bZnbmXypZIv iio
tImibp‡KPhmPnhr≤nZx
bmbn\mwNhnPtbm [\pjvaXmw kky
kºZ]n tNmØam XZm.
ip{Is‚ DØc Zn°n¬ k©cn®m¬ tImiw, KPw, Aizw F∂n
hbv°p hr≤n: bmbnIƒ°pw, hn√mfnIƒ°pw hnPbw: DØa kky
kºØv F∂nh ]dbmw.
6. chnPky iio {]Z£nWw
Ipcymt®Xv ]pc`rXmw Pbx
iI _mÀoIkn‘p ]lv√hm\m
apZv_mtP bhss\xka\znXm
i\nbpsS {]Z£nWØn\mbn iin h∂m¬ ]uc∑m¿°pw cmPm°
∑m¿°pw Pbw. iIw, _mÀoIw, kn‘p tZiw, ]lv√hw, bh\tZiw
F∂nhbv°v B\μw.
7. tbjm apZKOXn `{KlmWmw
{]mteb civan¿∂ncp]{Zh›.
XZv{Zhy ]utcXc `‡n tZim≥
]pjvWmXn bmtay\\nl¥n Xm\n.
{]mteb civan ka\znX\mbn \£{XßfpsS DØc Zn°n¬
k©cn°p∂ N{μ≥ Hcp]{Zhpw D≠m°pIbn√. {Zhy߃°pw, ]uc∑m
¿°pw, AXmXp tZi߃°pw ]pjvSn hcpØp∂p. Z£nW Zn°nse¶n¬,
Ahbv°v \mihpw hcpØp∂p.
8. iin\n ^eapZIvtÿ bZv {Kltkym]ZnjvSw
`hXn XZ]kthy k¿Δ tah {]XoIw
CXn iin kahmbm; Io¿ØntXm `{KlmWmw
341

{]Imikn‘p

\Jep `hXn bp≤w kma antμm¿{Kl¿ss£x
CXn {io hcml anlnc IrXu _rl’w
lnXbmw iin {KlkamKtamjvSmZtim≤ymbx
N{μ≥ {KlßfpsS DØc`mKØp k©cn®mep≈ ^e߃
]dbs∏´p. Z£nW `mKØv A]khyambn (A{]Z£nWw) k©cn®m¬
hn]coX^eßfp≠mhpw. {Kl\£{XßtfmSp IqSn N{μ\v kamKaw
D≠mhpw: ]t£ Ahbpambn {Klbp≤w Hcn°epw D≠mhpIbn√.
A≤ymbw 17 c≠mw t«mIØn¬ {Klbp≤Øns‚ \n¿ΔN\w ]d™p.
`qan F∂ {KlØn¬ \n∂psIm≠v ho£n°p∂ a\pjy≥ awKemZn
]© {Klßsf kaÿm\w {]m]n®Xpt]mse Z¿in°p∂ {]Xn`mk
amWv {Klbp≤w AYhm {Kl HmKw. F∂m¬ `qanbpsS Xs∂ D]{Kl
amb N{μs\ kw_‘n®v `qanbnse \nco£I\v bp≤an√: kamKaw
am{Xtabp≈q. awKemZn ]©{KlßfpsS Nmchpw N{μNmchpw hyXy
kvXamWv F∂ AdnhpIqSmsX CXp ]dbphm≥ km≤ya√.

342

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 19

{Klh¿j^ew
1. k¿Δ{X`q¿ hncekkybpXm h\m\n
ssZhmZzn `£bnjpZw jv{Sn kamhrXm\n
kyμ¥nss\hN ]bx {]Npcw kv{Xht¥ym
cpKv t`jPm\n\XYm Xn_em \znXm\n.
2. Xo£vWw X]XyZnXnPx inintc]nImte
\mXyw _pZm PeartNmf Nek∂nImimx
\jvS{]`¿°KW ioX Icw \`ivN
koZ¥n Xm]kIpem\nktKmIpem\n.
3. lkvXyiz]ØnaZkly_sse cqt]Xm
_mWmk\mkn apkemXn ibmivNc¥n
Lvt¥m \r]mbp[n \r]m\Nssc ivNtZim≥
kwh’tc Zn\ Icky Znt\f Yamtk.
kwh’cØn\pw, amkØn\pw, Zn\Øn\pw kzmanbmbn´v kqcy≥
Ccn°p∂ ImeL´Øn¬ `qanbn¬ k¿Δ{X kkyhncfX A\p`hs∏
Spw. h\`qanIfn¬ F√mbnSØpw hr£ßfn¬ IoS_m[ hcpw. \ZnI
fn¬ Pew Ipdbpw. Huj[nIƒ°v _ew Ipdbpw. ioXw A\p`hs∏
tS≠ inincImeØpt]mepw kqcy≥ Xo£vWambn NqSv Xcpw. ]¿ΔX
kam\ßfmbn Dcp≠pIqSp∂ taL߃ ag XcnIbn√. \` n¬ N{μ
t‚bpw \£{XßfptSbpw {]` \jvSamIpw. ]ip°ƒ°pw X]kznIƒ
°pw ZpxJw D≠mhpw. Aizßfpw, lkvXnIfpw, Imemƒ∏Sbpw D≈
_ehm∑mcmb cmPm°∑m¿ [mcmfw Akv{Xhpw, hn√pw, hmfpw apke
hpw a‰pw tiJcn®v Xm¥mßfpsS A\pNc∑mtcmSpIqSn bp≤Øn\p
]pds∏´v kakvX tZißtfbpw \in∏n°pw.
4. hym]vXw \`x {]NenXmNe k∂nImssi¿ hymemRvP\menKheO hn`ox ]tbmssZx
Kmw ]qcbZv`ncJnemaem`ncZv`n
cpXv°WvT tI\ KpcpWm [Sh\n tX\Nmimx
343

{]Imikn‘p

5. tXmbm\n]Zv aIpaptZmev]eh¥yXoh
^p√{ZpamWyp ]h\m\y en\mZnXm\n.
Kmhx {]`qX ]btkm\b\m`ncmam
cmam cssZchncXw cab¥n cmam≥.
6. tKm[qaimeobh[m\y htc£phmSm
`qx]meytX \rP]Xn`n¿∂KcmIcmVym
NnXy¶nXm {IXp]tcjvSn hn[pjvS\mZm
kwh’tc ininctKmc`nkw {]hrtØ.
N{μ≥ kzmanbmbncn°p∂ ImeL´Øn¬, Nen°p∂ ]¿ΔXß
ƒ°p Xpeyhpw ARvP\\ndap≈ hymfo kZrihpambn, alm taL
߃ \` msI hym]n°p∂p: DXv°Wvbpfhm°p∂ hepXmb [z\n
(CSn) apg°ns°m≠v ZniIsf ]qcn∏n°p∂p. Ah hnaeamb Pew h¿jn
°p∂p. ktcmhcßfn¬ ]flw, IpapZw, Dev]ew F∂nh hnScp∂p, D]
h\ßsf ^p√ {Zpaßfmepw {`ac kwKoXØmepw \ndbv°p∂p. ]ip
°ƒ [mcmfw ]m¬ NpcØp∂p. \b\m`ncmaIfmb kpμcnam¿ (cmam)
cXntbmSpIqSn AhncXw cma∑msc can∏n°p∂p.
tKmXºv, imen, bhw apXemb t{ijvT[m\yßfm¬ kar≤amb
`qansb cmPm°∑m¿ kwc£n°p∂p. ssNXyßfn¬ b⁄ßfpsS
awKf [z\n apgßp∂p.
(kqcy\m¬ `cnbv°s∏Sp∂ DØcmb\Ønepw N{μ\m¬ `cnbv°
s∏Sp∂ Z£nWmb\Ønepw D≈ `qanbpsS AhÿIƒ tPymXnjw
Cßs\bmWv hnhcn°p∂Xv. agbn¬ \n∂v A∂hpw A∂Øn¬ \n∂v
tcX pw tcX n¬ \n∂v {]Pbpw D≠mIp∂ ImeamWv Z£nWmb\
sa∂v D]\njØpIfn¬ \n∂pw {Kln°pI).
7. AXyp∂Xm hnbXn kwlX aq¿Øtbm ]n
apRvP¥n \IzNn Z]x {]Npcw ]tbmZmx
koav\n {]Pm Xa]n timjapss]Xn kkyw
\njv]∂ a]yhn\bm Z]tc lc¥n.
8. `q]m\ kayK`n]me\k‡ NnØmx
]ntØm∞cpIv {]NpcXm`pPK {]tIm]x
Ghw hnss[cp]lXm `hXn {]tPbw
kwh’tcf h\nkpX kyhn]∂ kkym.
344

{]Imikn‘p

9. hmtXm≤zX›cXn hlv\ncXn {]Ntfim
{Kmam≥ h\m\n \KcmWnN kμn[£px
lmtlXn ZkypKW]mXlXm cm¥n
\nkzoIrXm hn]ithm`qhn a¿XykwLmx
sNmΔ h¿jØns‚ kzmanbmbncn°p∂ ImeL´Øn¬ Im‰n\m¬
Bfn°Øn°s∏´ {]Nfiamb AKv\nbm¬ {Kmahpw h\hpw \Kchpw
Fcnbp∂p. `qanbnse a\pjykwL߃ ZkypKWßfm¬ hogØs∏
´pw h[n°s∏´pw Bew_lo\cpw, ]iplo\cpambn ‘lm-lm’ F∂v
AeapdbnSp∂p. BImiØn¬ AXyp∂Xambpw kwlXaq¿Ønbmbpw
taL߃ \nc∂mepw Ah [mcmfw h¿jw XcpIbn√. AXn¿ØnIfn
se {]PIƒ IjvSs∏´v Aev]w kkyw D≠m°nbmepw, hn\blo\cmb
a‰p≈h¿ AXns\ tamjvSns®Sp°p∂p (AhcpsS cmPyØv `£W£ma
ap≠mIbm¬). cmPm°∑m¿ {]PIsf ]cn]men°p∂Xn¬ hnapJcmbn
Øocp∂p. ]nØtcmK߃ h¿≤n°p∂p. k¿∏tIm]w D≠mIp∂p. {]P
Iƒ Zo\cpw lo\cpw arX XpeycpambnØocp∂p.
10. amtb{μPme IqlImIc\mKcmWmw
Km‘¿Δ teJyKWnXmkv{XenZmwN hr≤nx
]n{]ojmbm \r]XtbmZvf `pX Z¿i\m\n
ZnXv k‘nXpjvSnP\\m\n ]ckv]tciyx
11. hm¿Øm PKXyhnXYm hnIem{Xbo N
kayIv NcXy]n at\mcnhZfi\oXnx
A≤y£cw kz`n\nhnjvS[ntbmf {X tINn
Zm\zn£nIojp N]cw ]Zaolam\mx
12. lmky⁄ ZpXI hn_me \]pwkIm\mw
bp‡n⁄ tkXp Pe ]¿ΔX hmkn\mw N
lm¿±w ItcmXn arKemRvP\Px kztI_vZvtZ
amtkf Y hm{]NpcXmw `qhn Nuj[o\mw.
_p[≥ kwh’cØn∂p kzmanbmbncn°ptºmƒ amb, C{μPmew,
IplIw, F∂nh sNøp∂hcpw, Km‘¿Δ hnZym, teJ\w, KWnXw,
Akv{XhnZy F∂nhbpw hr≤n {]m]n°p∂p. {]oXnsb Iman°p∂ cmPm
°∑m¿ AXv`pX Z¿i\ßfpw XpjvSnIcßfpamb {Zhy߃ ]ckv]cw
ssIamdn k‘n sNøp∂p. PKØn¬ kXyhpw AhnIehpamb hm¿Ø
bpw {Xbo hnZybpw kay°mbn Ncnbv°p∂p. a\phnt‚Xpt]mse Zfi
345

{]Imikn‘p

\oXn \S∏m°p∂p. Ah\h\v A`ncpNnbp≈ ⁄m\w GtXm AXn¬
a\pjycpsS _p≤n hym]n°p∂p. A{]Imcw B\zn£nInbn¬, ]ca]Zw
{]m]n°m\mhp∂p. lmky⁄∑m¿, ZqX∑m¿, IhnIƒ, Ip´nIƒ,
\]pwkI߃, bp‡nhmZnIƒ, tkXp, Pew, ]¿ΔXhmknIƒ F∂n
hsc√mw Xr]vXn]q¿Δw hknbv°p∂p. `qanbn¬ Huj[nIƒ kar≤n
bmbn D≠mhp∂p.
13. [z\ncp®cntXmf ≤ztc ZypIman hn]ptcm
b⁄ arjmw a\mwkn`nμ≥
hnNcXy\niw ZzntPmØam\mw
lrZbm\μItcmf ≤zcmwi `mPmw
14. £nXncpØakkyhXyt\IZzn]]Øyiz
[t\m cptKmIpemVym
£nXnss]c`n]me \{]hr≤m
ZypNckv]¿≤n P\mXZmhn`mXn.
15. hnhnss[w¿ΔnbZp∂ssXx]tbmssZ¿hrXaq¿Δnw ]bkm `nX∂∏bZv`nx
kpccmPKptcmx ipt`{X h¿tj
_lp kkym£nXncpØaZznbp‡m.
_rlkv]Xn kzmanbmbncns°, b⁄ßfn¬ kz¿§ImanIfm¬
D®cn°s∏Sp∂ thZa{¥[z\nbm¬ BImiw apJcnXamIp∂p. AXv
b⁄ ≤zwkIcmb a¿ØycpsS am\kßsf hnZo¿Æam°pIbpw
t{ijvT {_mlvaWcptSbpw b⁄mwit`mPnIfpsSbpw lrZbsØ
B\μn∏n°bpw sNøp∂p. £nXn DØa kkyhXnbmbn At\Iw B\,
Imemƒ, Aizw, [\w, tKmIpew, F∂nhbm¬ BVybmbn, \√ £nXn
]∑mcm¬ ]cn]menXbpw {]hr≤bpambnØocp∂p. AXn\m¬ `qanbnse
P\߃ tZh∑msct∏msebmbn {]` sNmcnbpIbm¬ tZh∑mcn¬
kv]¿≤ P\n∏n°p∂p (`qanbnep≈ `qtZh∑m¿ kz¿§hmknIfn¬
Akqb P\n∏n°p∂p).
hnhn[ h¿Æßfnep≈ taL߃ a[pc ckap≈ PeØm¬ `qan
sb X¿∏Ww sNøp∂p. ip`Ichpw kky_lpehpamb `qanbn¬ DØa
amb A`nhr≤n kw`hn°p∂p.
16. imeo£paXy]n[cm [cWo [cm `[mcm
[tcmRvPnX ]bx ]cn]q¿Æmh{]m
346

{]Imikn‘p

{ioaXvktcmcplXXmw_pXSmKIo¿Æm
tbmtjh `mXy`n\hm`ctWm÷zemwKo.
17. £{Xw £nXu£]nX `qcn_emcn]£
apZv LqjvSs\ IPb i_vZhncmhnXmiw
kwlrjvS injvS P\ZpjvS hn\jvS h¿§mw
Kmw ]meb¥yh\n]m\Kcm IcmVyw
18. t]]o btX a[p a[u klIman\o `n¿PvtPKobtX {ihWlmcnkthWp hoWmw
t_m`pPytXf XnYnkplrXv kzPss\xklm∂a_vtZ knXky aZ\ky PbmhtLmjx
ip{I≥ kwh’cØns‚ kzmanbmbncns° Pew [cn®v `mcw
Npa∂ KncnirwK߃°p Xpeyßfmb taL (kvX\) ßtfmSp IqSnb
`qan, XSmIØn¬ \n∂v Ipfn®od\mbn h∂v ]pXp]pØ≥ B`cWßf
Wn™v D÷zemwKnbmb XcpWnsbt∏mse at\mlcnbmbncn°p∂p.
imens\√pw Icnºpw [mcmfw hfcp∂p. i{Xp°sf £bn∏n°p∂Xpw,
t]mjn∏n°p∂Xpamb PbPb i_vZßfm¬ Zn°pIƒ apJcnXam°p∂
`q]me∑m¿ injvS∑m¿°p kt¥mjhpw ZpjvS∑m¿°p k¥m]hpw hf¿
Øp∂p. hk¥EXphn¬ a\pjy¿ Iman\namtcmsSmØv hmcw hmcw a[p
]m\w sNbvXv {ihW lmcnIfmb thWp Km\hpw hoWm\mZhpw DXn¿
°p∂p. AXnYn, kplrØp°ƒ, _‘p°ƒ F∂nhtcmsSm∏w
arjvSm∂w `pPn°p∂p. C{]Imcw aZ\s‚ PbmhtLmjw ip{Ih¿j
Øn¬ apgßp∂p.
19. DZvhrØ ZkypKpW `qcncWmIpem\n
cmjv{SmWyt\I ]iphnØhn\mIrXm\n
tcmcqbamWv lX _‘pPss\¿ Pss\ivN
tcmtKm ØamIpe Ipem\n _p`p£bmN.
20. hmtXm≤yXmw _p[ch¿÷nXa¥co£amcpKvW ss\IhnS]w N[cmXew Zyux
\jvSm¿° N{μIncWmXnctPmf h\≤z
tXmbmibmizhnPem, kcntXmf ]nXºpx
21. PmXm\n Ip{X NnZtXmbXbmhn\mikrO¥n ]pjvSn a]cmWn Ptem£nXm\n
347

{]Imikn‘p

kkym\na\vZa`nh¿jXn hr{Xi{Xu
h¿tjZnhmIckpXky kZm{]hrtØ.
i\n kzmanbmbncns° tamjWw sNøp∂hcmepw bp≤ßfmepw
kakvX cmPyhpw hymIpeamIp∂p. ]ip°fpw [\hpw \jvSamIp∂p.
_‘phntbmKØm¬ a\pjy¿ Icbp∂p. hni∏pw tcmKßfpw sIm≠v
temIw hebp∂p. BImiØn¬ taLw hcptºmsgms° Ahsb Im‰
Sn®v ]dØn°fbp∂p. A¥co£w taL clnXhpw \ocmhn clnXhp
amIp∂p. `qanbmIs´ tcmKßfm¬ hebp∂p kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS IncW
߃ t]mepw {]`mclnXßfmWv. Pemib߃ h‰p∂p. \ZnIƒ Ir
imwKnIfmbnØocp∂p. PecmlnXyØm¬ [m\y߃ C√mXmhp∂p.
a‰pNne ÿeßfn¬ sh≈s∏m°s°SpXnIƒ kw`hn°p∂p. C{μ≥
[m\yßsf \¬Ip∂ PesØ aμaμw am{Xw CShn´v h¿jn°p∂p.
22. AWp c]SpaYtJm \oNtKm ss\¿÷ntXmbm
\ kIe^eZmXm ]pjvSn tZmtXm\yYmbx
bZzip` aipt`f _vtZ amkPw Xkyhr≤nx
ip`^e a]nssNhw bm]yat\ym\yXmbm.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwln
Xmbmw {Klh¿j^etatIm\ hntim≤ymbx
GsXmcp {Klw £p{Zhpw, ]pjvSnbn√mØ IncWtØmSp IqSn
bXpw, \oNÿnXhpw, a‰p {KlØm¬ ]cmPbs∏´Xpw, Bbncn°p∂p
thm, B {Klw kIe ^eZmXmhpw ]pjvSnZhpw BIm≥ km≤yXbn√.
A{]Imcap≈ {Klw kwh’cØnt‚tbm amkØnt‚tbm kzmanbmbn
cp∂m¬ Aip` ^eßfp≠mhpw. adn®msW¶n¬ ip`^ew e`n°pw.

348

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 20

{KlirwKmSIw
1. bkymw ZninZriyt¥ hni¥n Xmcm{Klm chnw k¿tΔ
`hXn `bw Znin Xkymambp[ tIm]£p[mXss¶x
GXp ZnibnemtWm Xmcm{Kl߃ k¿Δhpw kqcy\n¬ {]thin
°p∂Xpt]mse ImWs∏Sp∂Xv, B Znibn¬ Bbp[ tIm]w, hni∏v,
ZpxJw F∂nhsIm≠v `bw kw`hn°p∂p.
2. N{I[\px irwKmSIZfi]pc{]mkh{Pkwÿm\mx
£pZhrjvSnIcmtemtI kacmb Nam\th{μmWmw.
N{Iw, [\p v, irwKmSIw (NXpjv]Zw), Zfiw, ]pcw, {]mkw,
h{Pw F∂nhbpsS BIrXnbn¬ {Kl߃ hn\ykn°s∏´Xmbn
Ft∏mƒ ImWp∂pthm At∏mƒ hni∏v, AhrjvSn, cmPm°∑m¿ XΩn¬
bp≤w F∂nhsIm≠v temI¿ IjvSs∏Sp∂p.
3. bkvan≥ kzwtiZriy{Klamem Zn\Itc Zn\m¥KtX
X{Xmt\ym`hXn \r]x ]cNt{Im]{ZhivNalm≥.
Zn\m¥yØn¬ kqcyIncW߃ AkvXan® tijw AtX AwiI
Øn¬ {Klame ZriyamIp∂]£w B tZiØn¬ (]ivNnatZiw) A\y
cmPmhns‚ `cWw kw`hn°pw (]pXnb `cWw hcpw). ]cN{IØn¬
(]q¿Δm¿≤tKmf tZiØn¬) alØmb D]{Zh߃ AXn\m¬ G¿s∏
SpIbpw sNøpw.
4. bkvan ∂rt£ Ipcypx kamKaw X÷\m≥ {Klml\ypx
Ahnt`Z\mx ]ckv]caae abqJmx inhmkvtXjmw
GXp \£{XØnemWv {KlßfpsS kamKaw ({Klame) ImWp
∂Xv B \£{XØns‚ P\߃°v hn\miw kw`hn°p∂p. {Kl߃
]ckv]cw hnt`Zn°msX, Aae abqJßtfmsS ImWs∏Sp∂]£w
ip`^eZmbIßfmWv.
5. {Klkwh¿Ø kamKaktΩmlkamP k∂n ]mXmJymx
tImitiztXyjm a`nLmtkye£Ww k^ew.
349

{]Imikn‘p

{KlßfpsS kwh¿Øw, kamKaw, ktΩmlw, kamPw, k∂n
]mXw, tImiw F∂o \maßtfmSpIqSnb A`nLmXßfpsS (tcmKß
fpsS) e£W߃ AXmXp P\ßfn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂p.
6. GI¿t£ NXzmcx kl]ussc cymbnt\mf Yhm]©
kwh¿tØm \ma`thOn JncmlpbpXxk ktΩmlx
Hcp \£{XØn¬ ]uc{KlßtfmSpIqSn \mtem At©mbmbn
{KlßfpsS tbmKw I≠m¬ kwh¿Øw F∂pw, cmlp tIXp°fpsS
tbmKw I≠m¬ ktΩmlsa∂pw ]dbp∂p.
7. ]ucx]ucktatXmbmbn klbmbn\m kamPmJyx
ba PohkwKtaf t\ym b[ymKtOØZm tImix
]uc{KlßtfmSv ]uc{Klßfpw, bmbn {KlßtfmSv bmbn {Kl
ßfpw ktΩfn°p∂XmWv kamPw. i\nbpw hymghpw kwKan®ncns°,
AhnsS at‰sX-¶nepw Hcp {Klw IqSnh∂p tNcp∂Xv tImiw.
8. DZnXx ]izmtZIx{]mIvNmt\ymbZn k∂n]mXmJyx
AhnIrXX\hx kv\nKv≤m hn]pemivN kamKta [\ymx
]ivNna`mKØv H∂pw ]q¿Δ`mKØv as‰m∂pw DZn®ncn°p∂Xv k∂n
]mXw. N{μ{Kl kamKaØn¬ {KlKW߃ hnImcclnXhpw kv\n
Kv≤hpw hn]pehpw Bb icocßtfmsS [\yßfmbn ImWs∏Sp∂p.
9. kauXpkwh¿Ø kamKamsJyu
ktΩmltImiu`bsZu{]Pm\mw
kamPkw⁄x kpkax {]ZnjvtSm
sshc{]tIm]x Jepk∂n]mtX.
CXn {iohcmlanlnc IrXu_rlXv kwln
Xmbmw {KlirwKmSIw \mahnwiXn Xtam≤ymbx
kwh¿Ø, kamKa߃°v ka^ew. ktΩml tImi߃ {]P
Iƒ°v `bap≠m°p∂p. kamPØn\v kpkaw: k∂n]mXØn¬ sshc
hpw tIm]hpw ^ew.

350

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 21

K¿`e£Ww
1. A∂w PKXx{]mWmx {]mhrVv Imeky Nm∂ambØw.
bkvamZXx ]co£yx {]mhrVvImex{]bXvt\\.
A∂amWv PKØns‚ {]mW≥. h¿j°mew sIm≠mWv A∂w
e`yamIp∂Xv. AXn\m¬ {]bXv\n®v h¿jIme ]co£ sNøWw.
2. X√£Wm\n ap\n`n¿øym\n \n_≤m\nXm\n ZrjvtSzZw
{InbtX K¿§]cmic Imiy] hm’ymZncNnXm\n.
Rm≥ Cu K¿`e£Ww cNn®ncn°p∂Xv K¿§≥, ]cmic≥, Imiy
]≥, hm’y≥ apXemb ap\namcm¬ hncNnXamb IrXnIsf k{i≤w
t\m°nbn´mWv.
3. ssZ¿hhnZhlnXNntØmZyp\niw tbmK¿`e£tW`hXn.
Xkyapt\cnh hmWo\`hXn an∞ymw _p\n¿t±ti.
GsXmcp ssZhhnØv (ssZh⁄≥) AhlnX NnØtØmsS
({i≤ tI{μoIcn®v) cm∏I¬ K¿`e£WsØ a\\w sNøp∂pthm,
B ssZh⁄hN\w, ap\nhmIyw t]msebmWv. AbmfpsS taLKWn
Xhpw Aw_p \n¿t±ihpw Hcn°epw an∞ybmhpIbn√ (sX‰nt∏mhpI
bn√).
4. InwhmXx ]ca\yOmkv{Xw PymtbmkvXn bZznZnssXzh
{]≤zwkn\y]nImte {XnImeZ¿io Ieu`hXn
GsXmcp imkv{XsØ Adn™m¬, IenImeØpIqSn Hcmƒ {Xn
Ime Z¿inbmbnØocp∂pthm B imkv{XtØ°mƒ t{ijvTambn as‰
¥p≠v?
5. tINnZzZ¥n Im¿ØnIip¢m¥aXoXy K¿` Znhkmx kypx
\Xp X∑Xw _lp\mw K¿§mZo\mw aXw ht£y
Nne¿ ]dbp∂p, Im¿ØnI amkØnse ip¢]£m¥yØnemWv
351

{]Imikn‘p

AXoXsØ K¿`Znhkw (Dev]Øn Zn\w) F∂v. F∂m¬ Cu aXw
At\Iw t]¿ kzoImcyambn°cpXp∂n√. AXn\m¬ K¿§mZnIfmb
]q¿ΔmNmcy∑mcpsS aXw ]dbmw.
6. am¿§ incip¢]£ {]Xn]Xv{]`rXn £]mItcf jmVmw
]q¿Δmwhm kap]KtX K¿`mWmw e£Ww t⁄bwam¿§io¿j (B{KlbW) Øn¬ ip¢]£{]Xn]ZØn¬ N{μ≥
]q¿ΔmjmV \£{XØn¬ \n¬°ptºmgmWv K¿`e£Ww Adntb≠Xv.
7. b∂£{Xap]KtX K¿`ivNt{μ`thXv N{μhimXv.
]©\htX Zn\itX Xss{Xh {]khambmXn.
GXp \£{XØn¬ N{μ≥ \n¬°ptºmƒ taL K¿`w [cn°p∂p
thm A∂papX¬ 195 N{μZn\w Ign™m¬ B K¿`Øn\v {]khZn\w
Bbn (195 XnYn= 6 amkw 15 Znhkw= 13 ]£w).
8. knX]£`hmx IrjvtW ipt¢ IrjvWmZypkw`hmcm{Xu
\‡w {]`hmizml\n k‘ymPmXmizk‘ybmbmw.
ip¢]£Øn¬ kw`hn®v K¿`w IrjvW]£Ønepw, IrjvW
]£Øn¬ kw`hn® K¿`w ip¢]£Ønepw, Zn\Øn¬ kw`hn®
K¿`w cm{Xnbnepw, cm{Xn kw`hn® K¿`w ]Iepw, k‘ybv°p kw`hn®
K¿`w hn]coX k‘ybnepw {]`hn°p∂p.
9. arKio¿jmZymK¿`m aμ^emx ]ujkyIrjvW
]t£W \n¿ZvtZti {OmhWkyknXw.
am¿§ io¿jmZnbnepw ]uj ip¢]£Ønepw PmXamb K¿`w
aμ^ew Xcp∂p. ]ujIrjvW]£w sIm≠pthWw {imhWØnse
ip¢]£ImesØ agsb \n¿t±in°m≥.
10. amLkntXm∞m K¿`mx {imhW Irtj {]kqXnambm¥n
amLky IrjvW ]t£W \n¿ZvZotiXv `m{Z]Zip¢w.
amLamkØnse ip¢]£Øn¬ DXv`hn® taLK¿`amWv {imh
WØnse IrjvW]£Øn¬ {]khn®v agXcp∂Xv. amLIrjvW
]£Øm¬ thWw `m{Z]Z ip¢]£Ønse ag \n¿t±int°≠Xv.
352

{]Imikn‘p

11. ^m¬Kp\ ip¢kap∞m `m{Z]ZkymkntX
hn\n¿t±iymx Xsskyh IrjvW ]t£mZv`hmkvXp
tb tXf izbpIvipt¢.
^m¬Kp\ ip¢]£Øn¬ Db¿∂ K¿`w `m{Z]ZØns‚ IrjvW
]£Øn¬ s]øpw. ^m¬Kp\ IrjvW]£Ønse taLw Bizn\Øn
se ip¢]£Øn¬ {]khn°pw.
12. ssN{XknX]£PmXmx IrjvtWf
izbpPky hmcnZmK¿`mx
ssN{XmknX kw`qXmx Im¿ØnI ipt¢f `nh¿j¥n. ssN{X ip¢
]£Øn¬ P\n® K¿`w Bizn\IrjvW ]£Øn¬ Pew \¬Ipw.
ssN{X IrjvW]£Ønep≠mbXv Im¿ØnIamkØnse ip¢]£
Øn¬ h¿jn°pw.
13. ]q¿tΔmZv`qXmx ]izmZ]tcm∞mx {]mKv`h¥n PoaqXmx
tijmkz]nZnt£zhw hn]cytbm`hXnhmtbmivN.
]q¿ΔZn°n¬ D≈ taL߃ ]ivNnaZn°n¬ DXv`hn®hbmWv.
]ivNna Znibnse taL߃ ]q¿ΔZn°n¬ P\n®hbmWv. C{]Imcw
tijw ZniIfnepw hmbphn\m¬ taL߃°v hn]cybw kw`hn°p∂p.
14. ÀmZn arZqZIzoO hi{IZnKv`thm amcptXm hnbZvhnaew
kv\nKv≤ knX_lpe ]cnthj
]cnhrXu lnaabqJm¿°u.
DØcZn°v, Cuim\tIm¨, ]q¿ΔZni F∂nhnSßfnse Im‰v
BImisØ hnaehpw, B\μIchpw, A¥co£sØ arZpehpam
°p∂p. A°meØv N{μkqcy∑m¿ kv\nKv≤hpw, shfpØpw, [mcmfw
]cnthjßfm¬ ]cnhrXambpw ImWs∏Sp∂p.
15. ]rYyp_lpe kv\nKv≤L\w L\kqNn
£pcI temlnXm `qbpXw
ImImfi taNIm`w hnbZznipt≤μp \£{Xw.
ÿqehpw \√ kv\nKv≤hpamb taL߃, £pcIs‚ teml
°Ønt]msetbm kqNnt]msetbm D≈ taL߃, Im°ap´ t]mse
tbm, abn¬]oen t]msetbm tim`bp≈ taL߃ F∂nhtbmSpIqSnb
BImiØn¬ hnip≤amb N{μ\pw \£{Xßfpw Xnfßp∂p.
353

{]Imikn‘p

16. kpc Nm] a{μK¿÷nX hnZypXv {]XnkqcyImx
ip`mk‘ym iin inh i{Imimÿm;
im¥chmx ]£narKkwLmx
aghn√v, CSnapg°w, {]XnkqcyIw, an∂¬ ]nW¿ ChItfmSpIqSn
DØcZnibnepw Cuim\tImWnepw ]q¿ΔZnibnepw taL߃ Dcp≠p
IqSptºmƒ, i_vZ߃ im¥amb ]£n arKkwLßtfmSpIqSnb ip`
k‘yIƒ awKfIcßfpw caWobßfpamWv.
17. hn]pemx {]Z£nWNcmx kv\nKv≤abqJm{Klm
\ncp]k¿§x XchivN \ncp]a krjvSmw Ipcm
\cNXpjv]Zm lrjvSmx
hn]peambn, {]Z£nWw sNbvXp k©cn°p∂hbmb, kv\nKv≤
IncWßfmb {Kl߃ \ncp]{ZhßfmWv. hr£ßƒ ]pXnb Xfncp
ItfmSpw \c∑mcpw \m¬°menIfpw B\μtØmSpw K¿`]pjvSamb
EXpsh kzmKXw sNøp∂p.
18. K¿`mWmw ]pjvSnIcmx k¿tΔjmtahtbmf {XXp hntijx
kz¿Øpkz`mh P\ntXmK¿` hnhr≤u Xa`nLmtky.
K¿`Øns‚ ]pjvSn k¿Δ¿°pw C{]Imcw hntij EXphmWv.
kz`mhP\nXamb K¿`Øns‚ hr≤nhnjbsØ°pdn®mWv ChnsS
]d™Xv.
19. ]utj kam¿§ io¿tj k‘ymcmtKmw_pZmxk]cn thjmx
\mXy¿∞ arKio¿tj ioXw ]utjf Xnlna]mXx
B{KlmbW]uj amkßfn¬ taLßfn¬ k‘ymcmK tim`
bpw ]cnthj afiehpw I≠m¬ am¿§ io¿jØn¬ (B{KlmbWw)
XWp∏p ITn\ambncn°pw: ]ujØn¬ AXnlna]mXw D≠mhpw.
20. amtL{]_temhmbpkvXpjmcIepjZypXn chniims¶u
AXnioXwKL\kyNZmt\m ckvtXmZsbu [s\yu.
amLamkØn¬ i‡amb hmbp (Im‰v) ASn°pIbpw kqcy N{μ
_nw_߃°v Xpjmc kam\amb IepjZypXnImWpIbpw sNbvXm¬
AXnioXw D≠mhpw. taLßtfmSpIqSnbXn\m¬ kqcys‚ DZbmkvXa
b߃ ImWm≥ {]bmkamhpw.
354

{]Imikn‘p

21. ^m¬Kp\amtk cq£Nfix ]ht\m{`kwπhmxkv\nKv≤x
]cnthjmizmkIemx I]nekvXmt{am chnivNip`x
^m¬Kp\amkØn¬ cq£amb NfiamcpX≥ kv\nKv≤ßfmb
taLßsf ASn®p]cØn°fbpw. kqcy_nw_w I]netam Xm{atam
h¿ÆØn¬ ]cnthjtØmSpIqSn ZriyamIpw.
22. ]h\ L\hrjvSnbp‡m ivssNt{X K¿`mx ip`mx k]cn
thjmx L\]h\kenehnZypXvkX
v \ossXivN lnXmb himtJ.
ssN{XØn¬ K¿`w ]h\≥, taLw, ag, ]cnthjw F∂nhtbmsS
ImWs∏´m¬ ip`amWv. sshimJØn¬ taLw, Im‰v, \ocmhn, an∂¬,
CSnapg°w F∂nhtbmSptN¿∂ K¿`w ip`IcamWv.
23. ap‡m cPX\nImimkvX ame \otemev]emRvP\m`mkx
PeNckXzm Imcm K¿t`jpL\mx {]`qXPemx
24. Xo{hZnhmIcIncWm`nXm]nXm aμamcpXm PeZmx
cqjnXm ch [mcm`n¿ hnkyP¥yw `x{]khImte.
apØv, sh≈n, F∂nh t]msetbm Xamew, \otemev]ew, ARvP
\w F∂nhbpsS tim`tbmSpIqSntbm, PeNcßfpsS BIrXnbp≈Xp
amb taLK¿`Øn¬ \n∂v Pew h¿jn°s∏Spw. Xo{hamb kqcyIncW
ßfm¬ A`nX]n°s∏´Xpw aμamcpX\m¬ ]Xps° Nen∏n°s∏´Xp
amb taL߃ {]khImeØv cqjnXambn [mcmfw ag h¿jn°pw.
25. K¿t`m]LmX enwKm \yp¬°mi\n ]mwkp]mX ZnKvZmlmx
£nXnIºkz]pc IoeItIXp{Klbp≤\n¿LmXmx
sshIrX]cntL{μ[\pwjn Z¿i\w cmtlmx
26. cp[ncm[nhrjvSn
CXyXv ]mssXtc`nkv{Xw hnss[izmss\y¿ltXm K¿`x
D¬°, Ai\n, ]mwkp]mXw, ZnKvZmlw, `qIºw, K‘¿Δ \Kcw
(kz]pcw) IoeIw, tIXp, {Klbp≤w, \n¿LmXw, cp[nchrjvSn, ]cnLw,
C{μ[\p v, cmlpZ¿i\w, apXemb F√m Dev]mXßfptam GsX¶nepw
aq∂v Dev]mXßfptam I≠m¬ K¿`\miw kw`hn°pw. ]ns∂ ag In´p
Ibn√.
355

{]Imikn‘p

27. kz¿Øp kz`mh P\nssXx kmamss\ysscy ›e£ssW ¿hr≤nx
K¿`mWmw hn]cossXkvssX tchhn]cytbm `hXn.
AXmXp EXp kz`mhØm¬ D≠mhp∂ kmam\y e£W߃
I≠m¬ K¿`hr≤nbpw, hn]coX e£Ww I≠m¬ K¿`\mihpamWv
`hn°pI.
28. `m{Z]ZmZzb hnizmw_pssZhss]Xma tljzY¿£jp
k¿tΔjpEXpjphnhrt≤m K¿t`m _lptXmbtZm `hXn.
k¿ΔEXp°fnepw sh®v `m{Z]Z Zzbßfnepw (DØc, ]q¿Δ, `m{Z
]Z߃), ]q¿ΔmjmV, DØcmjmVßfnepw tcmlnWnbnepw D≠m
Ip∂ K¿`amWv hnhr≤ambn [mcmfw Pew Xcp∂Xv.
29. iX`njKmt«jm{ZmkzmXnaLm kwbpX; ipt`m K¿`;
]pjvWmXn _lq≥ Znhkm≥ l¥ypXv]mssX¿ lXm kv{Xn hnss[.
iX`njIv, Bt«jw, B{Z, kzmXn, aLw F∂nhtbmSp tN¿∂
K¿`w ip`ZmbIamWv. Ah At\I Znhkw t]mjn∏n°s∏´ DXv]mX
ßsf aq∂p hn[Øn¬ \in∏n°p∂p.
30. arK amkmZn, jzjvSu jSv tjmUi hnwiXn›Xp¿øp‡m.
hnwiXn cY Znhk{Xb taIX a¿t£W ]©iy.
Ft∏mƒ N{μ≥ taev]d™ A©p \£{Xßfn¬ H∂n¬ \n¬°p
∂pthm At∏mƒ B{KlmbWw (am¿§ io¿jw) apX¬ sshimJw
hscbp≈ Bdpamkßfn¬ 8,6,16,24,24,3-0 F∂nßs\ {Iam\pkrXamb
Zn\ßfn¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw.
31. {Iqc {Kl kwbpt‡ IcImi\n a’y h¿jZm K¿`mx
iin\n chu hmip` kwbptX£ntX `qcnhrjvSnIcm.
{Iqc{KltØmSp tN¿∂ncp∂m¬ K¿`w h¿jn°p∂Xv IcItam
Ai\ntbm a’ytam Bbncn°pw. kqcyt\m N{μt\m ip`{KltØmSp
tN¿∂ncn°tbm ip`{KlØm¬ ho£n°s∏SpItbm sNbvXm¬ [m
cmfw h¿jn°pw.
32. K¿` katbf XnhrjvSn§¿`m `mhmb \n¿\nanØIrXm
t{ZmWmjvSmwtif iy[ntIhrjvtS K¿`x kvXrtXm `hXn;
356

{]Imikn‘p

K¿`kabØp Xs∂ AXnhrjvSn kw`hn®m¬ K¿`m `mhw ]dbmw.
{]tXyIn®pw B AXnhrjvSn {]tXyIn®v \nanØsam∂pw IqSmsX D≠m
bXmsW¶n¬! Hcp t{ZmWØns‚ AjvSmwiØn¬ A[nIw h¿jn®m¬
K¿`\jvSamWv ^ew.
33. K¿`; ]pjvS; {]kth {Ktlm ]LmXmZn`ncyZn \ hrjvSx
Bflob K¿` katb IcIm an{iw ZZmXyw `;
]pjvSambn ]q¿Æ hnImkw {]m]n® K¿`w {Ktlm]LmXmZn
Ifm¬ h¿jn°mXncp∂m¬ {]khImeØv Bflob K¿`kabØv
IcItØmSv kΩn{iamb Pew Xcpw.
34. ImTn\yw bmXn bYm NncImeLrXw ]b; ]bkzn\ym;
ImemXoXw XZzhXv kenew ImTn\y ap]bmXn.
F{]Imcw ]bkzn\nIfmb ]ip°fpsS ]men¬ \n∂p≠mb s\øv
Gsd°mew Ccp∂v ImTn\yw {]m]n°p∂pthm AXpt]mse Imeam
bn´pw h¿jn°msX taLØn¬Øs∂ Ccn°p∂ Pew ImTn\yw {]m]n
°p∂p.
35. ]©\nanssØ; iXtbmP\w XZ¿≤m≤taIlm\ymX;
h¿jXn]©kam¥mØ{Zqt]ssWhtbm K¿`;
GXp K¿`w A©p \nanØßfm¬ ]pjvSamIp∂pthm B K¿`w
\qdp tbmP\ Zqcw hsc hym]n®v h¿jn°p∂p. GsX¶nepw Hcp \nanØ
Øns‚ A`mhw sIm≠v \qdp tbmP\bpsS A¿≤w hsc hym]n®v h¿
jn°p∂p.
36. t{ZmW; ]©\nantØ K¿t` {XoWymVIm\n ]ht\\
jUv hnZypXm \hm ss{`; kvX\n tX\ZzmZi {]kth.
AXmbXv \mep \nanØap≈ K¿`w 50 tbmP\ (200 tImiw), aq∂p
\nanØap≈Xv 25 tbmP\ (100 tImiw), c≠p \nanØap≈Xv 12 tbmP\
(50 tImiw), Hcp \nanØap≈Xv 5 tbmP\ (20 tImiw) hsc h¿jw
Xcpw. ]©\nanØI K¿`w Hcp t{ZmWw Pew h¿jn°pw. ]h\ \nanØ
IambXv aq∂v BVIhpw, sshZypXn \nanØambXv Bdv BVIhpw
Peh¿jw Xcpw.
357

{]Imikn‘p

37. ]h\ kene hnZypZv K¿÷nXm{`m\zntXmb;
k `hXn _lptXmb; ]©cq]m iyp t]X;
hnkrPXn bZn tXmbw K¿`Imte Xn`qcn {]kh
kabanXzm ioIcmw`; ItcmXn
CXn {io hcml anlncIrXu _rlXv
kwlnXmbmw K¿`e£W taIhnwtim ≤ymb.
GsXmcp K¿`w ]h\≥, Pew, sshZypXn, K¿÷nXw (CSn), A{`w
(taLw) F∂o A©p \nanØßtfmSp tN¿∂ncn°p∂pthm B K¿`w
[mcmfw Pew Xcpw. GsXm∂v K¿`ImeØpXs∂ [mcmfw Pew h¿jn
°p∂pthm AXv {]kh kabØv PeIWw Xp≈n Xp≈nbmbn am{Xw
Xcpw.

358

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 22

K¿` [mcWw
1. tPyjvTkntXf jvSaym› Xzmtcmhmbp [mcWm Znhkm;
arZpip` ]h\m; ikvXm; kv\nKv[ L\ ÿ KnXKK\m›.
tPyjvTamkØnse ip¢ ]£mjvSan apX¬ \mep ZnhktØ°v
hmbphns‚ K¿`[mcW ZnhkßfmWv. KK\w arZpeamb ip`]h\\m
epw kv\nKv≤L\ßfmepw t{ijvTambnØocp∂p.
2. Xss{Xh kzmXymsZyhrjvtS `NXpjvStb {Iam≥amkm;
{imhW]q¿Δm t⁄bmw ]cnkvXrXm [mcWmkvXm; kyp;
AXn¬ kzmXn apXemb \mep \£{Xßfn¬ h¿jw kw`hn
°p∂ ]£w {imhWw apX¬ {IaØnep≈ \mep amkßfn¬ hrjvSn
e`n°pIbn√.
3. bZnXm; kyptcI cq]m; ip`mkvXX; km¥cmkvXp
\ inhmbXkvIc`bZm; t{]m‡m;
t«mIm›zm]y{X hmknjvTm;
Cu \mep Zn\ßfn¬ GsX¶nepsam∂v ip`^eZmbnbmbn´pw
as‰m∂v Aip` ^eZmbnbmbn´pw I≠m¬ XkvIc`bap≠mIpsa∂v
hknjvT al¿jnbpsS t«mIw ]dbp∂p.
4. khnZypX; k]rjX; k]mw kqXv IcamcpXm;
km¿° N{μ ]cnO∂m [mcWm; ip`[mcWm;
sshZypXn (Zman\n), ]rjXw (PeIWw), s]mSn]SetØmSpIqSnb
Im‰v, kqcyN{μ∑msc BhcWw sNbvX taLw F∂nßs\bp≈ K¿`
[mcWw ip` K¿` [mcWamWv.
5. bZmXp hnZypX; t{ijvTm;
ip`mim{]Xyp]ÿnXmx
XZm]n k¿Δkkym\mw
hr≤nw {_qbmXvhnN£W.
359

{]Imikn‘p

t{ijvTamb sshZypXn ip`Icamb ZniIfn¬ D]ÿnXambncn°p
tºmƒ k¿Δ kky߃°pw A`nhr≤nbp≠mhpsa∂v ⁄m\nIƒ
]dbp∂p.
6. k]mwkph¿jm; km¿∏›
ip`m _me{Inbm A]n
]£nWmw kpkzcmhmNm;
{IoVm ]mw ip PemZnjp.
Ip´nIƒ s]mSn sIm≠pw Pew sIm≠pw h¿jn®p Ifnbv°p∂Xp
t]msebp≈ h¿jw ip`IcamWv. ]£nIƒ s]mSnbnepw PeØnepw
Ifn®psIm≠v a[pckzcw DXn¿°p∂Xpw ip`h¿j kqNIamWv.
7. chn N{μ ]cnthjm;
kv\nKv≤m \mXy¥ZqjnXm;
hrjvSnkvXZm]n hnt⁄bm
k¿Δ kkym`nhr≤tb.
kqcy N{μ∑mcpsS ]cnthjw kv\nKv≤ambpw AXy¥w ZqjnXa√m
sXbpw Ccp∂m¬ \√ agbpw k¿Δ kky߃°pw A`nhr≤nbpw
D≠mhpsa∂dnbWw.
8. taLm; kv\nKv≤m; kwlXmiv›
{]Z£nW KXn{Inbm;
XZm kym∑lXn hrjvSn;
k¿Δ kkym¿∞ km[nIm.
CXn hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
taL K¿` [mcWw \ma Zzmhnw timf ≤ymb.

360

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 23

{]h¿jWw
1. ssPjvTymw kaXoXmbmw ]q¿ΔmjmVm Znk{ºhrjvtS\.
ip`aiq`w hm hmNyw ]cnWmaw Nmw`kkvXss⁄x
tPyjvTbnse ]u¿Æanbn¬ h¿jap≠mb tijw ]q¿ΔmjmV
\£{XØnepw h¿jw kw`hn®m¬ agbpsS ]cnamWw (Afhv), AXp
sIm≠p≠mImhp∂ ip`mip`߃ F∂nh ⁄m\nIƒ°p {]hNn°mw.
2. lkXvhnimew IpfiI a[nIrXmw_p
{]amW \n¿t±ix ]©miXv]eamVI
at\\ an\pbmRvPew ]XnXw.
Hcp Iøn¬ IpfiIw (Hcp ]m{Xw) FSpØv PeØns‚ {]amWw
\n¿t±in°Ww (Hcp lkvXw hnimeamb ]m{Xw agbØv sh®v AXn¬
\ndbp∂ sh≈Øns‚ Afh\pkcn®v h¿jw {]hNn°Ww). ]m{XØn
s‚ Afhv AºXp ]eamWv. ]m{Xw sh≈w sIm≠p \ndbp∂ ]£w
agbpsS ]cnamWw Hcp BVIw (Hcp ]d).
3. tb\ [cn{Xo ap{Zm P\nXm hm]nμhkvXrWmt{Kjp
hrjvtS\ tX\ hmNyw ]cnamWx hmcnWx {]Yaw.
ag hogptºmƒ `qanta¬ ap{ZIƒ P\n∏n°pItbm, ]p¬Øpºp
Ifn¬ Pe_nμp°ƒ ImWpItbm sNbvXm¬ B h¿jØn¬ \n∂mWv
PeØns‚ {]Ya ]cnamWw (BZysØ Afhv) ]dtb≠Xv.
4. tINnZyYm `nhrjvSw Zi tbmP\
afiew hZ¥yt\y K¿§ hknjvT
]cmic aX taXZv ZzmZ im¥ ]cw.
Nne¿ ]dbp∂p ImWmhp∂ ZqcØnep≈ agbpsS AfhmWsX∂v.
a‰p NnecpsS A`n{]mbw ]ØptbmP\ afieØns‚ h¿jamsW
∂mWv. K¿§≥, hknjvT≥, ]cmic≥ F∂nhcpsS aX{]Imcw 12
tbmP\ (48 tImiw) bpsS AIØv F∂mWv.
361

{]Imikn‘p

5. tbjpNt`jz`nhrjvSw `qbkvtX tjzhh¿jXn {]mbx
bZn \m]ym Znjp hrjvSw k¿tΔjp XZmXz \m hrjvSnx
GXp \-£{XØnemtWm h¿jap≠mbXv, AtX \£{Xßfn¬
{]khImeØv ag h¿jn°p∂p. ]q¿ΔmjmVw apX¬ aqew hscbp≈
\£{Xßfn¬ H∂n¬ h¿jw D≠mbns√¶n¬ k¿Δ \£{XØnepw
A\mhrjvSn Xs∂ ^ew.
6. lkvXm]y kuay Nn{Xm ]ujvWm[\njvTmkp
tjmUi t{ZmWmx iXm`njssK{μ
kzmXnjp NXzmcx IrØnImkp Zix
N{μ≥ AØw, ]q¿ΔmjmVw, aIbncw, Nn{X, tchXn, [\njvTw
F∂nhbn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ 16 t{ZmWw ag In´pw. iXm`njw, tPyjvT,
kzmXn F∂nhbn¬ 4 t{ZmWw; Im¿ØnIbn¬ 10 t{ZmWw.
7. {ihtW aLm\pcm[m`cWo
aqtejp Zim NXpcyp‡mx
^¬Kp\ymw ]©IrXnx
]p\¿Δku hnwiXn t{ZmWx
8. sF{μm{KmtJy sshtizhnwiXn
km¿∏t`N Zi {Xy[nImx
Bln¿ _p[v\ym¿øavWm
{]mPm]tXyjp ]©IrXn
9. ]©ZimtP]ptjy Io¿ØnXm
N hmPn t` Zi ZzuN
cut{Z jvSmZi IYnXm t{ZmWm
\ncp]{Zth tjzjp
XncpthmWw, aIw, A\ngw, `cWn, aqew F∂nhbn¬ 14, ^m¬Kp\n
bn¬ 15, ]p\¿Δkphn¬ 20, hnimJw, DØc BjmVw F∂nhbn¬ 20,
Bt«jØn¬ 13, DØc `m{Z]ZØnepw DØc ^m¬Kp\nbnepw tcmln
Wnbnepw 15, ]q¿Δ`m{Z ]ZØnepw ]qbØnepw AizXnbnepw 12, B¿{Z
bn¬ 18- Cßs\ ag ]dbmw. CsX√mw N{μ≥ \ncp]{Zh e£Wß
tfmSp IqSn ImWs∏´memWv.
10. chn chnkpX tIXp ]oVntX t`
£nXn X\b {Xnhn[mZv `qXmltX N
362

{]Imikn‘p

`hXn ln \inhw \ Nm]nhrjvSnx
ip`klntX \ncp]{Zthinhw N.
CXn {iohcml anlnc IrXu _rlXvkwlnXmbmw
{]h¿jWw \ma {Xtbm hnwtimf ≤ymbx
Cu \£{X߃ kqcy≥, i\n, tIXp, F∂nhbm¬ ]oVnXtam,
sNmΔbpsS {Xnhn[w AXv`pXßfm¬ XmVnXtcm BsW¶n¬ ag
In´pIbn√. ip`{KlßtfmSpIqSn \ncp]{Zhßfmbncp∂m¬ ip`^ew
Xcpw.

363

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 24

tcmlnWotbmKw
1. I\Iinem NbhnhcPXcpIpkpamkwKnw a[pIcm\pcptX
_lphnlK Ielkpc bphXn KoX a{μkzt\m]ht\
2. kpc \neb inJcn inJtc _rlkv]Xn¿ \mcZmb bm\ml
K¿§]cmicImiy]abmivN bm©njy kwtLiyx
{`ac߃ ]q°fn¬ Bk‡ntbmSpIqSv Xv[wImcw apg°n Np‰pw
]d°p∂Xpw, At\Iw ]£nIfpsS IfKoXw apgßp∂Xpw, tZhkv{Xo
IfpsS KoX a{μkzcw ]c°p∂Xpamb tZhtemIØns‚ sImSpapSnbn
se D]h\Øn¬ hr£®ph´nse I\Iinebn¬ Ccp∂v _rlkv]Xn
\mcZ\v D]tZin®psImSpØXpw, K¿§≥, ]cmic≥, Iiy]≥, ab≥
apXembhcm¬ Xm¥mßfpsS injykwL߃°p ]Tn∏n°s∏´Xp
amb N{μs‚ tcmlnWotbmKw ]dbmw.
3. Xm\htemIy bYmhXv {]mPm ]tXyμp k{ºtbmKm¿∞m≥
kzev] {KtŸ \mlw Xmt\hmiypZytXm h‡pw.
B ]q¿ΔP∑cpsS IrXnIsf t\m°n, {]Pm]Xn (tcmlnWn) tbm
Sp≈ Cμphns‚ kw{]tbmKm¿∞w Cu sNdnb {KŸØn¬ ]dbp∂
Xn\v Rm≥ DZyp‡\mbncn°p∂p.
4. {]tPi amjmV Xan{k ]t£
£]m ItctWm]KXw kao£y
h‡hyanjvSw PKtXmf ip`w hm
imkvt{Xm ] tZimZv {Kl Nn¥tI\.
BjmV amkØnse IrjvW ]£Øn¬ tcmlnWn N{μt\mSp
tNcp∂XpsIm≠v PKØns‚ ip`mip`߃ imkvt{Xm]tZia\pkcn®v
{Kl Nn¥I∑m¿ ]dbp∂p.
5. tbmtKm bYm \mKXv Gh hmNyx
k [njvWb tbmKx IctW atbm‡x
364

{]Imikn‘p

N{μ {]amWZypXn h¿Æam¿ss§cpXv ]mX ]mssX ivN ^ew \nKZyw.
tcmlnWn tbmKw kw`hn°pw apºpXs∂ AXv F{]Imcw Ccn°pw
F∂v {]hNn°m≥ km[n°pw. Fs‚ IcW {KŸØn¬ (]©kn≤m
¥nI) B [njvWb tbmKw ]d™p Ign™p. N{μ {]amWw, ZypXn,
h¿Æw, am¿§w, DXv]mX ]mXw F∂nh sIm≠mWv Cu ^e {]hN\w.
6. ]pcmZpZKyXv ]pc]ntXmf ]n hmÿew
{XytlmjnXkvX{X lpXmi Xev]cx
{Klm≥ k \£{X KWm≥ kamentJXv
k[q] ]pjvss]¿ _en`nivN ]qPtbXv.
AKv\ycm[I¿ XßfpsS ]pcßfpsS ]q¿tΔmØc ZniIfnembn
B ip` thfbn¬ \£{XKWßtfmSpIqSnb {KlßfpsS Nn{Xw
BteJ\w sNbvXv [q]w, ]pjv]w, _en F∂nhtbmSpIqSnb ]qP
sNøp∂p.
7. kcXv\ tXm buj[n`nivNXp¿±nimw
Xcp {]hmem]nlnssXx kp]qPnssXx
AImeaqssex Ie ssicewIrXw
IpimkvXrXw ÿfineamhtkZznPx
cXv\w, tXmbw, Huj[nIƒ, hr£ØfncpIƒ F∂nhIfm¬
AewIrXhpw kp]qPnXhpamb Iei߃ \mep ZniIfnepap≈ aqe
Ifn¬ sh®v, Ipi∏p√p hncn® b⁄ thZnIfn¬ {_mlvaW¿ Ccn
bv°p∂p.
8. Beiy at{¥W alm{htX\
_oPm\n k¿ΔmWn \n[mb Ipwt`
πmhym\n NmaoIc Z¿`tXmssb¿ tlmtam acpZzmcpW kuayass{¥x
alm{hXsa∂ \matØmSpIqSnb a{¥Øm¬ k¿Δ _oPßtf
bpw B a{¥Ww sNbvXv kz¿Æw, Z¿`, Pew, F∂nhtbmSpIqSn Ipw`
Øn¬ \nt£]n®v, πmhnXw sNbvXv amcpXw, hmcpWw, kuayw F∂o
a{¥ßtfmSpIqSn tlmaw sNøp∂p.
365

{]Imikn‘p

9. «£vWmw ]XmImaknXmw hnZ≤ymZfi {]amWw {XnKptWm {OnXmw N
B Zu IrtX ZnKv {KltW \`kzm≥
{KmlymkvXbm tbmK KtX iimt¶.
N{μtbmKw kw`hn°ptºmƒ ]{¥≠p lkvXw \ofap≈ Zfi
Ønt∑¬ \mep lkvXw hep∏ap≈ IdpØ ]XmIIƒ sI´p∂p. BZy
Znhkw B ]XmI F{X £Wt\cw GXp Znibnte°v Nen°p∂p
F∂p \n¿Æbn®v Im‰ns‚ KXn Adnbp∂p.
10. X{Xm¿≤amkmx {]lssc¿ΔnIev]ym
h¿jm \nanØw ZnhkmkvX Zw ssix
kthy\ KORv{Op`Zx kssZh
bkvan≥ {]XnjvTm _ehm≥ k hmbpx
Hcp {]lcw hsc Htc Znibn¬ Im‰p hoinbm¬ 15 Znhkw h¿j
ap≠mhpw. ]n∂oSv hmbpk©mc Imew t\m°n ZnhkØns‚ Awiw
\n¿Æbn°Ww ({imhWw apX¬ Im¿ØnI amkw hscbp≈ \mep
amkØnse F´p]£Øn\v H∂v, c≠p]£Øn\v H∂v, c≠v Awi
Øm¬ \n¿t±in°Ww). Cu hn[Øn¬ hmbp k©cn®m¬ thKw ip`
Zmbnbmb ag e`n°pw. Htc \nbX e£WØn¬ Htc Znibn¬ Xs∂
k©cn°p∂ _ehm\mb hmbphns\ B Znibn¬ “{]XnjvTm”hm≥
Bbn Adnbp∂p.
11. hrtØXp tbmtK f ¶pcn Xm\nbm\n
k¥ol_oPm\n LrXm\n Ipwt`
tbjmwXp tbmw f timw f IpcnXkvXZwikvtXjmw hnhr≤nw kapss]Xn \m\yx
LrXtØmSpIqSn Ipw`Øn¬ \nt-£]n°s∏´ b⁄_oPßfn¬
GtXXv A¶pcn°p∂pthm Ahbv°v hr≤n kw`hn°p∂XmWv. a‰p≈
hbv°v A`nhr≤n kw`hn°bns√∂v {]hNn°mw.
12. im¥ ]£narKcmhnXm Zntim
\n¿Ωew hnbZ\nμntXmf \nex
ikytX iin\n tcmlnWobptXx
taLamcpX ^em\n hNvayXx
366

{]Imikn‘p

13. IzNn ZknX knssXx knssXx IzNn®
IzNnZknssX¿`qPssK cnhmw_p hmsslx
henX Pwc ]rjvTam{X Zrssix
kv^pcnXXUn {Zkss\hrXw hnimssex
14. hnIknX IatemZcmhZmssXccpW IcZypXncRvPn tXm]IWvssTx
NXpcnXanh hnbZzss\¿ΔnNnss{X
¿Ω[pcIcIpwIpaInwipImhZmssXx
15. AknXL\ \ncp≤tah hmNmenX XSnXv kpc Nm] Nn{XnXw
Zzn] alnjIpemIpeoIrXw h\anh Zmh]coX aw_cw.
16. AY hmRvP\ssie inem \nNb{]Xncq][sscx ÿKnXw KK\w
lna au‡nIiwJiim¶ IcZypXn lmcn`ncw_p[ssc cYhm.
17. XSnssZzaIss£¿∫emIm{KZss¥x
kv{XhZzmcn Zmss\ ›z eXv {]m¥lkvssXx
hnNnt{Xt{μNm]≤ztPm {Omb timss`kvXamemen\osse¿hrXw Nm_vZ\mssKx
18. k‘ym\pct‡ \`mknÿnXm\manμohciymacpNmw L\m\mw
hrμm\n ]oXmw_c thjvSnXky
Im¥nw ltctizmcbXmw bZmhm.
19. k inJn NmXI Z¿±pc \n kzss\cyZn hn[n{inX k{μ]Spkz\mx
J ahXXyZnK¥ hnew_n\x
keneZmx keneuLapNx £nXu
BImiw Nnet∏mƒ Idp∏pw shfp∏pw Ie¿∂pw, Nnet∏mƒ shfp
Øpw, Nnet∏mƒ IdpØpw, Pehmlnbmb `pPwKsØt∏mse Nnet∏mƒ
PTcw am{Xhpw Nnet∏mƒ ]rjvTw am{Xhpw Nnet∏mƒ \m`n am{Xhpw
ZrjvSambpw, kv^pcn°p∂ XSn√XIfmepw CSnapg°tØmSpw IqSnbXm
bpw hnimeambpw D≈ taLßfm¬ BhrXamIp∂p. hnS¿∂ Xmacbp
sS DZcw t]mse at\mlcamb AcpWtim`tbmSpw, Np‰pw At\Iw
hnNn{Xhpw, a[pIchpw, Ip¶pa InwipI ]pjv] kZrihpamb h¿Æ
߃ ]S¿∂pw. IrjvW taLßfm¬ tim`mbam\ambpw BImiw
{]tim`n°p∂p. IrjvWtaL߃ Nen°p∂ hnZyp√XIfmepw aghn√m
367

{]Imikn‘p

epw Nn{Xm¶nXambn°mWp∂p. B\Iƒ°pw alnjIƒ°pw BIpeX
bp≠m°p∂ Im´pXo ]S¿∂ almh\w t]mse Aw_cw tim`bm¿÷n
°p∂p. AYhm ARvPe ssie inemJfi߃ t]mep≈ taLß
fm¬ BImiw BhrXamIp∂p. lnaw, apØv, iwJv, N{μ IncWw F∂n
hbpsS tim`sb lcn°p∂ Aw_pZ߃ BImiØv \nc°p∂p.
an∂¬∏nWcpIfmIp∂ sslaI£mkº∂ßfpw, _emIßfmIp∂
A{KZ¥ßfpw, {khn°p∂ PeamIp∂ aZPehpambn {`m¥cq]Øn¬
Nen°p∂hbpw, hnNn{X cq]nIfpw Bbn, C{μs‚ Db¿∂ sImSn°qd
Ifm¬ (≤zPw) Ae¶rXambn, XamekZritam \oe h≠ns‚ kZri
tam Bb h¿Æap≈ B\°q´ßsft∏msebp≈ taL߃ BIm
iØv \nc°p∂p. k‘ymcmKw ]S¿∂v tim`bm¿∂ BImiØn¬ \oe
]fl kZrißfmb taLhrμ߃ ]oXmw_cw [cn® lcnbpsS Im¥n
sb lcn®psIm≠pw, abn¬, NmXIw, Z¿±pcw, apXembhbpsS kpkzc
ßtfmsSm∏w taLK¿÷\w ktΩfn®psIm≠pw “J”Øn¬ (BImi
Øn¬) ZnK¥ßsf hym]n®p ]c°p∂ taL߃ `qanbv°v [mcmfw
Pew Xcp∂p.
20. \nlKnI cqss]¿÷e [cPmsse
iylahcp≤w Zzl aYhmlx
bZnhnbtZhw `hXn kp`n£w
apZnXP\mN {]NpcPem`qx
taev]d™ cq]ßfn¬ Pew [cn® taL-°q´ßƒ ct≠m aqt∂m
Znhkw \` n¬ \n¬°p∂ ]£w kp`n£w D≠mhpw. `qanbn¬ [m
cmfw ag e`n°pIbm¬ P\߃ B\μ`cnXcmhpw.
21. cqss£cXvss∏¿ΩmcpXm£n {]tZsslcpjv{S ≤zmw £ t{]XimJm arKmss`x
At\yjmw hm \nμnXm\mw kcqss]¿ΩqssIizm_vssZ¿∂minhw \m]n hrjvSnx
cq£ambn hoip∂ Aev] hmbphm¬ saen™ icoctØmSpIqSn,
H´Iw, Im°, t{]Xw, Ipcßv apXembhbpsS BIrXnbntem, AXp
t]mep≈ a‰p \nμnXcq]ßfntem, i_vZclnXambn (CSn IqSmsX)
taLw I≠m¬ Aip`amWv; ag In´pIbn√.
368

{]Imikn‘p

22. hnKX Lt\hm hnbXn hnhkzm\marZp abqJx keneIrtZhw
kc Ch ^p√w \ninIpapZmVyw
JapVp hnip≤w b ZnN kphrjvssS
taL߃ H´pan√msXbpw, kqcy≥ Xo£vW IncWßtfmSp IqSn
bncp∂m¬ ag e`n°pw. cm{Xnbn¬ ^p√ IpapZ߃ \nd™ \n¿Ωe
kcs ∂ t]mse BImiw \£{Xßfm¬ hnip≤ambn°≠mepw
kphrjvSn ^ew.
23. ]q¿tΔmZv `qssXxkky\njv]Ønc_vssZ cmKvt\bmim kw`sshcKv\ntIm]x
bmtay kkyw £obtX ss\cytXyf ¿≤w
]›mPvPmssXx tim`\m hrjvSnc_vssZx
]q¿Δ Zn°n¬ DXv`hn® taL߃ kky߃°v A`nhr≤n D≠m
°p∂p. BKvt\b tImWn¬ DXv`hn®h AKv\n tIm]w D≠m°p∂p.
Z£nW Zn°nse taLw kkyw £bn∏n°p∂p. ss\cyXn tImWn¬
D≈Xv AXns‚ ]IpXn ^ew Xcpw. ]ivNna Zn°n¬ P\n®Xv tim`\
amb hrjvSn Xcp∂p.
24. hbmthymXvssY¿ΔmXhrjvSnx IzNn®
]pjvSm hrjvSnx kuayImjvTm kapXvssYx
t{ijvTw kkyw ÿmWpZnIv k{ºhrss≤¿ΔmbpivssNhw Zn£p[tØ ^em\n.
hmbp tImWn¬ P\n® taLw Imt‰mSpIqSnb ag sIm≠phcp∂p.
DØcZnibnse taLw ]pjvSamb ag Xcp∂p. Cuim\tImWnse ta
Lw t{ijvTamb [m\yßsf kar≤am°p∂p. \mepZn°n¬ \n∂pw
k{ºhr≤amIp∂ Im‰ns‚ Dev]ØnsIm≠pw taL߃°p ]d™
AtX ^e߃ {]hNn°mw.
25. D¬°m \n]mXm kvXSntXmf i\n›
ZnKvZml \n¿LmX alo {]Iºmx
\mZm arKmWmw k ]X{XnWmw N
{KmlymbssYhmw_p[cmkvXssYh
369

{]Imikn‘p

tcmlnWntbmK thfbn¬ D¬° hogpItbm, an∂¬∏nW¿, Ai\n
]mXw, ZnKvZmlw, \n¿LmXw, `qIºw F∂nh kw`hn°tbm, arK]£n
IfpsS i_vZtImemlew tIƒ°tbm sNbvXm¬ taLe£Ww ]d
™Xpt]mseØs∂ ^ew {Kln°mw.
26. \mamw InssXkvssXcpZKmZnIpwss`x
{]Z£nWw {imhWamk]q¿ssΔx
]q¿ssÆx kamkx keneky ZmXm
kvXrssXc hrjvSn ]cnIev]yaqss\x
tcmlnWn tbmKØn¬ agsh≈w ]Xnbv°ptºmƒ DØcw apX
emb \mep Zn°pIfnembn {imhWw apX¬ Im¿ØnI hscbp≈ \mep
\£{X߃ {]Z£nW {IaØn¬ ÿm]nXambncp∂m¬, AXmXp
\£{X߃ Pe]q¿Æambn \√ ag Xcpw. GXv I]meØn¬ (Ipw`
Ønse \£{Xw DZn°p∂n√sbm AhnsS hrjvSn D≠mhpw.
27. Ass\ivN Ipwss`\r]\ma Nnlvss\¿ZvtZimw InX izm]y]ssckvXssYh.
`Kvss\x kvXr ssX≥cyq\ Psse kp]q¿tÆ
-`mKym\n hmNym\n bYm\p cq]w.
CXpt]mse, ]dbs∏´ cmP\ma߃°pw tZi\ma߃°pw D≈
Nnlv\ßfnepw ZniIfnepw {]Z£nW {IaØn¬ Hcp Znhkw ÿm]nX
ambpw ASpØ Znhkw `Kv\ambpw ImWs∏SpItbm, Pe]q¿Æamtbm
Pe hncfXtbmSpIqSntbm ImWs∏SpItbm sNbvXm¬, bYm\pcq]
ambn {Kln®v AXmXp tZi°m¿°p `mKyw {]hNn°mw.
28. ZqctKm \nIStKmf Yhm iio
Z£ntW]YnX bYmXYm ÿnXx
tcmlnWow bZnbp\‡n k¿ΔYm
IjvStahPKtXm hn\n¿ZvZntiXv.
N{μ≥ ZqcØmbmepw ASpØmbmepw Z£nW]YØn¬ tcmlnWn
bp‡\mbn I≠m¬ PKØn\v IjvSXIƒ D≠mhpsa∂v ]dbmw.
29. kv]ri∂rZKymXn bZm iim¶kvXZm kphrjvSn¿∫lptem]k¿§x
Akwkv]rit\ymKapZIv ktaXx
ItcmXn hrjvSnw hn]pemw inhwN.
370

{]Imikn‘p

tcmlnWnbpsS DØc`mKØp≈ \£{Xßsf kv]¿in®psIm≠v
N{μ≥ k©cn®m¬ [mcmfw ag e`nbv°psa∂Xp am{Xa√, ag sIm≠v
D]k¿§hpw kw`hn°pw. tcmlnWntbmKw IqSmsX DØc Znibnse
\£{Xßfn¬ k©cn®m¬ awKfIcamb kphrjvSn kw`hn°pw.
30. tcmlnWo iISa≤ykwÿntX
N{μakyicWoIrXm P\mx
Izm]nbm¥n inipbmNnXmi\mx
kqcyX]vX ]nTcmw_p]mbn\x
tcmlnWnbpsS iISØn¬ (iIScq]Ønep≈ A©p \£{Xw)
N{μ≥ ÿnXn sNøth a\pjy¿ AicWcmbn, inip°tfmSpIqSn
hni∏p XmßmsX bmNn®v, kqcymX]w sIm≠v he™v, sh≈w am{Xw
IpSn®v Pohnt°≠n hcpw.
31. DZnXw bZnioXZoLnXnw
{]Yaw ]rjvTX GXn tcmlnWo
ip`tah XZmkvacmXpcmx
{]aZmx ImanhtiN kwÿnXmx
BZyw N{μ\pZn®v ]n∂mse tcmlnWn DZn®m¬ kvacmXpcIfmb
kpμcnam¿ Xm¥mßfpsS ImapI∑mcpsS hiKIfmbnØocpw.
32. A\pKOX ]rjvTXxiio
Imaoh\nXmanh{]nbmw
aIc[zP_mW tJZnXmx
{]aZm\mw hiKmkvXZm\cmx
Xm≥ Imanbv°p∂ {]nb h\nXsb A\pKan°p∂Xpt]mse iin
tcmlnWnsb ]n≥XpS¿∂m¬, Ima_mWØm¬ he™ a\pjy¿ kpμ
cnamcpsS hiK∑mcmbnØocpw.
33. BKvt\ømw Znin N{μambZn `thØt{Xm]k¿t§m
alm≥ ss\cyXymw kap]{ZpXm\n \n[\w
kkym\nbm¥oXn`nx {]mtPim\neZnIvÿntX
lnaItc kkyky a≤yiztbm
bmtXÿmWp ZniwKpWmx
kp_lhx kkym¿≤ hr≤ym`bx
371

{]Imikn‘p

N{μ≥ AKv\ntImWnemsW¶n¬ alØmb D]k¿§ßƒ D≠m
hpw. ss\cyXnbnemsW¶n¬ kakvX [m\y߃°pw \jvSw kw`hn
°pw. ]ivNnatImWntem hmbptImWntem BsW¶n¬ kky߃°v
a≤ya^eamWv. Cuim\tImWnemsW¶n¬ [mcmfw kkykºØp
≠mhpw. [m\yßfpsS aqeyw h¿≤n°pw.
34. XmUtb ZyZnN tbmKXmcImamhrtWmXn h]pjmbZm]nhm
XmUt\ `bapi¥n ZmcpWw
OmZt\ \r]ht[mf wK\mIrXx
tbmKXmcIsb N{μ≥ XmUn°pItbm icocØm¬ adbv°pItbm
sNbvXm¬, {Iam\pkmcw ZmcpWamb `bhpw, kv{XotlXphmbn cmPm
hns‚ h[hpw kw`hn°pw.
35. tKm{]thikatb {KtXmhrtjm
bmXn IrjvWm ]iptch hm]pcx
`qcnhmcn i_teXp a≤yaw
t\m kntXf w_p ]cnIev]\m]sscx
N{μ≥ tbmKXmcbn¬ {]thin°p∂ kabhpw tKm°ƒ Bebn¬
{]thin°p∂ kabhpw H∂mhpI, Imen°q´Øns‚ ap∂n¬ Hcp
IdpØ ]ipthm Imftbm BhpI Aßs\sb¶n¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw.
h¿Æi_famb ]ipsh¶n¬ a≤ya^ew, shfpØ ]ipsh¶n¬ ag
Ipdhv.
36. ZriytZ \bZn tcmlnWo bpX
ivN{μam\ `kn tXmbZmhrtX.
cpKv`bw alZp]ÿnXw XZm
`qivN`qcnPe kky kwbpXm.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu
_rlXv kwlnXmbmw tcmlnWntbmtKm
\maNXp¿Δnwtim≤ymbx
taLmhrXamb BImiØn¬ tcmlnWntbmSp tN¿∂ N{μ≥ Zriy
amImXncn°p∂ ]£w `qanbn¬ [mcmfw agbpw [mcmfw kkyßfpw
D≠mIpsa¶nepw, `b¶camb tcmK`bw D≠mhpw.
372

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 25

kzmXotbmKw
1. bt{ZmlnWo tbmK^ew XtZh
kzmXmhjmVm klntX N Nt{μ.
BjmV ipIvf \nJnew hnNn¥yw
tbmf kvan≥ hntijkvXalw {]ht£y.
tcmlnWo tbmK^ew F{]Imctam A{]Imcw Xs∂bmWv
kzmXotbmK^ehpw BjmVtbmK^ehpw. BjmV amkØnse
ipIvf ]£Øn¬ F√mw hnNn¥\w sNbvXp thWw ChbpsS hntij
^e߃ ]dbp∂Xv.
2. kzmXu \nimwti {]Ytaf `nhrjvtS
kkym\n k¿ΔmWyp ]bm¥n hrjvSnw.
ZznXotb XneapZvKamjm
ss{Kjvaw XrXotbf kvXn\ imcZm\n.
kzmXnbn¬ cm{XnbpsS {]YamwiØn¬ h¿jap≠mbm¬ k¿Δ
{]Imcap≈ kky߃°pw A`nhr≤n D≠mhpw. ZznXobmwiØn¬ h¿
jn®m¬ F≈v, apZvKw, amjw F∂nhbv°pw XrXobmwiØn¬ h¿jn
®m¬ {KojvaImeØp≠mhp∂ kky߃°pw A`nhr≤n ]dbmw.
F∂m¬ icZrXphnse hnfhpIƒ°v A`nhr≤n D≠mIbn√.
3. hrjvtSf lv\n `mtK {]Yta kphrjvSnkvXZz ZznXotbXpkIoS k¿∏m.
hrjvSnkvXp a≤ym]c `mKhrjvtS
\nivNn{Z hrjvSn¿ Zyp\niw {]hrjvtS.
]Iens‚ {]Ya`mKØnse¶n¬ kphrjvSn; c≠mw `mKØnse¶n¬
k¿∏ IoSmZnIƒ; a≤y, A]c`mKßfnse¶n¬ kphrjvSn. cm∏Ien√m
sX ag s]øpw.
4. kaapØtcWXmcm Nn{Xmbmx
Io¿ØntX ly]mwh’x
Xkymkt∂ Nt{μ kzmtX¿tømKx inthm `hXn
373

{]Imikn‘p

*Nn{XbpsS DØc`mKØp≈ \£{XsØ “A]mw h’” sa∂p
]dbp∂p. AXn∂SpØmbn N{μs‚ kzmXntbmKw kw`hn°p∂Xv awKf
IcamWv.
5. k]vXaymw kzmXntbmK bZn]XXn
lnaw amL amkm‘Imtc
hmbp¿ΔmNfithKx kPe Pe[tcm
hm]nK¿÷Xy Pkv{Xw.
hnZyp∑mem IrXw hmbZn`hXn \t`m
\jvS N{μm¿°Xmcw
hnt⁄bm{]mhrtVjm
apZnX P\]Zm k¿Δksskycqt]Xm.
amL amk IrjvW ]£Ønse A‘ImcØn¬, k]vXaXnYn
bn¬ kzmXn tbmKØn¬ lnaw hogpItbm {]Nfi thKØn¬ Im‰p
hoipItbm, Pew [cn® taLw K¿÷n°pItbm, hnZyp∑meIfm¬ Ae
-¶rXambn ImWs∏SpItbm, N{μ≥, kqcy≥, \£{X߃ F∂nhsb
adbv°pItbm sNbvXm¬, B kwh’cØnse h¿j°meØv k¿Δ
kkykar≤ntbmSpIqSn P\]Z߃ B\μnbv°psa∂dnbWw.
6. XssYh ^m¬Kpt\ ssNt{X
sshimJ kymkntXf ]nhm
kzmXn tbmKw hnPm\obmZmjmV N hntijXx
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu_rlXv
kwlnXmbmw kzmXotbmtKm\ma]©hnwtim≤ymbx
^m¬Kp\amkw, ssN{Xamkw, sshimJamkw F∂nhbnse Ir
jvW ]£Ønepw C{]Imcw kzmXntbmKap≠mhpw. ]s£, BjmV
amkØnse kzmXn tbmKamWv khntijw.

*kqcy kn≤m¥ \£{X {Klbp‡ym[nImc{]Imcw “A]mwhXvkkvXp
Nn{XmbmapØtc ssikvXp ]©`nx” Nn{Xbn¬ \n∂v 5 Awiw DØchnt£]
Øn¬ (kv^pSw 3 Awiw) ImWp∂ henbXmcw.
374

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 26

BjmVotbmKw
1. BjmVymw kaXpenXm[nhmknXm\mat\yZypcyZ[nIXm apss]Xn _oPw
XZv hr≤n¿ `hXn \ PmbtX bZq\w
at{¥mf kvan≥ `hXn Xpem`n a{¥Wmb.
BjmV ]u¿Æanbv°v D{XmSØn¬ N{μ≥ \n¬°ptºmƒ k¿
Δm∂ _oPhpw [mcmfw h¿≤n°bpw ]nt‰∂v hen∏w h¿≤n°bpw sN
bvXm¬ B [m\y߃°v kar≤n D≠mIbn√. Ahbn¬ Xpem`na{¥W
sa∂ a{¥w P]n°Ww.
2. kvtXmXhym a{¥ tbmtK\ kXymtZho kckzXo
Z¿ibnjy knbXv kXyw ktXy kXy{hXm lykn.
kXymtZhnbmb kckzXnsb C{]ImcamWv a{¥tbmKw sIm≠v
(XpemamkØnse A`na{¥Ww sIm≠v) kvXpXnt°≠Xv. “tl, kXy
tZhnbmb kckzXo, AhnSp∂v kXyØn¬ kXy{hXbmWv; AXn\m¬
kXyw Z¿in°p∂p.
3. tb\ ktXy\ N{μm¿t°m
{Ktlm tPymXn¿§WmkvXYm.
DØnjvT¥ol ]q¿tΔW
]ivNZkvXw {hP¥nN.
Cu kwkmcØn¬ GXv kXyØns‚ _eØmemtWm N{μ\pw
kqcy\pw {Kl \£{XmZn tPymXn¿§Wßfpw ]q¿ΔØn¬ DZnbv°bpw
]n∂oSv (]Sn™mdv F∂pw) AkvXanbv°bpw sNøp∂Xv,4. b’Xyw k¿ΔthtZjp bXv kXyw {_lvahmZnjp
bXv kXyw {Xnjp temtIjp XXv kXyanl ZriyXmw.
GXp kXyamtWm k¿Δ thZØnepw, k¿Δ {_lvahmZnIfnepw,
aq∂p temIßfnepw Ccnbv°p∂Xv B kXysØ ChnsS ImWn®p
X∂mepw.
375

{]Imikn‘p

5. {_lvatWm ZplnXmkn XzamZntXyXn {]Io¿ØnXm
Iiy]o tKm{XXivssNh\maXm hn{ipXm Xpem.
\o {_lva ]p{Xnbmb “BZnXy” F∂v {]Io¿Ønbv°s∏´hfmWv;
Iiy]o tKm{XØn¬ “Xpem” F∂ \maØm¬ {]kn≤bmWv.
6. £uaw NXpx kq{XIk∂n_≤w
jUwKpew inIyIhkv{X akymx
kq{X {]amWw NZimw Kpem\n
jtUhIt£m`binIyat≤y.
\∂mep kq{XØm¬ k∂n_‘ambn, BdwKpew Awiap≈
hkv{Xw [cn®v, AXns‚ \mep hiØpw ZimwKpew hoXw kq{X{]amW
ambn, c≠v koaIƒ°pw CSbn¬ Bdv I£yItfmSpIqSn Ccn°p∂p.
7. bmtay intIy Im©\w tij{ZhymWn
DØtcf w_q\n ssNhw tXmssbx
Iuss]yx krμn`nx kmcsskivN hrjvSn¿
lo\m a≤yam tNmØamN.
sXs° koabn¬ kz¿Æw; DØc koabn¬ a‰p {Zhyßfpw Pe
hpw; InWdv, \Zn, kc v apXembhbnse Pew A\pkcn®v DØa
hrjvSn, a≤yahrjvSn, hrjvSn lo\X F∂nh ]dbmw.
8. Zss¥¿∂mKmtKmlbmZymivNtemav\m
tlav\m `q]mx knIvYtI\ZznPmZymx
XZzt±im h¿j amkmZniivN
tij{ZhymWymflcq] ÿnXm\n.
Z¥w sIm≠v \mKKWw, tcmaw sIm≠v tKm°ƒ, IpXncIƒ apX
embh, kz¿Æw sIm≠v cmPm°∑m¿, knIvYIw (Hcp {Kmkw {]amWw)
sIm≠v {_mlvaW¿ F∂nhbv°v ^ew ]dbmw. AXmXv tZiw, h¿jw,
amkw, Zni, tij{Zhy߃ F∂nhbpsS Bflcq]kvYnXn A\pkcn®p
^ew ]dbWw.
9. sslao{][m\m cPtX\ a≤ym
Xtbm cem t` JZntcW Imcy.
hnZzx ]pamt\y\ itcW kmhm
Xpem {]amtW\ `th ZznXkvXnx
376

{]Imikn‘p

kz¿Æw sIm≠p≈ XpemZfimWv DØaw. sh≈nsIm≠v a≤yaw.
CXp c≠pas√¶n¬ am{Xw JZncw F∂ acwsIm≠p≈Xv D]tbmKn
°mw. hnZzm∑mcmb ]pcpj∑m¿ A\yicßfmepw hnXkvXnbpsS {]am
WØnep≈ Xpem߃ krjvSn°p∂p.
10. lo\ky \mtimf iy[nIkyhr≤nkvXptey\Xpeyw XpenXw Xpembmw
GXØpemtImi clkyap‡w
{]mtPitbmtKf ]n\tcm hnZ≤ymXv.
Xpembn¬ Xpe\w sNøptºmƒ Xptey\ Xpeyw, A[nIØns‚
hr≤n, Ipdhns‚ \miw. F∂v aq∂p hn[w kw`hn°p∂Xns\ ‘Xpem
tImiclky’sa∂p ]dbp∂p. CXns\ tcmlnWotbmKthfbn¬
Øs∂ hnZKv≤cmb \nco£I¿ a\ nem°p∂p.
11. kzmXmhjmVmkzY tcmlnWojp
]m]{Klm tbmKKXm \ imkvXmx
{Kmlyw Xp tbmKZzb a]yp t]mjy
bZm[namtkm ZznKpWo ItcmXn.
kzmXn, BjmVw, tcmlnWo \£{Xßfn¬ ]m]{Kl tbmKw
\∂√. F∂m¬ A[namkap≈ h¿jØn¬ (BjmV amkw aeak
amIp∂ h¿jØn¬) t\csØ ]d™ c≠p tbmKßfpw {Kln°mw.
(Akw{Im¥n amtkmf [namkx kv^pSw kymXv F∂v kn≤m¥
intcmaWn. N{μamkØn¬ chnkw{Iaw C√msX hcp∂Xv A[namkw).
12. {Xtbmf ]ntbmKm kZrim ^te\
bZm XZm hmNy akwitb\
hn]cytb bXznl tcmlnWoPw
^ew XtZhmiy[nIw \nKZyw.
kzmXn, BjmVo, tcmlnWotbmKßfpsS ^ew kZriamsW∂Xv
\n tμlamWv. ip`mip`^e߃ ]dbptºmƒ tcmlnWotbmK ^e
Øn\v ap≥Xq°w ({]m[m\yw) sImSpØp thWw ]dbm≥.
13. \njv]ØncKv\ntIm]mhrjvSn¿ aμmYa≤yamt{ijvTm_lpPe ]h\m]pjvTm ip`mN]q¿ΔmZn`nx ]h\x
377

{]Imikn‘p

]q¿ΔZn°n¬ \n∂v Im‰phoinbm¬ [mcmfw Pehpw kkym`nhr≤n
bpw D≠mhpw; ip`IcamWv. AKv\ntImWn¬ \n∂msW¶n¬ AKv\n
tIm]ap≠mhpw- Z£nWmZn Zn°pIfn¬ \n∂p {]Z£nW {IaØn¬
aμhrjvSn, a≤yhrjvSn, DØahrjvSn, ]pjvShrjvSn- Cßs\ ]dbmw.
14. hrØmbm amjmVymw IrjvWmNXp¿∞ymassPI ]mZ¿t£.
bZnh¿jXn ]¿P\yx{]mhrVv
ikvXm\ tN∂ XXx
BjmV ]q¿ÆN{μ\ptijw, IrjvWm NXp¿∞nbn¬ ]q¿Δm
jmV \£{XØn¬ h¿jn°p∂ ]¿÷\y≥ ip`IcamWv. A{]Imc
a√msX h¿jn°p∂Xv \∂√.
15. BjmVyw ]u¿ÆamkymwXp
bssZyimt\m \ntem `thXv
AkvXw KOXn Xo£vWmw iu
kkykºØncpØam.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbm amjmVo tbmtKm\ma jUznwtimf ≤ymbx
BjmV ]u¿Æan°v kqcykvXab thfbn¬ Cuim\tImWn¬
Im‰p hoinbm¬ `qanbn¬ DØaamb kkykºØp≠mhpw.

378

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 27

hmX N{Iw
1. ]q¿Δx ]q¿Δ kap{ZhoNn inJc {]kv^me\mLq¿ÆnXivN{μm¿°mwipkSm`nLmX IentXm
hmbpcyZm[yiXx ss\Im¥ÿnX \oetaL]Semw imcZy kwh¿≤nXmw hmkt¥mXv°S
kkyafinX Xem hnZymØYm taZn\ow.
Ing°≥ Im‰v ]q¿Δkap{ZhoNninJcßsf kv]¿in®psIm≠p
hoipIbpw, kqcykvXab thfbn¬ N{μ≥ kqcy IncWßfpsS kS
sIm≠v A`nLmXw sNøs∏´ t]mse ImWpIbpw, GIm¥ÿnXamb
\oetaL ]SeßtfmSpIqSn icZrXphr≤n {]m]n°bpw sNbvX `qan
bn¬ hk¥ImeØv k¿Δkkyßfpw A`nhr≤n {]m]n®p ImWmw.
2. bZmKvt\tbm hmbp¿ΩebinJcm kv^me\ ]Spx
πhXykvan≥ tbmtK `KhXn]XwtK {]hkXn
XZm\ntXym±o]vXm Pze\inJncmenwKnX Xem kzKmt{Xmtjvam Ozmssk¿ΔaXn hkp[m `kva\nIcw
BKvt\b tImWnse hmbp, aeb ]¿ΔX inJcßsf kv]¿in®p
sIm≠v hoiptºmƒ, ZntXym±o]vXbpw Pzenbv°p∂ sImSpapSnIfm¬
BenwK\w sNøs∏´ {]XetØmSpIqSnbhfpw kzKm{XØns‚ Dujva
famb DOzmkØn¬ \n∂p≠mb [qfo`kvaamIp∂ hkv{Xw [cn®hfp
amb `qaotZhn NndIpIƒ e`n®hsft∏mse io{LKa\w sNøm≥
Bcw`n°p∂p.
3. Xmeo]{X eXmhnXm\Xcp`nx imJmarKm∂¿Ø\w
tbmtKf kvan≥ πhXn [z\\w kp]cptjm
hmbpcyZm Z£nWx k¿tΔm tZymK kap∂XmivN
KPhØmem¶pssi¿L´nXmx Io\mim Ch aμhmcn
IWnIm≥ apRvPXn taLmkvXZm.
]cpjamb Z£nWhmbp (sX°≥ Im‰v) i_vZtØmSpIqSn ]mdn
hcptºmƒ, imJmarK߃ \¿Ø\w sNøp∂ Xmehr£ßfpw eXm
379

{]Imikn‘p

hnXm\ßfpw Xcp\ncIfpw i_vZapJcnXamIp∂p. k¿tΔmtZymKßfpw
kap∂Xßfpamb KPt{ijvT∑m¿ Xmem¶pimZnIfm¬ \nb{¥n°s∏
´mse∂Xpt∏msebpw, Ir]Wcmb a\pjysct∏msebpw taL߃
GXm\pw PeIW߃ am{Xw h¿jn®p Xcp∂p.
4. kqss£va emeheoe hwK\nNbm≥ hymLq¿Æb≥ kmKtc `mt\mckvXatb πhXy hnctXm
hmbpcyZm ss\cyXx £pØrjvWmarXam\pjmÿniIe {]kvXmc `mcivNZm aØm t{]X
h[qcn thm{KN]em `qankvXZme£ytX.
kqcymkvXab thfbn¬ ss\cyXn tImWnse hmbp, kmKc Xoc
sØ sIm®v Ce™n, CehwK Xcp°sf Debv°p∂ ]£w, hni∏pw
Zmlhpw sIm≠v arXcmb a\pjycpsS Aÿn iIeßsf {]kvXmcw
sNbvX `mcw Xmßnb `qan D\vaØbmb t{]X h[psht∏mse D{Kbpw
N]ebpambn ImWs∏Spw.
5. bZm tcWqXv]mssXx {]hnISkSmtSm]N]ex
{]hmXx ]›zm¿t≤ Zn\ Icm]mXkatb.
XZm ktkym t]Xm {]hc \r]cm_≤kacm
[cmÿmt\ ÿmt\jzhncXhkmamwkcp[nX.
s]mSnh¿jw sIm≠v kS Agn®n´t]mse N]ebpw K¿ΔnjvTbp
amb ]ivNna hmbp (]Sn™md≥ Im‰v) k‘y°v hoinbm¬ kkyiym
afbmb `qanbn¬ {][m\s∏´ N{Ih¿Ønam¿ XΩn¬ bp≤w \S°pw.
[cmÿm\ßfn¬ AhncXw hkbpw amwkhpw c‡hpw hogpw.
6. BjmVo]¿ΔImte bZn IncW ]tX ckvXImtem]]Øu
hmbthymhr≤thKx πhXnL\cn]px ]∂KmZm\pImcn
Pm\obm≤zmcn [mcm{]apZnXapZnXmw ap‡ afiqI IWvTmw
ktkymZv`msskI Nnlv\mw kpJ_lpeXbm `mKy tk\man
thm¿Δow.
BjmV ]u¿Æanbv°v kqcymkvXabØn¬ taL i{Xphmb
Im‰v kar≤thKØn¬ hmbhytImWneqsS, KcpUkam\ambn ]ds∂
Ønbm¬ `qan h¿j[mcbm¬ B\μhXnbpw {]^p√bpw Bbn afiqI
IWvTßfm¬ kvXpXn]mSn, _lpkkytim`m[mcnWnbpw, kpJ_lp
ebpambn `mKytk\sbt∏mse ImWs∏Spw.
380

{]Imikn‘p

7. tacp{KkvX acoNnafieXse {Kojvamhkmt\ chu
hmXymtamZnIZw_K‘ kpc`n¿ΔmbpcyZm tNmØcx
hnZypZv{`m¥n kakvX Im¥n Ie\m aØmkvXZm tXmbZm
D\vaØm ChZrjvS N{μIncWmw Kmw]qcb¥yw_p`nx
{Kojvam¥yØn¬ kqcy≥ tacp ]¿ΔXsØ Xs‚ acoNn afie
Øm¬ {Kkn°bpw B\μZmbIamb hS°≥ Im‰v IZw_K‘ kpc`n
eambn hoipIbpw sNøptºmƒ sshZypXnbm¬ hn{`m¥hpw kakvX
Im¥nbpw tN¿∂Xpw, aØhpamb tXmbZw D\vaØsbt∏mse N{μ
IncWmwKbmbn `qansb Pe]q¿Æam°p∂p.
8. sFimt\mbZn ioXtemf acKssWx kwtkhy amt\m`thXv ]p∂mKmKpcp ]mcnPmX kpc`n¿Δmbpx{]Nfi≤z\nx
B]q¿tÆmZIbuh\m hkpaXo kº∂ kkymIpem
[¿ΩnjvTmx {]WXmctbm \r]Xtbm c£¥n h¿ÆmkvXZm
CXn{iohcmlanlnc IrXu_rlXv kwlnXmbmw
hmX N{Iw \ma k]vX hnwtimf ≤ymbx
{]Nfi [z\ntbmSpIqSn ]p∂mKw, AKpcp, ]mcnPmXw apXemb
]pjv]kpK‘w Ie¿∂ Im‰v ioXfhpw AacKW tkhnXhpambn
Cuim\ tImWn¬\n∂p hoiptºmƒ hkpaXn ]q¿tÆmZI buh\
bpw kº∂ kkymIpebpw [¿ΩnjvT N{Ih¿Ønamcm¬ ]menbv°
s∏´ h¿ÆßtfmSpIqSnbhfpambnØocp∂p.

381

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 28

ktZymhrjvSn e£Ww
1. h¿jm {]ivt\ kene \nebw iinam{inXy Nt{μm
eKv\w bmtXm `hXn bZnhm tI{μKmx ip¢]t£.
kussay ZrjvSx {]Npc apZIw ]m]ZrjvtSm hev]aw`x
{]mhrVvImte krPXn\ Nncm®{μhZv `m¿§thm ]n
h¿j{]iv\Øn¬, N{μ≥ PecminIfmb I¿°nSIw, Ipw`w,
ao\w, I\y, aIcw apXembhsb B{ibn®v eKv\Øntem tI{μØn
tem, kuay {Kl ZrjvS\mbncn°p∂ ip¢]£Øn¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw.
]m]ZrjvSs\¶n¬ Ipdt® ag In ´q; ]ns∂ Iptd ImetØ°v ag In´p
Ibpan√. ip{I\pw N{μ\p Xpeyamb ^eamWv XcnI.
2. B¿{Zw {Zhyw kv]riXnbZnhm hmcnXXv kw⁄Iwhm
tXmbmkt∂m `hXn bZnhm tXmb Im¿tøm∑ptJmhm
{]jvSm hmNyx keneaNncmZkvXn\nx kwitb\
]pOmImtekene anXnhm{iqbsXb{X i_vZx
{]iv\w tNmZn°m≥ h∂ hy‡n tNmZn°p∂ kabØv B¿{Z
hkvXp°ƒ kv]¿in°tbm Pekw⁄IambtXm Pew Xs∂tbm
sXms´m, AXn∂SptØm \n¬°tbm; {]iv\ thfbn¬ PehmNIamb
i_vZw tIƒ-°tbm sNbvXm¬ hfsc thKw agbp≠mhpsa∂v \n 
tμlw {]hNn°mw.
3. DZb inJcn kwtÿm Zp¿\ncot£ymf XnZo]vXym
{ZpX I\I\nImix kv\nKv[sshUqcyIm¥nx
XZl\n IpcptXf w`kvtXmbImte hnhkzm≥
{]X]XnbZnthmss®x Jw KtXm XohXo£vWw
ag°meØv kqcy`Khm≥ DZb inJcnkwÿ\mbn Zp¿ \nco£y
ambn AXnZo]vXambn Nps´SpØ kz¿Æw t]msetbm kv\nKv[ ssh
Uqcy Im¥ntbmSpIqSntbm ImWpIbpw, D®thfbn¬ BImiØn¬
AXnXo£vWambn X]nbv°pIbpw sNøp∂ ]£w [mcmfw ag
e`n°pw.
382

{]Imikn‘p

4. hnckapZIw tKmt\{Xm`w hnbZznaem ZntimehW
hnIrXnx ImImfim`w bZmN`th∂`x ]h\hnKax t]mπqbt¥Qjmx ÿeKmant\mck\akIr≥ afiqIm\mw PemKatlXhx
Pemibßfnse Pew cklo\ambncn°pI, ]iphns‚ IÆns‚
tim`tbmSpIqSnb BImiw, hnaeamb ZniIƒ°v D∏pckw, Im‰ns‚
Ka\w XS s∏SpI, a’y߃ ho≠pw ho≠pw PemibØn¬ s]m¥n
hcnI, XhfIƒ i_vZn°pI- Chsb√mw ag hcp∂p F∂Xns‚ e£
WßfmWv.
5. am¿÷mcm`riah\ow \ssJ¿enJt¥m
temlm\mw ae\nNbx khnkv{XK‘x
cYymbmw inip\nNnXmivNtkXp _‘mx
kw{]m]vXw PeaNncm∂nthZb¥n
`qanta¬ ]q®Iƒ \JwsIm≠v am¥pI, teml߃°v aeØns‚
tbm amwkØns‚tbm Zp¿§‘w tXm∂pI, hgnIfn¬ Ip´nIƒ AW
s°´psI´pI- Chbpw DSs\ ag s]øpsa∂Xns‚ e£WßfmWv.
6. Knctbmf RvP\]pRvP k∂n`mbZnh _mjv]\ncp≤ Iμcmx
IrIhmIphntemNt\m]amx
]cnthjmx iin\› hrjvSnZmx
]¿ΔX߃ ARvP\ ]pRvPßsf t]mse IdpØncn°pI, Ah
bpsS KplIfn¬ _mjv]w (\ocmhn) \ndbpI, N{μ\p Np‰pw tImgn
bpsS IÆns‚ \ndap≈ ]cnthjw ImWpI- Chbpw agbpsS e£W
ßfmWv.
7. hnt\m]LmtX\ ]n]oentI\matfim]kw {Im¥n clnhyhmbx
{Zpam[n tcml› `pPwKam\mw
hrjvtS¿∂nanØm\n Khmw πpXwN.
{]tXyIn®v D]{Zhe£Wsam∂pan√msXbpw DdpºpIƒ Xßfp
sS ap´Iƒ HcnSØp\n∂v as‰mcnStØ°v am‰pI, ]mºpIƒ hr£
s°mºn¬ Ibdn CW tNcpI, ]ip°-ƒ IcbpI- CXpw agbpsS e£
WamWv.
383

{]Imikn‘p

8. Xcp inJtcm]KXmx IrIemkm
KK\Xe ÿnX ZrjvSn\n]mXmx
bZnNKhmw chn¿ ho£Waq¿≤zw
\n]XXn hmcnXZm\ NntcW.
Hm¥pIƒ acßfn¬ Ibdnbncp∂p tatem´p t\m°pIbpw, ]ip
°ƒ apIfnte°v kqcys\ t\m°n\n¬°pIbpw sNbvXm¬ ASpØp
Xs∂ ag s]øpw.
9. t\O¥n hn\n¿§aw KrlmZvLp\z¥n
{ihWm≥ Jpcm\]n
]ihx ]iph› Ip°pcmbZyw`x
]XXoXn \n¿±ntiXv.
]ip°ƒ sXmgpØn¬ \n∂v ]pdØndßm≥ aSn°pI, Ipfºp
sIm≠p Npcam¥pI, tImgnIfpw ]ip°sft∏mse sNøpI- Ch ag
bpsS e£WamWv.
10. bZm ÿnXm Krl]Stejp
Ip°cm `h¥n hmbZn hnXXw Znthm∑pJmx
ZnhmXUnZyZnN]n\mInZnKv`hm
XZm£am`hXn kamXnhmcnWm.
]pc∏pdØp Ibdnbncp∂v tImgn BImiw t\m°pI, Cuim\
tImWn¬ XSn√XIƒ {]Imin°pI Ch ag hcp∂Xns‚ e£WamWv.
11. ipI It]mX hntemN\k∂nt`m
a[p\n`› bZmlnaZo [nXnx
{]Xn iinNbZmZnhncmPtX
]XXn hmcnXZm\ Nncm±nhx
N{μ≥ XØbptStbm {]mhnt‚tbm IÆn\p kZriamtbm, tX≥
\ndamtbm ImWs∏SpI, BImiØn¬ {]Xn iin (N{μs‚ {]Xn_nw_
amb c≠masXmcp N{μ cq]w) ImWpI F∂nhbpw ag hcp∂Xns‚
e£WamWv.
12. kvX\nXw \ninhnZyptXm Znhm
cp[nc \n`mbZn ZfihXv ÿnXmx
384

{]Imikn‘p

]h\x ]pcX› ioXtembZn
keneky XZmKtam `thXv.
cm{Xnbn¬ CSnsht´msSm∏w, c‡\ndØntem ZfimIrXnbntem
sshZypXn ImWpI, XWpØ Im‰v ap∂n¬ hoipI- Ch agbpsS e£
WßfmWv.
13. h√o\mw KK\Xtem∑pJmx {]hmemx
kv\mbt¥ bZn Pe]mwkp`n¿ hnlwKmx
tkht¥ bZnNkcnkr]m kvXrWmt{KmWymkt∂m`hXn XZm Peky]mXx
h≈nIƒ BImtim∑pJßfmb ]pXnb XfncpIfWnbpI, ]£n
Iƒ PeØntem s]mSnbntem Ipfn°pI, kcnky]mZn IoS߃ XrWm
{Kßfn¬ Ccnbv°pI- Chbpw agbpsS e£WßfmWv.
14. abqcipI NmjNmXIkam\h¿Æm
bZmP]mIpkpa ]¶PZypXn apjivNk‘ym[\mx
Ptem¿Ωn\K\{IIO]hcml aot\m]amx
{]`qX]pSk©bm\Xp NntcW bO¥y]x
k‘ymImeßfn¬ taL߃ abn¬, XØ, \oeIWvTw, NmXIw,
F∂nhbpsS h¿Æ߃ [cnt®m, sNºcØn Xmac F∂nhbpsS tim`
tbmSpIqSntbm \nc°pIbpw, Pemibßfnse XncIƒ ]¿ΔXw, apXe,
Ba, ]∂n, a’yw F∂nhbpsS cq]saSpØv DbcpIbpw sNbvXm¬ ag
bp≠mIpw.
15. ]cyt¥jpkp[miim¶[hem at≤yf RvP\menXznjx
kv\nKv≤m ss\I]pSmx £c÷eIWmx tkm]m\hntOZn\x
amtl{μo {]`hmx {]bm¥y]cXx
{]mIv Nmw_p ]mtimZv`hmtbtX hmcnapNkvXy
P¥n\NncmZw_x {]`qXw `qhn.
\mephihpw kp[miim¶ [hfambpw a≤y`mKw am{Xw h≠n≥
]pdwt]mse ARvP\\ndambpw, kv\nKv≤ambn, PeIWhmlnbmbn,
tkm]m\w t]mse H∂n\papIfn¬ H∂mbn ASp°Sp°mbn amtl{μ
]¿ΔXØn¬ \n∂p ]pds∏´v ]Sn™m´v k©cn°p∂ taLßsf
I≠m¬ [mcmfw ag e`n°psa∂dnbpI.
385

{]Imikn‘p

16. i{I Nm] ]cnL{]Xnkqcym
tcmlntXmf YXUnXx ]cnthjmx
DZvKamkvX katbbZn`mt\mcmZntiXv ]cvNpc aw_pX Zmip
kqcys‚ DZbmkvXab thfIfn¬ aghn√v, ]cnLw, {]Xnkqcy≥,
tcmlnXh¿Æw XSn√X, ]cnthjw F∂nh I≠m¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw.
17. bZn XnØnc ]{X\n`wKK\w apZnXmx
{]hZ¥n N ]£nKWmx
DZbmkvXatb khnXp¿≤yp\niw
hnkrP¥n [\m \ NntcW Pew.
kqcys‚ DZbmkvXabßfn¬ BImiw ssXØncn∏£nbpsS Nnd
Ins‚ tim` hln°pIbpw, ]£nIƒ B\μ]q¿Δw i_vZn°bpw sN
bvXm¬ [mcmfw ag In´pw.
18. bZytamL IncWmx kl{ktKckvX`q[cIcm Cthm{OnXmx
`qkaw NcktXbZmw_pZkvX\valZv `hXn hrjvSn e£Ww.
kl{kmwiphmb kqcy≥ AkvXan°th, AtamL IncWßtfm
SpIqSnb AkvXa\Zn°n¬ `qantbmSv hfsc ASpØv i_vZap≠m°n
s°m≠v taLKW߃ Db¿∂m¬ \√ ag In´pw.
19. {]mhrjn ioXItcm `rKp]p{XmXv
k]vXacminKXx ip`ZrjvSx
kqcykpXm∂h]©atKm hm
k]vXaKO PemKa\mb.
h¿j°meØv N{μ≥ ip{Is‚ Ggn¬ ip`ZrjvS\mbpw i\nbpsS
HºXv, A©v, Ggv `mhßfnsem∂n¬ ip`ZrjvS\mbpw \n¬°ptºm
gmWv PemKaw (ag) hcnI.
20. {]mtbm {KlmWm apZbmkvXImte
kamKta afiekw{ItaN
]££tb Xo£vWmIcmb\mt¥
hrjvSn¿KtXf ¿°w \nbta\ Nm¿{Zmw.
386

{]Imikn‘p

{KlßfpsS DZbmkvXabIme߃, afie kw{IaW Imew,
kamKaw, ]££bw, Ab\m¥w, kqcys‚ B¿{Z {]thiw Chsbm
s° \nbam\pkmcw hrjvSn kw`hn°p∂ ImeßfmWv.
21. kamKta ]XXn Pew⁄ ip{Itbm¿⁄Pohtbm¿ KpcpknXtbm› kwKta.
bamctbmx ]h\ lpXmiPw
`bw\ ZrjvStbm cklnXtbm›kZv{Ksslx
_p[ip{I∑mcpsS kamKaw, _p[ _rlkv]Xn kamKaw, ip{I
_rlkv]Xn kwKaw- Chbn¬ Pew h¿jn°pw. ip`{KlZrjvSntbm
kwtbmKtam IqSmsX i\nbpw sNmΔbpw ktΩfn®m¬ Im‰ns\s°m
≠pw AKv\nsbs°m≠pw hepXmb `bap≠mhpw.
22. A{KXx ]rjvTtXmhm]n
{Klmxkqcymhew_n\x
bZmXZm {]Ip¿Δ¥n
alotaIm¿Æhm anh.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlXvkwlnXmbmw
ktZymhrjvSn e£Ww \mamjvSmhnwtimf [ymbx
kqcys‚ Ahew_\w (parallalax) sIm≠v {Kl߃ kqcys‚
ap∂ntem ]n∂ntem ImWs∏´m¬ Ah `qansb Hcp kap{Zw t]mse
Pe ]q¿Æbm°nØo¿°p∂p.

387

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 29

IpkpaeX
1. ^eIpkpa kw{]hr≤nw h\kv]Xo\mw
hntemIy hnt⁄bw kpe`Xzw
{ZhymWmw \njv]Øn ›zm]n kkym\mw.
h\kv]XnIfpsS ^eßfpw ]pjv]ßfpw [mcmfapt≠m F∂p
t\m°nbm¬ {ZhyßfpsS kpe`Xzhpw \njv]Ønbpw {Kln°mw.
2. imte\ Iae imeoc‡mtimtI\ c‡imenivN
]mfiqIx £ocnIbm\oemtimtI\kqIcbx
3. \y t{Kmt[\ Xp bhIkvXnμp I hr≤ym
N jjvSn tIm `hXn Aizt∞\
t⁄bm\njv]Ønx k¿Δkkym\mw.
ime]pjv]Øm¬ IaeimenbptSbpw c‡mtimIØm¬ c‡
imenbptSbpw £ocnIsIm≠v ]mfiqIØns‚bpw \oemtimIw
sIm≠v kqIcIØnt‚bpw A`nhr≤n {]hNn°mw. \yt{Km[w sIm≠v
bhIØnt‚bpw XnμpIw sIm≠v jjvSnI[m\yßfptSbpw hr≤n {Kln
°mw. Aiz∞Øns‚ A`nhr≤n sIm≠v k¿Δ kkyßfpsSbpw A`n
hr≤n {]hNn°mw.
4. Pw_q`nkvXneamjmx incoj
hr≤ym N IwKp\njv]Ønx
tKm[qamivN a[qssI¿øh
hr≤nx k]vX]¿tÆ\.
Pw_phr£Øm¬ Xnew, amjw F∂nhbptSbpw incojw sIm≠v
IwKphns‚bpw k]vX ]¿Æw sIm≠v tKmXºv, a[qIw F∂nhbptSbpw
A`nhr≤n A\pam\n°mw.
5. AXnap‡IIpμm›ymw I¿∏mkw k¿j]m\ztZZiss\x
_Zco`n› Ipe∞mw ›nc_ntez\mZnti≥ apZvKm≥
388

{]Imikn‘p

AXnap‡Iw, Ipμw ChbpsS A`nhr≤n t\m°n ]cpØn, ISpIv,
Ai\ F∂nhbptSbpw _ZcnbpsS hr≤n t\m°n Ipe∞w, _nezw,
apZvKw F∂nhbptSbpw hr≤n ]dbmw.
6. AXkothXk ]qjvss]x]emiIpkpssa›
tIm{Zhm t⁄bmx XnetI\ iwJsau‡nI
cPXm\yY tNwKptZ\iWx
thXk ]pjv]Øm¬ AXknbptSbpw ]emi ]pjv]Øm¬ tIm
{ZhØnt‚bpw, XneØm¬ iwJw, apØv, sh≈n ChbptSbpw CwKpZ
Øm¬ NWbptSbpw hr≤n Adnbmw.
7. IcnW›lkvXn I¿sÆ cmtZiym hmPn t\mf iz I¿ssÆ\
Kmh› ]mSem`nx IZeo`ncPmhnIw `hXn
lkvXnI¿ÆØm¬ B\IfptSbpw AizI¿ÆØm¬ IpXncIfp
tSbpw ]mSeØm¬ ]ip°fptSbpw IZfnbm¬ APßfptSbpw hr≤n
]dbmw.
8. NºIIpkpssax I\Iw hn{Zpakº®_‘pPoth\IpcphI hr≤ym h{Pw sshUqcyw \μnImh¿ssØx
NºI∏qhm¬ kz¿ÆØns‚bpw IpcphIØm¬ h{PØns‚bpw
\μnImh¿ØØm¬ sshUqcyØns‚bpw hr≤n ]dbmw.
9. hnZym® kn‘phmtcW au‡nIw Ip¶paw Ipkpw`u
ct‡mXv]te\ cmPm a{¥o \otemev]tet\m‡x
kn‘phmcØm¬ apØnt‚bpw Ipkpw`Øm¬ Ip¶paØnt‚bpw
ct‡mev]eØm¬ cmPmhnt‚bpw \otemev]eØm¬ a{¥nbptSbpw
hr≤n ]dbmw.
10. t{ijvTokph¿Æ ]pjvss]x ]Zvssa¿Δn{]mx
]ptcmlnXmx IpapssZx kuK‘ntI\
_e]Xnc¿t°W lncWy ]cnhr≤nx
kph¿Æ ]pjv]Øm¬ hWnIƒ°pw, Xmacbm¬ {_mlvaW¿
°pw, Bºem¬ ]ptcmlnX¿°pw, kpK‘ {ZhyØm¬ tk\m[n
]¿°pw, A¿° ]pjv]Øm¬ kz¿ÆØn\pw A`nhr≤n ]dbmw.
389

{]Imikn‘p

11. Bss{ax t£aw `√mXssI¿`bw ]oep`nkvXYmtcmKyw
JZnc iaoiymw Zp¿`n£ a¿÷pss\x tim`\mhrjvSnx
amhpsIm≠p t£ahpw `√mXIw (]nemhv) sIm≠p `bhpw ]oep
sIm≠v BtcmKyhpw JZncw, ian ChIfm¬ Zp¿`n£hpw A¿÷p\
Øm¬ tim`\amb hrjvSnbpw ]dbmw.
12. ]nNp aμ\mKIpkpssax kp`n£aYamcpXx I]nt∞
\m\nNqte\mhrjvSn `bw hym[n`bw `hXn IpStP\.
th∏pw \mK]pjv]hpw sIm≠v kp`n£w; I]n∞w sIm≠v Im‰v,
\nNqeØm¬ A\mhrjvSn `bw IpSPØm¬ hym[n`bw.
13. Zq¿ΔmIpi Ipkpamiyman£p¿ hlv\nivN tImhnZmtcW
iymameXm`nhr≤ym _‘tIym hr≤nambm¥n.
Zq¿Δ, Ipiw F∂nhbm¬ Icnºv; tImhnZmcØm¬ AKv\n; iymam
eXbm¬ _‘In F∂nhbv°v A`nhr≤n (_‘In F∂Xn\v hy`nNm
cnWn F∂v A¿∞ap≠v).
14. bkvan≥ tZti kv\nKv[ \nivNn{Z]{Xmx
kwZriyt¥ hr£Kpevam eXmivN
Xkvan≥ hrjvSnx tim`\m kw{]ZnjvTm
cqss£ivNn ss{Zcev] aw_x {]ZnjvTmw.
CXn {iohcml anlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw IpkpaeXm≤ymb GtIm\{Xnw timf ≤ymbx
GXp tZiØmtWm hr£ kkyeXmZnIƒ kv\nKv[ambpw On{Z
an√mØXpamb CeItfmsS ImWs∏Sp∂Xv AhnsS ip`amb hrjvSn
e`n°pw. cq£ambpw On{Zambpw D≈ sNdnb CeIfp≈ tZißfn¬
ag Ipdth e`n°pIbp≈q.

390

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 30

k‘ym e£Ww
1. A¿≤mkvXanXm \pZnXmXv
kqcymZkv]jvSw \t`m bmhXv
XmhXv k‘ymImeivNnlvss\tcssXx ^ew Nmkvan≥.
{]XnZn\w kqcymkvXabw apX¬ \£{X߃ BImiØn¬
sXfnbp∂Xphscbp≈ kabhpw, \£{X߃ AkvXan®v kqtcymZbw
hscbp≈ kabhpamWv k‘ymImew.
2. arKiIp\ ]h\ ]cnthj ]cn[n ]cnLm{` hr£ kpcNmss]x
K‘¿Δ \Kc chnIc ZficPx kvt\lh¿ssÆ›m.
arK߃, ]£nIƒ, Im‰v, ]cnthjw, ]cn[n ]cnL, taLw, hr£w,
aghn√v, K‘¿Δ\Kcw, kqcyIncWw, Zfiw, s]mSn, kvt\lw, h¿Æw,
F∂nhsIm≠v k‘ym^ew ]dbWw.
3. ss`ch apss®¿Δncph≥ artKmf kIrZv
{KmaLmX amNjvtS.
chn Zo]vtXm Z£nWtXm almkz\x ssk\yLmXIcx
`b¶c i_vZpap≠m°p∂ arK߃ {KmaØn\v \miw kw`hn°p
sa∂ kqN\ Xcp∂p. ssk\yØns‚ sX°p`mKØp \n¬°p∂ arK
߃ AkvXab kqcys\ t\m°n henb H® ]pds∏Sphn®m¬ ssk\y
Øn\ \miw kw`hn°pw.
4. A]kthy kw{Kmax kthy tk\m kamKax imt¥
arKNt{I ]ht\ hmk‘ymbmw an{it` hrjvSnx
ZnibpsS A]khyambn (Z£nW`mKØv) arK߃ im¥ambm¬
bp≤hpw khyambn (hma`mKØv) im¥ambm¬ kamKahpw \S°pw. arK
ßfpsS i_vZhpw Im‰pw kΩn{iambn k‘y°p tI´m¬ agbp≠mhpw.
5. Zo]vX arKmfiP hncpXm {]mIv
k‘ym tZi\mi amJymXn
391

{]Imikn‘p

Z£nW ZnIv kvssY¿ ΔncpXm
{KlWmb ]pcky Zo]vXmsskyx
{]mXxk‘ybv°v Ing°p`mKØv kqcys\ t\m°n arKßfpw
]£nIfpw i_vZn®m¬ k‘ymtZiØns‚ (]q¿Δ tZiØns‚) \miw
]dbmw. Z£nWZn°n¬ \n∂mWv kqcym`napJambn i_vZn®sX¶n¬
\KcsØ i{Xp°ƒ IogS°pw.
6. KrlXcp tXmcW aYt\
k]mwkptemjvtSmXv°tcf \nte {]_te
ss`chcmth cqt£JK]mXn\n Nmip`mk‘ymhoSv, hr£w, tXmcWw Chsb aYn°p∂Xpw s]mSntbmSpIqSn
I√pw IqSn Db¿Øp∂Xpamb i‡amb Im‰v, `b¶c i_vZtØmSp
IqSn AXncq£ambn ]£nIƒ ]Xnbv°¬ F∂nh Aip` k‘y
Ifn¬ kw`hn°p∂p.
7. aμ ]h\mh L´nX NenX ]emi {Zpamhn]h\mhm
a[pckzc im¥hnlwK arKcpXm ]qPnXmk‘ym.
aμ]h\\m¬ ]Xps° Nenbv°p∂ ]emi hr£ßtfmSp IqSn
tbm, Im‰n√msX a[pc kzcapb¿Øp∂tXm im¥tam Bb ]£nItfm
Spw arKßtfmSpw IqSnbtXm Bb kp]qPnXbmb k‘y ip`w Xcp∂p.
8. k‘ymImte kv\nKv≤m ZfiXSn\va’y ]cn[n ]cnthjx
kpc]XnNm ssNcmhX chnIncWmivNmip hrjvSn Icmx
k‘y°v Zfiw, XSn√X, a’yw, ]cn[n, ]cnthjw, C{μ [\p v,
sFcmhXw, kqcyIncWw F∂nh kv\nKv≤ambncp∂m¬ ag e`n°pw.
9. hnOn∂ hnja hn≤zkvX hnIrXIpSnem]khy]cnhrXmx
X\p{lkzhnIeIepjm› hn{KlmhrjvSnZm: IncWmx
kqcyIncW߃ hnOn∂hpw hnjahpw hn≤zkvXhpw hnIrXhpw
IpSnehpw, A]khyhpw, ]cnhrXhpambpw, AhbpsS BImcw {lkz
hpw hnIehpw Iepjhpambpw I≠m¬ hrjvSn D≠mIpIbn√; bp≤w
D≠mIpw.
10. DtZymXn\x {]k∂mEPthmZo¿Lmx {]Z£nWmh¿Ømx
IncWm inhmb PKtXm hnXakvt°\`kn `m\paXx
392

{]Imikn‘p

{]IminXhpw {]k∂hpw EPphpw Zo¿Lhpw {]Z£nWmh¿Øhp
amb kqcyIncW߃ XtamclnXamb BImiØn¬ ImWp∂Xv PK
Øn\v awKfIcamWv.
11. ip¢mx Icm Zn\IrtXm ZnhmZn a≤ym¥Kman\x kv\nKv≤mx
AhypOn∂m EPthm hrjvSnIcmkvtXlytamLmJymx
kqcys‚ shfpØp kv\nKv≤amb IncW߃ Zn\Øns‚ BZn
a≤ym¥ßfnte°v AhnOn∂hpw EPphpambn Kan®m¬ ag e`n°pw.
AXn\v “AtamLw” F∂p ]dbpw.
12. I\vamj_{`qI ]nem hnNn{X
amRvPnjvT lmcoX i_em`mx
{Xn Znhm\p_‘nt\m hrjvStbfev] `b ZmkvXp k]vXmlmXv.
Idp∏v, a™, I]new, hnNn{X h¿Æw, Nph∏v, ]® apXembn h¿Æ
i_fambn BImiw ImWp∂Xv agbp≠mIpsa∂Xns‚ kqN\bmWv.
F∂m¬ Cßs\ I≠m¬ HcmgvN°metØbv°v kq£n°Ww. GsX
¶nepw `bZmbIambXv kw`hnbv°mw.
13. Xm{am _e]XnarXypw ]oXmcpWm k∂n`m›
XZvhyk\w lmcoXm: ]ip kkyh[w
[qakh¿Æm Kmhmw \miw.
Xm{a h¿Æsa¶n¬ tk\m]XnbpsS acWw; a™tbm Npht∏m
F¶n¬ tk\m]Xnbv°v hyk\w kw`hn°pw. lmcoX (]®) h¿Æsa
¶n¬ tKmh[hpw kkyh[hpw (Irjn\miw); [qah¿Æsa¶n¬ ]ip
°ƒ°p \miw.
14. amRvPnjvTm`mx ikv{XmKv\nkw{`aw _{`hx ]h\hrjvSnw
`kva kZrim kvXzhrjvSnw X\p`mhw i_eI\vajmx
a©mSn°pcp \ndsa¶n¬ Bbp[ `bhpw AKv\n`bhpw; a™sb
¶n¬ Im‰pw agbpw, `kva h¿Æsa¶n¬ AhrjvSn, i_etam Idpt∏m
F¶n¬ Aev] hrjvSn.
15. _‘qI]pjv]mRvP\ Nq¿Æmk∂n`w km‘yw
ctPmf tiyXn bZm ZnhmIcw temIkvXZm
393

{]Imikn‘p

tcmKiss\\n]oVbtX ip¢w
ctPm temI hnhr≤n im¥tb.
_‘qI ]pjv]Ønt‚tbm ARvP\s∏mSnbpsStbm \ndØn¬
k‘yt\cØv s]mSn Db¿∂v kqcys\ ad®m¬ At\Iw tcmK߃
D≠mIpw. s]mSn shfpØXmsW¶n¬ temIØn\v A`nhr≤nbpw im¥n
bpw e`n°pw.
16. chnIncW PeZacpXmwkwLmtXm ZfihXv ÿntXmZfix
k hnZnIv ÿntXm\r]mWm aipt`mZn£p ZznPmXo\mw.
kqcyIncWhpw PeIWhpw Im‰pw tN¿∂ kwLmXw Hcp Zfi
cq]Øn¬ ImWs∏´m¬ AhnsS Zfiw kw`hn°pw. AXv hnZn°pIfn¬
I≠m¬ cmPm°∑mcpw Zn°pIfn¬ I≠m¬ ZznPmXnIƒ°pw (cmPm
°ƒ, {_mlvaW¿) Aip`amWv (Anvil BWv Zfiw).
17. ikv{X`bmX¶Itcm ZrjvSx {]mMva≤yk‘njpZn\ky
ip¢mtZym hn{]mZo≥ bZ`napJkvXmw\nl¥n Zniw.
Zn\mcw`Øntem a≤ylv\ k‘ybntem Zfiw I≠m¬ ikv{X
`bhpw tcmKhpw D≠mhpw. ip¢h¿Æsa¶n¬ hn{]∑m¿°v Aip`amWv.
GXpZn°ns\ A`napJoIcn°p∂pthm B Zn°nep≈h¿°mWv ^ew.
18. Z[nkZrimt{Km \otem `m\pOmZn Ja≤y tKmf {`Xcpx
]oX›pcnXmiz L\mL\aqem `qcnhrjvSnIcmx
BImiØn¬ kqcys\ ad®psIm≠v, A{K`mKw ssXcpt]msebn
cn°p∂ \oetaLsØ A{`Xcp F∂p ]dbpw. C{]Imcap≈ taLtam,
CtX a´n¬ a™\ndap≈ taLtam L\aqeambn (H∂ns‚ Nph´n¬
H∂mbn apJw tN¿Øp sh®v ASp°Sp°mbn) I≠m¬ [mcmfw ag
In´pw (Cumulo nimbus F∂mWv A{`Xcphns\ Ct∏mƒ imkv{X⁄¿
hnfn°p∂Xv).
19. A\ptematKmf {` hrt£ kapZvKtX
bmbnt\m \r]kyh[x _meXcp {]Xn
cq]nWo bphcmPm amXy tbm≥ arXypx
i{Xp°sf h[n°m≥ Hcpßnb cmPmhns‚ ]n∂mse A{`Xcp
A\pKan®p sN∂v ]Xps° im¥ambm¬ (hr£w sNdpXmbm¬) bph
cmPmhnt\m a{¥nt°m arXyp kw`hn°pw.
394

{]Imikn‘p

20. Ipheb sshUqcymw_pPInRvP¬°m`m
{]`RvtPt\m\Map‡m k‘ym ItcmXn
hrjvSnw chnInctWmZv`mknXmkZyx
Xmac, sshUqcyw, ]fltIkcw F∂nhbpsS tim`tbmsS, Im‰n
√mØ k‘y kqcy IncWßfm¬ {]IminXambn°≠m¬ ag e`n
bv°pw.
21. Aip`mIrXn L\K‘¿Δ \Kc \olmc ]mwkp[qabpX
{]mhrjn ItcmXyh{Kla\y¿Øuikv{X tIm]Icn.
Aip`mIrXnbp≈ taLw, K‘¿Δ\Kcw, lnaw, [qfn, [qaw (Ipl
cw) F∂nhtbmSpIqSnb k‘y h¿jØphn¬ I≠m¬ h¿jw Ipdbpw,
ikv{X tIm]w D≠mhpw.
22. inincmZnjph¿Æmx timW]oX
knX Nn{X ]fl cp[nc\n`mx
{]IrXn `hmx k‘ymbmw kz¿Øu
ikvXm hnIrXnc\ymx
inincw apXemb EXp°fn¬ Nph∏v, a™, sh≈ hnNn{Xw, ]flw,
c‡w apXemb h¿Æ߃ AXmXp k‘ym{]IrXnbv°v A\pkrX
ambn I≠m¬ ip`amWv. {]IrXym\pkrXa√msX h¿Æ߃ I≠m¬
Aip`hpw.
23. Bbp[ `r∂ccq]w On∂m{`w ]c`bmbchnKman
knXkz]ptcf ¿°m{Imt¥ ]pcemt`mt`Zt\\mix
Bbp[ [mcnbmb Hcp a\pjys‚ cq]Øn¬ On∂`n∂amb tLw
kqcys\ ad®m¬ i{Xp`bw. shfpØ BImiØn¬ K‘¿Δ\Kcw
kqcys\ t`Zn°p∂Xp I≠m¬ B{IaWImcnbmb cmPmhn\pw, kqcy
afiew K‘¿Δ \KcsØ t`Zn°p∂Xp I≠m¬ \KcØn\pw \miw
`hn°pw.
24. knX \nXm¥ L\mhcWw
cth¿ `hXn hrjvSnIcw bZn khyXx
bZnN hocWKpeva\nss`¿[ss\¿±nhk`¿ØrcZo]vX ZnKpZv`sshx
395

{]Imikn‘p

shfpØtXm, shfpØ Icbp≈tXm Bb taLmhcWØm¬
kqcy≥ adbv°s∏´mepw, Z¿`∏p√p t]msetbm Kp¬aw (K¿`N¿Ωw)
t]msetbm D≈ Zo]vXamb ZniIfn¬ D¬`qXamb taLØn¬ kqcy≥
aqSs∏´mtem ag In´pw.
25. \r] hn]ØnIcx ]cnLx knXx
£XP Xpeyh]p¿∫etIm]IrXv
I\Icq][tcm _ehr≤nZx
khnXpcpZvKa Ime kap∞nXx
kqtcymZbØn¬ shfpØ ]cnLw I≠m¬ cmPmhn\v B]
ØmWv. c‡h¿Æsa¶n¬ ssk\yßsf tIm]m‘cm°pw. I\I
h¿Æsa¶n¬ ssk\y߃°v A`nhr≤nbp≠mhpw.
26. D`b]m¿izKXu]cn[octhx
{]Npc tXmb `rXuh]pjm\znXu
AYkvakvX IIp∏cnhmcnWx
]cnLtbmf kvXn ItWmf ]n\hmcnWx
kqcys‚ Ccp]m¿izßfnepw ]cn[n I≠mtem, kqcy icocØn
s‚ cq]w I≠mtem [mcmfw ag In´pw. ]cn[n kakvX ZniIfnepw
hym]n®p I≠m¬ Hcp Xp≈n agt]mepw In´n√.
27. [zPmX ]{X ]¿ΔX Zzn]m¿izcq][mcnWx
Pbmb k‘y tbm¿L\mcWmbc‡k∂n`mx
k‘ymtaLw [zPw, O{Xw, ]¿ΔXw, B\, IpXnc F∂nhbpsS
cq]Øn¬ I≠m¬ hnPbap≠mhpw. Nph∂p I≠m¬ B hnPbw bp≤
ØneqsSbmhpw.
28. ]eme [qak©bÿntXm]am_emlImx
_em\ycq£aq¿Øtbm hnh¿≤b¥n`q`rXmw.
]eme[qa k©btØmSp]an°mhp∂ henb sh≈ taL߃
cmPm°∑mcpsS _esØ h¿≤n∏n°p∂p.
29. hnew_nt\m{Zptam]amx kzcmcpW{]Imin\x
L\mx inhmb k‘ytbmx ]ptcm]amx ip`mhlmx
396

{]Imikn‘p

Xo£vW kqcy {]ImitØmSp IqSn hrt£m]aßfmbnt´m, \K
tcm]aßfmbnt´m k‘ym ImeØv taL߃ ImWp∂Xv awKfIc
amWv.
30-. Zo]vX hnlwK inhm arKLpjvSm
ZficPx ]cnLmZnbpXm hm
{]Xyl a¿°hnImcbpXmhm
tZi\tci kp`n£ h[mb.
Znhkhpw kqcys\ hnImchm\m°p∂Xpw, Zo]vXhpw, ]£narKmZn
Iƒ Ieº¬ Iq´p∂Xpw, Zfiw, cP v, ]cnL Ch ImWs∏Sp∂Xp
amb k‘yItfmSpIqSnbp≈ {]tZißfn¬ cmPm°∑m¿°pw kp`n£
Øn\pw \miw kw`hn°pw.
31. {]mNn XXv£Wtah\‡a]cm k‘ym {XylmZzm ^ew
k]vXmlmXv ]cnthj tcWp ]cnLmx
Ip¿Δ¥n ktZym\ tNXv
XZzXv kqcyItc{μ Im¿ΩpIXSnXv{]Xy¿° taLm\nem kvXkvan≥ Gh Znt\f jv{Staf Y
hnlKmx k]vXml ]mIm arKmx
]q¿Δk‘y XXv£Ww Xs∂ (At∏mƒ Xs∂) ^eap≠m°pw.
cm{Xnbpw kmbwk‘ybpw aq∂p Znhk߃°p tijhpw, ]cnLhpw
cP pw ]cnthjhpw B Znhkw Xs∂bpw, B Znhkw XcmØ ]£w
Hcp hmcØn\p≈nepw ^ew Xcpw, kqcy IncWw, aghn√v, an∂¬,
{]Xnkqcy≥, taLw, hmbp F∂nh F´p ZnhkØn\Ihpw ]£n arKm
ZnIƒ Ggp ZnhkØn\Ihpw ^ew \¬Ipw.
32. GIw Zo]vXym tbmP\w `mXn k‘ym
hnZypXv`mkmjSv {]ImioItcmXn
]©m_vZm\mw K¿÷nXw bmXni_vtZm
\mkvXobØm ImNnZp¬°m\n]mtX.
k‘y Xs‚ Zo]vXnsb Hcp tbmP\ Zqchpw sshZypXn Bdp tbm
P\ Zqchpw {]Imin∏n°pw. CSnbpsS apg°w A©p tbmP\ Zqcw k©
cnbv°pw. D¬° hogp∂Xn\v C{]Imcap≈ ]cnamWßfn√ (FhnsSbpw
hogmw).
397

{]Imikn‘p

33. {]Xy¿°kw⁄mx ]cn[nkvXp Xky
{XntbmP\m`m ]cn[ky ]©.
jSv]©Zriyw ]cnthj N{Iw
Zimatciky [\p¿Δn`mXn.
CXn {iohcml anlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw k‘yme£Ww \ma {Xnwtimf ≤ymbx

398

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 31

ZnKvZml e£Ww
1. Zmtlm Znimw cmP`bmb ]otXm
tZiky \mimb lpXmih¿Æx
bizmcpWx kymZ]khyhmbpx
kkyky\miw ItcmXn ZrjvSx
a™\ndØnep≈ ZnIvZmlw cmP`bØn\pw AKv\nh¿Æap≈Xv
tZi\miØn\pw ImcWambnØocp∂p. AcpWh¿ÆØnep≈ ZnIv
ZmltØmsSm∏w A]khyambn (Z£nWambn- s
- X°≥Im‰v) Im‰v hoin
bm¬ kky\miw ^ew.
2. tbmf Xoh Zo]vXym IpcptX {]Imiw
Ombm a]n hyRvPbtXf ¿° h¿≤yx
cmt⁄m altZzZbtX `bw k
ikv{X {]tIm]w £X Pm\pcq]x
GsXmcp ZnIv Zmlw AXoh Zo]vXamtWm, GsXm∂v kqcy kam\
amb Ombsb (A¥¿§X tPymXnsb) {]Imin∏n°p∂pthm B c‡
cq]amb Zmlw cmPm°∑m¿°v alØmb `bhpw ikv{XtIm]hpw
(bp≤w) hcpØp∂p.
3. {]Iv £{XnbmWmw k\tcizcmWmw
{]mKvZ£ntW inev]n Ipamc ]oVm
bmtay ktlm ss{Kx ]pcptjkvXp sshiym
ZqXmx ]p\¿ `q{]aZmivNtImtW.
]q¿Δ Znibnse ZnIvZmlw cmPm°∑m¿°pw £{Xnb¿°pw sX°p
Ing°v `mKØv (AKv\n tIm¨) inev]nIƒ°pw cmPIpamc∑m¿°pw
Z£nW `mKsØ Zmlw. D{K]pcpj∑m¿, sshiy∑m¿, ZqX∑m¿, ]p\¿
hnhmlw Ign® {]aZIƒ F∂nh¿°pw ]oV hcpØpw.
4. ]ivNmØp ip{Zmx Irjn Pohn\ivN
NucmkvXp cwssKx klhmbpZnIv kvtY
399

{]Imikn‘p

]oVmw {hP¥ypØcXivN hn{]mx
]mjfint\m hmWnP ImivNx im¿Δymw.
]ivNnaZn°nteXv iq{Z¿°pw, I¿jI¿°pw, hmbp tImWnteXv
IpXnc∏pdØphcp∂ sIm≈°m¿°pw, DØc ZnibnteXv hn{]∑m¿°pw
Cuim\ tImWnteXv ]mjfinIƒ°pw hWn°pIƒ°pw ]oV D≠m
°pw.
5. \`x {]k∂w hnaem\n `m\n
{]Z£nWw hmXn kZmKXnivN
ZnimwN Zmlx I\ImhZmtXm
lnXmb temIky k]m¿∞n]ky.
CXn {iohcml anlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
ZnKvZmle£Ww \mssaI{Xnw timf ≤ymbx
{]k∂amb BImiØn¬, \£{X߃ hnaeambncns°, kZm
KXnbmb Im‰v {]Z£nWw sNbvIbpw kph¿Æ h¿ÆØn¬ ZnIvZmlw
ImWpIbpw sNbvXm¬ cmPm°∑m¿°pw k¿ΔtemI¿°pw lnXIc
amWv; ip`amWv.

400

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 32

`qanIº e£Ww
1. £nXn Iº amlptctI
_rlZ¥¿ ÷e \nhmknkXzIrXw
`q`mckzn∂ Zn§Phn{imakapZv`hw Nmt\y.
Hcp XcØnep≈ `qIºw _rlØmb A¥¿÷eØn¬ \nhkn
°p∂ kXzßfm¬ D≠m°s∏Sp∂p. as‰mcpXcw, `q`mcØm¬ Xf¿∂
Zn§PßfpsS hn{imaw sIm≠v D≠mhp∂p.
B[p\nI imkv{X⁄¿°dnbmw `qIºßfn¬ `qcn`mKhpw ISen
∂SnbnemWv kw`hn°p∂sX∂v. `qIºw Hcp hn[Ønep≈ Du¿÷
Dev]mZ\ hnIncW {]{InbbmsW∂pw. im¥kap{ZØnse PeØn¬
Atacn°m Xocßfnepw, Gjy apX¬ \yqknem‚p hscbpap≈ “]kn
^nIv” s_¬´v `qIºßfpsS taJebmWv. hcmlanlncs‚ “_rl
Z¥¿÷e \nhmknkXz”IrXamb `qIºw CXmhWw.
F∂m¬ `q`mcw sIm≠v kzo∂amb Zn§PßfpsS hn{iaw Hcp
sI´pIYbs√? F´v Zn§Pßfm¬ Xmßn \n¿Øs∏´, HºXmbn hn`Pn
°s∏´ “Ba”bpsS k¶ev]Ønse s\√pw ]Xncpw \ap°nhnsS th¿
Xncnbv°mw. CØcsamcmatbbpw B\Itfbpw k¶ev]n®Xnse bp‡n
tbbpw bp‡n iq\yXtbbpw hnthN\w sNøpw apºv dpUndp°¿ F∂
KWnX⁄bpsS A`n{]mbw t\m°mw.
“A number of duoverses drift about in a 5 -d- universes..... continue
indefinitely... one is reminded of those eastern descriptions of the world as
a dish resting on the back of elephants who stands up on a turtle, who
stands up on a turtle...”

Btμme\w sNøpIbpw Hcp \nivNnX Imebfhn¬ FØnbnSØp
Xs∂ FØn ]pXnsbmcp {`aWamcw`n°bpw sNøp∂ “Torroidal spacetime” B[p\nI imkv{X⁄∑m¿ k¶ev]n°p∂p. ae¿Ønbn´ Hcp
BatØmSv Hcp Torroid (sIm´) BWv.
401

{]Imikn‘p

AjvSZe]flw
(8 ZnKvPym°ƒ)
Torus

Iq¿Ωw (Ba)
Xmac\mfw
Cylinder

Dcpfp∂ hrØw AYhm tKmfw (`qan) slenIvkv Bbn IcpXp∂p.
Hcp Ipgen∂IØv ({`aWI£y) B slenIvkv Ipgepambn 45° tIm
WpIƒ D≠m°ns°m≠v Dcpfp∂p. Hcp ]q¿Æ {`aW thfbn¬ tKmfw
Dev]mZn∏n°p∂ Du¿÷w hrØ]cn[nbv°p kaamWv. AXmbXv ChnsS
hrØ ]cn[n PymanXoXe hrØ ]cn[n am{Xa√, tKmfw Xs‚ Ne\w
sIm≠p≠m°p∂ Du¿÷amWv.

Octagon

AXmbXv F´p Zn§P߃ ZnIvPym°ƒ BWv. tKmfNe\Øm¬
D≠mhp∂ Du¿÷^eambn´v ZnIvPym°fpsS KXnam‰amWv ChnsS
Zn§P hn{imaw. tKmfØns‚ mass D≠m°p∂ ‘`mcw’ (`q`mcw) BWv
i‡n AYhm Du¿÷ambn ChnsS {]ISamIp∂Xv. (C¥ysb Is≠
ج hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nIbneqsS- t]Pv 186- 191 apX¬
196 hsc t\m°pI).
402

{]Imikn‘p

2. A\ntemf \nte\ \nlXx
£nXu ]X\ kkz\w ItcmtXytI.
tINnXz ZrjvS ImcnXanZat\y
{]mlpcmNmcyx
Im‰v Im‰n\m¬ \nlXamhptºmƒ (Im‰pIƒ Iq´nap´ptºmƒ) `qan
bn¬ ]Xn®v hepXmb kzcap≠m°p∂XmWv `qIºsa∂v Hcp A`n{]m
bap≠v. apºp≠mbncp∂ BNmcy∑m¿ Nne¿ CXv Aip`amWv F∂v
IcpXnbncp∂p.
3. Kncn`nx ]pcm k]ss£¿ hkp[m
{]]XZv `ncpZv ]XZv`nivN
BIºnXm ]nXmal amlmackZkn k{hoVw
4. `Kh∂ma assaXXzbmIrXw
bZNteXn X∂ XYm
{InbtXf Nsse ivNeZv`nx
i‡mlw \mky tJZky.
apºpImeØv ]¿ΔX߃ ]£ßfp≈hsb t]mse (]£n) s]m
ßpIbpw Xmsg hogpIbpw sNbvXncp∂p. At∏mƒ e÷mhXnbmb
`qan BIºnXbmbn (`qIºØm¬ hnd®) ]nXmalt\mSp ]d™p.
“`Khm≥, Aßv F\nbv°v ANe F∂ \maw X∂p. F∂m¬ Fs∂
Nen°p∂hfm°nØo¿Øp. Cu tJZw kln°m≥ F\n°v i‡nbn√”.
`qan BZyambn krjvSn°s∏´ ImeØv ITn\ßfmb `qIºßƒ
D≠mbns°m≠ncn°p∂p F∂v CXv kqNn∏n°p∂p. AKv\n ]¿ΔX
kvt^mS\ ߃ D≈ `mKßfnepw ]pXnb ]¿ΔX߃ D≠mhp∂ Zn°p
IfnepamWv Ct∏mgpw `qIºßƒ A[nIambn ImWp∂Xv. _¿Ω
apX¬ sXt° bqtdm∏p hsc hym]n®p InS°p∂ lnameb≥, tIm°m
kkv, B¬]vkv ]¿ΔX\ncIƒ C∂pw `qIºßƒ A[nIambn A\p
`hs∏Sp∂ taJeIfmsW∂v Hm¿°pI.
5. Xymx kKZvKZKncw In©nXv kv^pcnXm[cw
hn\X aojXv
km{ip hntemN\ am\\ ahtemIy
]nXmalx {]ml.
403

{]Imikn‘p

6. a\ypw ltc{μ [m{Xymx
£n] Ipeniw ssie]£ `wKmb.
i{Ix IrXanXyp ‡zm am ss`cnXn
hkpaXoaml.
7. In¥z \ne Zl\kpc]XnhcpWm
kZkXv ^emh t_m[m¿∞w.
{]mKnZz{Xn NXp¿`mtKjp
Zn\\ntimx Iºbnjy¥n.
hndbv°p∂ A[chpw, A{ip]q¿Æ t\{Xhpw, KZvKZ kzchpambn
]rYznsb°≠ ]nXmal≥ ]d™p: “[m{XnbpsS ZpxJw Xo¿°pI. tl
C{μ, ssießfpsS ]£w apdnbv°m\mbn h{Pmbp[saSp°pI.”
C{μ≥ ]d™p. “Aßs\bmhs´- tl, `qaotZhn, `bs∏tS≠.”
F¶nepw hmbp, AKv\n, C{μ≥, hcpW≥ F∂nh¿ kØv, AkØv
F∂nhbpsS ^ew Aht_m[n∏n°p∂Xn\mbn Ct∏mgpw Zn\cm{Xß
fpsS {]Yaw, ZznXobw, XrXobw, NXp¿∞w, F∂o `mKßfn¬, `qansb
IºnXbm°p∂p.
8. NXzmcymcyavWm ≤ym\ymZnXyw arKintcmf izbpIv tNXn.
afietaX Zzmbhyaky cq]mWn k]vXmlmXv.
NXp¿afießfn¬ BZytØXmb hmbp afiew DØc ^m¬
Kp\n, AØw, Nn{X, tNmXn, tchXn, Aiz\n, arKinc v F∂nhtbmSnW
ßp∂p. ChbpsS ^ew Hcp hmcØn\IØv D≠mhpw.
9. [qam IpeoIrXm ti \`kn\`kzm≥ cPx
£n]≥ `uaw
hncpP≥ {Zpamw › hn NcXn
chn]Sp Icmh`mkn N.
Chbn¬ Zn°pIƒ [qaw aqSn°mWp∂p. \` v s]mSn \ndbp∂p;
Cu s]mSn `qanbn¬ \n∂pb¿∂Xpw hr£ßsf hogvØn Ncn°p∂Xp
amb {]Nfi ]h\\m¬ D≠mIp∂p. AXn\m¬ kqcyIncW߃
tim`tb‰v aßn°mWp∂p.
10. hmbthy `qItº Xkymw_ph\uj[o
£tbmf `nlnXn.
izbYp izmtkm\vamZ Pzc Imk`hm hWnIv ]oVm.
404

{]Imikn‘p

hmbhyafieØnse `qIºØm¬ Pew, kky߃, h\uj[n
Iƒ F∂nh £bn®pt]mIp∂p. izmktImi tcmK߃, D∑mZw, Pzcw,
ImktcmKw F∂nh D≠mIp∂p. k©mcnIfmb I®hS°m¿ ]oVnX
cmIp∂p.
`qansb Np‰nbncn°p∂ hmbpafiew Ft∏mgpw Nen°p∂p F∂pw
AXn\v At\IiXw ssl{UP≥ t_mw_pIfpsS i‡nbp≈ Npgen
s°mSp¶m‰pb¿Ømsa∂pw C∂p \ap°dnbmw. CØcw Npgens°mSp
¶m‰pIƒ kap{Z k©mcnIfmb hWn°pIƒ°v C∂pw `oXnP\IamWv.
Icbn¬ hoip∂ NpgenIƒ Db¿Øp∂ s]mSn]Sew izkn®m¬ izmk
tImitcmK߃ D≠mhp∂Xv kzm`mhnIw am{Xw. ldotI≥ (Atacn°,
shÃv C≥Uokv), ssS^q¨ (ssN\°S¬), sskt¢m¨ (C≥Uym
kap{Zw), hn√nkn√n (Bkvt{Senb) F∂nh HtcXcw NpgenbpsS hn`n∂
tZißfnse t]cpIfmWv. \Sphn¬ “IÆv” F∂p hnfn°p∂ knen≠¿
cq]Ønep≈ Ipgepw, B \n›e ZrjvSn°pNp‰pw 300 kph thKXbn¬
ASn°p∂ Npgen°m‰pw D≈ Cu {]Xn`mkw Cßs\ hcbv°mw.

D≈nte°phen°p∂
XWpØ hmbp

Npgep∂ taL]Se߃
apIfnte°pbcp∂
DjvWhmbp
a¿±w Ipd™ ÿew
(\yq\ a¿±w)
im¥amb IS¬
(Eye)

(H∂mw t«mI hymJym\Øn¬ I≠ “tSmd pw” slenIvkn\p
]Icw kvss]depw ChnsSbpw Ds≠∂v {i≤n°pI).
405

{]Imikn‘p

11. cq]mbpX `r ssZz[ymx
kv{XoIhn K‘¿Δ hWy inev]n P\mx
]oVyt¥ kucmjv{S I Ipcp aK[
Zim¿Æ aQym›.
kpμc∑m¿, Bbp[[mcnIƒ , sshZy∑m¿, kv{XoIƒ, IhnIƒ,
K‘¿Δ∑m¿, I®hS°m¿, inev]nIƒ F∂nh¿°pw, `mcX tZiØnse
kucmjv{SIw, Ipcp, aK[, Zim¿Æw, aQyw F∂o `q`mK߃°pw
CØcw Npgen°m‰psIm≠v ]oV A\p`hs∏Sp∂p. am¿®v G{]n¬ sabv
({]o a¨kq¨) amkßfn¬ Hdo , _wKmƒ, _olm¿, {Xn]pc, B mw
{]tZißfn¬ Ct∏mgpw Cu {]Xn`mkw ImWmw. B\bpsS Xpºnss°
t]mse Ipg¬ cq]Øn¬ AXnthKw Npgep∂ ‘tSm¿\tUm’Iƒ C°m
eØv A\p`hs∏Sp∂p (1998 epw CXp≠mbn).
12. ]pjymKvt\b hnimJm
`cWo]n{XymP `mKykw⁄m\n.
h¿t§m luX`qtPmf bw
ItcmXn cq]mWyssYXm\n.
]pjyw, BKvt\bw, hnimJw, `cWn, ]n{Xyw, APw, `mKyw F∂o
t]cpItfmSpIqSnb \£{Xh¿§ßƒ BKvt\bßfmWv. AhbpsS cq]
ßfpw C{]ImcamWv.
13. Xmtcm¬°m]mXmhrXamZo]vX anhmw_cw kZnKvZmlw
hnNcXn acp’lmbx k]vXm¿®nx
k]vXZnhkm¥x
\£{X ]mXw, DXv°m]mXw F∂nhbm¬ Zo]vXamb BImiw
ZnIvZmlbp‡ambn ImWs∏SpIbpw, Ggp ZnhktØ°v k]vXPnlz
\mb AKv\n Im‰ns‚ klmbtØmsS k©cn°pIbpw sNøpw.
14. BKvt\tbf w_pZ\mix
khnemib kw£tbm \r]Xnsshcw
Z{ZqhnN¿®nIm Pzc hnk¿∏nImx
]mfiptcmK›.
406

{]Imikn‘p

15. Zo]vXuPkx {]Nfimx ]oVyt¥
NmivaImwKw _mÀoImx
XwKW IenwK hwK {ZhnUmx
i_cmivNss\Ihn[mx
BKvt\bamb `qNe\Øm¬ taL߃ \in°p∂p; Pemib߃
h‰p∂p; cmPm°∑m¿ XΩn¬ sshcw D≠mhp∂p; Z{Zp, hnh¿®nI, Pzcw,
hnk¿∏nI, ]mfip apXemb tcmKßfp≠mhp∂p (DjvW tcmK߃).
Zo]vXamb HmPt mSp IqSnbhcpw, {]Nfi∑mcpamb XwKW¿, IenwK¿,
hwK¿, {ZmhnU¿, i_c KW߃ F∂nh¿ ]e {]ImcØnep≈ ]oV
Iƒ klnt°≠n hcp∂p.
16. A`nPn{OhW[\njvTm{]mPm]ssXy{μsshizssa{XmWn
kpc]Xnafie taXZv `h¥n Nmky
kzkzcq]mWn.
A`nPnXv, {imhWw, [\njvTw, tcmlnWn, tPyjvT, DØcmjmVw,
A\ngw F∂o Ggp \£{XßfmWv C{μ afiew. ChbpsS kzcq]w
C{]ImcamWv.
17. NenXmNe hjvam¿tÆm
Kw`oc hncmhnWkvXUnXz¥x
KheemenIpem ln\n`m
hnkrP¥n]bx ]tbmhmlmx
Nenbv°p∂ ]¿ΔXßfpsS BImcw [cn®v Kw`ocamb CSn\mZw
apg°n, an∂¬∏nWcpIƒ AWn™hbpw Im´pt]mØv, Icnh≠v, Imf
k¿∏w F∂nhbv°p Xpeyambhbpw, Pew hln®hbpamb taL߃
h¿jn°p∂p.
18. sF{μw {ipXnIpe PmXnJymXmh\n]me KW] hn≤zwkn
AXnkmc Ke{KlhZ\ tcmK IrO¿±ntIm]mb
{ipXn, Ipew, PmXn F∂nhbn¬ JymXntI´ cmPm°∑mtcbpw
KW]Xn (tk\m[n]≥) amtcbpw sF{μw \in∏n®p Ifbp∂p. AXn
h¿jw sIm≠v AXnkmcw, IWvTtcmKw, {KlWn, apJtcmK߃, O¿±n
F∂o tcmK߃ ]c°p∂p.
407

{]Imikn‘p

19. Imin bpK‘c ]uchIncmXIocm`nkmcle a{Zmx
A¿∫pZ kp hmkvXp ame h ]oVmIcanjvS hrjvSnIcw.
Imin, bpK‘cw, ]uchw, IncmXw, Iocw, A`nkmcw, lew, a{Z,
A¿∫pZw, kphmkvXp, amfhw F∂nhsb ]oVn∏n°p∂psh¶nepw
Ah¿°v CjvSwt]mse ag \¬IpIbpw sNøp∂p.
20. ]ujvWym ]ym¿{Zmt«jmaqemln¿ _p[v\y hcpW tZhm\n.
afie taXZmcpW akym]n `h¥ncq]mWn.
21. \otemev]em`n`n∂mRvP\Xzntjm
a[pc cmhntWm _lpemx
XUnZpZv`mknX tZlm
[mcm¶pi h¿jntWm PeZmx
tchXn, ]q¿ΔmjmVw, B¿{Z, Bbneyw, aqew, DØc `{Z]mZw,
iXm`njw F∂o 7 \£{X߃ hcpWafieamWv. \oeØmac,
IdpØ {`acw, ARvP\w F∂nhbv°p kZriambn, an∂¬ ]nWcpIƒ
DZv`mkn°p∂ tZltØmSpIqSnb taL߃ [mcmfw a[pc i_vZw ]pd
s∏Sphn®psIm≠v Pe[mcm cq]ambn A¶pißsf h¿jn°p∂p.
22. hmcpW a¿Æh kcnZm{inXLv\ aXnhrjvSnZw hnKX sshcw.
tKm\¿± tNZnIpIpcm≥
IncmX sshtZlIm≥ l¥n.
hmcpWamb `qanIºw ISent\bpw \Zntbbpw B{ibn®v D]Pohn
°p∂hsc \in∏n°pw. ag \∂mbn In´p∂Xn\m¬ (£maan√mbvIbm¬)
cmPm°∑m¿ sshcwshSn™v ]ckv]cw ssa{Xnbn¬ Pohnbv°pw. tKm
\¿±w, tNZn, IpIpcw, IncmXw, sshtZlw F∂o tZihmknIƒ°v CXv
Aip`Icamb ^eßfp≠m°pw.
23. jUv`n¿ Ωmsskx Itºm Zzmiymw
]mIw N bmXn \n¿LmXx
A\ym\]ypXv]mXm≥ PKpct\y
afissetcssXx
408

{]Imikn‘p

`qIºØns‚ ^ew BdpamkØn\Iw A\p`hn°pw. \n¿LmX
Ønt‚Xv c≠p amkØn\IØpw. ChtbmsSm∏w DXv]mXw IqSn Ds≠
¶n¬ AXns‚ ^ehpw c≠p amkØn\Iw ZriyamIpw.
24. D¬°m lcnivN{μ]pcw cPivN
\n¿LmX `qIº IpIp{]Zmlmx
hmtXmf XnNtfim {KlWw chot{μm
¿ ∂£{X XmcmKW sshIrXm\n.
D¬°, lcnivN{μ]pcw, cP v ([qfn), \n¿LmXw, `qIºw, ZnIv
Zmlw, {]NfihmXw, kqcy N{μ{KlW߃ F∂nh \£{X Xmcm
KWßfpsS sshIrX߃ (hnImc߃) BWv. K‘¿Δ\Kcw F∂
Xn\v ChnsS lcnivN{μ]pcsa∂ t]cv sImSpØncn°p∂Xp {it≤bw
(IrjvWsshcmPsa∂ Fs‚ D]\njZv hymJym\Øn¬ Im]pcw, {]mXn
am¿§Iw F∂p hnfn°p∂ {Xni¶p kz¿§sØ°pdn®p≈ hnhcWw
tN¿Øpsh®v hmbn°pI).
25. hrt{` hrjvSn sshIrXw hmX hrjvSn¿ [qtamf \
Kvt\¿ hnkv^penwKm¿®ntjm hm
h\yw kXzw {Kmaat≤y hntim≤m
cm{Xmssh{μw Im¿ΩpIw ZriytXhm.
taLw IqSmsX ag, sshIrX߃ (apºp ]d™h) Im‰pw agbpw,
]pI, AKv\nkv^penwK߃, Xo\mf߃ (A¿®n v- tPymXn v), Im´p
arK߃ {Kmaa≤yØnte°p hcnI, cm{Xn aghn√p ImWpI26. k‘ym hnImcmx ]cnthjJfim \Zyx {]Xo]m
Znhn Xqcy\mZmx
A\y® bXvkymXv {]IrXx {]XoXw
X\vafisse ssch^ew \nKZyw.
k‘ym hnImcw. ]cnthj Jfiw, \ZnIƒ Zniamdn HgpIpI,
Zn°pIfn¬ Zpμp`o\mZw- C{]Imcw {]IrXnhncp≤ambXv ImWptºmƒ
AhbpsS afiem\pkrXambn ^ew {]hNn°Ww.
27. lss¥y t{μmhmbhyw hmbp
›ym]y{μ tah at\ymf \yw.
409

{]Imikn‘p

hmcpW luX`qPmh]nthem
\-£{XPmx Iºx
C{μafiew hmbp afietØtbm adnt®m ]ckv]cw l\n°p
tºmgpw, hmcpW afiew BKvt\b afietØtbm adnt®m ]ckv]cw
l\n°ptºmgpw `qIºw D≠mhp∂p. CXns\ them \£{XPamb
`qIºsa∂p ]dbp∂p.
28. {]YnX\tcizc acW hyk\m\ymKvt\b hmbp afietbmx
£pZv`b acImhrjvSn`n cq]Xm]ys¥ P\mivNm]n.
BKvt\b hmbp afießfpsS XmU\wsIm≠v hnJymXcmb
cmPm°∑mcpsS acWw, ZpxJw, £maw, hni∏v, AhrjvSn sIm≠p≈
k¥m]w F∂nh P\߃ A\p`hn°p∂p.
29. hmcpW ]ucμctbmx kp`n£inhhrjvSn
lm¿±tbm temtI.
Kmthmf Xn `qcn]btkm
\nhrØsshcmivN `q]mem.
C{μ hcpW afießfpsS A`nLmXØm¬ kp`n£w, ip`
h¿jw, B\μw; ]ip°ƒ [mcmfw ]mep NpcØp∂p. cmPm°∑m¿
sshcw shSn™v ssa{Xnbn¬ Ignbp∂Xn\m¬ `qan bp≤an√mØ
(Atbm≤y) XmbnØocp∂p.
30. ]ss£ivNXp¿`n\nekv{Xn`ncKv\n tZhcmSv N k]vXmlmXvx
kZyx^eXnN hcptWmtbjp\ ImtemZv`ptX jp‡x
AKv\nh¿§w aq∂p ]£Øn\Ihpw, hmbph¿§w \mep ]£Øn\
IØpw, C{μh¿§w Ggp Znhkw Ign™pw hcpWh¿§w DSs\Øs∂
bpw Iº\mZnIfmb ^e߃ ImWnbv°p∂p.
31. NebXn ]h\x iXZzbw iXa\tem ZitbmP\m\znXw
kene ]XncioXn kwbpXw Ipeni[tcmf iy[n Iw N jjvTnIw.
]h\ h¿§w 200 tbmP\bpw, AKv\nh¿§w 110 tbmP\bpw, hcpW≥
116 tbmP\bpw h{Pmbp[ta¥nb C{μ≥ BdptbmP\bn¬ Aev]
a[nIw Zqchpw k©cn®v A{Xbpw `qansb hnd∏n°p∂p.
410

{]Imikn‘p

32. {XnNXp¿∞ k]vXamZn\ amtk
]t£ XYm{Xn]t£N
bZn `hXn `qanIºx {][m\\r]\mit\m`hXn.
CXn{iohcmlanlncIrXu_rlXv kwlnXmbmw
`qanIº e£Ww \ma Zzm{Xnw tim≤ymbx
`qIºØn\ptijw 3,4,7 F∂o Zn\߃t°m, amk߃t°m, ]£
߃t°m tijtam, aq∂mw ]£Øntem ho≠p Hcp `qIºap≠mbm¬
{][m\\r]\v \miw kw`hn°p∂XmWv.
`qafiew (crust) ]¿ΔX inemJfießfm¬ \n¿ΩnXamWv. Ch
\nc¥cw Nenbv°p∂Xn\m¬ D≠mhp∂ a¿±tlXphmbn Nne Zp¿∫e
ÿm\ßfn¬ Ahbv°v ]nf¿∏v G¿s∏Sp∂p (fault) F∂pw ]¿ΔX
Jfi߃ Ahbnte°v Nenbv°pIbm¬ `qIºap≠mhp∂p F∂pw
B[p\nI imkv{XØns‚ h‡m°ƒ kΩXn°p∂p≠v. Hcp tbmP
\bv°v HºXn¬ ]cw \mgnIbmWv Afhv. AXmbXv 54 \mgnI (C{μ
h¿§w) apX¬ 1800 \mgnI (]h\h¿§w) hsc \ofap≈tXm, A{Xbpw
Zqcw `qansb {]Iº\w sIm≈n°p∂tXm Bb i‡nIfp≠v, hcml
anlncs‚ A`n{]mb{]Imcw
1. Iment^m¿Ænbbnse km≥ B≥{Unbmkv. 800 \mgnI \ofw
(1906 se km≥ {^m≥knkvt°m `qIºw).
\qdph¿jØn\Iw ChnsS ho≠pw Hcp `qIºap≠mIpsa∂v im
kv{X⁄¿ IcpXp∂p.
2. P∏m\nse kq\man F∂ thentb‰Ønc.
Hcp XncbpsS irwKØn¬ \n∂v as‰m∂ns‚ irwKØnte°v Zqcw100 ssa¬. Ch IctbmSSp°ptºmƒ ap∏Xp ao‰¿ (100 ASn) DbcØn¬
ImWmw (1944 ¬ shkqhnbkv s]m´nsØdn®ncp∂p). 1946 ¬ Aeqjy≥
Zo]kaqlØn¬ `qIºw sIm≠p≠mb kq\man lhmbn¬ h∂Sn®
t∏mƒ 54 ASn (16 ao‰¿) Dbcap≠mbncp∂p. AXv Iment^m¿Ænb≥
Xocw hsc FØn. At∏mƒ AXns‚ Dbcw 13 ASn (4 ao‰¿)- thKX
720 kph (450 mph). AXnthKw hfsc Zqcw k©cn°p∂Xv (hmcpWw).
3. 1923 ¬ tSm°ntbmhn¬ D≠mb `qIºØn¬ 100000 t]¿ acn®p.
`qIºsØ XpS¿∂v AKv\nbp≠mbn. 7,00,000 hoSpIƒ AKv\nbn¬
Zln®pt]mbn (BKvt\bw).
411

{]Imikn‘p

P∏m\n¬ Hcp h¿jw NpcpßnbXv 6 XhW `qIºap≠mhpw; c≠v
As√¶n¬ aq∂v t\¿Ø Ne\߃ Zn\w {]Xn A\p`hs∏Spw.
4. 1556 ¬ ssN\bnse sj≥kn {]hniybn¬ D≠mb `qanIpep°
Øn¬ 830000 t]¿ acn®p (1943 apX¬ 1952 hsc saIvknt°mbnse
]mcn°p´n≥ AKv\n]¿ΔXw s]m´nsØdn®ncp∂p).
5. 1935 se Iz‰ (]m°nÿm≥) `qNe\w- Iz‰ \Kcw apgph\mbn
\in®p. 1998- ]m°nÿm≥ AWpt_mw_p ]co£WsØ XpS¿∂v
A^vLm\nÿm\n¬ Ne\ap≠mbn.
6. 1750 ¬ e≠\nep≠mb `qNe\sØ°pdn®v tPm¨ shkven
Cßs\ FgpXn. There were three distinct shakes, or wavings to and fro
attended with a hoarse rumbling like thunder.

7. 1957 s^{_phcn 11 ¬ Cu \q‰m≠n¬ {_n´\nse G‰hpw henb
`qNe\w. {_n´\n¬ t\m¿Ω≥ B{IaWØn\p tijw 1000 XhW `qIp
ep°ap≠mbXpw 1884 se tImƒs°Ã¿ `qIºw Ahbn¬ sh®v G‰
hpw hepXmbpw IcpXs∏Sp∂p. 1883 BKÃv 27 \v kpam{X Pmh Zzo]p
Iƒ°p at≤ybp≈ {Im°Øph AKv\n]¿ΔXw s]m´nsØdn®v 30 In.ao.
Zqcw inemJfihpw s]mSnbpw h¿jn®p. 5000 In.ao. A∏pdw Bkvt{Sen
bbn¬ B kvt^mS\ i_vZw tI´p. AXns‚ ]n∂msebmWv tImƒ
s°Ã¿ `qIºw (Bkvt{Xey≥ bptdjy≥ tπ‰pIƒ XΩnep≈ _‘w
t\m°pI).
F´v afie߃ (sSIvtSmWnIv tπ‰pIƒ) BbnØncn® `qanbn¬
\mtemfw afie-ßfn¬ (Ic`mKw) `qIºw A\p`hs∏Sp∂p F∂pw
CXn\v hmbp, AKv\n, Pew (hcpWw), sF{μw (a¨kq¨) F∂nhbmWv
ImcWsa∂pw a\ nem°mw. C¥ybn¬ 3 hn[ ImemhÿIfp≠v.
1. am¿®papX¬ Pq¨ hsc- NqSpImew- agbn√ (hSs° C¥y
bn¬ ITn\Xm]w, \yq\a¿±w).
2. Pq¨ apX¬ \hw_¿ hsc- ag°mew.
3. Unkw_¿ apX¬ am¿®phsc- XWp∏pImew. agbn√
Pq¨ a≤yamhptºmtg°pw \yq\a¿±w `qa≤ytcJm ÿm\amb
e¶ hsc FØp∂p; sX°p Ing°≥ Imeh¿j°m‰pIsf C¥ybn
te°p {]thin∏n°p∂p (hmcpWw + sF{μw). Ch C¥y≥ kaXe
Øn¬ \n∂phcp∂ DjvW°m‰pambn C¥ym almkap{ZØn¬ sh®v
]ckv]cw Iq´nap´ptºmƒ ag e`n°p∂p. \hw_dmhptºmtg°pw Hcp
412

{]Imikn‘p

kwh’cØn¬ e`nt°≠ agbpsS 3/4 `mKw C¥ybn¬ s]bvXp Ign
™ncn°pw.
At∏mƒ Ic XWp°p∂p. kΩ¿±w IqSp∂p. hS°p Ing°≥ Ime
h¿j°m‰p hcp∂p. CXv {ioe¶bnepw Xangv\mSns‚ Ing°≥ XocØpw
agXcp∂p (sk]vXw_dn¬ [mcmfw ag).
1986 am¿®p amkØn¬ {^©v C¥ym kap{ZØnse do bq\nb≥
Zzo]Øn¬ AKv\n]¿ΔX kvt^mS\hpw `qIºhpw D≠mbn. 1986 sabv
amkw 8-mw XoøXn Atacn°≥ sFIy\mSpIfn¬ AXni‡amb `qI
ºw A\p`hs∏´p. tlenbpsS [qatIXphnt\mSv _‘s∏´hbmbncp∂p
Cu `qan Ne\߃.

djy
bqtdm∏v
C¥y

B{^n°

,
m≥
P∏ N\
e¶ ss
taSw

Bkvt{Senb
e¶bv°v t\sc FXn¿hiw
tKmfØns‚ ]Sn™msd
A¿≤tKmfØn¬ Xpemw(Atacn°≥ tπ‰v)

1986 ¬ G{]n¬ 10 -mw XoøXn AizXn \£{XØn¬ {]Ya XnYn
bn¬ ssN{X hk¥ EXzmcw`Ønembncp∂p bpKmZn. 10, 11 XoøXnIfn¬
Xs∂bmWv lmenbpsS [qatIXp `qan°v G‰hpw ASpsØØnbXv.
hrivNnIcminbn¬ Xrt°´ (ANTARUS) \£{XØn∂SpØmbn´v [qa
tIXp I≠p. 1985 ¬ apX¬ [qatIXp Zriyambncp∂p. Ej`cminbn
emWv BZyw I≠Xv. ]ns∂ taSw, ao\w, Ipw`w cminIfneqsS A]khy
ambn k©cn®mWv HSphn¬ hrivNnIØn¬ tPyjvTm \£{XØn¬
`qanbpsS ASpsØØn Xs‚ aS°bm{X XpSßnbXv. hrivNnIw cmlp
hns‚bpw sNmΔbpsSbpw t£{XamWv. hrivNnI cminbnse A\ngw
(A\pcm[w) F∂ \£{XØn\v km¿∏ akvXIw F∂pw t]cp≠v.
413

{]Imikn‘p

1986 se (\hw_¿ 9) lnμp Zn\∏{Xw tSm°ntbmbn¬ HIvtSm_¿
30 \v Is≠Ønb Ddm‰-\nPna [qatIXphns\ ]cma¿in®ncp∂p. HIvtSm
_¿ 30 \v “Imfk¿∏tbmKw” D≠mbncp∂p. HIvtSm_¿ 17 \v N{μ{Kl
Whpw Zo]mhenbpw AizXn tchXn \£{X߃ k‘n°p∂ 0° taS
Øn¬ h∂p. AXmbXv taS_nμp, N{μ≥, kqcy≥, `qan, cmlptIXp°ƒ
F∂nh t\¿tcJbn¬ h∂p. HIvtSm_dn¬ _p[≥ kqcy\pw `qanbv°pw
CSbn¬ h∂v {KlWap≠m°p∂ A]q¿Δ {]Xn`mkhpw \S∂p. 1986-1987 se “F¬ss\t\m” F∂ {]Xn`mkØm¬ `qanbpsS Imemhÿ
amdn. CsX√mw sh®pt\m°ptºmƒ 1986 se [qatIXphpw Zn§PßfpsS
Ne\hpw, \£{X Xmcm{KlsshIrXhpw, Imfk¿∏tbmKhpw, {Kl
bp≤, kamKabpw taS_nμphn¬ \S∂ N{μ{KlWhpw, aq∂p amkØn
\IØp \S∂ c≠p `qIºßfpw- B h¿jw Hcp {][m\ bpKmZnbm
sW∂pw Ggp h¿j߃°Iw Ht∂m AXne[nItam {][m\ `cWm[n
]∑m¿°p \miw kw`hn∏n°psa∂pw Nq≠n°m´p∂hbmbncp∂p (kzo
U\n¬ He^v]mta, C¥ybn¬ cmPohvKm‘n) tUhnUvdq∏pw Pq\nb¿
tPm¨ sk]v tImkv°nbpw (Nn°mtKm bqWnthgvkn‰n) 3500 t^mkn
epIƒ ]T\ hnt[bam°n. 1984 BZyØn¬ Ah¿ Hcp \nKa\Øn
seØn. 2600000 h¿jØn¬ `qanbnse `qcn]£w PohPme߃°v
hwi\miw kw`hn°p∂p F∂XmWXv. 38000000 h¿jw apºv Znt\mkdp
Iƒ \in®Xv Cßs\bmWv. `qanbnse aÆn¬ “CdnUnbw” [mXp Gdp
tºmgmWv hwi\miw hcnI. CdnUnbw [mXp G‰hpw A[nIap≈Xv
[qfnIfnepw BÃtdmbnUpIfnepw (D¬°) BWv. Hmtcm 2600000 h¿j
Ønepw AXni‡amb D¬°m]mXw D≠mhp∂p; s]mSn h¿jn°p∂p.
PohPme߃ NsØmSpßp∂p. BImi KwKbpsS \£{X {`aW Xe
ØneqsS kucbqYØns‚ Nmw{InI {`aWXew tZme\w (oscillate)
sNøptºmƒ \£{XßtfmSpw XmciemIm]SeßtfmSpw ASp°p∂
XmWv Cu D¬°m]mXØn\v ImcWw. 2600000 h¿jØn¬ Hcn°¬
Cu tZme\w kw`hn-°mw. 2600000 h¿jØnsemcn°¬ kqcys\ Hcp
h´w {]Z£nWw shbv°p∂ Hcp Ccp≠ \£{Xw (Xtam{Klw?) D≠m
Imsa∂v Ch¿ IcpXp∂p. CXns\ Ah¿ s\saknkv F∂v hnfn°p∂p.
kqcys‚ 10 ¬ H∂p hen∏ap≈ Cu \£{Xw Hcp “ss_\dn”bmWv.
_lncmImiØn\∏pdØv sskzchnlmcw \SØp∂ XmciemIm]Se
ßfpsS taJebmb Du´v taL߃°pw A∏pdamWv s\sakn ns‚
{`aW ]Ysa¶nepw, Hmtcm 2600000 h¿jØn\nSbnepw 1000000 h¿j
°mew Cu ]SeØneqsS s\sakn v IS∂pt]mIp∂p. Aßns\
414

{]Imikn‘p

IS∂p t]mIptºmƒ Ah ]ckv]cw D≠m°p∂ \n¿LmX ^eambn
Xmcm iemIm ]SeØn¬ \n∂v At\Iw D¬°Ifpw [qfnIfpw
`qanbn¬ ]Xn°p∂p. cmlp, {Im¥nt`Z\ _nμp, D¬°mh¿jw,
[qatIXp, Itbmkv F∂p hnfn°s∏Sp∂ ImctWm¿÷ Pe[n]q¿ΔnIcpw as‰mcp `mjbn¬ ]d™Xv CsXms° Xs∂. Chsb√mw
“\£{X XmcmKW sshIrX”amsW∂ 24 -mw t«mIØnse ]cma¿iw,
2600000 h¿jØnsemcn°¬ Ab\mwi{IaoIcWw \S°psa∂
tPymXnj kw_‘nbmb hnizmkw- ChIsf°qSn tN¿Øphmbn®m¬
Hcp ]q¿Æ cq]w e`n°pw.

415

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 33

D¬°me£Ww
1. Znhp`q‡ ip`^em\mw ]XXmw cq]mWnbm\n Xm\yq¬°mx
[njvtWym¬°mi\n hnZypØmcm CXnX]©[m`n∂mx
D¬° F∂p ]dbp∂Xv {]Imi temIßfn¬ (kz¿t√mIØv)
Xm¥mßfpsS ip`I¿Ω^e߃ `pPn®tijw ]Xnbv°p∂ (`qanbn¬
Øs∂ Xncns®Øp∂) cq]ßsfbmWv. Ahsb A©p `n∂cq]ßfmbn
ImWmw. [njvWym, D¬°, Ai\n, hnZypXn, Xmc.
2. D¬°m]t£W ^ew XZz ZnjvWym i\n kv{Xn`n]ss£x
hnZypZtlm`nx jUv`nkvXZzØmcm hn]mNbXn
D¬° Hcp ]£Øn\IØpw (15 Znhkw) [njvWybpw Ai\nbpw
3 ]£Øn\IØpw (45 Znhkw) ^ew Xcp∂p. hnZypXn, Xmc F∂nh
IfpsS ^ew Bdp ZnhkØn\Iw e`nbv°pw.
3. Xmcm^e ]mZIco^em¿≤Zm{Xo {]Io¿ØnXm [njvWymw.
Xn{kx kºq¿Æ ^em hnZypZtYm¬°mi\n ivtNXn.
Xmcbv°v 1/4 ^ehpw [njvWybv°v 1/2 ^ehpw \¬Imt\ km[n
bv°q. hnZypXv, D¬°, Ai\n F∂nhbvv°v kºq¿Æ ^ew Xcm≥
km[nbv°pw.
4. Ai\o kzt\\ alXm\rKPmizarKmiva thiva Xcp]ipjp
\n]XXn hnZmc b¥n [mcmXew N{I kwÿm\mx
Ai\n alØmb kzctØmSpIqSn N{Icq]Øn¬ \n]Xn®v [cm
XesØ ]nf¿°p∂p. a\pjy¿, B\Iƒ, IpXncIƒ, arK߃, hr£
߃, ineIƒ, Krl߃ F∂p th≠ kIetØbpw l\nbv°p∂p.
5. hnZypXv kXz{Xmkw P\b¥n
XUXUkz\m klkm IpSnehnimem
\n]XXn Poth‘\ cminjp PzenXm.
416

{]Imikn‘p
“XUXU” F∂v kzcw apg°ns°m≠v IpSnehpw hnimehpw km
lkcq]hpambn hs∂Øp∂ hnZypØv k¿ΔkXzßfnepw {Xmkw P\n
∏n®psIm≠pw PohnItfbpw C‘\ßtfbpw cminItfbpw D÷zen
∏n®psIm≠pw \n]Xnbv°p∂p.

6. [njvWym Irime]]pOm [\qjnZi ZriytXf ¥cmiy[nIw.
PzenXmwKmc\nImim sZzulkvXukm{]amtW\m.
Iribpw Aev] ]pObpamb [njvWy Pzen°p∂ Hcp Icn°´
t]msebmWv. CXv ]Øp hn√nSbn¬ Ipd®[nIw cmin `mKtØ ImWq.
CXns‚ {]amWw (hen∏w) c≠p lkvXw am{XamWv.
7. Xmcm lkvXw Zo¿Lmip¢m
Xm{am_vPX¥pcq]mhm.
XncyK[tizm¿≤zwhm
bmXn hnbXyplyamt\h.
Xmc shfpt∏m, Xm{ah¿Ætam, Xmac\mfocq]w t]msetbm Im
Wpw. AXns‚ \ofw Hcp lkvXta hcq. BImiØn¬ ad™ncpt∂m,
]IpXn am{Xw Zriyamtbm Xmsgbpw apIfnepw Btbm AXv k©cn
°p∂p.
8. D¬°mincknhnimem ]n]X¥o h¿≤tX {]X\p ]pOmZo¿Lm
`h¥n N]pcpjw t`Zm_lthm `h¥ykymx
D¬° Xmtg°v ]Xnbv°pwtXmdpw AXns‚ intcm`mKØn∂v
hep∏w h¿≤n®phcp∂Xmbpw, AXns‚ ]pOw sNdpXmbns®dpXmbn
Xosc C√mXmhp∂Xmbpw `qanbn¬ \n¬°p∂ \nco£I\v A\p`hs∏
Sp∂p. D¬°Iƒ a\pjysct∏msebmWv; Ah _lphn[ t`ZßtfmSp
IqSn ImWs∏Sp∂p.
9. t{]X{]lcW hcIc`\{II]n
Zwjv{Sn emwKearKm`mx
tKm[mln [qa cq]mx
]m]mbm tNm`b inckvXm.
t{]Xw, Bbp[w, Jcw, Ic`w, \{Iw, I]n, Zwjv{Sn, emwKe arKw,
tKm°ƒ, Aln, [qacq]w, c≠p inc p≈Xv Cßs\ ]e cq]Øn¬
Chsb ImWmw.
417

{]Imikn‘p

10. [zPQyjIcnKncn Iateμp
XpcKk¥]vXcPX lwkm`mx
{iohkvXh{P iwJkzkvXn Icq]mx
inhkp`n£mx
sImSn, a’yw, B\, ]¿ΔXw, Xmac, N{μ≥, IpXnc, Np´v FSpØ
sh≈n, lwkw, {ioh’w, h{Pw, iwJw, kzkvXnIw F∂o cq]Øn¬
I≠m¬ inhhpw kp`n£w \¬Ip∂XpamWv.
11. Aw_ca≤ymZv _lztbm\n]Xt¥ym
cmPcmjv{S\mimb
_w{`aXn KKt\m]cn
hn{`a amJymXn temIky.
BImia≤yØn¬Øs∂ \n]Xnbv°p∂ cmP, cmjv{S \miI¿
Ør°fmb At\Iw D¬°Ifp≠v. Ah temIsØ hn{`an®psIm≠v
BImtim]cn \nc¥cw ]cn{`aWw sNøp∂p≠v.
12. kwkv]riXu N{μm¿°u
XZznkrXm hm k`q{]Iºm N
]cN{ImKa\r] h[Zp¿`n£mhrjvSn `b P\\o.
Ah N{μt‚tbm kqcyt‚tbm BI¿jW ]cn[nsb kv]¿in°p
tºmƒ Xmtgbv°v ]Xn®v henb `qIºap≠m°p∂p. \Kc]meIs‚
(\r]s‚) h[w, Zp¿`n£w, AhrjvSn F∂nhsIm≠v `bw P\n∏n°p∂p.
13. ]utcXcLv\ ap¬°m]khyIcWw
ZnhmIc lnamwtizmx
D¬°mip`Zm ]pctXm
ZnhmIc\nxkrXm bmXpx
kqcy N{μ∑m¿°v A]khyambn D¬° hoWm¬ ]utcXc∑msc
\nl\n°pw. kqcy≥ DZn°ptºmƒ apºn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂ D¬° ip`Z
bmWv. {]tXyIn®pw k©mcnIƒ°v.
14. ip¢mc‡m ]oXmIrjvWmtNm¬°m ZznPmZnh¿ÆLv\o.
{Iai ssizXm≥ l\y¿Ωq¿≤mcx ]m¿iz ]pOÿmx
418

{]Imikn‘p

sh≈, Nph∏v, a™, Idp∏v F∂o h¿ÆØnep≈ D¬° {Ia
Øn¬ ZznPmZn \mep h¿Æ߃°p \miw sNøpw. D¬°bpsS l\p,
aq¿≤mhv, ]m¿izw, ]pOw F∂o `mKßfn¬ Cu h¿Æ߃ I≠mepw
Cu ^eap≠v.
15. DØc ZnKmZn]XnXm hn{]mZo\m a\njvSZmcp£m
EPzo kv\nKv≤m Jfim \otNm]KXmN XZvhrss≤y.
{]Z£nW{IaØn¬, DØcZn°v apXemb Zn°pIfn¬ \n∂v cq£
amb D¬°m]mXw D≠mbm¬ {_mlvaW£{Xnb sshiy iq{ZmZn
Iƒ°v A\njvS^ew ]dbmw. EPphmbpw, kv\nKv≤ambpw, AJfiam
bpw BImiØns‚ XmgsØ `mKØmbn´pw (\mep Zn°n¬ I≠m¬)
{IaØn¬ \mep h¿Æ߃°pw A`nhr≤nbp≠mhpw.
16. iymam hmcpW\oem krKvZl\m knX`kva \n`mcq£m.
k‘ymZn\Pm h{ImZenXm N]cmKa`bmb.
iymaw, AcpWw, \oew, c‡w, Zl\w, knXw, `kvakZriw F∂n
ßs\bpw cq£ambpw k‘ybv°pw ]Ienepw h{Iambpw ZenXambpw
ImWs∏Sp∂ D¬° ]cmKa`bw hf¿Øp∂p.
17. \£{X {KlLmtX XZv `‡n\mw £bmb \n¿±njvSm
DZtb Lv\Xn choμq ]utcXc arXythf kvtXhm.
\£{X LmXtam {KlLmXtam Bb D¬° `‡nsb £bn∏n
°p∂p. kqcy N{μ∑mcpsS DZbmkvXabßfn¬ D¬° I≠m¬ ]utc
Xc∑m¿°v arXyp kw`hnbv°pw.
18. `mKymZnXy[\njvTm aqtejq¬°mltXjp bphXo\mw
hn{] £{Xnb]oVm]pjym\nehnjvWp tZthjp
]q¿Δ ^m¬Kp\n, ]p\¿Δkp, [\njvTw, aqew F∂o tbmKXmc
Isf D¬° l\nbv°p∂Xmbm¬ bphXnIƒ°v ]oV. ]pjyw, kzmXn,
{imhWßsf l\n®m¬ {_mlvaW¿°pw £{Xnb¿°pw ]oV.
19. {[phkutayjp \r]mWmapt{Kjp kZmcptWjp NucmWmw.
£nt{]jp IemhnZpjmw ]oVm km[mctWNltX.
tcmlnWn, D{Xw, arKinc v, Nn{X, A\pcm[w, aLw, B¿{Z, Bt«
jw, tPyjvT, aqew \£{Xßsf D¬° XmUn°ptºmƒ tNmc∑m¿°v
419

{]Imikn‘p

]oV kw`hn°pw. AizXn, ]pjyw, A`nPnXv, IrØnI, hnimJw F∂n
hsb XmUn°ptºmƒ IemhnZpj∑m¿°v ]oV.
20. Ip¿Δt¥yXmx ]XnXm tZh{]Xnamkp cmPcmjv{S `bw
it{Im]cn \r]Xo\mw KrtljpXXvkzman\mw ]oVmw.
Cuizc{]XnaIfpsS ta¬ D¬° ]Xn®m¬ cmjv{SØn\pw cmPy
Øn\pw `bw kw`hn°pw. C{μ[zPØn¬ ]Xn®m¬ cmPmhn\pw Krtlm
]cn ]Xn®m¬ Krl\mY\pw ]oV.
21. Bim{Ktlm]LmtX Xt±im\mw Jte Irjn cXm\mw
ssNXyXscu kºØnXm kXv IrX ]oVmw ItcmXypXv°m.
GXp Zn°nte {KlamtWm D]LmXambXv B tZihmknIfmb
Irjn°m¿°pw ssNXyXcphn¬ (Aºehr£w- t_m[n) ]Xn®m¬
k÷\߃°pw ]oV kw`hn°pw.
22. Zzmcn ]pcky]pc£batY{μIote P\£tbm f`nlnXx
{_lvambXt\hn{]m≥hn\nlXymZvtKmant\m tKmjvtT.
]pcZzmcØn¬ D¬° ]Xn®m¬ ]pc£bw. C{μIoeØn¬ ]Xn
®m¬ P\£bw. {_lva]pcØn¬ ]Xn®m¬ hn{]∑m¿°pw tKmjvT
Øn¬ ]Xn®m¬ [mcmfw ]ip°fp≈h¿°pw £bw.
23. t£zUmkvt^mSnX hmZnX KotXmXvIrjvSkz\m`h¥n bZm
D¬°m\n]mX kasb `bmbcmjv{Sky k\r]ky.
GsXmcp D¬°m]mXkabØv t£zUw (bp≤thfbn¬ hoc∑m¿
sNøp∂ knwl\mZw), kvt^mSi_vZw, hmZyi_vZw, KoX i_vZw, apX
emb D¬IrjvS kzc߃ kw`hn°p∂pthm B D¬° \r]∑mtcmSp
IqSnb cmjv{S߃°v `bP\IamWv.
24. bkymizncw XnjvTXn tkzf \pjwtKm ZfimIrXnx
km \r]tX¿ `bmb.
bm tNmlytX X¥p LrtXh kzÿm bmhm
atl{μ[zPXpeycq]m.
ZfimIrXnbn¬ BImiw ap´n hfsc t\cw \n¬°p∂ D¬°
\r]Xnam¿°v `bw P\n∏n°p∂p. s\øns‚ {]hmlw t]mse [mcbmbn
420

{]Imikn‘p

ImWp∂Xpw atl{μ[zPXpeycq]ambXpamb D¬° cmPm°∑m¿°p
`bZmbnbmWv.
25. t{ijvTn\x {]Xo]Km XncyKm \r]mwK\mx
l¥yt[m aqJo \r]m¬ {_mlvaWm\ tYm¿≤zKm.
XpSßnbnSØp Xs∂ Xncns®Øpamdv hn]coX KXnbn¬ Nen°p∂
D¬° t{ijvSnIƒ°pw, Xmtg°p Nen°p∂ D¬° \r]mwK\am¿°pw,
At[mapJnbmbXv cmPm°∑m¿°pw, Du¿≤zKambXv {_mlvaW¿°pw
`bP\IamWv.
26. _¿ln ]qO cq]nWo temI kw£bmhlm
k¿∏[Xv {]k¿∏nWo tbmjnXm a\njvTZm.
abn¬ ]oen t]msebp≈ D¬° temIØn\p apgph≥ \miImcn
WnbmWv. k¿∏sØt]mse k©cn°p∂Xv kv{XoIƒ°v A\njvSw
D≠m°p∂p.
27. l¥n afiem ]pcw O{XhXv ]ptcmlnXw
Lwi KpevahXv ÿnXm cmjv{S tZmjImcnWo.
afie cq]ambXv \KctØbpw, O{X cq]ambXv ]ptcmlnXt\
bpw, Kpevaw t]mep≈Xv cmjv{StØbpw tZmjambn _m[n°pw.
28. hyme kqItcm]am hnkv^penwKamen\o
Jfitimf Yhm KXm kkz\m N Nm]Zm.
hymfw (Ime k¿∏w), kqIcw apXembh t]msebp≈ BIrXn,
hnkv^penwKßtfmSp IqSnbpw, Jfiw Jfiambpw i_vZtØmSp IqSn
bpap≈ k©mcw Ch ]m]Zmbn\nIfmb D¬°IfpsS e£Wß
fmWv.
29. kpc ]Xn Nm] {]Xnam cmPyw
\`kn hneo\m PeZm≥ l¥n
]h\ hntemam IpSnew bmXm
\ `hXn ikvXm hn\n hrØm hm.
C{μ[\p v t]mep≈Xv cmPysØ \in∏n°pw. \` n¬ hneo\
amb D¬° taLßsf \in∏n°pw; Im‰pIsf {]XnIqe ZniIfn¬
IpSne `mhØn¬ k©cn∏n°p∂h ip`ImcnIf√.
421

{]Imikn‘p

30. A`n`hXnbXx ]pcw _ew hm `hXn
b`w XX Gh ]m¿∞nhky
\n]XXn N bYm Znim {]Zo]vXm PbXn
cn]q\ NncmØbm {]bmXx
CXn {io hcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbm
D¬°me£Ww \ma {Xb kv{Xnwtimf ≤ymbx
GXp `mKØp \n∂mWv D¬° h∂v ]pcsØtbm ssk\ysØ
tbm XmUn°p∂Xv, B Znibn¬ \n∂mWv i{Xp ssk\yw B{Ian°pI.
CXdnbp∂ cmPmhv D¬°bpsS Znit\m°n sN∂v i{Xp cmPyßsf
B{Ian®v IogS°p∂p.

422

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 34

]cnthj e£Ww
1. kΩq¿®nXm chotμmx IncWmx
]ht\\ afieo `qXmx
\m\m h¿Æ IrXbkvX\zt{`
thymav\n ]cnthjmx
kqcyt‚bpw N{μt‚bpw IncW߃ kΩq¿OnXßfmbn, ]h\
\m¬ afieo`qXambn \m\m h¿ÆßtfmSpw BIrXnItfmSpw IqSn,
taLw Ipd™ BImiØn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂Xns\ ]cnthjsa∂p ]d
bp∂p.
2. tXc‡\oe ]mfip cImt]mXm {`m`
i_e lmcn ip¢mx
C{μ bahcpW \ncyXn izkt\ im]nXmalmKv\nIrXm
c‡w, \oew, tizXw, It]mX h¿Æw F∂nßs\bp≈ taL
߃°v {IaØn¬ i_fw, lmcoXw, ip¢w F∂o ]cnthj߃
C{μ≥, ba≥, hcpW≥, \ncyXn, hmbp, almtZh≥, {_lvam, AKv\n
F∂nhbn¬ \n∂v Dev]∂amIp∂p.
3. L\Zx ItcmXn taNIat\ymf \y.
KpWm{itbW Nm]yt\y.
{]hoenbtX aplp¿aplp¿ Aev]^ex
tkmf ]n hmbp IrXx
L\Z\mb Ipt_c≥ taNI h¿Æw \¬Ip∂p. At\ym\y KpWm
{ibØm¬ A\p\nanjw hnebn°p∂ Aev]^ew \¬Ip∂ ]cnthjw
hmbphn\m¬ D≠m°s∏Sp∂XmWv.
4. Nmj inJnc PXssXe £oc Pem`x
kzIme kw`qXx
AhnIe hrØx kv\nKv≤x ]cnthjx
inh kp`n£Icx
423

{]Imikn‘p

GsXmcp ]cnthjw \oeIWvTamb abn¬, sh≈n, ssXew, £ocw,
Pew F∂nhbpsS tim`tbmsS kzImeßfn¬ kw`qXamIp∂pthm,
GsXm∂ns‚ hrØw AhnIehpw kv\nKv≤hpw Bbncn°p∂pthm B
]cnthjw inhhpw kp`n£Ichpw BWv.
5. kIe KK\m\pNmcn ss\Im`x
£XP k∂nt`m cq£x
AkIe iIS icmk\ irwKmSIhXv
ÿnXx ]m]x
GsXm∂v kIe KK\Ønepw hym]n®v c‡w t]mse cq£ambncn
°p∂pthm, s]m´nb h≠n, hn√v, irwKmSIw F∂nh t]msetbm ImW
s∏Sp∂pthm AXv ]m]ImcnbmWv.
6. inJnKe ktaf Xnh¿tj _lph¿tÆ
\r] ht[m `bw [qt{a.
lcn Nm]\nt` bq≤zm\ytimIIpkpa {]t` Nm]n.
abnens‚ IgpØpt]mse ]cnthjw I≠m¬ AXnh¿jap≠mhpw.
At\I h¿Æßfps≠¶n¬ cmPmhv h[n°s∏Spw. [qah¿Æsa¶n¬
`bap≠mhpw. C{μ[\p ns‚tbm AtimI ]pjv]Øns‚tbm kam\
amb Im¥nbps≠¶n¬ bp≤w kw`hn°pw.
7. h¿Æss\tI\ bZm _lpex
kv\nKv≤x £pcm{` ImIo¿Æx
kz¿sØu ktZym h¿jItcmXn
]oX› Zo]vXm¿°x
GXp EXphn¬ ]cnthjw Hcp h¿ÆtØ°mƒ _lpeambpw,
kv\nKv≤ambpw, IØnbeIpt]mse t\¿Ø taLßtfmSp IqSnbpw,
kqcy IncW߃ Zo]vXamb ]oXh¿ÆtØmSp tN¿∂pw ImWp∂pthm
At∏mƒ ktZymh¿jw thKw kw`hn°psa∂dnbWw.
8. Zo]vX hnlwK arKcpXx Iepjx
k‘ym {Xtbm∞ntXmf Xn alm≥
`b IrØUn Zp¬°m ssZy¿ltXm
\r]w l¥n ikvt{XW.
424

{]Imikn‘p

kqcym`napJambn \n¬°p∂ arKßfpsStbm ]£nIfpsStbm
i_vZtØmSpIqSn {Xnk‘yIfn¬ Db¿∂p ImWp∂ alØmb ]cnth
jw `b¶camWv. AXns\ D¬°tbm XSn√XItfm t`Zn°p∂Xmbn
I≠m¬ \r]\v Bbp[w sIm≠v h[w kw`hn°pw.
9. {]XnZn\ a¿°lnamwtizm cl¿∂niw
c‡tbm¿∂tc{μ h[x
]cnhnjvStbmc`o£vWw
eKv\mkvX\`x ÿtbmkvXZzXv.
{]XnZn\w cm∏I¬ kqcy N{μ∑m¿°v c‡ ]cnthjw I≠m¬
cmPmhv h[n°s∏Spw. DZbw, AkvXabw, Zn\a≤yw, cm{Xna≤yw F∂o
thfIfn¬ c‡]cnthjw I≠mepw CtX ^eamWv.
10. tk\m]tX¿ `b Itcm Zznafitem
\mXn ikv{X tIm] Icx
{Xn{]`rXn ikv{XtIm]w bphcmP`bw
\Kctcm[w.
Zznafieamb ]cnthjw tk\m]Xnbv°v `b¶camsW¶nepw
AXnikv{X tIm]Ica√ (henb bp≤w D≠m°pIbn√). {Xnafie
tam AXne[nItam Bb ]cnthjw ikv{XtIm]w, bphcmP`bw, \K
cØn\v D]tcm[w F∂nh D≠m°pw.
11. hrjvSncpbtlW amtk\ hn{Ktlm hm
{Ktlμp `\ntcmt[.
tlmcm P∑m[n]tbm¿÷∑¿t£
hm ipt`m cm⁄x
`uamZn {Klßfnsemt∂m, N{μt\m, \£{Xßtfm ]cnthj
tØmsS I≠m¬, aq∂p Zn\Øn¬ hrjvSntbm, Hcp amkØn\Iw bp≤
tam D≠mhpw. tlmcm[n]t\m, eKv\m[n]t\m P∑\£{Xtam ]cnthj
tØmsS I≠m¬ cmPmhn\v Aip`w kw`hn°pw.
12. ]cnthjafieKtXm chnX\bx
£p{Z [m\y\miIcx
P\bXn N hmXhrjvSnw
ÿmhcIrjn Ir∂n l¥m N.
425

{]Imikn‘p

i\nsb ]cnthj afieKXambn I≠m¬ £p{Z[m\y߃
\in®p t]mIpw. ÿmhc hkvXp°ƒ°pw Irjn°m¿°pw \miI¿Øm
hmbn ]h\bp‡amb hrjvSn D≠mhpIbpw sNøpw.
13. s`uta Ipamc _e]Xn ssk\ym\mw
hn{Zthmf Kv\n ikv{X`bw
Poth]cnthj KtX ]ptcmlnXmamXy
\r] ]oVm.
sNmΔ°v ]cnthjw I≠m¬ bphcmPmhv, tk\m]Xn, tk\ F∂n
hbv°v hymIpeX, AKv\n`bw, Bbp[`bw. _rlkv]Xn°v ]cnthjw
I≠m¬ ]ptcmlnX≥, a{¥n, cmPmhv F∂nh¿°v ]oV.
14. a{¥n ÿmhc teJI]cnhr≤n›{μtP kphrjvSn›
ipt{I bmbn £{Xnbcm⁄mw ]oVm{]nbw Nm∂w.
_p[\v ]cnthjw I≠m¬ a{¥n, ÿmhc hkvXp°ƒ, teJ
I∑m¿ F∂nh¿°v A`nhr≤nbpw kphrjvSnbpw. ip{I\v ]cnthjw
I≠m¬ £{Xnb∑m¿°pw cmPm°∑m¿°pw ]oVbpw Zp¿`n£hpw.
15. £pZ\earXyp\cm[n] ikvt{Xtiym PmbtX`bw tIsXu
]cnhnjvtS K¿``bw cmsluhym[n \r]`bw N.
tIXp ]cnthjtØmsS I≠m¬ hni∏v, AKv\n, arXyp, cmP`bw,
ikv{X`bw F∂nhbpw cmlp ]cnthjtØmsS \n∂m¬ K¿``bw,
hym[n, cmP`bw F∂nhbpw D≠mhpw.
16. bp≤m\n hnPm\obmXv ]cnthjmiy¥tc Zztbm¿{Kltbm
ZnhkIrXx cmint\mhm£pZhrjvSn `bw {Xnjpt{]m‡w.
kqcyN{μ∑m¿°p ]cnthjw ImWpI, Zzn{Kl߃ XΩn¬ bp≤
ap≠mhpI, As√¶n¬ 3 {Kl߃°p ]cnthjw ImWpI. Cßs\
h∂m¬ Zp¿`n£w, AhrjvSn F∂nh D≠mhpw.
17. bmXn NXp¿jp \tc{μx
kmamXy ]ptcmlntXmhiw artXymx
{]eb anh hn≤n PKXx
]©mZnjp afietÿjp
426

{]Imikn‘p

As©ÆØn\v ]cnthjw I≠m¬ PKØn¬ {]fbw D≠mhpw.
\mseÆØn\p I≠m¬ AamXy≥, cmPmhv, ]ptcmlnX≥ F∂nh¿°v
arXy^ew.
18. Xmcm{KlkyIpcymXv ]rYtKh kap∞ntXm \tc{μh[w
\£{XmWmaYhm bZn tItXm¿∂m Ztbm `hXn.
Xmcm{Kl߃ F√mw ]cnthjtØmsS DZn®m¬ cmPmhv h[n°
s∏Spw. CXv tIXp DZn°mØ]£amWv. tIXp DZn®n´ps≠¶n¬ tIXq
Zb ^eamWv Xmcm{KlmZn^ea√ ]dtb≠Xv.
19. hn{]£{Xnb hnSviq{Zlm `thXv
{]Xn]ZmZnjp {Iaix
t{iWo ]pc tImim\mw ]©aymZnjyip`Ico `hXn.
{]Xn]Zw apX¬ 4 XnYnhsc ]cnthjw I≠m¬ {IaØn¬ {_m
lvaW, £{Xnb, sshiy, iq{ZmZnIƒ°p \miw hcpw. ]©an apX¬ 7
XnYn hsc I≠m¬ t{iWn, ]pcw, tImiw F∂nhbv°mWv Aip`w.
20. bphcmPkymjvSaymw ]cX kv{Xnjp
]m¿∞nhky tZmjIcx
]qctcmt[m ZzmZiymw ssk\yt£m`
kv{Xtbm Ziymw.
AjvSan°v ]cnthjw I≠m¬ bphcmPmhn\pw AXn\p tijap≈
aq∂p XnYnIfn¬ I≠m¬ cmPmhn\pw tZmjIcamWv. ZzmZin°v ]cn
thjw I≠m¬ \KcsØ i{Xp D]tcm[n°pw. {XtbmZin°p I≠m¬
ssk\yt£m`w (bp≤w) D≠mhpw.
21. \c]Xn ]Xv\n]oUmw ]cnthtjmf iyp∞nX›Xp¿±iymw
IpcymXv Xp ]©Ziymw ]oUmw a\pPm[n]sskyh.
NXp¿±in\mƒ ]cnthjw I≠m¬ cmP]Xv\n°pw ]©Zin°p
]cnthjw I≠m¬ cmPmhn\pw ]oV kw`hn°pw.
22. \mKcnImWm amiy¥cmÿnXm
bmbn\mw N _mly ÿm
427

{]Imikn‘p

]cnthj a≤ytcJm
hnt⁄bm{Iμ kmcmWmw.
]cnthjØns‚ A¥xÿnXambn Hcp a≤ytcJ I≠m¬ \Kc
hmknIƒ°pw ]pdØp I≠m¬ i{XpcmPm°∑m¿°pw ]oU kw`hn
°pw. ]cnthj a≤ytcJ t\m°nbn´v Bscms°bmWv B{Iμ\w
sNøpI F∂dnbmw.
23. c‡x iymtam cq£› `hXn tbjmw]cmPbkvtXjmw
kv\nKv≤x tiztXm ZypXnam≥ tbjmw `mtKm PbkvtXjmw
CXn{io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
]cnthj e£Ww \ma NXp kv{Xnwtimf ≤ymbx
Iq¿Ω hn`mKm\pkcWw GtXXp `mKØv ]cnthjw, c‡w,
iymaw, cq£w F∂nßs\ ImWp∂pthm AXmXp tZi߃°v ]cmPbw
kw`hn°pw. kv\nKv[w, tizXw, Zo]vXw F∂p ImWp∂ tZi߃°v
bp≤Øn¬ hnPbw kw`hn°pw.

428

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 35

C{μmbp[ e£Ww
1. kqcyky hnhn[h¿Æmx ]ht\\ hnL´nXmx Icmx kmt{`
hnbXn [\px kwÿm\m tb Zriyt¥ XZn{μ[\px
hnhn[ h¿ÆßtfmSp IqSnb kqcyIncWw ]h\\m¬ t`Zn°s∏´v
taLbp‡amb BImiØn¬ hn√ns‚ BIrXnbn¬ Zriyamhp∂
XmWv C{μ[\p v.
2. tINnZ\¥ IptemcK\nx izmtkmZvLpX amlpcmNmcymx
XZymbn\mw \r]mWm a`napJ aPbmhlw `hXn.
Nne BNmcy∑mcpsS A`n{]mbw A\¥s\∂ Ipe\mKØns‚
izmkØn¬ \n∂mWv C{μ[\p v D≠mIp∂sX∂mWv. C{μ[\p n\v
A`napJambn bp≤Øn\pt]mIp∂ cmPm°∑m¿ ]cmPnXcmIp∂p.
3. AOn∂ ah\nKmVw ZypXnaXv kv\nKv≤w [\w hnhn[h¿Æw
ZzncpZnX a\ptemaw N {]ikvXaw`x {]iݴn N.
AhnOn∂ambn `qanbn¬ sXmSp∂Xpw {]ImihØpw kv\nKv≤hpw
[\hpw hnhn[ h¿Æap≈Xpw CcphitØ°pw DZn®v A\ptema
ambXpw Bb t{ijvSamb C{μ[\p v [mcmfw ag sIm≠phcp∂p.
4. hnZnKpZv`qXw ZnIvkzman \mi\w hy{`Pw acWImcn
]mSe]oXI\ossex ikv{XmKv\n £pXvIrXm tZmjmx
Cuim\m, AKv\n, ss\cyXn, hmbp tImWpIfn¬ C{μ[\p p
I≠m¬ AXmXp Zn°nse cmPmhn\p acWw. ]mSew, a™, \oe F∂o
h¿Æ߃ I≠m¬ Bbp[w, AKv\n, Zp¿`n£w F∂nh sIm≠v tZmj
߃ kw`hn°pw.
5. Peat≤yf \mhrjvSn¿`phn kky h[kvXscu ÿntX hym[nx
h¬aotI ikv{X `bw \nin kNnh h[mb [\pssc{μw
Pea≤yØn¬ C{μ[\p p I≠m¬ A\mhrjvSn, `qanbn¬ kky
429

{]Imikn‘p

\miw, hr£Ønt∑¬ hym[n, hmXvaoIØn¬ I≠m¬ ikv{X`bw,
cm{Xn I≠m¬ a{¥nh[w.
6. hrjvSnw ItcmXyhrjvSymw hrjvSnw hrjvSymw\nhmcbssXy{μymw
]›mZv \ssZh hrjvSnw Ipeni `rXizm]amNjvtS.
A\mhrjvSn ImeØv ]q¿Δ Znibn¬ aghn√p I≠m¬ hrjvSn
e`n°pw. hrjvSnImeØv ]q¿ΔZnibn¬ aghn√p I≠m¬ hrjvSn e`n°m
Xmhpw. ]›na`mKØv C{μ[\p pI≠m¬ kZm ag e`n°pw.
7. Nm]w atLm\x IpcptX \nimbm amJfiembmw.
Znin `q] ]oVmw.
bmay]tcmZIv {]`hw \nl\ymXv tk\m]Xnw
\mbI a{¥nsWu N.
]q¿ΔZnibn¬ cm{Xn aghn√p I≠m¬ cmPm°∑m¿ ]oUnXcmhpw.
Z£nW, ]›na, DØc ZniIfnse aghn√v tk\m]Xn, \mbI≥, a{¥n
F∂nhsc \in∏n°pw.
8. \nin kpcNm]w knXh¿ÆmZyw P\bXn ]oUmw
ZznP ]q¿ΔmWw
`hXn Nbkyw ZninXt±iyw \c]XnapJyw
\ NncmZz\ymXv.
CXn {iohcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbm
an{μ e£Ww \ma ]©{Xnwtimf ≤ymbx
cm{Xnbn¬ tizXw, c‡w, ]oXw, IrjvWw F∂o h¿Æ߃°p
{]mapJytØmsS aghn√p I≠m¬ {IaØn¬ {_mlvaWmZn NXp¿Δ¿
Æ߃°p \miw. F∂m¬ GXp ZnibnemtWm I≠Xv B Znibnse
cmPmhn\mWv thKw \miw kw`hn°pI.

430

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 36

K‘¿Δ \Kcw
1. DZvKmZn ]ptcmlnX \r]_e]Xn bphcmPtZmjZw J]pcw
knXc‡ ]oX IrjvWw hn{]mZn\m a`hmb.
DØcw, ]q¿Δw, Z£nWw, ]›naw F∂o ZniIfn¬ {Iam\pkrX
ambn ImWp∂ “J]pcw” ]ptcmlnX≥, cmPmhv, tk\m]Xn, bphcmPmhv
F∂nh¿°v hnLv\߃ D≠m°p∂p. tizXw, c‡w, ]oXw, IrjvWw
F∂o h¿Æßfn¬ ImWs∏´m¬ hn{]mZnNXp¿h¿Æ߃°v tZmjw.
2. \mKc \r]Xn PbmhlapZKznZnIv∞w hnh¿Æ\mimb
im¥mimbmw ZrjvSw ktXmcWw \r]Xn hnPbmb.
DØcZn°n¬ K‘¿Δ\Kcw I≠m¬ \KcØn\pw cmPmhn\pw
hnPbw e`n°pw. Cuim\tIm¨, AKv\n, hmbptIm¨ F∂o Zn°p
Ifn¬ I≠m¬ Ah¿Æ∑m¿°v \miw kw`hn°pw. im¥Znibn¬
tXmcWbp‡amb K‘¿Δ \Kcw I≠m¬ cmPmhn\v hnPbap≠mIpw.
3. k¿Δ ZnKp∞w kXtXm∞nXw N `bZw \tc{μcmjv{SmWmw
sNucmShnIm≥ l\ymZv `qam\e i{I Nm]m`w.
kZm k¿ΔZniIfnepw DZn®p\n¬°p∂ K‘¿Δ \Kcw cmPmhn\pw
cmjv{SØn\pw `bmP\IamWv. AKv\n t]msetbm C{μ[\p pt]mse
tbm AXp ImWs∏´m¬ tNmc∑m¿°pw h\hmknIƒ°pw \miImcW
ambnØocpw.
4. K‘¿Δ\Kcap∞nX am]mfipcai\n ]mX hmXIcw
Zo]vtX\tc{μarXyp¿Δmtaf cn`bw Pbx kthy.
]mfipch¿ÆØm¬ K‘¿Δ \Kcw I≠m¬ h{P]mXhpw sImSp
¶m‰pw D≠mhpw. Zo]vXZniIfn¬ I≠m¬ cmPmhn\v arXyp. hmaZnibn¬
i{Xp`bw. Z£nW`mKsضn¬ hnPbw.
5. At\I h¿ÆmIrXn tJ {]ImitX]pcw
]XmIm ≤zPtXmcWm\znXw
431

{]Imikn‘p

bZmXZm \mKa\pjyhmPn\mw
]n_XykrKv `qcnctW hkp‘cm.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
K‘¿Δ \Kc e£Ww \ma jUv{Xnwtimf ≤ymbx
At\I h¿ÆtØmSpw BIrXntbmSpw IqSnb ]XmI, [zPw,
tXmcWw F∂nhtbmSpIqSnb K‘¿Δ\Kcw BImiØn¬ {]Imin
°p∂ ]£w bp≤Øn¬ At\Iw B\Iƒ, IpXncIƒ, a\pjy¿ F∂n
hbpsS c‡w `qan IpSn°p∂p.

432

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 37

{]Xnkqcy e£Ww
1. {]XnkqcyIx {]ikvtXm ZnhkIrZrXph¿Æk{]`x kv\nKv[x
sshZqcy\n`x kzOx ip¢O t£a sku`n£x
GXp EXphn¬ kqcyt‚bpw {]Xnkqcyt‚bpw h¿Æw kv\nKv≤
amb sshZqcyØn\pkaw kzOhpw ip¢hpambncn°p∂pthm B EXp
hn¬ t£ahpw kp`n£hpw D≠mhpw.
2. ]otXmhym[ow P\bXy timIcq] › ikvt{X tIm]mb
{]XnkqcymWmw amemZkyp `bmX¶ \r]l{¥n.
a™\ndØnep≈ {]Xnkqcy≥ hym[nbp≠m°p∂p. AtimI
]pjv]Øns‚ \ndsa¶n¬ ikv{XtIm]ap≠mIpw. At\Iw {]Xnkqcy
∑mcpsS ame I≠m¬ Zkyp`bw, BX¶w, cmPmhns‚ h[w F∂nh
kw`hn°pw.
3. ZnhkIrXx {]Xnkqtcym
PeIrZpZKv Z£ntW ÿntXmf \neIrXv
D`bÿx kene`bw
\r]ap]cn\nl¥yt[mP\lm.
CXn {iohcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
{]XnkqcyN{Iw \ma k]vX {Xnwtimf ≤ymbx
DØc `mKØv {]Xnkqcys\ I≠m¬ ag e`n°pw. Z£nW
`mKØp I≠m¬ Im‰p≠mhpw. c≠p Znibnepw I≠m¬ Pe`bw D≠m
hpw (sh≈s∏m°w)- apIƒ`mKØp I≠m¬ cmPmhn\pw Xmsg I≠m¬
P\Xbv°pw \miap≠mIpw.

433

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 38

ctPme£Ww
1. IYb¥n ]m¿∞nhh[w cPkm
L\ Xnanc k©b\nt`\
Ahn`mhy am\Kncn ]pcXchx
k¿ΔZni›∂mx
L\tadnb Ccp´ns‚ k©bw t]mse k¿ΔZniIfnepw aqSnbncn
°p∂ s]mSnsIm≠v ]¿ΔXhpw \Kchpw hr£ßfpw H∂pw ImWmXm
hptºmƒ cmPmhns‚ h[w {]hNn°mw.
2. bkymw Znin Zqcn Nbx
{]mIv {]`hXn \mitaXn hmbkymw
BKOXn k]vXmlmØss{Xh
`bw\ ktμlx
BZyw GXp ZnibnemtWm [qfnkaqlw ImWs∏SpIbpw, \nhr
ØamIpIbpw sNbvXXv, B Znibn¬ Ggp\mƒ°Iw `bap≠mhpsa∂
Xn¬ ktμlan√.
3. tiztX ctPm Ls\utL ]oVm
kym≥ a{¥nP\]Zm\mw N
\ NncmXv {]tIm] ap]bmXn
ikv{XaXnkwIpem kn≤nx
[qfncmiocq]amb taLkaqlw tizXh¿ÆamsW¶n¬ a{¥n
am¿°pw P\]Z߃°pw ]oV D≠mhpw. ikv{XtIm]w thKØn¬
kw`hn°pw. Imcykn≤n D≠mhpIbn√.
4. A¿t°mZtb hnPrw`Xn
bZn Zn\taIw Zn\Zzbw hm]n
ÿKb∂nh KK\Xew
`baXyp{Kw \nthZbXn.
434

{]Imikn‘p

A¿t°mZb thf apX¬ Hcp Zn\w apgph\ptam, c≠pZn\tam BIm
iØn¬ cP v hnPrw`nXambn \n∂m¬ GtXm AXyp{K`bw kw`hn°m
\ncn°p∂p≠v.
5. A\hcXk©bhlw cP\otaImw {][m\ \r] l¥r
t£amb N tcmjmWm hnN£Wm\mw \tc{μmWmw.
Hcp cm{Xn apgph≥ s]mSn]Sew \n∂m¬ {][m\ \r]≥ h[n°
s∏Spw. a‰v hnN£Wcmb \r]∑m¿°v t£aw D≠mhpw.
6. cP\o Zzbw hnk¿∏bXn bkvan≥ cmjvt{S ctPmL\w _lpew
]cN{IkymKa\w Xkvan∂]n k∂nt_m≤hyw.
c≠p cm{Xntbmfw [qfntaLw Hcp cmjv{SØn¬ \n∂m¬ as‰mcp
cmPysØ cmPmhn\m¬ `cn°s∏Spw F∂dnbWw.
7. \n]XXn cP\o {XnXbw
NXpjvW a]y∂c khn\mimb
cm⁄mw ssk\y t£mt`m
cPkn `thXv ]©cm{X `th.
aq∂v AYhm \mep cm{Xn s]mSn h¿jn®p sIm≠ncp∂m¬ A∂
Øn\pw ckØn\pw \miap≠mhpw. A©pcm{Xn s]mSnh¿jn®m¬ cmPm
°∑mcpsS ssk\y߃°nSbn¬ t£m`ap≠mhpw.
8. tIXzm ZypZb hnap‡w bZmctPm
`hXn Xo{h `bZmbn
inincmZ\y EsXu ^e ahnIe amlpcmNmcyx
CXn {ihcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
ctPme£Ww \mamjvS{Xnwtimf ≤ymb
tIXp apXembhbpsS DZbØn\p tijamWv s]mSn h¿jn®sX
¶n¬ Xo{h `bw D≠mhpw. BNmcy∑mcpsS A`n{]mbØn¬ ininc
EXphnsemgnsI, a‰p EXp°fn¬ cP pI≠m¬ ^ew A[nIamsW
∂mWv.

435

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 39

\n¿LmX e£Ww
1. ]h\x ]h\m`nltXm
KK\mZhs\u bZmkam]XXn
`hXn XYm \n¿LmXx kN
]mt]m Zo]vX hnlKcpXx
Im‰v Im‰n\m¬ A`nlXambn´v BImiØp\n∂v `qanbn¬ ]Xn
°p∂ kabØv \n¿LmXw kw`hn°p∂p. B kabØv kqcym`napJ
ambn i_vZap≠m°ns°m≠v ]£nIƒ ]d∂m¬ Aip`IcamWv.
2. A¿t°mZtbf [nIcWnI
\r][\ntbm [mwK\mhWn tKziymx
B{]lcmw tif PmhnIap]l\ymOp{Z s]ucmw›.
kqtcymZbØn¬ \n¿LmXap≠mbm¬ A[nIcWnI∑m¿ (Nn¥
I∑m¿- hnNmcI∑m¿) \r]¿, [\nI¿, AwK\am¿, tbm≤m°ƒ, hWn
°pIƒ, thiyIƒ F∂nh¿ \in°pw. {]lcmwi kabØmsW¶n¬
B´nSb∑m¿, iq{Z∑m¿, ]uc∑m¿ F∂nh¿°mWv \miw.
3. Ba≤ymlv\m{ZmtPm]tkhnt\m
{_mlvaWmw› ]oVbXn.
sshiy PeZmw kvXrXotb sNucm≥
{]ltc NXp¿t∞ N.
a≤ymlv\ thfbnemsW¶n¬ cmPmhns\ tkhn°p∂h¿°pw {_m
lvaW¿°pamWv ]oV. aq∂masØ {]lcØn¬ \n¿LmXap≠mbm¬
sshiy∑mcpw hrjvSn \¬Ip∂ taLßfpw \in°pw. \memasØ {]l
cØn¬ D≠mbm¬ I≈∑m¿°mWv \miw.
4. AkvXw bmtX \oNm≥ {]Yta bmta \nl¥n kkym\n
cms{Xu ZznXobbmta ]nimN kwLm∂n]oVbXn.
436

{]Imikn‘p

kqcymkvXabØn¬ \n¿LmXap≠mbm¬ \oN∑mcpw cm{XnbpsS
{]YabmaØn¬ D≠mbm¬ kkyßfpw \in°pw. cm{XnbpsS c≠m
asØ bmaØn¬ \n¿LmXap≠mbm¬ ]nimNkwL߃ ]oVnX
cmIpw.
5. XpcKIcnWkvXrXob hn\nl\ymZymbn\›Xp¿t∞ N
ss`ch P¿÷c i_vtZm bmXn bXkvXmw Znimw l¥n.
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
\n¿LmX e£Ww \mssatIm\ NXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
cm{XnbpsS aq∂mw {]lcØn¬ \n¿LmXap≠mbm¬ B\, IpXnc
F∂nhbv°pw \memw bmaØn¬ D≠mbm¬ B≤ymbn\∑m¿°pw
\miw. GXp Znibn¬ ss`ch P¿÷c i_vZtØmSpIqSn \n¿LmX
ap≠mhp∂pthm B Znibn¬ \miw kw`hn°pw.

437

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 40

kky PmXIw
1. hr›nI hrj{]thti `mt\m¿tø _mZcmbtWt\m‡mx
{Kojva icXv kkym\mw kZktZymKmx IrXmkvX Cta.
hrivNnIw, Ej`w F∂nhbn¬ kqcy≥ {]thin°ptºmƒ {Kojva¿
Øphntebpw icZrXphntebpw kkyßfpsS kØpw AkØpw _mZ
cmbW\m¬ ]dbs∏´hbmWv. Ah ]dbp∂p:
2. `mt\mcen {]thtKti tIss{μkvXkvam Op`{Klm{Imss¥x
_ehZv`nx kussay¿Δm \nco£nssX¿ ss{KjvanI hnhr≤nx
kqcy≥ hr›nIØn¬ {]thin°ptºmƒ AXns‚ tI{μ ÿm\
ßfn¬ (hr›nIw, Ipw`w, CShw, Nnßw) ip` {Kl߃ _ehm∑mcmbn
\n∂m¬ {Kojva¿Øphnse kky߃°v kar≤n D≠mhpw. ip` {Kl
ZrjvSnbp≠mbmepw CtX ^ew.
3. AjvSacmin KtXf ¿t° Kpcpiint\mx
Ipw`m knwlÿnXtbmx
knwl LSm kwÿtbm¿Δm \njv]Øn {Kojva kkyky.
AjvSacminbmb hr›nIØn¬ kqcy≥ {]thin°sh Ipw`
Øn¬ Kpcphpw knwlØn¬ N{μ\pw (adn®v knwlØn¬ Kpcphpw Ipw`
Øn¬ N{μ\pw) \n∂m¬ {KojvaImekky߃ h¿≤n°pw.
4. A¿°mXv kntXZznXotb _pt[f Yhm bpK]tZhhmkvXnXtbm
hybKX tbmc]nX Zz∂njv]Øn cXoh Kpcp ZrjvSym.
kqcys‚ c≠mw cminbn¬ ip{It\m _p[t\m \n¬°pI, As√
¶n¬ Ah c≠pwtN¿∂v kqcys‚ 11 -mw cminbn¬ \n¬°pI- Cßs\
h∂mepw [mcmfw A∂w Dev]mZn∏n°s∏Spw. hymgZrjvSnbps≠¶n¬
B A∂w DØaambncn°bpw sNøpw.
5. ip`at≤yf en\n kqcymZv Kpcp iint\mx
k]vXta ]cmkºXv
AeymZntÿ khnXcn Kpscu ZznXotbf ¿≤m\njv]Ønx
438

{]Imikn‘p

hr›nIØn¬ \n¬°p∂ kqcys‚ CcphiØpw ip`{Kl߃
D≠mhpI, AhtbmsSm∏w hymghpw N{μ\pw IqSn D≠mhpI F∂p
h∂m¬ [mcmfw hnfhv D≠mhpw. hr›nIØn¬ chnbpw AXns‚
c≠n¬ Kpcphpw \n∂m¬ ]IpXn hnfhv In´pw.
6. em`ln_qIm¿∞bpss‡x kqcymZenKmXvkntXμpcmin]pss{Xx
kkyky ]cm kºXv I¿ΩWn Poth Khmw NmKym.
hr›nI kqcys‚ 2,4,11 cminIfn¬ ip{I≥, N{μ≥, _p[≥ F∂n
h¿ \n∂m¬ kky kºØv [mcmfw e`n°pw. 10 -mw `mhØn¬ Kpcp
\n∂m¬ I∂pImenIƒ°v DØaamb A∂w [mcmfw In´pw.
7. Ipwt` Kpcp¿§hn iin kqcymf enaptJIpPm¿°sPu aItc
\njv]ØnckvXn alXn ]›mXv ]cN{I tcmK`w.
kqcy≥ hr›nIØn¬ {]thin°ptºmƒ Ipw`Øn¬ Kpcp, Ej`
Øn¬ N{μ≥, aIcØn¬ IpPt\m i\ntbm- Cßs\ \n∂m¬ [mcmfw
kkykºØp≠mhpw. F∂m¬ XpS¿∂v A\ycmPyØp \n∂p≈
B{IaWhpw tcmK`bhpw D≠mhpw.
8. at≤y ]m]{Kltbmx kqcyx kkym hn\mi bXyenKx
]m]x k]vXacmsiu PmXw PmXw hn\mibXn.
hr›nIØn¬ ]m] {Kl a≤yÿnX\mbn kqcy≥ \n∂m¬ [m\y
߃ \in®pt]mIpw. CXpt]mse hr›nI cminbpsS 7 -mw cminbmb
CShØn¬ \n∂m¬ apfbv°p∂ [m\ysams° \in°p∂p.
9. A¿∞ ÿmt\ {Iqcx skussay c\nco£nXx {]YaPmXw
kky \nl¥n ]iymZp]vXw \njv]mZ tbZvhy‡w.
A¿∞ÿm\Øp \n¬°p∂ {Iqc {KlsØ skuay {Klßsfm
∂pw Xs∂ ZrjvSn sNømXncp∂m¬ BZyw \´ kkysa√mw \in°pw.
]n∂oSp \´sXms° apf®p hfcpw.
10. PmanX tI{μ kwsÿu {Iqcm kqcyky hr›nI ÿky.
kky hn]Ønw IpcpXx skussay¿{ZsjvSu \ k¿Δ{X.
hr›nI kqcys‚ Ggnsem, tI{μØntem \n¬°p∂ {Iqc {Klw
kkyßsf \in∏n°p∂p. ip` {Kl ZrjvSnbps≠¶n¬ kky\miw
km¿Δ{XnIambncn°bn√.
439

{]Imikn‘p

11. hr›nIkwÿm Z¿°mXv k]vXajjvsTm]sKu bZm{Iqscu
`hXn XZm \njv]Ønx kkym\ma¿≤ ]cnlm\nx
hr›nI kqcys‚ Bdnepw Ggnepw {Iqc{Klw \n∂m¬ kky
߃ D≠mhpw. F∂m¬ AhbpsS aqeyw ]IpXnbmbn Npcpßpw.
12. hn[n \mt\ss\h chn¿ hrj {]thti icXv kap∞m\mw
hnt⁄bx kkym\mw \mimb inhmb hmXss⁄
hrj cminbn¬ kqcy≥ {]thin°ptºmƒ D≠mhp∂ icZrXp
hn¬ Dev]∂amb [m\yßfpsS \miw, inhw (ip`w) F∂nh IqSn Adn
bWw.
13. {Xnjp, tajmZnjp kqcyx kuaybpsXu ho£nsXmf ]n hm hnNc≥
ss{KjvanI[m\yw IpcptX ka¿∞ap`tbm] tbmKywN.
taSw apX¬ 3 cminIfn¬ kqcy≥ kuay{KlßtfmSp tN¿t∂m,
kuay{KlZrjvSnbntem \n∂m¬ ss{KjvanI [m\y߃ [mcmfw D≠m
hpw. P\߃ Clw, ]cw F∂ c≠p temIØnte°pw AXv D]tbmKn
°m≥ ka¿∞cmhpw (CltemIØv [mcmfw `£n°m\pw, At\Iw
t]¿°v A∂Zm\w sNbvXv DØaamb ]ctemI߃ {]m]n°m\pw th
≠{X [m\yw D≠mhpw F∂¿∞w).
14. Im¿ΩpI arK LS kwÿx
imcZky XZz tZh chnx
kw{Kl Imte t⁄tbm
hn]cybx {Iqc ZrtKymKmXv.
CXn {io hcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
kkyPmXIw \ma NXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
[\p, aIcw, Ipw`w cminIfn¬ \n¬°p∂ kqcy≥ icXvIme kky
߃°pw ta¬]d™ hn[w A`nhr≤n \¬Ip∂p. kw{Kl ImeØv
{Iqc{Kl kwtbmKtam ZrjvSntbm D≠mbm¬ CXn\v hn]coXw G¿s∏
Spsa∂dnbWw.

440

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 41

{Zhy\n›bw
1. tb tbjmw {ZhymWm a[n]Xtbm cmibx kap±njvSmx
ap\n`nx ip`m ip`m¿∞w Xm\mKaXx {]h£yman
GtXXp {Zhy߃°v GtXXp cmiym[n]∑m¿ F∂v ap\nam¿ apºp
]d™n´p≠v. ip`mip`m¿∞ambn BKaßfnep≈ hn[w, Ahsb
Rm≥ ]dbmw.
2. hkv{XmhnIIpXp]m\mw akqctKm [qacmfIbhm\mw
ÿekw`shuj[o\mw I\Iky N Io¿ØntXm tajx
tajcmin hkv{Xw, B´ptcmaw sIm≠p≈ Iw_fw, ]cn∏pIƒ,
tKmXºv, hrt£mev]∂߃, bhw, ÿew, kw`hw, acp∂pIƒ, kz¿
Æw F∂nhbv°v kzmanbmWv.
3. Khnhkv{X IpkpatKm[qa imenbh alnjkpc`nX\bmx kypx
anYpt\f ]n [m\y imcZh√o imeqI I¿∏mkmx
]ip, hkv{Xw, ]q°ƒ, tKmXºv, imenbh߃, alnjw, kpc`o
]p{X∑m¿ F∂nhbv°v Ej`cminbpw, [m\y߃ icZrXphn¬ Dev]∂
amIp∂ h≈nIƒ, Xmacw, Ip¶paw, ]cpØn F∂nhbv°v anYp\cmin
bpw kzmanbmWv.
4. I¿°nWntIm{Zh IZfo Zq¿Δm ^eIμ]{XtNmNm\n.
knwtl Xrj[m\yckmx knwlm Zo\mw XzNx kKpUmx
I¿°nSIw IZfn, Zq¿Δm, ^e߃, IngßpIƒ, CeIƒ F∂nh
bv°pw Nnßw, Xrj[m\y߃, ckw, Xz°v, Kpfw F∂nhbv°pw A[n
]XnamcmWv.
5. jjvtTf XkoIembmx Ipe∞ tKm[qam apZvK \njv]mhmx
k]vXa cmsiuamjm tKm[qamx k¿j]mx kbhmx
I\y AXkn, ]cn∏p h¿§ßƒ, Ipe∞w, tKmXºv, Dgp∂v, \njv]m
441

{]Imikn‘p

hw (HcpXcw ]cn∏v) F∂nhbv°pw Xpemw Dgp∂v, tKmXºv, ISpIv, bh
sa∂nhbv°pw kzmanbmWv.
6. AjvSacmim hn£px sskIyw teml\yPmhnIw Nm]n
\hta Xp XpcK ehWmw _cm kv{XXne [m\y aqem\n.
hr›nIw, Icnºv, Pemwiap≈ k¿Δ hkvXp°fpw (Icnºnepw
Pew ]ngns™Sp-°mw), k¿Δ temlßfpw, BSv, ImenIƒ apXembh
bv°p kzmanbmWv. [\p, Aizw, D∏v, hkv{Xw (Aw_cw- hkv{Xw F∂pw
BImisa∂pw) Akv{Xw, Xne[m\yw aqew (aqew \£{Xw, thcv,
Ingßv, Dev]Ønÿm\w F∂v \m\m¿∞w) F∂nhbv°v kzmanbmWv.
7. aItc Xcp KpevamZyw ssktIyjp kph¿Æm IrjvWm temlm\n
Ipwt` keneP ^e Ipkpa cXv\ Nn{XmWn.
aIcw hr£KpevamZnIƒ, ]ngn™p In´p∂ Icnºv apXemb hkvXp
°ƒ, kph¿Æw, IrjvW temlw (Ccpºv) F∂nhbv°pw Ipw`w Pe
Øn¬ \n∂p≠mhp∂ ^e߃, Ipkpa߃, cXv\߃, Nn{X߃
(cq]߃) F∂nhbv°pw kzmanbmWv.
8. aot\ I]memkw`h cXv\mw\yw_qZv `hm\n h{PmWn
kvt\lm› ss\Icq]m hymJymXm a’yPmXw N
I]meØn¬ \n∂p kw`hn® cXv\߃ (B\bpsS akvXIØn
se apØv, \mK inc nse amWnIyw, a\pjy akvXnjvIØnse ‘Nn¥m
aWn’ F∂ {]⁄) PeØn¬ \n∂v DXv`hn® hkvXp°ƒ (Poh≥
AS°w) h{Pw, kvt\lw (t{]aw, FÆ, sImgp∏v- \m\m¿∞w) apXembn
At\I cq]Øn¬ hymJym\n°s∏´hsb√mw a’yPmXamWv (ao\w
cmin F∂pw, a’ycmPysa∂pw c≠¿∞Øn¬ FSp°pI).
9. cmti›Xp¿±im¿∞mbk]vX \h]©aÿntXmPohx
t≤yImZi Zi]©mjvStajp cminP› hr≤nIcx
GXp cminbpsS 2,4,5,7,9,10,11 ÿm\ßfn¬ Poh≥ (hymgw) Dt≠m,
2,5,8,10,11 ÿm\ßfn¬ _p[≥ Dt≠m B cminbn¬ ]dbs∏´ {Zhy
Øn\v hr≤nbp≠mhpw.
10. jUv k]vXa tKm lm\nw hr≤nw ip{Ix ItcmXntitjkp
D]Nb kwÿmx {Iqcmx ipt`mx titjjp lm\nIcmx
442

{]Imikn‘p

C{]Imcw Xs∂, Cu ÿm\ßfn¬ ip{I≥ \n∂m¬ hr≤n, 6,
7 ¬ \n∂m¬ £bw. {Iqc{Klw D]Nbßfn¬ \n∂m¬ (3,6,10,11) ip`
ZmbnbmWv. at‰sX¶nepw cminbn¬ \n∂m¬ lm\nIcamWv.
11. cmtiycyky {Iqcmx ]oVm ÿmt\jp kwÿnXm _en\x
XXv t{]m‡ {ZhymWmw alm¿≤Xm Zp¿√`Xzw N.
_ehm\mb {Iqc{Klw GXp cminbn¬ ]oVmÿm\Øv (D]Nb
a√mØnSØv) \n¬°p∂pthm B cminbpsS A[o\Xbnep≈ k¿Δ
{Zhyßfpw \in®v Zp√`ambnXocp∂p.
12. CjvSÿmt\ skuaym_ent\m tbjmw `hXn cmio\mw
XZv{ZhymWmwhr≤nx kma¿∞yaZp¿√`Xzw N.
_ehm\mb ip`{Klw GXpcminbpsS CjvSÿm\Øv (D]Nb
Øn¬) \n¬°p∂pthm B cminbpsS A[o\Ønep≈ k¿Δ hkvXp
°ƒ°pw A`nhr≤n D≠mImhp∂XmWv; am{Xa√ B {Zhy߃ kpe`
ambn e`n°pIbpw sNøpw; AXn\p≈ (Ah t\Sm\p≈) kma¿∞yhpw
cmjv{S߃°p≠mhpw.
13. tKmNc]oVmbma]ncmin¿∫en`nx ip`{KsslZrjvSx
]oVmw \ ItcmXn XYm {Iqssctchw hn]cymkyx
CXn hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
{Zhy\n›tbm \mssaI NXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
cminIfn¬ _ehm∑mcmb ip`{KlßfpsS ZrjvSnbps≠¶n¬
tKmNc]oVsb D≠m°pIbn√. {Iqc{KlßfmsW-¶n¬ CXn\p hn]
coX^ew ]dbmw.

443

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 42

A¿∞ Imfiw
1. AXnhrjvSypevIm Zfim≥ ]cnthj {KlW ]cn[n ]q¿Δm›
ZrjvSzm amhmkymbmapev]mXm≥ s]u¿Æamkymw.
2. {_qbmZ¿≤hntijm≥ {]Xnamkw cminjp {IamXv kqcy
A\yXnYm hypXv]mXm tb tX Uacm¿Øtb cm⁄mw.
{]Xnamkw cminIfn¬ {IaØn¬ kqcy≥ Kan°ptºmƒ Aam
hmkn, ]u¿ÆamknIfn¬ ]cnthjw, {KlWw, ]cn[n, AXnhrjvSn,
D¬°, Zficq]amb DXv]mXw F∂nh I≠m¬ {Iam\pkmcw hnjbw
{Kln®v {]hNn°Ww. Cu DXv]mX߃ cmPm°∑m¿°v `bw D≠m
°p∂p.
3. tatjm]KtX kqtcy {KojvaP [m\yky kw{Klw IpcymXv
h\aqe ^eky hrtj NXp¿∞amtk Xtbm¿√m`x
kqcy≥ taScminbn¬ {]thin°ptºmƒ {Kojva PmXßfmb
[m\yßsf kw{Kln®v kq£n°Ww. CShØn¬ h\hkvXp°ƒ, Ing
ßpIƒ, ^e߃ F∂nh kw{Kln°Ww. \memw amkØn¬ ChbpsS
em`w ]dbmw.
4. anYp\tÿ k¿Δckm≥ [m\ym\n N kw{Klwkap]\ob
jjvtT amtk hn]pew hn{IoW≥ {]m]vkbm√m`w.
anYp\Øn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ k¿Δhn[ckßfpw [m\yßfpw kw`
cn®v Bdmw amkØn¬ Ahsb hn{Ibw sNbvXm¬ \√ em`w In´pw.
5. I¿°nWy¿t° a[pK‘ssXeLrX^mWnXm\n hn\n[mb
ZznKpWm ZznXobamtk e_v[n¿ lo\m[ntI tOZx
I¿°nSIØn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ a[p, kpK‘hkvXp°ƒ, ssXe
߃, LrXw, i¿°c F∂nh kq£n®p kw`cn®m¬ c≠p amkw
sIm≠v \√ em`ap≠m°mw. c≠p amkØne[nIw sh®ncp∂m¬ em`w
Ipdbpw, \jvSap≠mhpIbpw sNøpw.
444

{]Imikn‘p

6. knwtl kph¿ÆaWn N¿Ωikv{XmWn sau‡nIw cPXw
]©aamtk e_v[n¿Δnt{IXpctXmf \yYm tOZx
knwlØn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ kph¿Æw, aWn, N¿Ωw, Bbp[w,
apØv, sh≈n F∂nh kw`cn®m¬ A©mw amkw hn‰v [mcmfw em`ap
≠m°mw. CXn∂p hn]coXambn sNbvXm¬ \jvSamWv.
7. I\ymKtX Zn\Itc Nmac kzc Ic`hmPo\mw t{IXm
jjvtS amtk ZznKpWw em`ahm]vt\mXn hn{IoWm≥.
I∂nbn¬ \n¬°th Nmacw, IgpX, B\, IpXnc F∂nh hmßn
Bdmw amkw hn‰m¬ Cc´n em`w In´pw.
8. sXuen\o Xm¥h `mfiw aWnIw_eImN ]oXIpkpam\n
BZ[ym Zzm\ym\n N jWvamkm ZznKpWoXm hr≤nx
XpemØn¬ \n¬°ptºmƒ X¥p (\qep) sIm≠p≈ hkv{Xw,
]m{Xw, aWn, Iw_fw, ImNw (se≥kv), a™\ndap≈ ]q°ƒ (a™
∏qhn¬ \ns∂Sp°p∂ Nmbw), [m\y߃ F∂nh kw`cn®p shbv°pI.
Bdpamkw sIm≠v ChbpsS aqeyw Cc´nbmbn h¿≤n°pw.
9. hr›nIkwtÿ khnXcn^eIμIaqemhnhn[cXv\m\n
h¿jZzb apjnXm\n ZznKpWw em`w {]bO¥n.
hr›nIØn¬ khnXmhv \n¬°ptºmƒ ^e߃, IngßpIƒ,
thcpIƒ, hnhn[Xcw cXv\߃ F∂nh kw`cn®v c≠v h¿jw kq£n®p
sh®m¬ ZznKpWo `hn® em`w D≠m°mw.
10. Nm]KtX KrlobmXv Ip¶paiwJ{]hmeImNm\n
ap‡m ^em\n N XtXm h¿jm¿≤m¿ZznKpWXmw bm¥n.
[\phn¬ kqcy≥ \n¬°ptºmƒ Ip¶paw, iwJv, {]hmfw, ImNw,
apØv, ^e߃ F∂nh kw`cn®m¬ Bdpamkw sIm≠v (CShw, anYp\w)
ChbpsS hne Cc´n°pw (A°meØmWv Imeh¿j°m‰pIfpsS klm
btØmsS hntZik©mcnIƒ I®hSØn\v FØp∂Xv).
11. arKLStKKrlobmZv ZnhmItc teml`mfi[m\ym\n
ÿnXzm amkw Z[ym√m`m¿∞m ZznKpWam]vt\mXn.
445

{]Imikn‘p

aIcw, Ipw`w cminIfn¬ kqcy≥ \n¬°ptºmƒ, teml߃,
]m{X߃, [m\y߃ F∂nh kw`cn°Ww. Hcp amkw FSpØv sh®v
hn‰m¬, em`Imw£nIƒ°v Cc´n hneIn´pw.
12. khnXcn Qjap]bmtX aqe^ew Iμ`mficXv\m\n
kwÿm]y h’cm¿≤w em`IanjvSw kam]vt\mXn.
ao\cminbn¬ kqcy≥ {]thin®m¬ ^eaqe߃, IngßpIƒ,
]m{X߃, cXv\߃ F∂nh kw`cn®v Bdpamkw Ign™p hn‰m¬
\√ em`w In´pw (‘NnØnssc°qS¬’ F∂dnbs∏Sp∂ IqSen¬ F√m
hntZi hWn°pIfpw kztZin hWn°pIfpw cmP]pcpj∑mcpw B_me
hr≤ P\ßfpw ktΩfn°p∂ ‘Nn{XIqSm’¶WØn¬ AXp hn‰gnbpw).
13. cmsiu cmsiu bkvan≥ ininc abqJx kl{kInctWm
hmbpt‡mf [nan{X ZrjvSkvX{Xmbw em`tImZnjvSx
GsX√mw cminIfn¬ ioXfabqJ\mb N{μ\pw, kl{kIncW
\mb kqcy\pw A[nan{X{KlßtfmsSmØpw, Ahcm¬ ZrjvScmbpw
\n¬°p∂pthm, B cminIfn¬ ]dbs∏´ hkvXp°fpsS {Ibhn{Ibw
sIm≠v em`ap≠mhpw.
14. khnXy klnXx kºq¿tÆm hmipss`¿øpXho£nXx
inincIncWx ktZymf ¿≤ky {]hr≤nIcx kvarXx
Aip` klnXx k≥ZrjvtSmhmln\kvXyYhm chnx
{]Xn {KlKXm≥ `mhm≥ _p≤zm htZXv kZkXv ^ew.
CXn {io hcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbm
a¿∞Imfiw \maZznNXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
Aamhmknbn¬ kqcyt\msSmtØm, ]u¿Æamknbn¬ kºq¿Æ
\mtbm ip`{Klho-£nX\mbn \n¬°p∂ N{μ≥ io{LØn¬ A¿∞
{]hr≤nbp≠m°pw. kqcy≥ Aip`{Kl-ßtfmSp IqSntbm Ahbm¬
ZrjvS\mtbm \n∂m¬ hnLv\߃ D≠mhpw. C{]Imcw Hmtcmtcm {Kl
ßfpw {]m]n®ncn°p∂ `mhßsf t_m[n®n´v kØpw AkØpamb
^ew ]dbmw.

446

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 43

C{μ[zPkºØv
1. {_lvamWaqNpcacm `Kh{O{Imx kva \mkpcm≥ katc
{]Xntbm[ bnXpaXkvXzmw icWyicWw kap]bmXmx
Aac∑m¿ {_lvamhnt\mSv ]d™p: “tl `Khm≥, R߃°v
Akpc∑mtcmSv bp≤w sNøm≥ th≠ kma¿∞yan√. AXn\m¬ R߃
Aßsb icWw {]m]n°p∂p.”
2. tZhm\phmN `Khm≥ £otcmtZ tIihx khx tIXpw
bw ZmkyanXw ZrjvSzm \msPu ÿmy¥nthm ssZXymx
{_lvatZh≥ ]d™p. “`Khm≥ tIih≥ £otcmZ[nbn¬ hncmPn
°p∂p. At±lw \n߃°v Hcp “tIXp”sh \¬Ipw. B tIXp I≠m¬
]ns∂ ssZXy∑m¿ \nßfpsS apºn¬ \n¬°m≥ ss[cys∏SpIbn√.”
3. e_v[hcmx £otcmZw KXzm tX XpjvSphpx kpcmx tk{μmx
{io h’m¶w sIukvXp`aWn InctWmZv `mkntXmckvIw.
C{]Imcw hcw In´nb tZh∑m¿ ]m¬°Sen¬ sN∂p. C{μ\pw
tZh∑mcpw {]oXn]q¿Δw I≠p. {ioh’m¶nXhpw, sIukvXp`aWnbpsS
IncWw X´n {]Imin°p∂Xpamb almhnjvWphns‚ amdnSw.
4. {io ]Xn aNn¥y akaw ka¥Xx k¿Δ tZln\mw kq£vaw
]camXvam\ a\mZnw hnjvWpahn⁄mX]cy¥w.
ANn¥yhpw, Akahpw, kaZ¿ihpw, k¿ΔtZlnIfptSbpw kq
£vaXØzhpw, A\mZnbpw, Ahn⁄mXamb ]cn[ntbmSp IqSnbXpw
(]cn[nbn√mØXv) Bb ]camflmhmb {io ]Xn hnjvWpsh (Ah¿
Z¿in®p). (50-54 t«mIßfpsS hymJym\w IqSn t\m°pI).
5. ssXx kwkvXpXx ktZhkvXptXmj \mcmbtWmZsZu tNjmw
[zP akpc kpc h[qapJIaeh\XpjmcXo£vWmwipw.
C{]Imcw \mcmbWs\ kvXpXn® Ah¿, kpch[p°fpsS apJ
447

{]Imikn‘p

Iaeh\߃°v kqcy\pw, Akpch[p°fpsS apJIaeh\߃°v
N{μ\pw F∂ t]mse {]Imin°p∂ [zPw I≠v k¥pjvScmbn.
6. Xw hnjvWp tXtPm`hajvSNt{I tÿÿnXw `mkzXn cXv\Nnt{X
tZZo]yam\w icZnh kqcy[zPw kamkm≤yaptamZi{Ix
C{μ≥, icXv°mekqcys\t∏mse {]Imin°p∂ hnjvWp tXP
 n¬ \n∂p≠mbXpw F´p N{Iap≈Xpw cXv\Nn{Xßfm¬ `mknXhpw
Bb cYØn¬ ÿnXnsNøp∂ [zPsØ I≠v BtamZn®p.
7. k InwInWo Pme]cnjvIrtX\ kv{XIvO{XL≠m ]nSIm\zntX\
kap{OntX\maccmMv [ztP\ \nt\y hn\miw katc fcnssk\yw.
InßnWn Pmeßfm¬ ]cnjvIrXambn, ame O{Xw, L≠, ]nSIw
F∂nhtbmSpIqSn Db¿∂p \n¬°p∂ B [zPØm¬ C{μ≥ i{Xp
ssk\ysØ bp≤Øn¬ \in∏n®p. amebpw IpSbpw aWnbpw, InßnWn
bpw ]nSIw F∂ `qjWhpw Nm¿Ønb [zPw F∂v `mjyImc≥
A¿∞w ]dbp∂p≠v. F∂m¬, CXnt\°mƒ Ihns™mc¿∞w CXn
\p≠v. cmPm°∑m¿°pw sshiy∑m¿°pw s]mXphmbp≈ Hcp D’h
amWv Ct{μm’hw. C{μ[zPw, P¿÷cw, bq]w \m´nb bmKw, Xpemkv,
I∏ens‚ ]mbvØ≠v ChIsf√mw ChnsS [zPw sIm≠v ]dbp∂p≠v.
]nSIw F∂m¬ henb I∏¬, bm\]m{Xw. (‘s]cpw ]nSIapØcb≥’
F∂ alm\mhnI\mb alma{¥n cmaLSaqjnIs‚ Imew sXm´v F√m
tNc cmPm°∑mcptSbpw D]tZiI\mbncp∂p. kmaqXncnbpsS ImesØ
Ip™men acbv°m¿ hsc XpS¿∂ Cu sshiy]mcºcyw D]cnNc
hkphmWv \S∏m°nbsX∂v ASpØ t«mIßfn¬ ]dbpw. CXns‚
hniZmwi߃ aqjnIhwisØ Bkv]Zam°n Rm≥ FgpXnhcp∂
s]cpºS∏ns‚ Ncn{XØn¬ ImWmw).
7. kv{XoISymw taJem Im©o k]vXao ci\mXYm
¢ot_ kmck\m NmY ]pwkvISymw irwJem{Xnjp.
]mZmw KZw XpemtImSn¿ΩRvPotcm]ptcmkv{Xnbmw
lwkIx ]mZISIx In¶nWo£p{ZL≠nIm F∂ AactImi
t«mIØn\v ]p∂t»cn \oeIWvTi¿ΩbpsS ]mctaizcn hymJym\w
t\m°pI. kv{XoIfpsS Acbn¬ [cn°p∂ ‘taJe’bv°v (Ac™mWw)
KXn hntijsØ [m\w sNøp∂Xv F∂pw, Im©n°v tim`bp≈Xv
448

{]Imikn‘p

F∂pw, k]vXIn°v k]vXkzcw ]pds∏Sphn°p∂Xv F∂pw ck\°v
i_vZn°p∂Xv F∂pw \mZck\bp≈Xv F∂pw, IqSn A¿∞ap≠v. Nne
ºn\v XpemtImSn, £p{ZL≠, In¶nWn, in©n\n, aRvPocw, \q]pcw,
lwkIw, ]mZISIw Fs∂ms° t]cp≠v (aWntaJe, Nne∏XnImcw
F∂ Xangv CXnlmk߃ sshiy∑m¿, \rtØm]PohnIƒ, Ct{μm
’hw sIm≠mSp∂ cmPm°∑m¿, F∂nhsc Bkv]Zam°nbmWv).
XpemImcamb A‰tØmSpIqSnbXv, Xpemkns‚ A‰w F∂pw Xpem
tImSnsb ]dbmw; CXv Xpemw cminbpsS A{K `mKØp≈ Nn{Xm \£
{XtbmKtØbpw, sshiys‚ Xpemknt\bpw IqSn Ipdn°p∂p. ‘In©n¬
IWw ItcmXn’bmWv In¶nWn- ]¶mbw sIm≠p Xpg™p≠mIp∂
Xgºpw In¶nWnbmWv. InWn, I¶mWn F∂pw Cu ]ZØns‚ XZv`h
amWv. Iw kpJw IWXn- kpJsØ iwkn°p∂XmWv IwInWn,
I¶mWn. L≠n, L≠m F∂m¬ aWn; “L≠w” F∂ Imebfhp
Ign™p F∂dnbn°m≥ aWn apg°p∂ b{¥w L≠maWn AYhm
LSnImcw (kap{Z k©mcnIƒ D]tbmKn°p∂Xv). (]nSIØn\v inJn
AYhm apSn ^Ww F∂pw A¿∞aps≠∂v ]nSIe£Wsa∂ A≤ym
bØn¬ ImWmw; inJbp≈ ^WnIƒ F∂ k©mcnh¿§w) At∏mƒ
At\Iw ]¶mbßfmIp∂ B`cWw Nm¿Øn (]cnjvIrX=B`cWw),
amebpw IpSbpw Nm¿Ønb henb bm\]m{Xw (I∏¬) BWv ]nSIw.
]nSItØmSpIqSnbh≥ ]oSI≥ BWv ]oSnI°mc≥, ]oSI≥ F∂
^WnI≥ AYhm ]WnIƒ (hWn°pIƒ).
cmjv{S ]p\¿\n¿ΩmWØn\v [\w thWw. AXv cmPm°∑m¿
Ab¬\m´pImsc bp≤Øn¬ tXmev]n®pw AhcpsS `fimchpw Irjn
ÿehpw sIm≈bSn®pw, ]pcSvNnt∏mcpIƒ \SØnbpw sNbvXpt]m∂p.
Cu {]mIrX k{ºZmbw sIm≠p≈ `hnjyØpIƒ Hgnhm°m\pw
kºZvhyhÿsb \ne\n¿Øm\pw BWv sshinIX{¥w Bhnjv°cn
®Xv. sshinIX{¥Øn¬ I®hSw, kpIpamc IeIƒ, kap{Zk©mcw,
Afhpw Xq°hpw t\m°n IrXyambn ‘am\Zfiw’ sNøp∂ ]Xnhv
AsXms° s]Spw. ‘Af°p∂’ am\Zfihpw, \rØw, Km\w F∂nh
t\m°n D¿Δin∏´w \¬Ip∂ ‘P¿÷c’hpw, hmZ{]XnhmZw sNbvXv cm
jv{SßfpsS _p≤nbpsS am‰pc°p∂ ‘{_lvaZfi’hpw (bmKthZnbnse
bq]w CXns\ {]Xn\n[m\w sNøp∂p) sIm≠v cmjv{S`fimKmcØn
te°v [\w tN¿°msa¶n¬, lnwkmflIamb bp≤w Hgnhm°mw.
lnwkmflIbp≤Øn¬ Akpc∑mtcmtS‰pap´m≥ IgnbmØ tZh∑m¿,
449

{]Imikn‘p

Cu kacapdIfm¬ Ahsc Pbn®p. almhnjvWp \¬Inb Cu ‘⁄m\
[zPw’, BZysØ ‘Alnwkm’ XcwKambn°cpXmw. sshiys\∂ [zP
Øm¬ cmPmhv i{Xp°sf Pbn°p∂p.
8. D]cnNckymact]mhtkm¿ZsZu tNZn]kythWpabnw
bjvSow Xmw k \tct{μm hn[nh’w]qPbmamk
Aac \r]\mb tZth{μ≥ tNZncmPmhmb D]cnNchkphn\v thWp
abnbmb Cu Zfiw (thWpZfiw- ]p√¶pg¬ F∂pw A¿∞w ]dbmw)
\¬In. \tc{μ\mb D]cnNchkp AXns\ hn[n t]mse ]qPn®p (C{μ
Zfins\ ]qPn°p∂ Ct{μm’hh¿Æ\°v `cXap\nbpsS \mSyim
kv{Xhpw, Nne∏XnImchpw hmbn°pI).
9. {]otXmatl\aLhm {]msslhw tb\r]mx Icnjy¥n
hkphZzkpa¥kvtX `qhnkn≤m⁄m `hnjy¥n.
10. apZnXmx {]Pm›tXjmw `btcmKhnh¿÷nXmx {]`qXm∂mx
[zPGh Nm`n LmkyXn PKXn \nanssØx ^ew kZkXv.
C{μ≥ B almalØn¬ {]k∂\mbn. D]cnNchkpsht∏mse
GsXmcp cmPmhv Ct{μm’hw \SØp∂pthm, B cmPmhv hkpam\mbn,
kpa¥\mbn, `qanbn¬ kn≤nIsf Adn™h\mbn `hn°psa∂pw, {]P
Iƒ k¥pjvScmbn `btcmKclnXcmbn [mcmfw A∂tØmSpIqSn Pohn
°psa∂pw C{μ≥ A\p{Kln®p. PKØn¬ \nanØßfp≠m°n ^e
߃ kØpw AkØpam°n Acpfp∂Xv Cu [zPamWv.
11. ]qPmXky\tcss{μ¿ ∫ehr≤nPbm¿∞n `n¿øYm]q¿Δw
i{Im⁄bm{]bp‡m XmaKaXx {]h£yman.
_ew (tk\m_ew) h¿≤n°p∂Xn\mbn Pbm¿∞nIfmb \tc{μ
∑m¿ i{Is‚ B⁄{]Imcw, bYm]q¿Δw, GsXmcp ]qPsb Ct∏mgpw
\SØp∂pthm AXns\ BKam\pkmcw ChnsS ]dbmw.
12. Xkyhn[m\w ip`IcWZnhk \£{XawKe aplp¿ssØx
{]kvXm\nssi¿Δ\anbm ss±h⁄x kq{X[mc›x
AXns‚ hn[m\w C{]ImcamWv. ip`IcWw, ip`Znhkw, ip`
\£{Xw F∂nh t\m°n awKfaplp¿ØØn¬ ssZh⁄∑mcpw kq{X
[mc∑mcpw h\Ønte°p t]mIp∂p.
450

{]Imikn‘p

13. DZym\ tZhXmeb]nXrh\hevaoI am¿§ NnXnPmXmx
Ip_vtPm¿≤z ipjv°I≠Ioh√ohμmIbp‡m›.
14. _lphnlKmebtImSc]h\m\e ]oVnXm›tbXchx
tbNkypx kv{Xokw⁄m\tXip`mx i{ItIXz¿∞x
DZym\w, tZhmebw, ]nXrh\w, hevaoIw, am¿§w, NnXn F∂nhbn¬
P\n®Xpw \s∂ sNdpXpw, hfsc Db¿∂Xpw, ipjvIn®Xpw, ap≈p≈Xpw,
h≈nIfm¬ _‘n°s∏´Xpw, At\Iw ]£nIƒ hkn°p∂ s]mØp
≈Xpw, Im‰pw AKv\nbpw ]oVn∏n®Xpw, kv{Xo\maw hln°p∂Xpamb
hr£ßƒ C{μ[zP\n¿ΩnXn°v Aip`amWv.
15. t{ijvtTmf ¿÷pt\mf iz I¿Æ {]nbI[thmZpw _cm›]ss›tX
GtXjm a\yXaw {]ikvX aYhm]cw hr£w.
A¿÷p\w, AizI¿Æw, {]nbIw, [hw, DZpw_cw F∂o A©p
hr£ßƒ tijvTamWv. Ahbn¬ A©n¬ H∂p t]mepw e`n®ns√¶n¬
a‰p hr£ßƒ kzoIcn-°mhp∂XmWv.
16. KucmknX£nXn`hw kw]qPy bYmhn[n ZznPx ]q¿Δw
hnPt\ ktaXy cms{Xu kv]rjvSzm {_qbmZnaw a{¥w.
Kuch¿Ætam IrjvW h¿Ætam Bb aÆn¬ \n∂v D≠mb B
hr£sØ bYmhn[n ]qP sNbvXv, cm{Xnbn¬ hnP\amb h\Øn¬
hr£Øns‚ AcnIn¬ sN∂v Cu a{¥w P]n°pI.
17. bm\nl hrt£ `qXm\n tX{iyx kzkvXn \tamf kvXp hx
D]lmcw KrlotXzaw {InbXmw hmk]cybw.
18. ]m¿∞nhkvXzmw hcbtX kzkvXn tXf kvXp \tKmØa
[zPm¿∞w tZhcmPky ]qtPbw {]XnKrlyXmw.
“Cu hr£Øn¬ GsX√mw {]mWnIƒ hkn°p∂pthm Ah
bvs°√mw kzkvXn; Rm≥ Ahsb \akvIcn°p∂p. Fs‚ D]lmcw
kzoIcn®n´v Ah at‰sX¶nepw hmkÿm\w kzoIcn°s´. tl, hr
t£mØam, tZhcmPs‚ [zPØn\mbn ]m¿∞nh≥ Aßsb hcn®ncn
°p∂p. Atßbv°v kzkvXn. Fs‚ ]qP ssIs°m≈pI.”
19. On‘ymXv {]`mXkatb hr£apZIv {]mMvaptJmf ]n hm`qXzm
]ctim¿÷¿÷ci_vtZm t\jvSx knKvt≤m [\› lnXx
451

{]Imikn‘p

AXn\p tijw {]`mXØn¬ hSt°mt´m Ingt°mt´m Xncn™p
\n∂v hr£w apdn°pI. agpsIm≠v apdnbv°ptºmƒ “P¿÷c” i_vZap
≠mbm¬ AXv Aip`amWv. at\mlchpw L\Kw`ochpamb i_vZw
tI´m¬ ip`amWv.
20. \r]PbZahn≤ykvXw ]X\amIp©nXw N ]q¿tΔmZIv
AhneKv\w Nm\yXscu hn]coX aXkvXy tPXv]XnXw.
sh´pw apºv hr£w ]Xn°pI, apdnbmXncn°pI, as‰mcp hr£
Øn¬ X´n hogmsX \n¬°pI, ]q¿tΔmØc ZniIfnte°p hogpI
F∂nh \r]\v PbZmbIamWv.
21. OnXzmt{K NXpcwKpe asjvSu aqte Pte £nt]≤yjvSnw.
D≤rXy ]pcZzmcw iItS\ \tb≥ a\pssj¿Δm.
apIfn¬ \n∂v \mepw, aqeØn¬ \n∂v F´pw AwKpew apdn®v sh≈
Øn¬ acØSn Hgp°pI. ]n∂oSv AXns\ Db¿Øn h≠nIfntem a\p
jy¿ Xe®paSmbnt´m \KcZzmc Øn¬ FØn°mw.
22. Ac`wtK _et`tZm t\aym \mtim _ekyhnt⁄bx
A¿∞£tbmf £`wtK XYmWn `wtKN h¿≤In\x
h≠nbpsS Ac߃ apdn™m¬ ssk\y߃ t`Zn°s∏Spw. t\an
apdn™m¬ ssk\y\miap≠mhpw. A£w apdn™m¬ A¿∞£bw.
BWn apdn™m¬ h¿≤Io\miw.
23. `m{Z]Z ip¢]£kymjvSaymw \mKssc¿hrtXm cmPm
ssZh⁄ kNnhI©pInhn{]apssJx kpthj[sscx
`m{Z]mZØnse ip¢]£mjvSan\mfn¬ kpthj[mcnIfmb ssZh
⁄¿, kNnh∑m¿, I©pInIƒ, hn{]{]apJ∑m¿, \KchmknIƒ F∂n
hcm¬ Np‰s∏´ cmPmhv \Kc{]thiw sNøn°p∂p.
24. AlXmw_c kwhoXmw bjvSnw s]ucμcnw ]pcw s]utcx
{kKvK‘ [q] bp‡mw {]thitbOwJXpcycsshx
\√ ]´p hkv{XØm¬ s]mXn™v, ameyw, kpK‘w, [q]w F∂n
htbmSpIqSnb [zPsØ iwJpIfpsS awKfmchw apgßsh cmPmhpw
]pchmknIfpw \Kc {]thi\w sNøn-°p∂p.
452

{]Imikn‘p

25. cp[nc ]XmIm tXmcWh\amemewIrXw {]ÀjvSP\w
kΩm¿÷n Xm¿®nX]Yw kpthj KWnImP\m Io¿Æw
Nph∂ sImSnIƒ, tXmcW߃, h\ameIƒ F∂nhIfm¬ Aew
IrXambn kw]qPnXamb cmPhoYnIfn¬ kpthj[mcnWnIfmb
KWnIm P\ßtfmsSm∏w B\μn°p∂ P\߃ \ndbp∂p.
26. Aizm¿®nXm ]WyKrlw {]`qX ]pWyml thZ \n¿tLmjw
\S\¿ØI tKbss⁄cmIo¿Æ NXpjv]Yw \Kcw.
F√m ]Wy Krlßfpw (]oSnIIƒ) kpk÷w. Fßpw ]pWyml
thZ \n¿tLmjw. \S∑m¿, \¿ØI¿, ]m´pIm¿ F∂nhcm¬ \KcØn
s‚ NXpjv]Yßfpw \ndbp∂p (sshinI X{¥⁄cptSbpw kam[m\
Imw£nIfmb ⁄m\nIfptSbpw D’hamWnXv. Nne∏XnImc, aWn
taJem I¿Øm°fpw AhcpsS Imhyßfpw CXns\ DZmlcn°p∂p).
27. X{X ]XmImx tizXm hnPbmb `h¥n tcmKZmx ]oXmx
PbZm› Nn{Xcq]m c‡mx ikv{X {]tIm]mb.
shfpØ ]XmI hnPbtØbpw, a™s°mSn tcmKtØbpw Xcp
∂p. hnNn{X h¿Æap≈ ]XmI Pbw Xcp∂p. Nph∂Xv Bbp[tIm]w
D≠m°p∂p (shfpØXpw, _lph¿ÆhpamWv D’hw sImSntbdp
tºmƒ D]tbmKnt°≠Xv).
28. bjvSnw {]thib¥nw \n]mXbt¥m `bmb \mKmZym
_mem\mw Xmei_vtZ kw{Kmax kXzbpt≤.
C{μ[zPØns‚ \Kc {]thithfbn¬ h√ ImcWhimepw AXp
\new ]Xn®m¬ `bhpw \mihpw D≠mhpw. B kabØv Ip´nIƒ Xmen
(tZmfn) i_vZw D≠m°pItbm GsX¶nepw P¥p°ƒ ISn]nSnIqSpI
tbm sNbvXm¬ bp≤w D≠mhpw.
29. k¥£y ]p\kvX£m hn[nhZyjvSnw ]tcm]tb[yt¥
PmKc taImZiymw \tcizcx Imctb®mky
bjvSnsb Z£s‚ hn[n {]Imcw sIm≠ph∂v ]pcØn¬ ÿm]n®p
Ign™m¬ cmPmhv GImZin\mƒ {hX \njvTtbmsS DW¿∂ncn°Ww.
30. knXhkvt{XmjvWoj[cx ]ptcmlnXx
im{I sshjvWssh¿Ωss{¥
PqlqbmZKv\nw kwh’tcm \nanØm\n KrlobmXv.
453

{]Imikn‘p

sh≈ hkv{Xhpw DjvWojhpw [cn® cmP ]ptcmlnX≥ sF{μ
hpw sshjvWhhpamb at{¥m®mcW klnXw AKv\nbn¬ tlman°
Ww. kwh’c≥ Hcp h¿jtØbv°p≈ \nanØ߃ (h¿j^ew)
k¿Δtcbpw [cn∏n°Ww.
31. CjvS{ZhymImcx kpc`nx kv\nKvt≤mLt\mf \temf ¿®njvam≥
ip` IrZtXm t\ym t\jvtSmbm{Xmbw hnkvXtcm `nlnXx
AKv\n, CjvS{ZhyØns‚ BIrXnbnepw, kpc`neambpw, kv\nKv≤
L\ambpw, A¿®nkmbpw Pzen®m¬ ip`IrØmWv. CX√mØ Xcw
AKv\n A\njvSap≠m°pw. Ahsb hnkvXcn®v bm{Xbn¬ ]d™n
´p≠v.
32. kzmlmhkm\ katb kzbap÷em¿®nx kv\nKv≤x
{]Z£nWinthm lpX`rKv \r]ky
KwKm ZnhmIckpXm Pe Nmcplmcmw
[m{Xnw kap{Z ck\mw hiKmw ItcmXn.
kzmlmhkm\ kabØv kzbw D÷zen°p∂ A¿®nkv kv\nKv≤
ambpw Z£nW`mKtØbv°v PzmeItfmSp IqSnbpw awKfIchpambn
I≠m¬, KwKmbap\IfmIp∂ at\mlc PelmcßfWn™v, kap{Z
ck\bmb Cu `qan apgph≥ cmPmhn\v hiKambn Xocp∂p (ChnsS
kap{Z hk\m F∂√ kap{Zck\m F∂mWv {]tbmKw F∂Xv {i
t≤bw).
33. NmaoIcm timIIpcfiIm_vP
sshZqcy \otemev]e k∂nt` f sKv\u
\≤zm¥ a¥¿`ht\f hImiw ItcmXn
cXv\mw iplXw \r]ky.
kph¿Æw, AtimIw, IpcfiIw, ]flw, sshUqcyw, \otem
ev]ew Chbv°p Xpeyambn AKv\n tim`n®m¬ cmPmhns‚ A¥x]pc
Øn¬ cXv\{]`Ifm¬ l\n°s∏SpIbm¬ A‘Imcw Hcn°epw {]th
in°bn√.
34. tbjmw csYu Lm¿Æh tLZ¥n\mw
kakzt\mf Kv\n¿øZnhm]n Zpμpt`x
454

{]Imikn‘p

tXjmw aZmt‘ ` LSmhnL´nXm `h¥n
bmt\ Xnantcm]amZnimx
GsXmcKv\nbn¬ cYw, kap{Zw, taLw, B\ F∂nh°p kam\
amb kzctam Zpμp`n\mZtam tIƒ°p∂pthm B ImeØv cmPmhv bp≤
Øn\p t]mbm¬ aZw sIm≠v A‘amb B\IfpsS Iq´w \ndbpIbm¬
Xnantcm]aamb Ccp´p \nd™ ZniIƒ AZriyamIp∂p.
35. [zPIpw`ltb ``q`rXma\pcqt] hitaXn `q`rXmw
DZbmkvX[cm [cm[cm lnaZzn‘y]tbm[cm[cm
GXKv\nbn¬ [zPw, Ipw`w, IpXnc, B\ F∂nhbv°p kaamb
BIrXnIƒ ImWp∂pthm, DZb ]¿ΔXw apX¬ AkvXa\ ]¿ΔXw
hsc [mcWw sNbvXncn°p∂hbpw lnameb hn‘y]¿ΔXkam\amb
]tbm[cßfp≈hfpamb [c B AKv\n thfbn¬ cmPmhn\p hiK
bmbn Xocp∂p (‘[cm’ {]tbmKw hcmlanlncs‚ IhnXzsØ Nq≠n
ImWn°p∂p).
36. ZzncZaZalo ktcmPemssP¿LrXa[p\m
NlpXmit\kKt‘
{]KX\r]intcmaWn {]`m`n¿ `hXn
]pc›pcntXh `q\r]kym.
Cc´s°mº\m\bpsS aZw, aln, ktcmPw, LrXw F∂nhbv°p
kaamb kpK‘w AKv\nbn¬ \n∂pbcptºmƒ AKv\nsb {]Wan®
cmPmhns‚ inc nse cXv\ {]`bm¬ \Kchpw `qanbpw hym]vXamIp∂p.
37. D‡w bZpØnjvTXn i{ItIsXu
ip`mip`w k]vXacoNncqss]x
X÷\yb⁄ {Klim¥nbm{Xm
hnhml Imtejz]n Nn¥\obw.
C{μ[zPw Db¿Øp∂ thfbn¬ k]vXPnlz\mb AKv\n cq]
Øn¬ ]d™ ip`mip`߃ Xs∂ P\\w, b⁄w, {Klim¥n, bm{X,
hnhmlw apXemb Imeßfnepw Nn¥nt°≠XmWv.
38. KpU]q] ]mbkmss≤y¿-Δn{]m\›cy Z£nW`n£
{ihtW\ ZzmZiym ap∞mt]ymf \y{Xhm {ihWmXv.
455

{]Imikn‘p

Kpfw, ]q]w, ]mbkw F∂nhtbmSp IqSn Z£nW \¬In {_mlva
Wsc Ncym]q¿Δw `n£ \¬In BZcn®v ZzmZinbpw {imhW \£{X
hpw hcp∂ \mfn¬ [zPw Db¿ØWw (ZzmZinbntem, XncpthmWw \m
fntem F∂pw FSp°mw).
39. i{IIpamcyx Imcym {]mla\px k]vX]©hmXss⁄
\tμm]\μ kwt⁄ ]mtZ\¿t≤\ tNm{OmbmXv.
[zPØn\p apIfn¬ At©m Gtgm i{IIpamcnIsf \n¿Ωn®h≥
a\phmbn Xocp∂p. F{X DbcØnemtWm [zPap≈Xv AXns‚ \men
sem∂v Awiap≈ D]\μ, A¿≤w (1/2) D≈ \μ F∂nhsc i{IIpamcn
Isf) \n¿Ωn°Ww.
40. tjmUi`mKivN[ntI PbhnPb
tZzhkp‘tc Nmt\y.
A[nIm i{IP\n{Xn at≤yf jvSmwti\w ssNXmkmw.
tjmUi `mKtØ°mƒ Aev]w A[nIambn Pb, hnPb F∂v
c≠p hkp‘camsc \n¿Ωn°Ww.
(1/4 D]\μ, 1/2 \μ, 1/16 Pb hnPbIƒ, 1/8 i{IP\\n)
41. {]ossX IrXm\n, hn_pss[cym\n ]pcm`qjWm\n kpctItXmx
Xm\n{ItaW ZZymXv ]nSIm\n hnNn{X cq]mWn.
BZyw tZhXIƒ (]©i{IIpamcnIƒ) {]oXcmbn C{μ[zPØn\v
`qjWßfmbn Xo¿∂p. ]n∂oSv {IaØn¬ ]nSIßfpw hnNn{X cq]ß
fmb hn`qjIfpw \¬Imw (]nSIw- ]oTw, ]oSnI, ]nSIv F∂dnbs∏Sp∂
bm\]m{Xw F∂v \m\m¿∞w. tZhXIsf ]dbptºmƒ ]oTw F∂¿∞
saSp°Ww).
42. c‡mtimI \nImiw NXpc{kw hnizI¿ΩWm {]Yaw
ck\m kzbw `qhm i¶tcW Nmt\I h¿Æ[co.
43. AjvSmkv{Xo \oec‡w XrXob ant{μW `qjWw ZØw
AknXw ba›Xp¿∞w akqcIw Im¥naZbOXv.
BZyw hnizI¿Ωmhv Nph∂ AtimI]qhn\p kZriyamb NXpc
{iw \¬In. ]n∂oSv At\I h¿Æ[mcnbmb ck\sb kzbw`phpw
i¶c\pw \¬In. aq∂maXmbn C{μ≥ \oebpw Nph∏pw \ndØnep≈
456

{]Imikn‘p

AjvStIm¨ `qjWw \¬In. \memaXmbn ba≥ Im¥naØpw IrjvW
h¿Æhpamb “akqcIw” \¬In (CXv {io]Xvaw F∂ ]fl]oTsØ
h¿Æn°p∂p).
44. aRvPnjvTm`w hcpWx jUnkv{Xn XXv]©aw Ptem¿Ωn\n`w
ambpcw tIbqcw jjvTw hmbp¿÷eZ\oew.
a©mSn \ndap≈Xpw PeXcwK kZrihpambn jVvN{Iw hcpW≥
A©maXmbn \¬In. hmbp, taL\oeamb ambqctIbqcw \¬In.
45. kv°μx kzw tIbqcw k]vXa aZZZzPmb _lpNn{Xw
AjvSaa\e Pzmem kwImiw lhy `qKvZØw.
kv°μ≥ _lpNn{X h¿Æi_famb “tIbqc” sa∂ kz`qjWw
GgmaXmbn \¬In. tlmamKv\nPzmem kZriamb F´masØ `qjWw
AKv\n \¬In.
46. sshUqcykZri anμq¿ \haw ss{kthbIw ZZmh\yXv
cYN{Im`w Ziaw kqcykvXzjvSm {]`mbp‡w.
HºXmasØ Ae¶mcw N{μ\mWv \¬InbXv. AXmIs´ ssh
Uqcy kZriamb IWvTm`cWamWv. ]ØmatØXv XzjvSmhmb kqcy≥
\¬In. {]`mbp‡amb cYN{IIm¥ntbmSpIqSnbXmWv B B`cWw.
47. GImZi apZzwiw hntiztZhmx ktcmPk¶miw
ZzmZia]nN\nhwiw ap\tbm \otemev]em`mkw
48. In©nZ[ Du¿≤zw \n¿ÆXap]cn hnimew {Xtbm Ziw tItXmx
inckn _rlkv]Xnips{Iuem£mck k∂n`w ZZXpx
]flkZriamb GImZim`cWw hntiztZh∑m¿ \¬In. \oe Iae
kZriamb “\nhwiw” F∂ ZzmZim`cWw ap\nam¿ \¬In. _rlkv]Xn
bpw ip{I\pw em£mck k∂n`amb hnimeamb ]Xnaq∂masØ B`
cWw C{μ[zPØns‚ inc n¬ Aev]w Xmsgbpw Aev]w apIfnep
ambn, DbcØn¬ Nm¿Øn.
49. bZytZy\ hn\n¿ΩnX aatcW hn`qjWw [zPkym¿t∞
XØØssZzhXyw hn⁄mXhyw hn]›nZv`nx
[zPØn\pth≠n GtXXv B`cWw GtXXv Aac∑m¿ \n¿Ωn®p
thm, AXmXv B`cWßfpsS tZhX AXmXv tZh\msW∂v ]finX
457

{]Imikn‘p

∑m¿ AdnbWw (CX\pkcn®v jUvN{Iw hcpW≥, hmcpWn F∂o
tZhXm k¶ev]Ønep≈XmWv).
50. [zP ]cnamW{Xyw ix ]cn[nx {]Yaky `hXn
]nSIky ]cXx {]Yam ZjvSmw ilo\m\n.
BZysØ ]nSIØns‚ ]cn[n [zPØns‚ ]cnamWØns‚ {Xywi
ambncn°Ww. AhnSp∂tßm´p≈ F√m ]nSIßfptSbpw ]cn[n BZy
sØ ]cn[nbpsS AjvSamwiw Ipdhmbn´v FSp°Ww (“ImetZißsf
NmSn°S°p∂ apgt°mens‚ ]mctUmIvkv” F∂ D]io¿jIØn≥
Iogn¬ “eoe” F∂ tPymXnimkv{X {KŸØn¬ Rm≥ CXns\ ]cma¿
in®n´p≠v. AtX {KŸØn¬ Xs∂ hniZam°nb K¿Kyal¿jnbpsS
{_lvamfi Nn{XsØ ChnsS Cu Afhn¬ hc®p t\m°mhp∂XmWv.
Nn{Xw: {ioh’m¶nXamb almhnjvWphns‚ amdnSw

D

1

2

8

3

7

4
6

5
E.hncP

F.tKmtemIw
N{μ
kqcy
kqcy {`aW]Yw
{`aW]Yw B.`qan
{[phtI{μw
C.kqcy≥
(kucbqYw)
G.]cn[n
bn√mØXv
A.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

N{μafiew (`qtI{μw)
`qafiew (kqcytI{μw
kqcyafiew F∂ kucbqYw (kqcy{[phtI{μw)
AjvSafieambn hn`Pn® {[phXmc afiew (cminN{Iw)
hncP F∂ BImi bap\m afiew (IrjvW afiew)
tKmtemI afiew
tKmtemIØn\pw AXoXamb afie߃ (]cn[nbn√)
458

{]Imikn‘p

(hniZmwi߃ hnkvXc`bØm¬ Hgnhm°p∂p. ImetZi ]cn[n
sb Ipdn®v tKm`neImcnIm]£w “{_lvakq{Xi¶c`mjy” Øn\p≈
]flkn‘p F∂ hymJym\Øn¬ Rm≥ ]cma¿in®n´p≠v. AXn\m¬
Bh¿Øn°p∂n√).
CXv B[p\nI tPymXn imkv{XØn\pw kzoImcyamWv. C{μ [zP
hpw AXns‚ amXrIbmb {io N{I]oThpw {_lvamfi {]Xn_nw_
ßfmWv F∂p am{Xw ChnsS {Kln°pI.
51. IpcymZl\n NXp¿t∞ ]qcWan{μ[zPky imkv{X⁄x
a\q\m NmKaKoXm≥ a{¥mt\Xm≥ ]tT∂nbXx
imkv{X⁄∑m¿ \mev Atlmcm{X߃ Cu C{μ[zPsØ a\\w
sNbvXv a\ n¬ ]q¿Æam°nbn´v (]q¿Æambdn™n´v) BKaØn¬
a\phm¬ a\\w sNbvX Cu a{¥ßƒ \nXyhpw ]Tn°p∂p.
52. lcm¿° sshhkzX i{Itkmssa¿≤t\i sshizm\c]mi `rZv`nx
al¿jn kss‘x kZnK]vktcm`nx
ip{ImwKncx kv°μacpZvKssW›
lc≥, kqcy≥, ba≥, C{μ≥, N{μ≥, Ipt_c≥, AKv\n, hcpW≥
al¿jnKW߃, k¿ΔZn°pIƒ, k¿Δ A]vkc pIƒ, ip{I≥,
AwKnc v, kv°μ≥, acpZvKW߃ F∂o,
53. bYmXzaq¿÷ kv°css\Icqss]x
ka¿®nXkvXzm`cssWcpZmsscx
XtYl Xm\ym`cWm\ntZh ip`m\n
kw{]oXa\m KrlmW.
At\I cq]ßfn¬, DZmcßfmb B`cWßfmbn ka¿®n°s∏
Sp∂ Du¿÷kv°c∑m¿ (Du¿÷w Acpfp∂h¿- Du¿÷IncW∑m¿)
F√mw Xs∂ AhnSp∂mWv. tl tZhm, Cu ip`Icamb B`cWßsf
sb√mw (Cu Du¿÷ Icßsfsb√mw) kw{]oX\mbn kzoIcn®mepwX∂nte°p Xs∂ Xncns®SpØmepw.
54. AtPmf hybx imizX GIcqt]m
hnjvWp¿ Δcmlx ]pcpjx ]pcmWx
Xza¥Ix k¿Δlcx Irim\px
kl{k io¿tjm iXa\yp coVyx
459

{]Imikn‘p

P∑clnX\pw, Ahyb\pw, imizX\pw, GIcq]hpw ]pcmW ]pcp
j\pamb tl hcmlm, tl hnjvsWm, AhnSp∂p Xs∂ k¿Δ lc\mb
A¥I\pw, AKv\nbpw. kl{kio¿j\mb iXa\yphpw AhnSp∂p
Xs∂. AhnSptØ°p \akv°mcw.
55. Ihnw k]vXPnlzw {XmXmcw CμvcahnXmcw kptciw
lzbman i{Iw hr{Xl\w kptjWakvamIw hocm DØtc `h¥p.
Ihnbpw k]vXPnlz\pw {XmXmhpw, AhnXmhpw, kptci\pamb
C{μ≥ AhnSp∂mWv. hr{Xl¥mhmb i{Im, kptjWs\∂ \maw
hln°p∂ \ns∂ R߃ Blzm\w sNøp∂p (hnfn°p∂p), RßfpsS
k¿Δ hoc∑mcpw hnPbn°p∂Xn\mbn´v!
56. {] ]qctW tNm {ObWn {]thti
kv\mt\XYm amey hns[u hnk¿t§
]tTZnam≥ \r]Xnx tkm]hmtkm
a{¥m {Oq`m≥ ]pcplqXky tItXmx
C{μ[zPsØ ]qcWw sNbvXv Db¿Øn, {]thin∏n®v, kv\m\w
sNbvXv ameymZnIƒ Nm¿Øn hnk¿§w (\na÷\w) sNøpw hsc D]hm
kmZn {hX\njvTItfmsS cmPmhv Cu ip`a{¥w P]n-°p∂p.
57. O{X[zPmZ¿i^em¿≤z Nss{μ¿
hnNn{X amemIZeo £pZss{fix
khymeknwsslx ]nSssI¿§hmss£
cewIrXwZn£pNtemI]msse.
O{Xw, [zPw, IÆmSn, ]g߃, A¿≤ N{μ≥, hnNn{XameIƒ,
IZfn°peIƒ, Icnºv, Imfk¿∏w, knwlw F∂nhIfm¬ Ae¶cn®v
]nSIØns‚ ([zPØnepw) \mephihpw Khm£hpw ZnIv]mecq]ßfpw
hn\ykn°Ww.
58. AOn∂c÷pw ZrV ImjvSamXrIw
kp«ojvS b{¥m¿§e]mZ tXmcWw
D∞m]tb√£va kl{k N£p£x
kmc{Zpam`Kv\ IpamcnIm\znXw.
apdnbmØ IbdpsIm≠v sI´n, ZrVambXpw apdnhn√mØXpamb
hr£ ImfiØnt∑¬ kme`RvPnIm IpamcnIfm¬ AewIrXam°n,
460

{]Imikn‘p

b{¥w, A¿§fw, ]mZw, tXmcWw F∂nh Nm¿Øn Bbncw t\{Xap≈
tZhs‚ Nnlv\߃ Nm¿Øn, AXns\ Db¿ØpI.
59. AhncXP\cmhw awKeminx {]Wmssax
]Sp]SlapZwssKx iwJt`cymZn`n›
{ipXn hnlnXhtNm`nx ]m]TZv`n›
hnss{]cip`clnX i_vZw tIXpap∞m]bnXm.
AJfiambn P\߃ awKemin p ]mSn {]Wan°sh, ]Slw,
arZwKw, iwJw, t`cn F∂nh apgßsh, hmcw Ccn°p∂ hn{]∑mcpsS
{ipXn hnlnXamb hN pItfmsS, km[mcW°m¿ t]mepw Aip`cln
Xamb ip` i_vZw apg°sh tIXpsh (sImSn) Db¿ØWw.
60. ^eZ[n LrX emPm s£u{Z ]qjv]m{KlsskvXx
{]Wn]XnX intcm`nkvXrjvSp hnZv`n› s]usscx
LrX\nanj `¿Ørx tIXpanix {]Pm\m
acn\Kc \Xm{Kw Imctb ZznMvh[mbm.
]qjv]w, ssXcv, s\øv, em£, ]pjv]w F∂nhsb BZyw ssIøn¬
[cn®v, ]n∂oSv inc n¬ hln®v ]pchmknIƒ (]uc∑m¿) AXns\
BZcn°p∂p. C{]Imcw C{μ [zP[mcWØn\p tijw i{Xp h[Øn
\mbn, i{Xp \Kcßsf t\m°n [zPm{K`mKØp\n∂v {]Pm]Xnbmb
cmPmhv ]pds∏Sp∂p.
61. \mXn{ZpXw \ N hnew_nX a{]Iº a≤zkvX amey]nSImZn
hn`qjWw N
D∞m\anjvSaip`w bZtXmf \yYmkymXv
XOm{¥n`n¿\c]tXx iatbXv ]ptcm[mx
A[nIw thKa√msXbpw, A[nIw aμa√msXbpw, {]Iº\w C√m
sXbpw, amey ]nSImZn hn`qjW߃ hogmsXbpw Db¿Øp∂ ]£w
ip`amWv. C{]Imca√m™m¬ cmPmhn\v A\njvS ^ew kw`hn°pw.
]ptcmlnX≥ AXn\v im¥n sNøWw.
62. {IhymZ sIuinI It]mXI ImIIwssIx
tIXp ÿnssXu¿ΩlZpim¥n `bw \r]ky
NmtjW Nm]n bphcmP `bw hZ¥n
tiyt\m hntemN\ `bw \n]X≥ ItcmXn.
461

{]Imikn‘p

amwk `p°pIfmb ]£nIƒ, aqß, {]mhv, Im°, sIm‰n F∂nh
tIXpta¬ Ccp∂m¬ cmPmhn\v Aim¥nbpw `bhpw ^ew. \oe IWvTw
Ccp∂m¬ bphcmPmhn\pw; tiy\≥ Ccp∂m¬ t\{X `bap≠mhpw (tiy
\≥ F∂m¬ KcpU\mWv. lnμn ]cn`mjmImc≥ CXns\ _mP]£n
AYhm h{P]£n F∂p hnfn°p∂p. hmPt]bw F∂ b⁄Øn¬
tiy\ NnXn \n¿ΩmWap≈XpsIm≠v, hmP]£n F∂ t]cp≠mbn).
63. O{X`wK]Xt\ \r]arXypkvXkvIcm≥ a[pItcmXn \neo\w
l¥n Nm]yY ]ptcmlnXap¬°m ]m¿∞nhkyalnjo ai\n›
O{X`wKw D≠mbn AXv \new ]Xn®m¬ cmPmhn\v arXyp kw`hn
°pw. tX\o®°qSp≠mbm¬ XkvIc∑m¿ acn°pw. D¬° hoWm¬
]ptcmlnX\pw Ai\n]mXap≠mbm¬ cmP]´alnjn°pw arXyp.
64. cm⁄ohn\miw ]XnXm]XmImItcmXy hrjvSnw ]nSIky ]mXx
a≤ym{Kaqtejp N tIXp `wtKm \nl¥n a{¥n £nXn ]me]ucm≥
]XmI hoWm¬ cm⁄n acn°pw. ]nSIw (]oTw) hoWm¬ Ahr
jvSnbp≠mhpw. tIXphns‚ a≤yw, A{Kw, aqew F∂nh `wKs∏´m¬
{IaØn¬ a{¥n, cmPmhv, ]uc∑m¿ F∂nh¿ \in°pw.

A{Kw -cmPmhv
a≤yw -a{¥n
aqew -]uc∑m¿

65. [qamhrtX inJn`bw Xakm N tamtlm
hymsse › `Kv\]Xn ssX¿∂ `h¥yamXymx
•mb¥ypZIv {]`rXn N {IatimZznPm≤ym
`wtK N _‘In h[x IYnXx Ipamcymx
[qamhrXambn I≠m¬ inJn`bw; Ccp´paqSn°≠m¬ tamlw;
]n∂oSv apdn™p I≠m¬ a{¥namcn√mØ Ahÿ; DØcZn°p apX¬
462

{]Imikn‘p

\mep Zn°nte°v adn™phoWm¬ {IaØn¬ \meph¿Æ߃°p
\miw(DØcw -- {_mlvaW¿
-- £{Xnb¿
]q¿Δw
Z£nWw -- sshiy¿
]›naw -- iq{Z¿)
Ipamcnam¿ (kme `RvPnIIƒ) apdn™p hoWm¬ _‘InIfpsS
h[w (thiymhrØnbnte¿s∏´ Nmc h\nXIfmWv _‘InI-ƒ).
66. c÷q kwKtOZt\ _e]oVmcmt⁄m amXrx ]oV\w
amXrImbmx
bZyXv Ipcyp¿ ∫meIm›mcWmN XØØmZrKv`mho ]m]w
ip`w hm.
[zPw Db¿Øptºmƒ Ibdv apdn™m¬ Ip´nIƒ°v ]oV. tXmc
Ww apdn™m¬ cmPamXmhn\v; Ip´nIƒ C{μ[zP kao]Øncp∂v
Fs¥¥v tNjvSIƒ (ip`amtbm Aip`amtbm) ImWn°p∂pthm, AXn
\\pkcn®pw ip`mip`w ]dbmw.
67. Zn\ NXpjvSb ap∞nX a¿®nXw
ka`n ]qPy \rt]mf l\n ]©ta
{]IrXn`nx kle£vahnk¿÷tbXv
_e`nXx kz_em`n hnhr≤tb.
Db¿Øn A¿®nXamb [zPsØ \mep\mƒ ]qPn® tijw A©mw
Znhkw cmPmhv ]pchmknItfmSp tN¿∂v AXns\ (\Znbn¬) hnk¿÷n
°p∂ ]£w At±lØns‚ ssk\y^ew h¿≤n°pw; (_wKmfn¬
Imfo ]qP°pw, almcmjv{SØn¬ KtWi]qP°pw tijw hn{Klw
\Znbn¬ \na÷\w sNøp∂ k{ºZmbw C{μ[zP ]qPbpsS AhinjvS
amWv).
68. D]cnNchkp {]h¿ØntXw
\r]Xn`nc]y\p k¥Xw IrXw
hn[nanaa \pa\y ]m¿∞nthm\
cn]pIrXw `bam]v\pbmZnXn
463

{]Imikn‘p

CXn {io hcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
C{μ[zPkº∂ma {XnNXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
D]cnNchkp \S∏n¬ hcpØnbXpw, AXn\ptijw cmPm°∑m
cm¬ kZm A\pjvSn°s∏´p t]mcp∂Xpamb Cu hn[n A\pkcn®v
GsXmcp cmPmhv C{μ[zP]qP sNøp∂pthm, At±lØn\v i{Xp `bw
D≠mhp∂X√.

464

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 44

\ocmP\w
1. `KhXn Pe[c ]£va £]mIcm¿t°
£tW Iae\mt`
D∑oebXn XpcwKw aIcn\c\ocmP\w IpcymXv.
Pe[cßfmb taL߃ BcpsS CaItfm, N{μkqcy∑m¿ Bcp
sS t\{Xßtfm, B Iae\m`\mb `Khm≥ (hnjvWp) t\{Xßsf
D∑oe\w sNøptºmƒ (tbmK\n{Zbn¬ \n∂pWcptºmƒ) IpXncIfpw
B\Ifpw a\pjycpw \ocmP\w sNøp∂p.
2. ZzmZiym ajvSaymw Im¿ØnI ip¢ky ]©Ziymwhm
AizbptPhmIpcy\ocmP\ kw⁄nXmw im¥nw.
Im¿ØnI amkØnse ip¢]£]u¿Æanbnepw ZzmZin, AjvSan
Ifnepw AizbpPamkØnepw \ocmP\sa∂p t]cp≈ im¥n I¿Ωw
A\pjvTn°p∂p.
3. \KtcmØc ]q¿ΔZnin {]ikvX`qsau
{]ikvX Zmcpabw
tjmUilkvtXm{Ombw Zihn]pew
tXmcWw Imcyw.
\KcØn¬ hS°pIngs° Znibn¬ t{ijvT`qanbn¬, t{ijvT
hr£Øm¬ ]Xn\mdplkvXw DbcØnepw ]ØplkvXw hoXnbnepw
Hcp tXmcWw \n¿Ωn°p∂p.
4. k¿t÷mZpw_c imJmIIp` abw
im¥n kXva Ipi_lpew
hwihn\n¿ΩnX a’y[zP
N{ImewIrX Zzmcw.
hnPbkmcßfmb DZpw_cw, A¿÷p\w apXemb hr£Jfiß
fm¬ im¥nKrlw \n¿Ωn®v [mcmfw Ipi∏p√p hncn°p∂p. AXns‚
465

{]Imikn‘p

ZzmcØn¬ apfsIm≠v \n¿Ωn® sImSnacØn¬ a’ys°mSn ]dØp∂p.
hmXn¬°¬ {io N{Iw hc®v Ae¶cn°p∂p.
5. {]Xnkctbm XpcKmWmw
`√mXI imeoIpjvT kn≤m¿∞m≥
IWvtTjp \n_[v\obmXv
]pjvTy¿∞w im¥n{Kl Km\mw.
im¥n{KlØn\mbpw k¿ΔcptSbpw ]pjvTn°mbpw IpXncbpsS
IgpØn¬ {]Xnkncma{¥w _‘n°p∂p. `√mXIw, imens\√v F∂nh
kn≤n°pth≠n sI´nbnSp∂Xv \√XmWv.
6. chn hcpW hniz tZh{]tPi
]pcplqX sshjvWm ssh¿Ωss{¥x
k]vXmlw im¥n Krtl IpcymXv
im¥nw XpcwKmWmw.
kqcy≥, hcpW≥, hntiztZh∑m¿, {]Pm]Xn, C{μ≥, hnjvWp
F∂nhcpsS a{¥ßfm¬ GgpZnhkw im¥nKrlØn¬ XpcwK߃°v
(Aiz߃°v- A
- iz\nIƒ°v) im¥n sNøp∂p.
7. Aiz¿®nXm \ ]pcpjw h‡hym
\m]n XmU\o bmkvtX
]pWyml iwJ Xpcy [z\nKoXcssh
¿Ωp‡`bmx
]pWymlw, iwJw, t`co[z\n, kwKoXw apXemb awKfi_vZß
fm¬ ap‡`bcmbn, A¿®nXcmb Aiz߃ ItTmchm°pIƒ tI´mepw,
XmV\w kln®mepw \KcsØ hn´pt]mIbn√ (AhnsSØs∂ Ahcp
sS km∂n≤yw kZm D≠mhpw).
8. {]m]vtXf jvStaf lv\n IpcymZpZMvapJw
tXmcWky Z£nWXx
IpiNocmhrX am{iaKv\nw
]pctXmf kyth[ymw N.
F´mw Znhkw Ipiw, h¬°ew F∂nhbm¬ BhrXamb B{ia
Ønse AKv\nthZnbpsS apIfnepw sX°phS°mbpw tXmcW߃
sI´pI.
466

{]Imikn‘p

9. Nμ\ IpjvT kawKm lcnXmea\x
inem{]nbwKphNmx
Z¥yarXmRvP\cP\okph¿Æ]pjv]mKv\n aŸm›.
Nμ\w, IqSw, aRvPnjvTw, AcnXmcw, a\xine, {]nbwKp, hm°v,
Z¥n, AarXw, ARvP\w, sh≈n, kz¿Æw, ]pjv]w, AKv\naŸw,
10. tizXmw k]q¿ÆtImimw ISw`cm{XmbmamW kltZhnx
\mKIpkpaw kzKp]vXmw iXmhcnw tkmacmPnw N.
tizX, k]q¿ÆtImi, IZw_w, {Xmbam\x kltZhn, \mK Ipkp
aw, kzKp]vX, iXmhcn, tkmaeX,
11. IetitjzXm≥ IrXzmkw`mcm\p]ltcZv_enw kayIv
`ss£y¿\m\mImssc¿Ω[p]mbkbmhI{]Npcx
F∂o hkvXp°sfsb√mw \nd® IeiØn¬ tX≥, s\øv, ]mbk
bmhImZnIƒ apXemb \m\mhn[ `£yt]b߃ tN¿Øv kay°mbn
_enXqIpI.
12. JZnc]emtimZpw_c Imivacyiz∞ \n¿ΩnXmx kan[x
kv{ap°\Im{ZPXmZzm I¿Øhym`qXnImta\.
JZncw, ]emiw, DZpw_cw, Imivacn, Aiz∞sa∂nhbm¬ kanØp
\n¿Ωn®v, hninjvSkºØns\ Iman°p∂h¿ sh≈nbmepw kz¿ÆØm
epw {kp°pw D≠m°n _en \¬Ip∂p.
13. ]q¿Δm`napJx {ioam≥ sshbmt{L N¿ΩWnÿntXm cmPm
XojvtT Ze\kaot] XpcK`njKvssZh hnXvklnXx
AKv\nbpsS kao]Øv, Aizn\nIfmb `nj°pIfmIp∂ ssZh
hnØpItfmSv tN¿∂ {ioam\mb cmPmhv, ]q¿Δm`napJambn ]pentØm
en¬ Ccn°p∂p.
14. bm{Xmbmw bZ`nlnXw {Klb⁄ hns[u atl{μ tIsXu N
thZn]qtcmlnXm\e e£W akvanw kvXZh[mcyw.
bm{Xbnepw, {Klb⁄ hn[nbnepw, C{μ[zP hnjbØnepw
]ptcmlnXt‚bpw AKv\nbptSbpw e£W߃ ]d™sX√mw Cu
hn[m\Øn\pw _m[IamsW∂dnbWw.
467

{]Imikn‘p

15. e£Wbp‡w XpcKw ZzncZhcw ssNh
Zo£nXw kv\m\w AlXknXmw_c K‘kv{XKv
[q]miym¿®nXw IrXzm
e£Wbp‡amb IpXnctbbpw B\tbbpw hcn®n´v Ahsb
Zo£m]q¿Δw kv\m\w sNøn®v IodmØ ip`hkv{Xw, K‘w, ame [q]w
F∂nhbm¬ A¿®n°pI.
16. B{iatXmcW aqew kap]\tbXv km¥zbRvO ss\¿ΔmNm
hmZn{X iwJ ]pWyml\nx kz\m ]qcnX ZnK¥w.
a[pcamb km¥z\ hN\ßfmepw iwJmZn a[pckzc߃ apg
ßp∂ Zn°pIfmepw ]pWymlØmepw Ahsb D]\b\w sNbvX,v B{i
atXmcWØns‚ ISbv°te°p sIm≠pt]mIpI.
17. b[ym\oXkvXnjvtT Z£nWNcWw lbx kap∞v £n]y
kPbXn XZm \tc{μmx i{Xp NncmZzn\m bXv\mXv.
C{]Imcw B\bn°p∂ IpXnc BZyw heØpIm¬ Db¿Øn sh
®m¬ cmPmhv hfsc thKØn¬ {]bmkw IqSmsX i{Xpsh Pbn°pw.
18. {Xkyt∂jvtSm cm⁄x ]cntijw tNjvSnXw Zzn]lbm\mw
bm{Xmbmw hymJymXw XZnl hnNn¥yw bYmbp‡n
Aizw `bNInX\mbn I≠m¬ cmPmhn\pw `bw kw`hn°pw. bm{X
bv°p hymJym\n®Xpt]mseØs∂, B\, IpXnc F∂nhbpsS a‰p
tNjvSIsf bp‡n]q¿Δw Nn¥n®v a‰p ^e߃ ]dbWw.
19. ]nfi a`n a{¥y Z[ymXv ]ptcmlntXm hmPn\ kbZn Pn[vt\Xv
AizobmZzm PbIrZzn ]cotXmf tXm f\yYm `nlnXx
]ptcmlnX≥ a{¥w P]n®v IpXncbv°v `£n°m\p≈ ]nfiw
(Dcpf) \¬Ip∂p. Aizw AXv aWØp `£n®m¬ Pbw. hn]coXam
bm¬ ]cmPbw.
20. IetimZtIjp imJm amπm shyuZpw _cnw kv]rtiØpcKm≥
im¥nI s]ujvSnIass{¥tchw tk\mw k \r]\mKmw.
DZpw`c hr£Øns‚ Cebp≈ imJ IeiØnse PeØnen´v
AizsØ sXm´p\n∂v ]ptcmlnX≥ im¥nI ]ujvSnI a{¥ßƒ P]n
468

{]Imikn‘p

°p∂Xv cmPm°∑m¿°pw AhcpsS AizXpcKßtfmSpIqSnb tk\
Iƒ°pw im¥nbpw hr≤nbpw \¬Im\mWv.
21. im¥nw cmjv{S hnhr≤tbIrXzm
`qtbmf `nNmc ssI¿Ωss{¥x
ar¨ab acnw hn`n‘ym Oqte t\mcx ÿte hn{]x
im¥n cmjv{SsØ A`nhr≤ns∏SpØm≥ sNøp∂p, AXn\mbn
ho≠pw ho≠pw A`nNmc a{¥w (A`oNmcw- apt∂m´p≈ t]m°v- ]ptcm
KXn) sNm√p∂p. ]ptcmlnX∑m¿ aÆpsIm≠v i{Xp_nw_w D≠m°n
iqeØm¬ AhbpsS amdp ]nf¿°p∂p (bYm¿∞Øn¬ i{Xphns\
h[n°p∂ lnwk I¿ΩØn\p ]Icw, i{Xp hn{KlsØ `RvPn°pI
F∂ I¿Ωw sNbvXv t{Im[w Xo¿Øv im¥n ASbp∂p).
22. Jen\wlbmb Z[ym Z`na{¥y ]ptcmlnXkvXXtXm cmPm
BcptlymZIv ]q¿Δw bmbm∂ocmPnXx k_ex
]ptcmlnX≥ a{¥P]tØmsS IpXncbpsS apJØv eKm≥ sI
´p∂p. cmPmhv AXnt∑¬ BcqV\mbn DZIv]q¿Δw \ocmPnX\mbn ssk
\ytØmSp IqSn k©cn°p∂p (DØc]q¿Δ Znibn¬).
23. arZwKiwJ [z\nlrjvSIpRvPc kv{Xh≥aZmtamZkpK‘n
amcpXx
intcmaWn{hmX NeXv {]`mNssb¿÷e≥ hnhkzm\nhtXmb
ZmXysb.
arZwK iwJ [z\nbn¬ B\μn® B\Iƒ Hgp°p∂ aZK‘Øm¬
kpc`neamb Im‰n\m¬ XgpIs∏´v, intcm aIpSØn¬ AWn™ aWn
KWßfpsS Ne\{]`tbmSpIqSn, Im¿taLsamgn™v {]mIin°p∂
kqcyk∂n`\mbn,
24. lwk]w‡n `ncnXkvXtXmf Zv`ncmSv
kºXZv `ncnh ip¢Nmasscx
arjvS K‘ ]h\m\p hmln`n
¿[v[qbam\ cpNnc kv{XKw_cx
Acb∂KWßfm¬ tim`mbam\amb ]¿ΔXcmPs\t]mse,
kºXnbv°p∂ (Xmgv∂p InS°p∂ F∂pw, kºXtcJ t]mse ho≠pw
469

{]Imikn‘p

Nen°m\mbn ]q¿ΔÿnXn {]m]n® F∂pw) shfpØ Nmacßfm¬ Npg
∂pw, kpK‘nbmb Im‰ns\ hln®pw, at\mlc hkv{Xßfpw ameIfpw
AWn™pw tim`n°p∂p.
25. ss\I h¿ÆaWn h{P `qjnssX¿
`qjntXm apIpS IpfiemwKssZx
`qcncXv\ IncWm\pcRvPnXx
i{I Im¿ΩpI cpNw kapZzl≥.
At\I \ndßfnep≈ cXv\ßfpw h{Phpw [cn®v, aIpSw, Ipfi
ew, AwKZw F∂nhbm¬ AewIrXambn, cXv\-ßfn¬ \n∂p {]kcn
°p∂ \m\mh¿Æßfm¬ C{μ[\p ns‚ Im¥ntbmsS,
26. DXv]XZv`ncnhJw XpcKw ssaZcnbZv`ncnh Z¥n`n¿[cmw
\n¿÷nXmcn`ncnhmassc¿∂sscx i{IhXv ]cnhrtXm {htP≥ \r]x
BImiØn¬ \n∂v Dev]Xn®Xpt]msebp≈ Aizhpw, [cWnsb
hnZmcWw sNøp∂ B\bpw, i{Xp-°sf kwlcn°p∂ Aaccmb \c
hoc∑mcpw (hoctbm≤m°ƒ) Np‰pw \n¬°sh, tZh∑mcm¬ Np‰s∏´
tZth{μ k∂n`\mb cmPmhv k©cn°p∂p.
27. kh{P ap‡m^e `qjtWmf Yhm
knXkv{X KpjvWoj hnte]\mw_cx
LrXmX]t{Xm KP]rjvT am{intXmx
Lt\m]cothμp ete `rtKmx kpXx
h{Pw, apØv, B`cW߃, shfpØ ]pjv]amem, DjvWojw,
Nμ\mZn kpK‘ te]\߃, kphkv{X߃, O{Xw F∂nhtbmSp
IqSn B\∏pdØv hcp∂ cmPmhv, tatLm]cn, N{μ\pXmsg hncmPn
°p∂ ip{I\p kam\w tim`n°p∂p.
28. kw{]lrjvS \chmPnIpRvPcw
\n¿Ωe {]lcWmw ip`mkpcw
\n¿ΔnImcacn]£ `ojWwbky
ssk\yaNncmXv kKmw PtbXv
CXn {io hcml anlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
\ocmP\hn[n¿∂ma NXpc›Xzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
470

{]Imikn‘p

GXpImeØv tk\bn¬ tbm≤m°fpw IpXncIfpw B\Ifpw
B\μNnØcmbncn°p∂pthm, \n¿Ωeßfmb Akv{Xikv{XIm¥n
bm¬ {]Imiam\ambncn°p∂pthm, B ImeØv Ah¿ \n¿ΔnImccmbn
Acn]£sØ h[n®v i{Xp `ojWcmbncn°pw. AØcw ssk\y
tØmSp IqSnb cmPmhv `qansb thKØn¬ Pbn°p∂p.

471

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 45

JRvP\ e£Ww
1. JRvP\sIm\mambw tbm hnlKkvXkyZ¿it\ {]Yta
t{]m‡mw \nbm\n ap\n`nx ^em\nXm\n {]h£yman
JRvP\sa∂ t]tcmSp IqSnb ]£nsb BZyw Z¿in®mep≈
^ew, apºv ap\namcm¬ ]dbs∏´Xv, Rm≥ ChnsS ]dbmw.
2. ÿqtemf iyq∂X IWvTx IrjvWKtem `{ZImctIm `{Zx
BIWvTapJmXv IrjvWx kw]q¿Æx ]qcbXymimw.
XSn®v, \o≠v IrjvWh¿Æap≈ IgptØmSp IqSnb JRvPI
]£n `{ZImcI\mIbm¬ ‘`{Z’sa∂v Adnbs∏Sp∂p. IgpØp apX¬
apJw hsc IrjvW h¿Æsa¶n¬ ‘kw]q¿Æw’ F∂v hnfn°p∂p. CXv
k¿Δ BiItfbpw ]qcn∏n°p∂p (JRvPcnSkvXp JRvP\x Aac
tImi {]Imcw IpcnIn¬ ]£nbpsS ]cymbw. A]nJRvP\aRvP\m
©ntX F∂ {io l¿j hN\sØ Bkv]Zam°nb ]mctaizcn JRvP
\w IcnwIpcpIn¬ F∂p ]dbp∂p. JRvP\w IpcnInepw, ARvP\m
RvPnXamb JRvP\w IcnwIpcnInepamWv. IgpØpam{Xw IdpØXv
`{Zw, IgpØpw apJhpw IdpØXv kºq¿Æw).
3. IrjvtWm Ktef ky _nμpx knXIcSm¥x kcn‡ IrZvcn‡x
]otXm tKm]oX CXnt¢iIcx JRvPt\m ZrjvSx
IdpØv, KfØn¬ shfpØ _nμphp≈Xv “cn‡w” F∂dnbs∏
Sp∂p. AXv k¿ΔI¿ΩtØbpw \njv^ew (cn‡w) B°p∂p. a™
\ndap≈Xv “tKm]oX”amWv. AXns\ I≠m¬ t¢i߃ D≠mhpw (Icn
¶pcnens‚ IgpØn¬ shfp∏ps≠¶n¬ cn‡w; a™bmsW¶n¬ tKm
]oXw).
4. AY a[pc kpc`n^e Ipkpa Xcpjp
kenemitbjp ]ptWyjp
IcnXpcK `pPK aq¿≤v\n
{]mkmtZmZym\ l¿tΩyjp
472

{]Imikn‘p

5. tKmtKmjvTkXv kamKabRvtPm’h
]m¿∞n]ZznPkaot]
lkvXn XpcwKaimem O{X[zPNmacmtZyjp
6. tlakao] knXmw_cIatemXv]e ]qPntXm]en]vtXjp
Z[n]m{X [m\yIqtSjp N {inbw JRvP\x IpcptX.
a[pc ^eßfpw kpc`ne Ipkpaßfpw \nd™ hr£ßƒ;
]pWy Pemib߃; B\, IpXnc, k¿∏w F∂nhbpsS aq¿≤mhv; {]m
kmZ߃, DZym\߃, l¿Ωy߃: ]ipsXmgpØv, kXv kwKÿm\
߃, b⁄ime, D’h ÿew, cmPmhns‚tbm {_mlvaWs‚tbm
khn[w, B\∏¥n, IpXnc∏¥n, O{Xw, [zPw, Nmacw, kz¿ÆØns‚
ASpØv, ip`hkv{Xw, Xmac, Bº¬ ]qPy ÿm\߃, tam¿∏m{Xw,
[m\yIqSw- Cu ÿm\ßfn¬ JRvP\sØ Z¿in®m¬ “{io” ^ew.
7. ]t¶ kmZz∂m]vXn¿ t§mck kw]®tKma tbm[KtX
imZze tK hkv{Xm]vXnx iIStÿ tZihn{`wix
Nfnbn¬ Ccn°p∂Xp I≠m¬ kzmZp≈ `£Ww In´pw. NmWI
Øn¬ Ccn°p∂XpI≠m¬ \√ ]mep In´pw. imZzeØn¬ Ccn°p∂Xp
I≠m¬ hkv{Xw In´pw. h≠nbn¬ I≠m¬ tZi\miw kw`hn°pw.
8. Krl]Stef ¿∞ {`wtim h[vt\_t‘mf ip sNu`hXn tcmKmx
]rjvtT XzPmhnIm\mw {]nb kwKaamhlXymip.
hoSn\p apIfnencp∂m¬ A¿∞\miw; On{Zßfn¬ (s]mØn¬)
I≠m¬ _‘\w. AipNnbmb ÿm\Øp I≠m¬ tcmKw, BSv, I∂p
ImenIƒ F∂nhbpsS ]pdØncn°p∂Xp I≠m¬ {]nbkwKaw.
9. alntjmjv{S K¿±`mÿnivaim\ KrltImW i¿°cm{Znÿx
{]mImc`kvatItijvT Nmipt`m acW cpKv `bZx
t]mØv, H´Iw, IgpX, Aÿn, ivaim\w, KrltIm¨, i¿°c,
]¿ΔXw, {]mImcw, `kvaw, XeapSn apXembhta¬ Ccn°p∂Xp
I≠m¬ Aip`amWv. acWw, tcmKw, `bw F∂nh P\n∏n°pw.
10. ]s£u[p\z∂ip`x ip`x ]n_≥ hmcn \nav\Km kwÿx
kqtcymZtbf Y ikvtXm t\jvS^ex
JRvPt\mf kvXatb
473

{]Imikn‘p

Ccp NndIpw hoins°m≠p I≠m¬ Aip`amWv. \Znbn¬ Pew
IpSn°p∂XmbnI≠m¬ ip`amWv. kqtcymZb ImeØv JRvP\ Z¿i
\w t{ijvTamWv. AkvXabØn¬ I≠m¬ CjvS^e{]m]vXn km[n°p
Ibn√.
11. \ocmPt\ \nhrtØbbmZnim JRvP\w \rt]m bm¥w
]tiyØbm KXky £n{]acmXn¿hiapss]Xn.
\ocmP\Øn\p ]pds∏Sptºmƒ GXp Znibv°v A`napJambn k©
cn°p∂ JRvP\sØ I≠pthm, B Znibn¬ sN∂m¬ io{LØn¬
Xs‚ i{Xphns\ hiØm°m≥ cmPmhn\p km[n°pw.
12. Xkvan∂n[n¿`hXn ssaYp\taXn
bkvan≥ bkvanwkvXp O¿±bXn X{XtXtef kvXn ImNx
AwKmca]yp]Zniμn ]pcojtWky
XXv IuXpIm]\b\mb Jt\≤cn{Xow.
GXp ÿm\Øv JRvP\w ssaYp\w sNøp∂pthm AhnsS \n∂v
\n[n e`n-°pw. JRvP\w O¿±n°p∂ `q`mKØv ImNw e`n°pw. ]pcoj
anSp∂ ÿew J\\w sNbvXm¬ I¬°cn In´pw- Cu hn[ sIuXpI
߃ A]\b\w sNøp∂Xn\v (sXfnbn°p∂Xn\v) `qanbn¬ J\\w
\StØ≠n hcpw.
13. arXhnIehn`n∂ tcmKnXx kzX\p kam\ ^e{]Zx JKx
[\IrZ`nXneobam\tIm hnbXn N _‘p kamKa {]Zx
NØXpw, hnIemwKap≈Xpw, hn`n∂ tcmK_m[nXhpamb JRvP\
∏£n kzX\p kam\amb ^ew Xcpw. BImiØn¬ ]d∂pbcp∂
Xmbn I≠m¬ [\w e`n°pw; _‘pkamKahpw D≠mhpw.
14. \r]Xn c]n ip`w ip`{]tZi J ahtemIy aloXte hnZ[ymXv
kpc`nIpkpa[q]bp‡a¿Lyw ip` a`n\μnX tahtkXn hr≤nw
ip`amb ]£nsb ip` tZiØp I≠v, AXn\v kpc`ne ]pjv]w,
[q]w F∂nhtbmsS A¿Lyw \¬Inb cmPmhn\v ip`w kw`hn°pw.
B cmPmhv k¿Δcmepw A`n\μnX\mbn `qansb {]hr≤am°pw.
15. Aip`a]nhntemIy JRvP\w ZznPKpcpkm[pkpcm¿®t\ cXx
\ \r]Xncip`w kam]v\pbm∂ bZn Zn\m\n N k]vXamwk `pIv.
474

{]Imikn‘p

ZznP∑m¿, Kpcp`qX∑m¿, km[p-°ƒ, tZhXIƒ F∂nhsc A¿®n
°p∂Xn¬ cXntbmSpIqSnb cmPm°∑m¿ BgvNbn¬ GgpZnhkhpw
amwk`£Ww shSn™h¿ IqSnbmsW¶n¬ IpcnIn¬ ]£nsb Aip`
ÿm\Øp Z¿in®mepw Hcip`hpw kw`hn°pIbn√.
16. Ah¿jmXv {]Yta Z¿it\ ^ew {]XnZn\w Xp Zn\tisj
ZnIv ÿm\aq¿Øn eKv\¿£ im¥ Zo]vXm Zn`n tOmlyw
CXn {io hcmlanlncIrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
JRvP\ Z¿i\w \ma ]© NXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
{]Ya JRvP\ Z¿i\w Hcp h¿jØn\Iw ^ew \¬Ipw. F∂m¬
C°meØn\nSbv°v ho≠pw I≠m¬ AXns‚ ^ew kqcykvXab
Øn\p apºpw e`n°pw. Zn°v, ÿm\w, aq¿Øn (BIrXn, eKv\w), \£
{Xw, im¥n Zni, Zo]vXZni F∂nh IqSn \n¿Æbn® tijsa IpcnIn¬
Z¿i\ ^ew {]hNn°mhq F∂v ]finX∑m¿ Adn™ncn°Ww.
Jw P\w, Jw Ncn F∂o ]Z߃°v (BImiØnse P\߃,
BImiØn¬ Ncnbv°p∂h¿ F∂mWv ]Zm¿∞w. IpcnIn¬ ]£n F∂
hntijm¿∞w IqSmsX, ]£n F∂ kmam\y¿∞w IqSn Cu ]ZØn
\p≠v. ]£n \nco£Ww, BZyw ImWp∂ ]£nsb t\m°n \nanØ
hpw h¿j ^ehpw ]db¬ F∂nh kap{Z k©mcnIfmb BZna {]m
‡\ h¿§°mcpsS Hcp ]gb k{ºZmbamWv. tImfdnUvPns‚ “B≥
jy‚ v amcn\”dpsS B¬_t{Smkns\t∏mse ip`hpw Aip`hpw \¬
Ip∂ Hcp ]£n k©mcnIfmb \mtSmSn h¿§°m¿°v D≠v. t]mfnt\
jyImcpsS a\pXmtcm F∂ a\y¥zc ]£nIsf°pdn®v Rm≥ apºv
{]kvXmhn®n´p≠v (Refer Cuÿ sFe‚nse cm£k ineIƒ- {]KXn
1988. Unkw_¿. hmfyw 40, t]Pv 113). tamk n∂v ‘a∂’ sIm≠ph∂
ImS∏£nIfpw, tkmfa\v ti^m cmPIpamcnsb Ipdn®v Adnhp \¬
Inb amb∏£nbpw ss__nfnepw Jpdm\nepap≠v. ]nXr°ƒ “Im°”
Ifmbn Xßsf kμ¿in°psa∂v `mcXobcpw, IS¬°m°Ifmbn kμ¿
in°psa∂v t]mfnt\jycpw “Im” Bbn kμ¿in°psa∂v CuPn]vXp
Imcpw hnizkn®p.
tIcfØnse aqjI hwi°m¿ Hcp ImeØv bq{^´oknt‚bpw
AXns‚ t]mjI\ZnbptSbpw CSbnep≈ “Im¿°anjv” F∂ I¿°
tZiw (K¿§tZiw) hsc Ab\w sNbvXn´p≠v (Mushki F∂ hwi°m¿
FhnsS \n∂p h∂p F∂v Ncn{XImc∑m¿ AXv`pXw Iqdp∂p. ]t£
475

{]Imikn‘p

Im¿°anjnse lnssXbX∑m¿ ^pWnjycpambn _‘w ]pe¿Ønbn
cp∂p F∂v kΩXn°p∂p. Dead towns and living men). C∂pw \q_nb
bnse {KmaoW¿, ss\¬ XocØp\n∂v ]mekvXo\neqsS DØcZnibn¬
hk¥ImeØv k©cn°p∂ hen∏ap≈ IdpØ tZimS\°nfnIsf
(Glossy Ibis) {_nPn°nfn ({hP°nfn) F∂p hnfn°p∂p. AhnSpsØ
Xp¿°nIƒ \oXn\ymb hnNmcW sNøp∂ \Spap‰sØ Ah¿ C∂pw
tNcn (Sheri, Serai), tNssc F∂p hnfn°pw. BZyw FØp∂ h{P°nfn
sb {KmaapJy≥ cmPIob AIºSnItfmsS tNcnbn¬ sIm≠ph∂v
`£Ww \¬In, e£Ww ]Tn®v hn´bbv°p∂p (Page 158, Dead towns
and living men). a‰p `q`mKßfn¬ D≈ Cu ss{S_¬ NSßpIƒ°v
A¿∞w ImWm≥ hcmlanlncs‚ JRvP\ e£Wsa∂ Cu A≤ym
bw temIsaºmSpap≈ \chwiimkv{X⁄sc klmbn°pw.

476

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 46

DXv]mX e£Ww
1. bm\t{X cpXv]mXm≥ K¿§x
t{]mhmN Xm\lw ht£y
tXjmw kwt£t]mf bw
{]IrtX c\yXz apXv]mXx
K¿§ al¿jn A{XntbmSv ]d™ “DXv]mX”ßsf Rm≥ kwt£
]n®p ]dbmw. {]IrXnbn¬ \n∂v A\ymbambsX√mw DXv]mXamWv.
2. A]NmtcW\cmWmap]k¿§x
]m]k©bmZv `hXn.
kwkqNb¥n Znhym¥co£
`uamkvXZpXv ]mXmx
{]IrXn hncp≤amb “A]Y”amb k©mcw sIm≠v kw`hn°p∂
]m]k©b\ßfm¬ a\pjy¿°v D]{Zhw kw`hn°p∂p (B≤ymflnI
amb A¿∞Øn¬ kZmNmchncp≤amb I¿Ωw sIm≠v ho≠pw ho≠pw
kwkmcw kw`hn°¬; B[nssZhnIamb A¿∞Øn¬ {`aW ]Yw
hn´p k©cn°¬; A]khy {`aWw apXembh). Cu D]{Zhßsf
Znhyw, A¥co£w, `uaw F∂nßs\ aq∂p hn[Ønep≈ Dev]mX߃
kqNn∏n°p∂p (Dev]mXmZnIƒ sIm≠v D]{Zhw kw`hn°pIb√, DXv]m
XmZnIƒ D]{ZhßfpsS kqN\tbm ap∂dnbnt∏m XcnIbmWv F∂v
BNmcy≥ hy‡ambn ]dbp∂p).
3. a\pPm\m a]NmcmZ]c‡m tZhXx krPt¥yXm≥
XXv {]XnLmXmb \r]x im¥nw cmjvt{S {]bpRvPoXm
a\pjycpsS A]Nmcw sIm≠v If¶nXamb {]Imi tZhXam¿
krjvSn°p∂ DXv]mXßsf XSp°m≥ `cWm[nImcnIƒ cmjv{Sßfn¬
im¥nI¿Ω߃ sNøp∂p.
4. Znhyw{Kl¿£ sshIrX ap¬°m\n¿LmX ]h\ ]cnthjmx
K‘¿Δ ]pc ]pcμc Nm]mZn bZm¥co£w XXv.
477

{]Imikn‘p

{Kl\£{XmZnIfpsS sshIrX߃, D¬°, \n¿LmXw, ]h\≥,
]cnthjw F∂nhsb Km¿§y≥ Znhy DXv]mXßfmbn KWn°p∂p.
K‘¿h\Kchpw C{μ[\p pw A¥co£P\yamb Dev]mXamWv.
5. `uaw Ncÿnc`hw XOm¥n `ncmlXw
iaapss]Xn
\m`k apss]Xn arZpXmw imayXnt\m
ZnhymantXyI
Ncw, ÿncw (NcmNc߃) Chbn¬ \n∂p≠mb Dev]mX߃
`ua߃ F∂p hnfn°s∏Sp∂p. Chsb ian∏n°m≥ km[n°pw. Nne
cpsS A`n{]mbØn¬ \m`kamb (A¥co-£P\yw) Dev]mXßsf
Aev]sams° ian∏n°mw; A¥cot£m]cnbp≈ {]Imi temIßfn
se Znthymev]mXßsf ian∏n°m\pw im¥am°m\pw a\pjy¿°v
km≤ya√.
6. Znhya]n iaapss]Xn {]`qXI\Im∂ tKmaloZmss\x
cp{ZmbXt\`qsautKmtZmlmXv tImSntlmam®.
inhs‚ hmk ÿm\Øv (lnameb `qanbn¬) tKmtZml\hpw
tImSn tlmahpw sNbvXv [mcmfw I\Iw, A∂w, ]ip°ƒ, `qan F∂nh
Zm\w sNbvXm¬ Znhyamb DXv]mXßsf IqSn ian∏n°msa∂mWv a‰p
NnecpsS A`n{]mbw.
7. BflkpXtImi hml\ ]ptcmlntXjp temtIjp
]mIap]bmXn ssZhw ]cnIev]nXajvS[m \r]tXx
kzmXvamhv, a°ƒ, `fimcw, hml\߃, ]ptcmlnX∑m¿, km{am
Pyw, k¿ΔtemI߃, kv{XoIƒ F∂nßs\ F´phn[Øn¬ ]cnIev]n
Xamb “ssZh” Dev]mXßsfbpw cmPm°∑m¿ {]m]n°p∂p.
8. A\nanØawKNe\ tkzZm{ip \n]mX Pev]\mZzm\n
enwKm¿®bX\m\mw \mimb \tcitZim\mw.
A\nanØamb AwKNe\߃, hnb¿∏v, IÆo¿, Pev]\w, enwK
\miw, t£{XßfpsS \miw F∂nh cmPm°∑mcpsS tZi\misØ
kqNn∏n°p∂ `ua Dev]mXßfmWv.
478

{]Imikn‘p

9. ssZhXbm{Xm iISm£N{IbpK tIXp`wK ]X\m\n
kw]cymk\ kmZ\ kwKmiz \ tZi\r]ip`Zmx
ssZhcYbm{Xmthfbn¬ h≠nbpsS A£w, N{I߃, ]XmI
F∂nh apdn™phogpI, h≠n adnbpItbm sNcnbpItbm BcpsSsb
¶nepw ta¬ hgnamdns®∂p ap´pI CsXms° cmPmhn\pw tZiØn\pw
Aip`amWv.
10. Ejn[¿Ω]nXr{_lva t{]mXw sshIrXw ZznPmXo\mw
b{Zp{ZtemI ]mtemXv`hw ]iq\ma\njvSw XXv.
Ejnam¿, [¿Ω]nXr°ƒ (]nXr°fpsS [¿ΩImb߃), {_lvaw
Chbn¬ kw`hn°p∂ sshIrXßfpw, cp{Z≥, AjvStemI]me∑m¿
Chcn¬ kw`hn°p∂ sshIrXßfpw ]iptemIØn\v A\njvS^ew
\¬Ipw (AXn\m¬, ]iplnwk sNøcpXv F∂ hm°n\v IqSpX¬ hn]p
eamb Hc¿∞ap≠v. Ejnamcpw, [¿ΩImb_p≤cpw, {_lva⁄m\n
Ifpw, inhclkyadn™ kn≤Xm]kcpw, AjvSZnIv]mecpw ]dbpI
bpw BNcn°pIbpw sNbvX [¿ΩØn\pw EXØn\pw hn]coXamb
]Ÿmhn¬ k©cn°cpXv F∂mWv AXn\¿∞w).
11. KpcpknXiss\›tcm∞w
]ptcm[kmw hnjvWpPw N temIm\mw
kvIμ hnimJkap∞w afienIm\mw
\tc{μmWmw.
hymgw, ip{I≥, i\n apXemb {Klßfn¬ \n∂v DXv`hn® DXv]m
X߃ ]ptcmlnXh¿§Øn\pw, hnjvWpPamb Dev]mXw kakvX tem
IØn\pw, kvIμ≥ (sNmΔ hnimJw \£{Xkaqlw F∂nhbn¬
\n∂p≈ Dev]mX߃ afienI∑mcmb cmPm°∑m¿°pw (km{amPy
]Xn- N{Ih¿Øn) D]{Zhw sNøpw (hnimJw \£{XkaqlØns‚
ÿm\amb Xpemw, hrivNnI, Im¿ØnI \£{Xkaqlÿm\amb
taSw, CShw F∂o cminafießfnse Dev]mXßfpw kvIμ^ew
sNøpw. taSw, hr›nIw sNmΔbpsS kzt£{XamWv, sNmΔbn¬ \n∂p≈
DXv]mXhpw, Im¿ØnI, hnimJw \£{XhyqlØn¬ \n∂p≈ DXv]mX
hpw Htc^ew).
12. thZhymtk a{¥nWn hn\mbtI sshIrXw Naq\mtY
[mXcn khnizI¿ΩmWn temIm `mhmb \n¿±njvSw.
479

{]Imikn‘p

thZhymk\n¬ \n∂p≠mb DXv]mXw a{¥namtcbpw, KW]Xnbn¬
\n∂p≠mb sshIrXw KW]Xn (tk\m]Xn) amtcbpw hnizI¿Ωmhv,
[mXmhv F∂nhcn¬ \n∂p≠mb Dev]mXw k¿ΔtemItØbpw \in
∏n°pw.
13. tZhIpamcIpamcoh\nXm t{]tjyjp sshIrXw bXvkymXv
X∂c]tXx IpamcI IpamcnImkv{Xo ]cnP\m\mw.
14. c£x ]nimN KplyI \mKm\m taXtZh \n¿t±iyw
amssk izm ]yjvSm`nx k¿tΔjmtah ^e]mIx
tZhIpamc≥, tZhIpamcn, tZhh\nXm, t{]jy∑m¿ (tZhZqX∑m¿)
F∂nhcpsS sshIrX߃ cmPIpamc∑m¿, cmPIpamcnam¿, kv{XoIƒ,
]cnP\߃ apXemb c£, ]nimN, KplyI, \mK∑mcn¬ ]Xn®v
Ah¿°v F´pamkØn\Iw ^ew \¬Ip∂p.
15. _p≤zm tZhhnImcw ipNnx ]qtcm[mkv{Xy tlmjnXx
kv\mXx kv\m\ Ipkpam\p te]\ hkvss{Xciy¿® tbXv {]mXnamw.
16. a[p ]¿t°W ]ptcmt[m `ss£y¿ ∫en`n› hn[nh Zp]XnjvtTXv
ÿmeo]mIw PqlqbmZzn[nh≥ ass{¥› X√nwssKx
ipNnbmb (ip≤amb AKv\n ka\mb) ]ptcmlnX≥ tZhhnImcw
_p≤nbm¬ {Kln®v, aq∂p cm{Xn D]hkn®v kv\m\w apXembh Ign™v,
{]Xnasb kv\m\w sNøn®v IpkpamZn A\pte]\߃, hkv{Xw F∂n
hbm¬ A¿®n°p∂p; a[p]¿°w, `£yw apXemb ]qtPm]lmc߃
hn[nt]mse \¬In, GXp {]Xnasb A¿®n°p∂pthm AXns‚ enwK
Øn\v (e£WØn\v) A\ptbmPyamb a{¥ßtfmsS ÿmeo]mIhpw
tlmahpw \SØp∂p.
17. CXn hn_p[ hnImtc im¥bx
k]vXcm{Xw ZznPhn_q[ KWm¿®m
KoX \rtXym’hm®
hn[nhZh\n ]msse¿ssøx
{]bp‡m\ tXjmw `hXn
ZpcnX ]mtIm Z£nWm`n› cp{Zx
C{]Imcw im¥am°nb hn_q[ hnImctØmsS Ggpcm{XnIƒ
ZznP∑mcpw ]finX KWßfpw KoXw, \rØw, D’hw F∂nhbm¬
480

{]Imikn‘p

hn[nt]mse cmPm°∑mcpw Z£nWm`napJamb {]Xnasb A¿®n®m¬
k¿ΔZpcnXßfpw ianbv°p∂XmWv (DØa ]qP).
18. CXnenwKsshIrXw
cmjvt{Sbkym\Kv\nx {]Zo]ytX Zo]ytX
N t\‘\hm≥.
a\ptPizcky ]oVmXkykcmjv{Sky hnt⁄bmx
C{]Imcw enwK sshIrX߃. GXp cmjv{SØn¬ AKv\n C√msX
bpw hkvXp°ƒ IØp∂pthm, hndtImSp tN¿∂n´pw AKv\n IØmXncn
°p∂pthm, B cmPysØ cmPmhn\v ]oV kw`hn°m≥ t]mIp∂p
F∂dnbWw.
19. Peamwkm{ZPzet\ \r]Xn h[x
{]lctW ctWm cu{Zx
ssk\y{Kma ]ptcjvTv N\mtim
hlvt\¿`bw IpcptX
Pew, amwkw, \\™ hkvXp°ƒ F∂nh IØn®m¬ B cmPyØv
`cWm[n]≥ h[n°s∏Spw; tLmcamb bp≤Øntem, AKv\n`bØmtem
ssk\yhpw, {Kmahpw \Kchpw \in®pt]mIpw.
20. {]mkmZ `h\ tXmcW tIXzmZnjz\te\ ZKvt≤jp
XUnXm hmjWvamkmXv ]cN{IkymKtam \nbamXv
{]mkmZ߃, `h\߃, tXmcWw, sImSn F∂nh AKv\nbmtem
CSnan∂¬ sImt≠m Zln®m¬ \nbam\pkmcw BdpamkØn\Iw Ahn
sS as‰mcp `cWm[n]≥ `cWw Gs‰Sp°pw.
21. [qtamf \Kv\n kapt∞m cPkvXaizmlv\nPw alm`bZw
hyt{`\niypUp\mti Z¿i\ a]nNmlv\n tZmjIcw
AKv\nbn√msX ]pI DbcpI, ]I¬ s]mSn h¿jn®v `b¶camb
A‘Imcw ]c°pI, cm{Xn taLlo\amb BImiØn¬ \£{X
\miw Z¿in°pI (\£{XØn\v kvt^mSw kw`hn®v AXv A{]Xy£
amhpI) ]Ien¬ \£{Xw ImWpI CsXms° tZmjIcamWv.
22. \Kc NXpjv]mZmfiP a\pPm\mw `b¶cw
Pze\amlpx [qamKv\n hnkv^penwssKx
iømw_c tIissK¿ΩrXypx
481

{]Imikn‘p

`b¶cambn Pzen°p∂ AKv\n a\pjy¿°pw, \Kc߃°pw, \m¬
°menIƒ°pw, AfiP߃°pw \miw hcpØp∂p. InSbv°, hkv{Xw,
XeapSn F∂nhbn¬ AKv\nbpsS s]mcn hoWm¬t∏mepw AXv arXyp
hn\v ImcWambn `hnbv°mw.
23. Bbq[Pze\ k¿∏Wkz\mx
tImi \n¿§a\th]\m\nhm
sshIrXm\nbZn hmbpt[f ]cmWymipscu{ZcWkwIpew htZXv.
Bbp[߃ Pzen°pI, Ahbn¬ \mZw ]pds∏SpI, tImiØn¬
\n∂p ]pdsØSp°ptºmƒ Ah {]Iº\w sIm≈pItbm a‰p sshIrX
߃ ImWn°pItbm sNøpI- tLmcbp≤ap≠mhpsa∂Xns‚ kqN\
IfmWnh (Bbp[w D]tbmKn°p∂hs‚ hnImcamWv Bbp[w ImWn
°p∂Xv- Bbp[w Pzen°p∂Xn\¿∞w D]tbmKn°p∂h≥ AXv tX®p
an\p°nbn´p≠v F∂mWv. Ddbn¬ \n∂qcptºmƒ AXv hndbv°p∂Xn
\¿∞w D]tbmKn°p∂h≥ t£m`nX\msW∂mWv).
24. ass{¥¿Δmlvss\x £ochr£mXv kanZv`n¿tlmXthymf Kv\nx
k¿j]x k¿∏njm N
AKv\ymZn\mw sshIrtX im¥ntchw tZbw Nmkvan≥
Im©\w {_mlvatWiy
apdn®m¬ ]m¬ hcp∂ hr£amWv £oc hr£w. £oc hr£
Øn¬ \n∂p≈ kanØv Pzen∏n® AKv\nbn¬ ISpIpw s\øpw a{¥m
hml\tØmsS tlman®v {_mlvaW¿°v kz¿Æw Zm\w sNbvXm¬
AKv\n sshIrXßfn¬ \n∂v im¥n e`n°pw.
25. CXyKv\nsshIrXw
imJm `w tKf Ikvam Zr£mWmw \n¿±nti {ZtWmtZymKw
lkt\ tZi{`wiw cpZntX Nhym[n _mlpeyw
C{]Imcw AKv\n sshIrXw. hr£ imJIƒ HSn™p hoWm¬
bp≤]pd∏mSv D≠mhpw. NncnsIm≠v tZi{`wihpw, Ic®n¬sIm≠v At\
Iw tcmKßfpw kw`hn°mw.
26. cmjv{Shnt`ZkvXz\rsXu _meht[mf Xoh IpkpantX _mte
hr£mXv £ockv{Xmth k¿Δ{Zhy£tbm `hXn.
482

{]Imikn‘p

EXpImeØne√msX EXp t`Zw I≠m¬ cmjv{Sw A\rXßfm¬
t`Zn°s∏Spw (]nf¿°s∏Spw) _me hr£ßƒ ]qØm¬ _meh[w
D≠mhpw. hr£ßfn¬ \n∂v £ocw {khn®m¬ k¿Δ {Zhy£bw
^ew.
27. atZy hml\ \mix kw{Kmax timWntX a[p\n tcmKx
kvt\tl Zp¿`n£ `bw alZv `bw \nx krtX kente.
hr£ßfn¬ \n∂v aZyw Npc∂m¬ hml\ \miw; c‡w h∂m¬
bp≤w; a[p Npc∂m¬ tcmKw, FÆ Npc∂m¬ Zp¿`n£`bw; Pew Npc
∂m¬ alm`bw.
28. ipjv°hntcmtl hocym∂ kw£bx
timjtW N hncpPm\mw
]XnXm\map∞mt\ kzbw `bw ssZh\nXw N.
apf ipjvIn®ncp∂m¬ hocyw D≠mhn√. A∂w C√m™m¬ £bw
D≠mhpw. tcmKlo\amb hr-£w Hcp ImcWw IqSmsX timjn®m¬
A∂£bhpw tk\m£bhpw D≠mIpw. hoW hr£w Xmt\ Fgpt∂
‰m¬ ssZh P\nXamb `bw D≠mhpw (Cu ]d™sXms° hr£Øn\p
am{Xa√ k¿Δ PohPme߃°pw _m[IamWv).
29. ]qPnXhrt£ ly\rXu Ipkpa^e \r]h[mb \n¿±njvSw
[qakvXkvan≥ PzmemYhm `th \r]h[mssbh.
]qPnX hr£Øn¬ EXp ImeØne√msX Ipkpa ^emZnIƒ
I≠m¬ \r]≥ h[n°s∏Spw. ]qPnX hr£Øn¬ ]pItbm XoPzme
tbm I≠mepw \r]h[w ^ew.
30. k¿∏Xvkp Xcpjp Pev]Xvkp
hm]n P\kw£tbm hn\n¿±njvS
hr£mWmw sshIrtXy Zi`n¿
amsskx ^ehn]mIx
hr£w CgbpItbm Pev]n°pItbm sNbvXm¬ a\pjy¿°p
£bw kw`hn°pw F∂mWv lnμn `mjyØn¬ ImWp∂Xv. hr£Øn¬
k¿∏w Np‰n°nS∂v ko¬°mc i_vZw ]pds∏So®m¬ F∂mhmw A¿
∞w. hr£ßfn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂ sshIrXßfpsS ^ew ]Øp amk
Øn\Iw A\p`hn°pw.
483

{]Imikn‘p

31. {kKv K‘[q]mw_c ]qPnXky O{Xw \n[mtbm]cn
]mZ]kym IrXzminhw cq{ZPt]mf {X Imtcym
cpt{Z`y CXy{X jUwK tlmax
ameyw, kpK‘{Zhyw, [q]w, hkv{Xw F∂nhtbmsS hr£sØ
]qPn®v, hrt£m]cn IpSNqSn°pI. hr£sØ inh\m°n k¶ev]n®v
cp{ZP]w sNbvIbpw “cpt{Z`yx” CXymZn a{¥ßtfmsS jUwKtlmaw
sNbvIbpw thWw.
32. ]mbtk\ a[p\m Nt`mPtbZv
{_mlvaWm≥ LrXbptX\ `q]Xnx
taZn\o \nKZnXm{X Z£nWmsshIrtX
XcpIrtX al¿jn`ox
hr£sshIrXßsf im¥am°p∂Xn\mbn cmPm°∑m¿ s\bv∏m
bkhpw tX\pw tN¿Ø `£Ww {_mlvaW¿°v \¬In, Ah¿°v
Z£nWbpw `qZm\hpw sImSpt°≠XmsW∂v al¿jnam¿ IqSn ]d™n
cn°p∂p.
33. CXn hr£ sshIrXw
\mtef _vPbhmZn\m taIkvan≥ Zzn{Xn kw`thm acWw
IYbXnXZ[n ]Xo\mw baew PmXw Ipkpa^ew.
C{]Imcw hr£ sshIrXw.
Xmac, bhw apXembhbpsS Hcp X≠nt∑¬ ct≠m aqt∂m D≠m
bXmbn ImWpI, As√¶n¬ Hcp X≠n¬ c≠p ]qthm, c≠p Imtbm
ImWpI- CXv B Xmac°pfØnt‚tbm, [m\y hbens‚tbm DSaÿ
s‚ acWsØ kqNn∏n°p∂p.
34. AXnhr≤nx kkym\mw \m\m^eIpkpa`thm hrt£m`hXn
lnbtZy Ikvan≥ ]cN{ImKtam\nbamXv.
[m\yßfpsS AXnhr≤n, Htc hr£Øn¬ At\I {]ImcØn
ep≈ ]q°fpw ImbvIfpw ImW¬- Ch i{Xptk\bpsS BKa\tØ
bpw `cW am‰tØbpw kqNn∏n°p∂p.
35. A¿t≤\ bZm ssXew `hXn Xnem\m assXeXm hmkymXv
A∂kyN sshckyw XZm N hnZymXv `bw kpalXw.
484

{]Imikn‘p

F≈ns‚ ]IpXn ssXeamhpI, F≈n¬ \n∂v ssXew In´mXncn
°pI- CXv A∂Øns‚ sshckyw sIm≠v alØmb `bw D≠mhm≥
t]mIp∂Xns‚ kqN\IfmWv.
36. hnIrX Ipkpaw ^ew hm {KmamZYhm ]pcmZv _lnx Imcyw
kutayf {X Ncpx Imtcym \n¿hmt]ymhm ]ipx imss¥y.
hnIrXambn ImWp∂ ]q°fpw ImbvIfpw {KmaØnt‚tbm \Kc
Ønt‚tbm ]pdØp sIm≠pt]mbn IfbWw. CXns‚ im¥n°pw ]ip
°fpsS im¥nbv°pambn “kuayw” F∂ Ncp sNøWw.
37. ktky N ZrjvSzm hnIrXnw {]tZbw
XXv t£{Xtah {]Yaw ZztP`yx
Xsskyh at≤y Ncpa{X `uaw IrXzm\
tZmjm≥ kapss]XnX÷m≥.
C{]Imcap≈ sshIrXßtfmSp IqSnb kky߃ GsXmcp t£
{XØn¬ (`qanbn¬) I≠pthm, B t£{Xw BZyw {_mlvaW¿°v
Zm\w sNøpI. ]n∂oSv `qanbpsS a≤yØn¬ `qantZhn°v Ncp sNøpI.
]ns∂ AØcw tZmj߃ ho≠pw D¬∏mZn°s∏SpIbn√.
38. CXn kky sshIrXw
Zp¿`n£a \mhrjvSymaXnhrjvSymw £pZv`bw k ]cN{Iw
tcmtKmly\rXr`hmbmw \r]ht[mf \ `qPmXmbmw.
C{]Imcw kkysshIrXw. A\mhrjvSn sIm≠p Zp¿`n£w, AXn
hrjvSn sIm≠v kkykºØp≠mbm¬ i{Xptk\ B{Ian®v `cW
am‰w hcpØp∂Xn\m¬ £ma`bw, EXpImeØne√msX h¿jw (ag)
e`n®m¬ tcmKw, taLw IqSmsX ag s]bvXm¬ `cWm[nImcnbpsS
h[w Ch {]hNn°mw.
39. iotXmjvWhn]cymsk t\m kayKv EXpjp N k{]hrtØjp
j¨amkm{Zmjv{S`bw tcmK`bw ssZhP\nXw N.
ioXImehpw {Kojvahpw (DjvWImew) ]ckv]cw amdnhcp∂Xp
sIm≠pw kay°mbn EXp°fpsS {]h¿Ø\w kw`hn°mbvI sIm≠pw
BdpamktØ°v cmjv{S`bw, tcmK`bw, ssZh`bw F∂nh D≠mhpw
(EXpam‰w D≠mhptºmƒ P\߃°v ]I¿®hym[nIfp≠mhp∂Xv
485

{]Imikn‘p

tcmK`bw; {]IrXnt£m`ap≠mhp∂Xv ssZh`bw; s]mfn‰n°¬ Bbn
`cWam‰w D≠mhp∂Xv cmjv{S`bw).
40. A\y¿sØu k]vXmlw {]_‘h¿tj {][m\ \r]acWw
ct‡ ikvt{XmtZymtKm amwkmÿnhkmZn `n¿acIx
EXpImeØ√msX HcmgvN°mew ags]bvXm¬ {][m\\r]\v
acWw kw`hn°pw. c‡w h¿jn®m¬ Bbp[ Iem]w D≠mhpw.
amwkw, Aÿn, hk F∂nh h¿jn®m¬ arXyp km¿Δ{XnIambn kw`
hn°pw.
41. [m\y lncWyXzIv^e Ipkpam ss[¿
Δ¿jn ssX¿ `bw hnZymXv
AwKmc]mwkph¿tj hn\miambmXn X∂Kcw.
[m\yw, kz¿Æw, arKN¿Ωw, ]g߃, ]q°ƒ F∂nh h¿jn®m¬
`bap≠mhpw. GXp \KcØn¬ Icnbpw s]mSnbpw h¿jn°p∂pthm
B \Kcw \in®pt]mIpw.
42. D]em hn\mPe[ssc¿ΔnIrXm hm
{]mWot\m bZm hrjvSmx
On{Zw hm]yXnhrjvsSu kkym\manXnkRvP\w.
Pew [cn® taLßfpsS A`mhØn¬ hnIrXßfmb {]mWnI
fpsS h¿jw kw`hn®mepw, AXnhrjvSn kw`hn®mepw hbense kky
߃ \in®pt]mIpw.
43. £ocLrXs£u{ZmWmw Z[vs\u
cp[ntcmjvWhmcnWmw h¿tj
tZihn\mtimt⁄ tbmf krKv
h¿tjNm]n\r]bp≤w.
]mev, LrXw, tISph∂ tamcv, cp[ncw, NqSpsh≈w F∂nh h¿jn
®m¬ tZihn\mihpw, c‡w am{Xw h¿jn®m¬ cmPm°∑m¿ XΩn¬
bp≤hpw D≠mhpw.
44. b[yta ef ¿° Ombm \ ZriytX ZriytX {]Xo]m_m
tZikyXZm kpalZv`bambmXw hn\n¿t±iyw.
486

{]Imikn‘p

\n¿Ωeamb kqcy\n¬ Omb (IdpØ ]p≈n - Black dots) ImWp
Itbm, hn]coXOmb ImWpItbm sNbvXm¬ tZiØn\v GtXm al
Ømb `bw hcm≥ t]mIp∂p F∂¿∞w.
45. hyt{` \`ko{μ[\p¿±nhmbZmZriytXf Yhm cm{Xu
{]mNym a]ckymw hm XZm`thXv £pZv`bw kpalXv
taLlo\amb \` n¬ cm{Xntbm ]Item, Ingt°m ]Sn™mtdm
C{μ [\p p I≠m¬ alØmb £ma`bw hcm≥ t]mIp∂p.
46. kqscyμp]¿÷\y kaocWm\mw tbmKx
kvartXmhrjvSnhnImcImte
[m\ym∂tKmIm©\Z£nWm› tZbmkvXXx
im¥napss]Xn ]m]w.
ag°meØv kqcy≥, N{μ≥, h¿jtaLw, hmbp F∂nhbpsS
tbmKw kw`hn°ptºmƒ (I¿°nSIØnse Aamhmkn) [m\yw, A∂w,
]ip, kz¿Æw F∂nh sImSpØm¬ k¿Δ ]m]Øn\pw im¥n In´pw
(]©amkamIbm¬ BfpIƒ°v [m\yw, A∂w apXembh A°meØv
BhiyhpamWt√m).
47. CXn hrjvSnsshIrXw
A]k¿∏Ww \Zo\mw \KcZNntcW iq\yXmw IpcptX
timj›zm timjymWmas\yjmw hm {lZmZo\mw.
C{]Imcw hrjvSnsshIrXw.
\KcØns‚ A¥¿ `mKØp IqSn (`qK¿`ØneqsS) HgpIp∂ \Zn
Itfm, \KcØnse a‰p Pemibßtfm timjn®v hc≠pt]mbm¬ B
timjWw \KcsØ s]s´∂v iq\yam°p∂p (P\hmk tbmKya√mXm
°p∂p).
48. kvt\lmkrwKv amwk hlmx kwIpe Iepjmx {]XoKmizm]n
]cN{IkymKa\w \Zyx IYb¥n j¨amkmXv.
FÆtbm c‡tam amwktam Ie¿∂v Iepjambnt´m, hgn amdnbn
t´m \Zn HgpIp∂Xp I≠m¬ Bdp amkØn\Iw A\ycmPmhns‚
ssk\yw FØnt®cpsa∂v {Kln°mw.
487

{]Imikn‘p

49. Pzmem[qaIzmYm cpZntXmXvIrjvSm\n Nh Iq]m\mw
X{]Pev]nXm\n N P\acImb {]ZnjvSm\n.
InWdn¬ Xobv, ]pI F∂nh ImWpItbm, Icbp∂ i_vZtam
Pev]\ i_vZtam tIƒ°pI F∂nh P\ßfpsS acWsØ kqNn∏n
°p∂p (hnjw Ie¿∂Xns‚ kqN\).
50. tXmtbmev]Øn cJmtX K‘ckhn]cytbN tXmbm\mw
kenemim bhnIrsXuhmalZv`bw X{X im¥ncnbw.
`qanbn¬ Bcpw Ipgn°msXØs∂ s]s´∂v sh≈w Dds∂mgp
IpI, PeØns‚ K‘w, kzmZv F∂nhbn¬ am‰w ImWpI, Pemibß
fn¬ sshIrX߃ ImWpI Ch alZv `bap≠m°p∂hbmWv. Ch
bv°p≈ im¥n (]cnlmcw) DSs\ sNøWw.
51. kene hnImtc IpcymXv ]qPmw
hcpWky hmcpssW¿ass{¥x
ssXtch N P]tlmaw iatahw]m]ap]bmXn.
PeØn¬ hcpWa{¥w sNm√n hcpW]qPbpw, AtX a{¥Øm¬
P]tlmaßfpw sNøWw.
52. CXn PesshIrXw
{]khhnImtc kv{XoWmw
Zzn{XnNXpjv{]`rXn kw{]kqsXuhm
lo\mXncn‡ Imte N Zi Ipe kw£tbm `hXn.
C{]Imcw PesshIrXw.
{]kh ImeØv 2,3,4 F∂nßs\ Ip´nIƒ P\n°pI; ]Ømw amk
Øn\v aptºm, tijtam {]khw kw`hn°pI- CXv ]Øp Ipeßsf
£bn∏n°pw (inipacWw, amXr acWw F∂nhbpsS rates CØcw
{]khßfn¬ IqSpX¬ BbXpsIm≠v).
53. _Uthmjv{Salnj tKmlkvXn\ojvTbatfmXv`th acWtajmw
j¨amkmXv kqXn^ew ims¥u t«msIu N K¿t§ms‡u.
s]¨ IpXnc, H´Iw, Fcpa, ]ip, B\ F∂nhbv°v Cc´ P\n®m¬
Ahbn¬ H∂v NØpt]mIp∂p. {]kh sshIrXw sIm≠p≈ inip
488

{]Imikn‘p

acWmZnIƒ {]khw Ign™v BdpamkØn\Iw Xs∂ {]ISamIp∂p.
Chbv°p im¥nbmbn Km¿§ap\n ]d™ c≠p t«mI߃ Xmsg sImSp
°p∂p.
54. \mcyx ]cky hnjtb Xy‡hymkvXm lnXm¿∞n\m
X¿∏tb › ZznPm≥ Imax im¥nw ssNhm{XImctbXv.
55. NXpjvZmx kzbqsY `nkvXy‡hymx ]a`qanjp
\Kcw kzman\w bqYa\yYm lnhn\mitbXv
lnXm¿∞nIƒ C{]Imcw {]khn°p∂ \mcnIsf {_mlvaW∑m
cpsS Imaim¥n°mbn X¿∏Ww sNbvXv A\ycmPyßfn¬ sIm≠p
sN∂v XyPn°Ww. \m¬°menIsf kz¥w bqYØn¬ \n∂p ]ncn®v
A\y`qanbn¬ XyPn°Ww. CXp sNøm™m¬ (P\s∏cp∏w sIm≠v)
\KcØnse `cWm[n]\pw (`£y£maw sIm≠v) \m¬°men°q´Øn
\pw \miw hcpw.
(C∂v \ap°v IpSpw_mkq{XW hn[nIfp≠v. {`qWlXy Ahbn
sem∂mWv. {`qWlXy°p ]Icw IqSpX¬ {]khn°p∂ kv{XoIsf
\mSp ISØemWv Km¿§ys‚ im¥nhn[n. A\ymbamb Hcp hn[n!!
]s£, Ht∂m¿Øm¬ {`qWlXybpw A\ymbamWt√m).
56. CXn {]kh sshIrXw.
]ctbm\mh`nKa\w `hXn Xnc›akm[pt[\p\mw
D£msWuhmt\ymf \yw ]n_Xnizmhm kpc`n]p{Xw.
Hcp C\Øn¬ s]´ ]iphns\ as‰mcn\Øn¬ s]´Xpambn ssaYp
\w sNøn°p∂Xv AawKfamWv; ImfIsf At\ym\yw CW tN¿°p
∂Xpw, \mb ]ip°p´n°v ]m¬ sImSp°p∂Xpw \∂√ (k¶ch¿§
krjvSn, kzh¿§ kwt`mKw F∂nh).
57. amk{XtbW hn[ymXv Xkvan∂nx kwibw ]cmKa\w
XXv {]XnLmXmssbsXu t«msIuK¿t§W \n¿±njvsSu.
C{]Imcw kw`hn®m¬ aq∂p amkØn\Iw i{Xptk\ B{Ian°p
sa∂v \n wibw ]dbmw. CXn∂p ]cnlmcambn K¿§≥ \n¿t±in®
c≠p t«mI߃ ]dbmw.
58. XymtKmhnhmk\w Zm\w XØkymip ip`w `thXv
X¿∏tbZv {_mlvaWmw £m{X P]tlmamw› ImctbXv.
489

{]Imikn‘p

Ahsb XyPn°pItbm Zm\w sNøpItbm sNbvXm¬ ip`w `hn°pw. {_mlvaW∑m¿ X¿∏Whpw £{Xnb∑m¿ P]tlmaßfpw
sNøWw.
59. ÿmeo]mtI\ [mXmcw ]ip\mN]ptcmlnXx
{]Pm]tXy\ at{¥W btPZv_lz∂ Z£nWmw
]ptcmlnX∑m¿ {]mPm]Xya{¥w sNm√n ÿmen]mIw sNbvIbpw,
]ip°fm¬ [mXmhns\ bPn°bpw, [mcmfw A∂w Z£nWbmbn \¬
IpIbpw sNøWw.
60. CXn NXpjv]ZhmIrXw
bm\w hmlhnbp‡wbZn KtO∂hmlbpXw
cmjv{S `bw `hXn XZm N{ImWmw kmZ`wKw N.
C{]Imcw \m¬°men sshIrXw.
cYw, I∏¬ apXemb hml\ßsf°qSmsX IpXnc, Imf apXemb
hbpsS ]pdØpIbdn k©cn°p∂Xp I≠m¬ cmjv{SØn\v bp≤`bw
D≠mhm≥ t]mIp∂p F∂¿∞w; `cWØn¬ am‰w hcpIbpw sNømw.
61. A\m`nlXXqcy\mZx i_vtZm hmXmUntXjpbZn\kymXv
hypXv]sØuhmtXjmw ]cmKsam\r]Xn acWw hm.
hmbn°msX Xs∂ hmZy߃ i_vZap≠m°pI, hmbn°ptºmgpw
sIm´ptºmgpw Ahi_vZw ]pds∏So°mXncn°pI, Ahbn¬ At\I
hn[w i-_Zv ߃ Dev]∂amhpI- i{Xp tk\bpsS BKa\hpw cmPmhn
s‚ acWhpw Ch kqNn∏n°p∂p.
62. KoXchXqcy\mZm\`kn bZmh Ncÿncm\yXzw
arXypkvXZm KZmhm hnkzcXqtcy]cm`n`hx
BImiØn¬ KoX߃ hmZy߃ F∂nhbpsS \mZ[z\n tIƒ
°pI, Nccmin, ÿnccmin (I¿°nSIw, Nnßw, Xpemw, hrivNnIw,
aIcw, Ipw`w) F∂nh ]ckv]cw amdpI- Ch tcmKw, arXyp F∂nh
hcpØpw. t`cni_vZw kzclo\ambm¬ i{Xp°fpsS ]cmPbw ]dbmw.
63. tKmemwKpetbmx kwtKZ¿Δnip¿∏mZyp]kvIc hnImtc
t{ImjvTpI\mtZ NXYm ikv{X`bw ap\nhNt›Zw.
490

{]Imikn‘p

I∂pImenIfpsS kwKthfbn¬ apdw apXemb Krtlm]IcWß
fpsS i_vZap≠mhpI, Ipdp°≥ HmcnbnSpI F∂nh Bbp[`bw D≠m
Ip∂Xns‚ kqN\bmsW∂v ap\nam¿ ]d™n´p≠v. AXn\p≈ im¥n:
64. hmbthytjzjp \r]Xn¿Δmbpw k‡p`nc¿®tbXv
B hmtbmcnXn ]©¿t®m Pm]ymiz {]bssX¿ZznssPx
65. {_mlvaWm≥ ]camt∂\ Z£nW `nizX¿∏tbXv
{_lvaW Z£nWm tlmamx I¿Øhym› {]bXv\Xx
“hmbhyØn¬ cmPmhv k‡\mbn hmbpsh A¿®n®v, ZznP∑m¿
“B hmtbmx” F∂ EIv ]©IØm¬ P]w sNbvI; ]cam∂hpw Z£n
Wbpw sIm≠v {_mlvaWsc k¥pjvScm°pI, bXv\n®v [mcmfw A∂w
D≠m°n Z£nW, tlmaw F∂nh Ign°pI.”
66. CXn hmbhy sshIrXw.
]pc ]£ntWm h\Ncm h\ymhm \n¿`bm hni¥n]pcw
\‡w hm ZnhkNcmx £]mNcmhm Nc¥y l\n.
C{]Imcw hmbhy sshIrXw
hf¿Øp ]£nIƒ h\NcßfmhpI, h\y ]£nIƒ \n¿`bambn
\m´n¬ {]thin°pI, cm{Xn k©mcnIƒ ]Iepw, ]I¬ k©mcnIƒ
cm{Xnbpw k©cn°pI,
67. k‘ymZztbf ]n afieam_[v\t¥m arKmhnlwKm hm
Zo]vXmbmw ZniyYhm t{Imi¥x kwlXm `bZmx
]q¿Δm]ck‘yIfn¬ arK]£nIƒ h´w IqSn Ccn°pI, Zo]vX
amb kqcyZni (Ingt°m ]Sn™mtdm) t\m°n IcbpI F∂nh `bw
P\n∏n°p∂p.
68. izm\x {]cpZ¥ Ch Zzmtc hk¥nPw_qIm Zo]vXmx
{]hnti∂tc{μ `ht\ It]mXIx sIuintImbZnhm.
\mb Hmfnbn´psIm≠v hmXn¬°¬ Ccn°pI, Ipdp°≥ Zo]vXZni
t\m°n IcbpI, {]mthm, aqßtbm cmP `h\Øn¬ {]thin°pI,
69. Ip°pScpXw {]tZmj sl¥msZuN tImInemem]mx
{]Xntemam afieNcmx tiy\mZymizmw_tc `bZmx
491

{]Imikn‘p

{]tZmjØn¬ tImgn IqhpI, tla¥mcw`Øn¬ Ipbn¬ ]mSpI,
BImiØn¬ ]cp¥v apXemb ]£nIƒ {]Xntemaambn h´w Np‰n
k©cn°pI- Chbpw `bmP\Iamb \nanØßfmWv.
70. Krl ssNXy tXmctWjp Zzmtcjp N
]£nkwLkºmXmx
a[ph¬aoImw t`mcpl kapZv `hmizm]n\mimb.
Krlw, ssNXyw, tXmcWw, {]thi\ Zzmcw F∂nhnSßfn¬ ]£n
Iƒ Iq´w IqSpI, tX≥IqSv, NnX¬]p‰v, Xmac F∂nhIfn¬ DXv`hn®
hkvXp°ƒ hogpI F∂o kμ¿`ßfnepw Bÿm\߃°v \miw
kw`hn°pw.
71. iz`ncÿn ihmhbh {]thi\w aμntcjp acImb
]ip ikv{Xhymlmtc \r]arXyp¿Ωn\nhNtizZw.
\mb Aÿn°jvWtam ihØns‚ Ahbhtam ho´n\IØp
sIm≠ph∂m¬ acW e£WamWv. ]ipth apdn®p Xn∂m¬, \r]
arXyp ]dbmw. CXns‚ im¥n ap\nam¿ ]dbp∂p.
72. arK]£n hnItcjp IpcymZv tlmam≥ k Z£nWm≥
tZhmx It]mX CXn N P]vXhyx ]©m`n¿ZznssPx
73. kptZhm CXn ssNtI\tZbm KmhmizZ£nWm
Pt]Om Ip\kq‡w hm at\mthZincmwknN.
arK ]£nIfn¬, Z£nWm ]q¿Δw tlmaw sNøpI- (Ahbv°v
Xn∂m≥ sImSp°pI). ]© {_mlvaW∑m¿ “tZhmx It]mXssl” F∂
a{¥w P]n®psIm≠ncn°Ww. “kptZhm” F∂ a{¥tØmsS ]ip,
IpXnc F∂nh Z£nW \¬In, imIp\ kq‡w P]n°pI, imIp\
kq‡Øn\p ]Icw “at\mthZ incmwkn” F∂ a{¥w P]n°mw.
74. CXn arK]£ymZn sshIrXw.
i{I[ztP{μIoe kvXw`Zzmc {]]mX`wtKjp
XZXv I]mS tXmcW tIXq\mw \c]tX¿ΩcWw
C{]Imcw arK]£ymZn sshIrXw.
C{μ[zPw, C{μIoew, kvXw`w, Zzmcw, I]mSw, tXmcWw, sImSn
F∂nh apdnbpItbm hogpItbm sNbvXm¬ `cWm[n]s‚ acWw kw`
hn°mw.
492

{]Imikn‘p

75. k‘ymZzbky Zo]vXn¿[qtamXv]mcn› Im\t\f \Kvs\u
On{Zm`mth `qta¿ZcWw Iº› `bImcn.
]q¿Δm]c k‘yIfn¬ Zo]vXn ImWpI, AKv\n clnXamb h\
Øn¬ ]pI ImWpI, `qansb sh´msXbpw Infbv°msXbpw AXn¬
K¿Ø߃ ImWpI, `qIºw D≠mhpI Ch `bap≠m°p∂p.
76. ]mjfim\mw \mkvXnIm\mw N `‡x
km[zmNmc t{]m⁄nXx t{Im[ioemx
Cujvcpx {Iqtcm hn{Klm‡ tNXm
bkvan≥ cmPm Xky tZiky \mix
GXp tZiØv cmPmhv ]mjfit\m, \mkvXnIt\m, AhcpsS `‡
t\m Bbncn°p∂pthm, kZmNmc߃ sNømØh\pw, t{Im[ioe\pw
Bbncn°p∂pthm, Cu¿jybp≈h\pw, {Iqc\pw Bbncn°p∂pthm,
hn{Klßfn¬ A¿∏n°s∏´ tNX pw [\hpw D≈h\mbncn°p∂pthm,
B \m´n\v \miw kw`hn°p∂p.
77. {]lc lcOnμn`nμoXymbp[ ImjvTmiva ]mWtbm _memx
\nKZ¥x {]lct¥ X{Xm]n `bw `hXymip.
_me∑m¿ Bbp[hpw I√pw a‰pw IønseSpØv, Ah Fdn™v
“ASn, ]nSn, sI´v” F∂v Bt{Imin°p∂p, F¶n¬ AhnsS `bw `hn°pw.
(Ip´nIƒ t]mepw ]ckv]cw ASnbv°bpw _‘n°bpw sNøp∂ cmPyw
Iel {]nbcpsS cmPyamWv F∂¿∞w).
78. AwKmc sKucnIm ssZy¿ hnIrtX {]Xm`n teJ\w bkvan≥
\mbI Nn{XnXaYhm £tb£bw bmXn \ NntcW
IcnsImt≠m IpΩmbw sImt≠m hnIrX t{]XmZnIfpsS Nn{X
ßtfm, Krl\mbIs‚ Nn{Xtam KrlØns‚ Npacn¬ hc®m¬ B
KrlØn\v thKw £bw kw`hn°pw.
79. eqXm]SmwK i_ew \ k‘ytbmx
]qPnXw Ielbp‡w \ntXymOnjvS
kv{XoIw NbZv Krlw XXv £bw bmXn.
F´pImen heIƒ \nd™Xpw, k‘yIfn¬ ]qP C√mØXpw,
Ielw D≈Xpw, kv{XoIƒ \nXyhpw F®n¬ am{Xw Xn∂p∂Xpamb
Krl߃ £bn®pt]mIpw.
493

{]Imikn‘p

80. ZrjvtTjp bmXp[mt\jp \n¿±nti≥ acIamip kw{]m]vXw
{]XnLmXm ssbtXjmw K¿§x im¥nw NImtcamw.
cm£k∑msc ImWp∂ ]£w acWw ASp°mdmbn F∂¿∞w.
CXns‚ im¥n°v K¿§≥ C{]Imcw ]d™p:
81. alm imt¥ymf Y _etbm t`mPym\n kpalm¥nN
ImctbX atl{μw N amtl{μn`nx ka¿®tbXv.
\√ \√ hnijvS t`mPy ]Zm¿∞ßfpw _enbpw sIm≠v alm
im¥n e`n°pw. atl{μw sIm≠v C{μs\ A¿®n°pIbpw thWw.
82. CXn i{I [ztP{μ IoemZn sshIrXw
\c]Xn tZihn\mti tItXmcpZtbf Yhm {Ktlf ¿t°tμmx
DXv]mXm\mw {]`hx kz¿Ør`hizm ]ytZmjmb.
C{]Imcw i{I[ztP{μ IoemZn sshIrXw.
cmPmhnt‚tbm tZiØnt‚tbm hn\miØnepw, [qatIXphns‚
DZbØnepw, kqcyN{μ {KlWßfnepw A√msX, DXv]mX߃ D≠m
hp∂Xv tZmjamWv.
83. tbN\ tZmjm≥ P\b¥ypXv]mXkvXm\rXpkz`mhIrXm≥
Ejn]p{XIrssXx t«mssI¿hnZym tZssXx kamtkm‡x
tZmjap≠m°mØ DXv]mX߃ AXmXp EXpkz`mhIrXß
fmWv. Cu kamksØ°pdn®v Ejn]p{X≥ ]d™ c≠p t«I߃
D≠v.
84. h{Pmi\n aloIº k‘ym\nLmX \nx kz\mx
]cnthj ctPm[qac‡m¿°kvXat\mZbmx
‘h{Pw, Ai\n, `qIºw, k‘y, \n¿LmXkzcw, ]cnthjw, cP v,
[qaw, DZbmkvXabßfn¬ c‡h¿Æamb kqcy≥,
85. {Zpta t`ymf ∂ ckkvt\l _lp]pjv] ^temZvKamx
tKm]£naZhr≤n› inhmb a[pam[th.
{Zpaßfn¬ A∂w, ckw, FÆ, [mcmfw ]pjv]^e߃, ]£n
arKmZnIfn¬ aZhr≤n- Ch a[p am[hßfn¬ (ssN{X sshimJ߃),
inhØn\v (awKfw) ImcWamIp∂p.’
494

{]Imikn‘p

86. Xmtcm¬°m]mX Iepjw I]nem¿t°μp afiew
A\Kv\n Pze\ kvt^mS[patcWz \nemlXw.
\£{Xßfpw D¬°Ifpw hoWv Iepjambncn°p∂ I]neh¿Æ
amb kqcyN{μafie߃ AKv\n C√mtXbpw Pzen°p∂hbmbpw
kvt^mSw kw`hn°p∂hbmbpw, ]pIbpw s]mSnbpw Im‰pw sIm≠v
ASn°s∏´Xmbpw Ccn°p∂p. A\Kv\nPze\ kvt^mS[qatcWz \nem
lXamWv \£{X afiehpw kqcyafiehpw F∂v imkv{Xw Cu
bnsS Is≠Ønbncn°p∂p. D¬°m]mXIepjamb N{μ\nse ]pIbpw
s]mSnbpw C∂v HcXv`pXta A√.
87. c‡]flmcpWw km‘yw \`x £p_v[m¿Æthm]aw
kcnXmw Nmw_p kwtimjw ZrjvSz {Kojvtaip`w htZXv.
{Kojva ImeØv Nph∂ Xmac∏qt]mse k‘ymcmKw ImWpI,
BImiw £p_v[amb IS¬ t]mse (taLØncameItfmSpIqSn)
ImWpI, \ZnIfnse Pew IpdbpI F∂nh ip`IcamWv.
88. i{Imbp[]cnthjhnZypOpjvI hntcmlWw
ItºmZz¿Ø\ sshIrXw ck\w ZcWw £ntXx
C{μ [\p v, ]cnthjw, hnZypØv, ipjvIn®pWßnb hr£Øn¬
A¶pc߃ ImW¬, `qIºw, DZz¿Ø\w, {]IrXnhncp≤amb {]Xn`mk
߃, aÆn¬ hyXykvXamb K‘hpw kzmZpw, K¿ØßfpsS DXv`hhpw,
89. ktcm\ZypZ]m\m\mw hr≤y¿≤zXcW πhmx
kcWw Nm{μtKlm\mw h¿jmkp\`bmhlw.
kc pIƒ, \ZnIƒ, InWdpIƒ F∂nh \nds™mgpIn Ichsc
Fج sIm≠v Ahsb XcWw sNøm≥ tXmWn th≠nhc¬ (Pem[n
IyØm¬ sh≈s∏m°w) KncnIfpw hoSpIfpw Iº\w sIm≈¬ F∂nh
ag°meØmWv kw`hn®sX¶n¬ AXv `bs∏Sm\p≈X√.
90. Znhykv{Xo `qXK‘¿Δ hnam\mZv`pXZ¿i\w
{Kl\£{XXmcmWmw Z¿i\w N Znhmw_tc.
91. KoXhmZn{X \n¿tLmjm h\]¿ΔXkm\pjp
kkyhr≤n c]mw lm\n c]m]mx icZnkvarXmx
495

{]Imikn‘p

Znhykv{Xo, acn-®pt]mbh¿, K‘¿Δ∑m¿, hnam\w apXemb
AXv`pX Z¿i\߃, ]Ienepw BImiØn¬ {Kl\£{XmZnIƒ
ImW¬, KoXhmZy\n¿tLmj߃ h\ßfnepw ]¿ΔXkm\p°fnepw
tIƒ°¬, kkym`nhr≤n, Pew Ipdb¬ F∂nh icXvImeØv ip`Zmb
IßfmWv.
92. ioXm\ne XpjmcXzw \¿±\w arK]£nWmw
ct£mb£mZnkXzm\mw Z¿i\w hmKam\pjn.
93. Zntim[q am‘Imcm› k\t`mh\]¿ΔXmx
D®x kqtcymZbmkvsXuN tlat¥ tim`\mx kvarXmx
XWpØ Im‰v, a™v, arK]£nIfpsS i_vZw, ct£mb£mZn
kXzßfpsS Z¿i\w, Aam\pj hmIv {ihWw, [qam‘Imcabamb
ZniIƒ, \` v, h\]¿ΔX߃ kqcy≥ D®Øn¬ DZbmkvXabw
sNø¬- Ch tla¥ ImeØv tim`\^eZmbnbmWv.
94. lna]mXm\ntemev]mXm hncq]mZv`pXZ¿i\w
IrjvWmRvP\m`amImiw Xmtcm¬°m]mX]nRvPcw.
95. Nn{X K¿t`mZv`hmx kv{Xojp tKmf Pmiz arK]£njp
]{Xm¶pc eXm\mw N hnImcmx inintc ip`mx
lna]mXw, Im‰phogvN, hncq]amb AXv`pXZ¿i\߃, IrjvWm
RvP\ \ndamb BImiw, BImiØn¬ \£{XßfpsSbpw D¬°Ifp
sSbpw hogvN, kv{Xo, ]ip, BSv, IpXnc, arK ]£nIƒ F∂nh Nn{X
K¿`ßfn¬ D¬`hn°pI, ]{Xw, A¶pcw, eX F∂nh inincØn¬
ip`amWv.
96. EXp kz`mhPmtlytX ZrjvSmx kz¿sØu ip` {]Zmx
EtXmc\y{X tNmX]mXm ZrjvSm kvtX ZriZmcpWmx
AXmXp EXp kz`mhw AXmXp EXphn¬ ImWp∂Xv ip`{]Z
amWv. A\y EXp°fn¬ kz`mhw amdn D¬∏mXw I≠m¬ ZmcpW ^ew
e`n°pw.
97. D∑Øm\mw KoXKmYmx iniq\mw `mjnXw NbXv
kv{Xotbm b® {]`mjt¥ Xky \mkvXn hyXn{Iax
496

{]Imikn‘p

D∑Ø∑m¿ ]mSp∂ ]m´nt\bpw inip°fpsS `mjnXtØbpw kv{Xo
IfpsS {]`mjWtØbpw Hcn°epw X´n \S°cpXv (ImcWw ChcpsS
hN\w ssZhhN\amWv).
98. ]q¿Δw NcXn tZthjp ]›mXv KOXn am\pjm≥
\m tNmZnXm hmKvhZXn kbmtljm kckzXn.
kXy cq]hpw At{]cnXhpambn hm{Kq]nWnbmbncn°p∂ kckz
Xn BZyw tZh∑mcn¬ k©cn®n´mWv ]n∂oSv a\pjycn¬ FØnt®¿
∂Xv (`‡n sIm≠v D∑Øcmbh¿, Ip´nIƒ, kv{XoIƒ F∂nh¿°v
ChnsS ssZhÿm\w sImSp°p∂p. AhcneqsS k©cn®mWv kckzXn
a‰p≈hcn¬ FØp∂Xv).
99. DXv]mXm≥ KWnX hnh¿÷ntXmf ]n _p≤zm
hnJymtXm `hXn
\tc{μ h√`ivN
GXØ≥ ap\nhN\w clky ap‡w
b⁄mXzm `hXn \ckv{Xn ImeZ¿in
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
D¬]mX e£Ww \majvS NXzmcnwtimf ≤ymb
GsXmcp ssZh⁄≥ KWnXØn¬ ka¿∞\√mbvIbm¬ AXn
s\ h¿÷n°p∂pthm Ah≥ t]mepw DXv]mXßsf _p≤n]q¿Δw \nco
£n®p ]d™m¬ hnJymX\mbn cmPmhn\p {]nb¶c\mbn Xocpw. cl
kyamb Cu ap\n hN\w {Kln® \c≥ {XnIme Z¿inbmbn `hn°p∂p.

497

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 47

abqc Nn{XIw
1. Znhym¥co£m{ib ap‡amsZu
ambm^ew imkvXatim`\w N
{]mtbW Nmtcjp kamKtajp
bpt≤jp am¿§mZnjp hnkvXtcW.
{Kl \£{X Nmcw, kamKaw, bp≤w, {Kl \£{X {`aW am¿§w
apXemb A¥co£m{ibßfmb Znhy {]Xn`mk߃, AhbpsS tim`
\hpw Atim`\hpw Bb ^e߃ F∂nhsb Rm≥ BZyta hnkvX
cn®p ]d™p Ign™p.
2. `qtbm hcmlanlncky \bp‡taXXv
I¿Øpw kamkIrZkm hnXnXky tZmjx
X⁄\ hmNyanZap‡ ^em\pKoXn
bZv _¿ln Nn{XIanXn {]YnXw hcmwKw.
Ah ho≠pw ho≠pw ]dbp∂Xv hcmlanlnc\v tbmPn®X√; (At±
lØns‚) tZmjw, Xm≥ kwt£]n®p am{Xw ]dbp∂h\mWv F∂
XmWv. _¿ln Nn{XIw (abqc Nn{XIw) F∂ Cu hcmwKsØ Adn
bp∂ ]finX∑m¿, AXns‚ Cu h¿Æ\w tI´v, At±lsØ C{]Imcw
\nμn°pIbn√.
3. kzcq]tahXkyXXv {]Io¿ØnXm\p Io¿Ø\w
{_hoaylw \ tNZnXw XYm]n taf {X hmNyXm.
(t\¿sØ taL hnjbØn¬) abqc Nn{XØns‚ kzcq]w ]d™
XmWv. AXn\m¬ ho≠pw AXns\ {]Io¿Ønt°≠ Bhiyan√. AXn
\m¬ h¿Æn°mXncp∂mepw Ip‰w ]dbpIbn√.
4. DØc hoYnKXm ZypXn a¥x
t£a kp`n£ inhmb kakvXmx
Z£nW am¿§ KXm ZypXn lo\mx
£p{ZbXkv°c arXyp IcmkvtX.
498

{]Imikn‘p

AXns\ DØc {`aW am¿§Øn¬ {]ImihØmbn I≠m¬ k¿
Δ¿°pw t£aw, kp`n£w, awKfw. Z£nW am¿§Øn¬ {]Imilo\
ambn I≠m¬ £p{Zw, Xkv°c `bw, arXyp F∂nh ^ew.
5. tImjvTmKmcKtX `rKp ]pt{X ]pjytÿNKncmw {]`p hnjvsWu
\n¿ssΔcmx £nXn]mx kpJ`mPx kwlrjvSm›z P\mKX tcmKmx
ip{I≥ tImjvTmKmcØn¬ (aIw \£{Xw) k©cn°bpw, hymgw
]pjy \£{XØn¬ (I¿°nSIw) \n¬°bpw sNøptºmƒ cmPm°∑m¿
]ckv]cw sshcw IqSmsX, kpJnIfmb {]PItfmsS B\μn®v, tcmK
clnXcmbn Pohn°p∂p.
6. ]oVb¥n bZn IrØnImw aLmw tcmlnWow {ihW ssa{μ tahhm
t{]m⁄y kqcya]tc {KlmkvXZm ]›nam ZnK\tb\ ]oUtbXv.
kqcys\mgn®p≈ {Kl߃ Im¿ØnI, aIw, tcmlnWn, Xncpthm
Ww, Xrt°´ F∂o \£{Xßsf ]oUn∏n®m¬ ]m›mXy cmPy߃
A\oXn sIm≠v ]oVnXamIpw.
7. {]mNymw tNμzP hZhÿnXm Zn\mt¥
{]mNym\mw `hXn ln hn{Klm \r]mWmw
at≤ytNZv `hXn ln a≤ytZi]oVm
cqss£kvssX¿\ XpcpNnssc¿ΩbqJ hr≤nx
k‘ymkabØv Ing°p Znibn¬ [zPmIrXnbn¬ {Klhyql߃
I≠m¬ Ing°p Zn°nse cmPm°∑m¿°nSbn¬ bp≤w G¿s∏Spw. BIm
iØns‚ a≤y`mKØmWv CXv I≠sX¶n¬ a≤y{]tZiØnse cmPm
°∑m¿ Cu ^ew A\p`hn°pw. F¶nepw, at\mlchpw IncWhr≤n
bp≈XpamWv Cu ImgvN F∂p hcnIn¬ ]oV D≠mhpIbn√.
8. Z£nWm IIp`am{inssXkvXp ssX¿Z£nWm ]Y]tbm
arNmw £bx
lo\cq£ X\p anizhn{Klx ÿqetZl IncWm\znssX ip`w.
Z£nW `mKsØ B{ibn®p\n∂m¬ Z£nWm]YØn\pw AXnse
agtaL߃°pw £bw hcpw. F∂m¬ cq£hpw, sNdpXpamb cq]am
sW¶nte Cu ^eap≈p. hepXpw [mcmfw IncWap≈XpamsW¶n¬
ip`amWv.
499

{]Imikn‘p

9. DØcam¿t§ kv]jvSabpJmx im¥nIcmkvtX X\r]Xo\mw
{lkzicocm `kvakh¿Æm tZmjIcmx kyp¿t±i\r]mWmw.
DØcam¿§Øn¬ kv]jvSIncWßtfmSp \n∂m¬ B `mKßfnse
cmPm°∑m¿°p im¥n e`n°pw, {lkzicochpw `kva\ndhpambn
\n∂m¬ cmPmhn\pw {]PIƒ°pw tZmjamWv.
10. \£{XmWmw XmcImx k{KlmWw [paPzmem hnkv^penwKm
\znXmtizXv
BtemIw hm \n¿\nanØw \ bm¥n bmXn ≤zwkw k¿Δ
temIx k`q]x
GsX√mw {Kl\£{XXmc߃ [qaw, Pzme, hnkv^penwKw F∂n
hItfmSpIqSn ImWp∂pthm, \nanØsam∂pw IqSmsX s]s´∂v A{]Xy
£amIp∂pthm, Ah cmPmhnt\mSp IqSn k¿Δ temItcbpw \in∏n
°p∂p.
11. Znhn `mXnbZm Xpln\mwip bpKw ZznPhr≤ncXoh XZmip ip`m
XZ\¥ch¿ÆctWmf ¿°bptK PKXx {]ebkv{XnNXpx {]`q`nx
c≠p N{μ∑msc BImiØn¬ {]Imihm∑mcmbn I≠m¬ {_m
lvaW∑m¿°v AXoh awKfhpw A`nhr≤nbpw D≠mhpw. aq∂pw \mepw
kqcyN{μ∑msc I≠m¬ {]fbw D≠mhpw.
12. ap\o\`nPnXw {[phw aLhX› `w kwkv]ri≥
inJnL\ hn\miIrX Ipie I¿Ωlm timIZx
`pPwK aaYkv]rtimZv `hXn hrjvSn\mtim
{[phw £bw {hPXn ho{ZptXm P\]t› _memIpex
k]vXjnIƒ, A`nPnXv, {[phw, aLhXv (tPyjvTXmcw F∂v lnμn
`mjyw) F∂nhsb inJn kv]¿in®m¬ taL\miap≠mbn ag C√mXm
hpw. IpieI¿Ωßsfm∂pw temIØn¬ C√mXmhpw; timIw D≠mhpw.
BbneysØbmWv kv]¿in®sX¶n¬ hrjvSn\miw Xo¿®bmWv. t{i
jvT P\]Z߃ t]mepw £bn°pw; Ip´nIƒ t]mepw BIpecmhpw.
13. {]mKvZzmtcjp Nc≥chn]pt{Xm \£t{XjpItcmXn N h{Iw
Zp¿`n£w IpcptX `bap{Kw an{XmWmw N hntcm[ahrjvSnw.
500

{]Imikn‘p

i\n ]q¿ΔZzmcØn¬ (Im¿ØnI apX¬ Bbneyw hscbp≈ 7
\£{XØn¬) k©cn-°th h{Iambm¬ Zp¿`n£ap≠mhpw. an{X߃
XΩn¬ hntcm[w, `bw, AhrjvSn F∂nh kw`hn°pw.
14. tcmlnWoiIS a¿°\μt\m bZnZn\Øn cp[ntcmf Yhm inJo
Inw hZman bZ\njvSkmKtc PKZtijap]bmXn
i\n, sNmΔ, inJn F∂nhcn¬ Hcmƒ tcmlnWn iISsØ t`Zn
®m¬, F¥p ]dtb≠p, PKØpapgph≥ C{]Imcw A\njvS kmKc
Øn¬ apßn £bn®p t]mIpw.
15. DZbXn kXXw bZminJn NcXn ` N{Iatijtahhm
A\p`hXn ]pcmIrXw XZm^e aip`w kNcmNcw PKXv.
Ft∏mƒ inJnkZm DZn®p\n∂v cminN{IØn¬ apgph≥ k©cn°p
∂pthm At∏mƒ k¿Δ NcmNcPKØpw C∏d™ Aip`^e ߃
A\p`hn-°p∂XmWv.
16. [\px ÿmbo cqt£mcp[nckZrix £pZv`bItcm _temtZymKw
tNμpx IYbXn Pbw Pymkp NbXx
AhmMv irwtKm tKmLvt\m \n[\a]n kkykyIpcptX
Pze≥ [qamb≥ hm \r]Xn acWm ssbh `hXn.
[\phn¬ cq£hpw c‡kZrihpambn \n¬°p∂ N{μ≥ hni∏pw
`bhpw D≠m°pw. AXns‚ irwKw GXpZnibnemtWm AhnsS tk\
bv°v DtZymKw D≠mhpw- AXv PbkqNIamWv. F∂m¬ irwKw Xmtg
bv°msW¶n¬ kky\mihpw tKmlXybpw kw`hn°pw. Pzen®pw, [qaw
hln®pw I≠m¬ `cWm[n]s‚ acWhpw kw`hn°pw.
17. kv\nKv[x ÿqex ka irwtKm hnimekvXpwKtizZKzn
Nc∂mK hniymw
ZrjvSx skussayip ssZ¿hn{]bpt‡m temIm\μw
IpcptXf XohN{μx
kv\nKv≤hpw hn]pehpw kairwKhpw hnimehpw D®ÿnX\pambn,
DØchoYnbn¬ \mK hoYnbn¬ k©cn°pIbpw, Aip`{Klkwtbm
Kan√msX ip`{Klbp‡\mbpw ZrjvS\pambncn°p∂ N{μ≥ temI
Øn\v B\μw Acpfp∂p.
501

{]Imikn‘p

18. ]nXrssa{X]pcqlpXm hnimJm
XzmjvSmtayXy Nbp‡n iim¶x
Z£ntW\ \ ipt`m lnXIrXv
km≤yXIv NcXn a≤yKtXmhm.
aLw, A\pcm[w, tPyjvSw, hnimJw, Nn{Xm\£{XßfpsS Acn
Inembn Z£nW`mKtØbv°p Ncn°p∂ N{μ≥ ip`w XcnIbn√, DØc
Zn°ntebvt°m, a≤yØn¬Øs∂tbm Ncn°p∂ ]£w lnXImcn
bmWv.
19. ]cnL CXntaLtcJmbm Xncym `mkv°tcmZtbf kvtXthm
]cn[nkvXp {]Xnkqtcym ZfikvXr÷cn{μNm]\n`x
kqtcymZbØnepw AkvXImeØnepw ImWp∂ taLtcJbv°v
‘]cnL’ F∂v t]cv. AXv Xncy°mbn (Xnc›o\ambn- ad™v) Ccp∂m¬
‘]cn[n’. kqcykam\sa¶n¬ “{]Xnkqcy” C{μ[\p n\p kam\sa
¶n¬ “Zfiw”.
20. DZtbf kvtXmhm`mt\mcy Zo¿LmcivataLmkvtX
kpc Nm]Jfi ar÷qbZvtcmlnXssacmhXw Zo¿Lw.
DZbmkvXabßfnse kqcy≥ Zo¿LcivanIƒ AtamLsa∂dnb
s∏Sp∂p. Zo¿Lambmepw sNdpXmbmepw kpcNm]JfisØ “sFcm
hXw” F∂p]dbpw.
21. A¿≤mkvXabmXv k‘ym hy‡n`qXm \ XmcIm bmhXv
tXPx ]cnlm\n apJmZv `mt\mc¿t≤mZbw bmhXv.
kqcy≥ ]IpXn AkvXan®ncns° XmcI߃ hy‡amImXncn°
bpw kqcy≥ ]IpXn DZn® kabØv tXPlo\ambncn°pIbpw sNøp∂
kabw k‘ybmWv.
22. Xkvan≥ k‘ymImte NnssltcssXx
ip`mip`w hmNyw.
k¿ssΔtcssXx kv\nKvss≤x
ktZym h¿jw `bw cqss£x
B k‘ymImeØv Cu Nnlv\߃ t\m°n ip`mip`w ]dbWw.
k¿Δ tXtPm tKmfhpw kv\nKv[hpsa¶n¬ ag DSs\ D≠mhpw. cq£sa
¶n¬ `bap≠mhpw.
502

{]Imikn‘p

23. AOn∂x ]cntLm hnb® hnaew
iymam abqJm cthx
kv\nKv[m Zo[nXbx knXw
kpc[\p¿hnZy® ]q¿tΔmØcm
kv\nKv≤ taLXcpZnhmIcIssccmenwKntXmhmbZm
hrjvSn kym≤yZn hm¿° akvXkatb tatLmalmw› ZtbXv.
A›n∂hpw ]cnLhnaehpamb BImiw, kqcys‚ iymaIncW
߃ (k‘y°v), kv\nKv≤hpw shfpØXpamb \£{XßfpsS hn√v,
]q¿tΔmØc Znibn¬ hncmPnbv°∂ sshZypXn, ZnhmIcIcßfm¬
BenwKnXambn kv\nKv≤amb taLXcp, kqcymkvXabØn¬ alm
taLmOmZnXamb BImiw- Ch hrjvSnsb kqNn∏n°p∂p.
24. Jtfim h{Ix IrjvtWm{lkzx
ImImssZ¿ΔmNnlvt\¿hr±nx
bkvan≥ tZticp£izm¿°kvX{X`mhx {]mtbmcm⁄x
kqcy≥ Jfin°s∏t´m, h{Iamtbm, IdptØm, {lkzamtbm,
Im° apXemb Nnlv\ßfm¬ apdnt™m, cq£amtbm GXpcmPyØv
ImWp∂pthm AhnsS cmPmhns‚ A`mhw (AcmPIXzw) kw`hn°pw.
25. hmln\owkap]bmXn ]rjvTtXmamwk`pIv
kzKKtWmbpbp’hx
bkyXky _ehn{Zthm alm\{KssKkvXp
hnPtbm hnlwKssax
bp≤Øn\p ]pds∏´ cmPmhns‚ ssk\yØn\p ]n∂mse amwk`p
°pIfmb ]£nIƒ ]d∂m¬, B ssk\yØn\v alØmb `bw (]cm
Pbw) kw`hn°pw. hnlKKWw apºn¬ ]d∂m¬ hnPbw D≠mhpw.
26. `mt\mcpZtb bZnhmkv{Xatb K‘¿Δ ]pct{]Xmam [zPn\o
_nw_w \ncpWm≤zn XZm\r]tXx {]m]vXw kacw k`bw {]htZXv
kqtcymZbØntem AkvXabØntem [zPtØmSp IqSnb K‘¿Δ
]pcØns‚ {]Xna kqcy_nw_sØ ad®m¬ B cmPmhn\v k`bamb
bp≤w \StØ≠nhcpsa∂v {]hNn°mw.
27. imkvXm im¥ZznP arKLrjvSm
k‘ym kv\nKv≤m arZp]h\m N
503

{]Imikn‘p

]mwkp[zkvXm P\]Z\miw
[tØcq£m cp[nc\n`mhm.
kv\nKv[hpw arZp]h\≥ hoip∂Xpamb k‘y, ]q¿ΔZnibn¬
]£narKßfpsS i_vZw- CXv ip`amWv. s]mSn aqSn, c‡h¿Æamb
k‘y P\]Zßsf \in∏n°p∂p.
28. bZnkvXctW IYnXw ap\n`nkvX Zkvan≥
k¿Δw abm \nKZnXw ]p\cp‡h¿÷w
{ipXzm]ntImIne cpXw _en `rKznscuXn
bØXv kz`mhIrXaky ]nIw \ tPXpw.
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
abqc Nn{XIw \ma k]vX NXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
ap\nam¿ apºp hnkvXcn®p ]d™sX√mw, ‘]p\cp‡n’ h¿÷n®v
Rm≥ ]d™ncn°p∂p. Ipbnens‚ ]m´ptI´m¬ Im° Icbp∂Xv,
Im°bpsS kz`mhamsW∂v {ipXnbp≠v. Im° i_vZap≠m°p∂Xv
Ipbnens\ Pbn°m\√.

504

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 48

]pjykv\m\w
1. aqew a\pPmXn ]Xnx {]Pm]Xnx
{]mPmXtcmkvXpZp] LmX kwkv°mcmXv
Aip`w ip`w N temtI `hXn btXm
tXm \r]Xn Nn¥m.
{]PmXcphns‚ (P\ßfmIp∂ hr£Øns‚) aqew (thcv- DXv`h
ÿm\w, c£mÿm\w) cmPmhmWv. {]PmXcphns‚ apIfn¬ D]LmX
kwkv°mcØn\m¬, Aip`ip`^e߃ D≠mhp∂p. AXn\m¬
Ft∏mgpw thcv ip`ambncn°m≥ (\inbv°mXncnbv°m≥) Nn¥ sNøWw.
2. bm hymJymXm im¥nx kzbw`qhmkpcKptcm¿Ω tl{μm¿t∞
Xmw{]m]yhr≤K¿§x {]mbYm `mKptcx irWpXv.
C{μ\p th≠n {_lvamhv _rlkv]XntbmSpc® im¥nsb {]m]n®
hr≤K¿§≥, `mKpcntbmSv ]d™Xv tI´mepw.
3. ]pjykv\m\w \r]tXx I¿Øhyw ssZhnXv ]ptcm[m›ymw
\mXx]cw ]hn{Xw k¿tΔmXv]mXm¥IcakvXn.
ssZhhnØpw, ]ptcmlnX∑mcpw tN¿∂v ]pWykv\m\w sNtø≠Xv
\r]XnbpsS I¿ØhyamWv. CXnt\°mƒ ]ca]hn{Xhpw k¿Δ DXv]m
Xßtfbpw \in∏n°p∂Xmbn as‰m∂n√.
4. t«jvamXIm£IWvTIn ISpXn‡ hnK‘n]mZ]m hnlot\
sIuinI KrZv{]{]`rXn`nc\njvS hnlssKx ]cnXyt‡.
5. XcpWXcp Kpevah√oeXm{]Xm\mhrsXht\mt±ti
\ncp]lX ]{X]√h at\m⁄a[pc {Zpa{]mtb
6. IrIhmIpPohXiqIinJniX]v{XNmjlmcossXx
{IIcNtImc I]nRvPehRvPqe]mcmhX{iossIx
7. Ipkpack]m\aØZntc^]pw kvtImInemZn `nizmss\zx
hncptX ht\m]IWvtT t£{Xm KmtcipNmhYhm.
505

{]Imikn‘p

t«£vamXIw, A£w, I≠In, ISpXn‡hpw K‘lo\hpamb
hr£ßƒ, aqß, IgpI≥ apXemb A\njvSImcnIfmb ]£nIfm¬
Dt]£n°s∏´ XcpWhr£ßƒ (buh\ {]mbsaØnb), eXIƒ,
h√nIƒ, Kp¬aw, F∂nhIfm¬ BhrXamb Im´ptZiØv D]{Zhn
°mØ (ap≈n√mØ) ]{X]√hßtfmSpIqSn at\m⁄a[pcamb {Zpa
߃- Ch hfcp∂ h\amWv ]pjykv\m\Øn\v ]‰nb ÿew.
IrIhmIp, NtImcw, XØ, abn¬, iX]{Xw, \oeIWvTw, lmco
Xw, {IIcw, I]nRvPew (NmXIw), hRvPpew (]£n hntij߃)
Acn{]mhpIƒ, ]q°fn¬ \n∂v tX≥ \pI¿∂v aZn® h≠pIƒ, Ipbnep
Iƒ apXembhbpsS a[pc i_vZ߃ apgßp∂Xpw h\Øn\p kao]
ap≈Xpamb t£{XmKmcØnemWv ipNnI¿Ωw tNtø≠Xv.
8. lrZn\n hnemkn\o\mw PeJK\Jhn£tXjpctayjp
]pen\PLt\jp IpcymZrlva\tkmx {]oXnP\t\jp.
lrZbtØbpw IÆnt\bpw Ihcp∂ Pe]£nIfpsS \Jw
sIm≠p £Xw ]‰nb \ZnbmIp∂ hnemkn\nbpsS ]pfn\amIp∂ PL
\Øn¬ {]oXn]q¿Δw Cu im¥nI¿Ωw A\pjvTnt°≠XmWv.
9. t{]m¬πpXlwkOt{X ImcfihIpckmctkmZvKotX
^pt√ μo hc\bt\ kckn kl{k£Im¥n[tc.
10. t{]mXv^p√ IaehZ\mx IelwkIekz\{]`mjnWyx
t{]mØpwK IpfieIpNmbkvan∂en\ohnemkne\yx
Db¿∂p ]d°p∂ lwk°pSbp≈hfmbn, Imcfiw, Ipccw, kmc
kw apXemb ]£nIfpsS KoXw Dbcp∂hfmbn, hnS¿∂ Xmac∏q\b\
ßfm¬ kl{km£\mb C{μs‚ Im¥n[cn°p∂hfmbncn°p∂ kc
 mIp∂ \fn\ohnemkn\nIƒ hnS¿∂ IaehZ\hpw, IflwkßfpsS
Ifkz\ {]`mjWhp, Db¿∂p \n¬°p∂ Xmacsam´mIp∂ IpNßfp
ambn a\w Ihcp∂ Zn°nse√mw ‘im¥n’ A\pjvTn°Ww.
11. IpcymXvtKmtcmaŸ Pt^\ ehiIrXvJpc£tXm]mNntX
ANnc {]kqX lpwIrX hevKnX ht’mXvkth tKmjvtT.
As√¶n¬, ]ipw]m¬ IS™v AXns‚ \pc (shÆ) hcp∂Xpw,
IpfºSn sIm≠v NmWIs∏mSn Dbcp∂Xpw, At∏mƒ {]khn® I∂p
506

{]Imikn‘p

Ip´nbpsS “lqwImc” Øm¬ ‘ht’m¬khw’ \S°p∂Xpamb tKmjvT
Øn¬ (tKmime- tKm]hmSw) im¥n A\pjvTn°mw.
12. AYhm kap{ZXotc IpieKXt]mX cXv\kw_mt[
L\ \nNpfeo\ Pe NcknX JKi_fnIrtXm]mt¥.
IpieKXßfmb (kma¿∞y]q¿Δw Ncn°p∂) t]mX߃ (I∏
epIƒ- ]p¥pIƒ) sIm≠ph∂ cXv\kw_‘Øm¬ [\w \nd™
Xpw, L\ap≈ apSnt]mse sh≈]£nIƒ \nd™XpamIbm¬ At\I
h¿Æi_famb kap{ZXocØpw im¥nI¿Ωw sNømw. (\nNpfw IS¬
ØocØp hfcp∂ hr£amWv).
13. £abm t{Im[ChPnXx knwtlmarKym`n `qbtXb{X
`Øm`b JKarK imhtIjvT tZjzm{itajzYhm.
£abm¬ t{Im[sØ Pbn°p∂Xpt]mse, knwlßfpw arKß
fpw H∂n®phmgp∂Xpw, arK]£nIfpsS Ip™p߃ A`bcmbn Ifn®p
\S°p∂Xpamb B{iaØnepw Bhmw.
14. Im©o Iem]w \q]pcwKpcpPLt\mZzl\hnLv\oX]ZmZnx
{ioaXn artK£Wm`nKrtl \y`rXh¬KphN\m`nx
Im©n, Iem]w, \q]pcw F∂nhbm¬ hepXmb PL\sØ DtZz
l\w sNbvIbm¬ ]mZw XSbs∏´ (aμKXnbmb) hcpw, am\ns‚ IÆpw,
Ipbnens‚ a[pckzcap≈hcpamb {ioaXnamcpsS KrlØnepw im¥n
sNømw.
15. ]ptWyjzmbXt\jp N Xo¿t∞jqZym\ caytZtijp
]qtΔmZπh`qsau {]Z£nWmw t_m hlbmw N.
]hn{Xamb Krl߃, Xo¿∞߃, DZym\߃, caytZi߃,
Ingt°m´pw hSt°m´pw {]Z£nWambn Pew HgpIp∂ `qanIƒ ChnS
ßfn¬ ]pjykv\m\w sNømw.
16. `kamKmcÿyqjc XrjtIiiz{`I¿°Smhmsskx
izmhn≥aqjIhnhsscΔevao ssI¿øm N k¥y‡m`kvaw, Icn, Aÿn, Dujcw, Xrjw, tIiw, F∂nh I≠Xpw
R≠p Xmakn°p∂Xpw \mbbp≈Xpw FenaS, NnX¬]p‰v F∂nh
I≠Xpamb `qan h¿÷n°Ww.
507

{]Imikn‘p

17. [m{XoL\m kpK‘mkv\nKv[m a[pckamN hnPbmb
tk\mhmtkf t]yhw tbmPbnXhymbYmtbmKw.
L\ap≈, kpK‘hpw, kv\nKv[hpw, a[pchpamb `qan hnPbw
Xcp∂p. tk\Iƒ°phkn°m≥ tbmKyamtWm F∂v C{]Imcw t\m°n
\n›bn°Ww.
18. \njv{Iay]pcm∂‡w ssZh⁄mamXybmPImx {]mNymw
sIut_mcyw hm IrXzm _eow Znioim[n]mbmwhm.
ssZh⁄¿, Aam\y≥, bPn°p∂h¿ F∂nh¿ \KcØn¬ \n∂v
]pds∏´v Cu ÿm\ßfpsS ]q¿Δ, DØcZniIfntem Cuim\ tImWn
tem hkn®v _en \¬Ip∂p.
19. emPm£XZ[n Ipkpssax {]bXx {]WXx ]ptcmlnXx IpcymZv
Bhml\ aY a{¥ÿmkvan≥ ap\n`nx kap≤njvSx
20. BKN¥pkpcmx k¿tΔtbf {X ]qPm`nemjnWx
Zntkm \mKm ZznPmss›h tb Nmt\yf ]rwi`mKn\x
]n∂oSv ]ptcmlnX≥ Ac°pw A£Xhpw ssXcpw ]qhpw _enb¿
∏n®v a{¥ßfm¬ Bhmln°p∂p. ap\nam¿ ]dbp∂p “ChnsS A`nemjn
Ifmb Rßfm¬ ]qPnXcmb k¿Δkpc∑mcpw, ZniIfnse√mw hkn
bv°p∂ \mKßfpw ZznPßfpw, b⁄`mKØns‚ Awiw `pPn°p∂hsc
√mhcpw BKXcmIs´.” (\mKZznP߃- ]mºpw ]£nbpw- AfiP߃
F∂v Hc¿∞w. \mKßfpw {_mlvaWcpw F∂v \chwi imkv{X]c
ambn as‰m¿∞w).
21. Bhmsslhw XXx k¿Δmt\hw {_qbmXv ]ptcmlnXx
kzx ]qPmw {]m]y bmky¥n ZXzm im¥nw alo]tXx
Bhmln® tijw k¿Δtcbpw hnfn®v ]ptcmlnX≥ C{]Imcw
]dbp∂p. AhchcpsS ]qPsb {]m]n® \n߃, alo]Xnbv°v im¥n
\¬Inbmepw.
22. BhmlntXjpIrXzm ]qPmw Xmw im¿ΔcnwhtkbkvtX
kZkXv kz]v\ \nanØw bm{Xbmw kz]vXhn[ncp‡x
Bhmln®v (£Wn®v) hcpØnbh¿s°√mw ]qP Ign™v A∂p
cm{Xn AhnsS Xmakn°m≥ kuIcyw sImSp°Ww. B cm{Xnbn¬
508

{]Imikn‘p

ImWp∂ ip`tam Aip`tam Bb kz]v\ßfpsS ^e \ncq]Ww hn[n
t]mse sNøWw. Cu kz]v\hn[n bm{Xm≤ymbØn¬ ]d™n´p≠v.
23. A]tcf l\n {]`mtX kw`cm\p]ltc≤y tYm ‡ KpWm≥
KXzmh\n {]tZti t«mImizm]y{X ap\nKoXmx
24. Xkvan≥ afieamenJy Iev]tbØ{X taZn\ow
\m\mcXv\mIchXow ÿm\m\n hnhn[m\n N.
25. ]ptcmlntXm bYmÿm\w \mKm\y£m≥ kpcm≥]nXr≥
K‘¿Δm]vkc kss›h ap\o¿ kn≤› hn\ytkXv
26. {Klmw› kl \£s{Xu cp{Zmw › kl amXr`nx
kvIμw hnjvWp hnimJw N temI]mem≥ kpckv{Xnbx
27. h¿Æ ssI¿Δnhnss[x IrXzm lrssZ¿§‘ KpWm\zn ssXx
bYmkzw ]qPtb ZznZm≥ K‘ameym\p te]ss\x
28. `ss£ c\yiz hnhnss[x ^eaqemanssjkvXmYm
]m\ssI¿ hnhnss[¿lrssZyx kpcm£ocmkhmZn`nx
]n∂sØ Znhkw ]I¬ hnhn[ kw`mc߃ sIm≠ph∂v, `qan
bn¬ sNtø≠hsb°pdn®v ap\namcpsS KoXw ]dbp∂p. “hnZzm\mb
]ptcmlnX≥ `qanbn¬ “afiew” hc®v, At\I cXv\mIchXnbmb
(At\Ikap{ZßtfmSp IqSnb) `qanbpsS hnhn[ ÿm\߃ tcJs∏
SpØWw. B ÿm\ßsf k¶¬]n®v bYmÿm\ßfn¬ \mK߃,
b£¿, ]nXr°ƒ, K‘¿Δ∑m¿, A]vkckpIƒ, ap\nam¿, kn≤∑m¿,
{KlßtfmSpIqSnb \£{X߃, amXr°tfmSpIqSnb cp{Z∑m¿,
kvIμ≥, hnjvWp, hnimJw, temI]meI¿, kpckv{XoIƒ F∂nhsc
hn\yknbv°Ww. ]n∂oSv hnhn[ h¿Æ߃ \¬In, lrZyamb kpK‘
ap≈ K‘amem\p te]\ßfm¬ bYmhn[n ]qPnbv°Ww. hnhn[ß
fmb `£W߃, Nμ\w, ^eaqe߃, amwkw, lrZyßfmb ]m\o
b߃, kpc, £ocw, Bkhw apXembh sIm≠v AXmXv tZhXIsf
]qPnbv°Ww.”
29. IYbmayXx ]calw ]qPmakvan≥ bYm`nenjnXm\mw
{Klbt⁄bx t{]m‡m hn[n {KlWmw kI¿Øhyx
Chbn¬ AXmXp tZhXIƒ°v A`nejnXamb ]qPIsf Rm≥
]dbmw. {Klb⁄Øn¬ {Kl]qPbv°v ]d™ hn[nIfmWv sN
tø≠Xv.
509

{]Imikn‘p

30. amwkuZ\ aZymssZx ]nimNZnXnX\b Zm\hmx ]qPymx
A`yRvP\mRvP\ Xnex ]nXscu amwtkmZ\›m]n.
amwkw tN¿Ø tNmdpw, aZyhpw a‰pw ]nimNp°ƒ, ssZXy∑m¿,
Zm\h∑m¿ F∂nhsc ]qPn°m\p≈XmWv. A`yRvP\hpw, ARvP\
hpw F≈pw, Nnet∏mƒ amwkw tN¿Ø tNmdpw ]nXr°sf ]qPnbv°m
\p≈XmWv (Nne h¿§°m¿ amwkw ]nXr]qPbv°v D]tbmKn°p∂p).
31. kmabPq¿` apbkvXz¿§`¿ss§ss‘® [q] ameybpXx
At«j Ih¿tÆm kv{Xna[ptcWm Nm`y®tb∂mKm≥
kmaw, bPq v, E°v apXemb a{¥ßtfmsS K‘bp‡amb [q]w
sIm≠pw ameyw sIm≠pw At\I h¿Æamb {Xna[pcw sIm≠pw \mK
KWßtfbpw ap\namtcbpw A¿®n°Ww (ap\namcpw \mKKWßfpw
Htc XcØnep≈ ]qP B{Kln°p∂p. \mK Nnlv\w I≠ ÿesØm
s° ap\namcpsS km∂n[yap≠v. CXns\ Ncn{XImc∑m¿ ‘ssP\aX’
km∂n[ysa∂v hnfn°p∂p).
32. [q]mPym lqXn amsse¿Δn_p[m≥
cssØxkvXpXn {]WmssakvN
K‘¿Δm\πctkm K\vssU¿
amssey› kpKss‘x
[q]w, BPymlqXn, ame, cXv\w, kvXpXn, {]amWw F∂nhIfm¬
hn_p[∑mscbpw, kpK‘{Zhyßfpw K‘ameyßfpw sIm≠v K‘¿Δm
]vkc pIsfbpw Xr]vXcm°mw.
33. tijmwkvXp km¿Δ h¿ÆnI_en`nx ]qPm\ytk® k¿tΔ jmw
{]Xnkc hkv{X ]XmIm `qjWbt⁄m ]hoXm\n.
a‰p k¿Δtcbpw km¿Δ h¿ÆnI_ensIm≠v ]qPnbv°Ww (\mep
h¿Æ߃°pw Hcpt]mse kzoImcyamb DØa]qP) {]Xnkcw,
hkv{Xw, ]XmI, `qjWw, bt⁄m]hoXw F∂nh F√mh¿°pw D]
tbmKn°Ww.
34. afie ]ivNna `mtK IrXzmKv\nw Z£ntWf Yhm th[ymw
BZZymXv kw`mcm≥ Z¿`m≥ Zo¿L\K`mw›.
510

{]Imikn‘p

afieØns‚ ]Sn™mtdm sXt°m `mKØv thZnbv°v apIfn¬
AKv\n ÿm]n®v Z¿` apXemb k¿Δ kma{KnIfpw kw`cn®pshbv°pI.
35. emPmPy£XZ[na[pkn≤m¿∞I K‘kpa\tkmZq]m≥
tKmtcmN\mRvP\Xnem≥ kz¿ØrP a[pcmWn N^em\n
36. kLrXky]m]bky NX{X icmhmWnssX› kw`msscx
]›na th[ymw ]qPmw IpcymXv kv\m\kykm thZn.
Ac°v, BPyw (Ncp, ]ptcmUmiw) ssXcv, tX≥, kn≤m¿∞Iw,
Nμ\w, [q]w, tKmtcmN\w, ARvP\w, Xnew, AXmXp EXp°fn¬
e`yamIp∂ a[pc^e߃, s\øv apXemb kakvX hkvXp°tfmSpw
IqSn, A¿∏n®v {][m\ thZnbpsS ]›naZn°nse thZnbn¬ ]qPn°Ww.
Cu ]›nathZn kv\m\ thZnbmWv.
37. Xkyx tImtWjpZrUm≥ Ieim≥
knXkq{X thjvSnX {Kohm≥
k£oc hr£ ]√h ^em]n
[m\m≥ hyhÿm]y.
38. ]pjykv\m\ hnant{imWm ]q¿Æm\w`km
kcXv\mw› ]pjykv\m\
{Zhym\mZ[ymZvK¿§ KoXm\n
39. tPymXnjvaXnw {XmbamWm a`bma]cmPnXw
Pohmw hntizizcow ]mTmw kaKmw hnPbmw XYm
40. klmw NkltZhm N ]q¿ÆtImimw iXmhcow
AcnjvSnImw inhmw `{Zw tXjp Ipwt`jp hn\ytkXv
41. {_mlvanw t£am aPmw ssNh k¿Δ _oPm\n Im©\w
awKeym\n bYmem`w khmjt≤ymckmw kvXYm
42. cXv\m\n k¿Δ K‘mw › _nezw N k]nI¶Xw
{]ikvXu \mav\yss›u t[ym lncWyw awKem\nN.
sh≈ hkv{Xw IgpØn¬ s]mXn™Xpw, ]mep≈ hr£ßfpsS
Xfncnebpw ^eßfpw \nd™Xpw, \ZoPew sIm≠p ]q¿Æhpamb
Ieißsf thZnbpsS \mep tImWpIfnepw ÿm]n®v ]pjykv\m\Øn
\pth≠ {Zhy߃ sIm≠pw cXv\ßfmepw hnXm\n°Ww. K¿§y≥
]d™n´p≈ ]pjykv\m\{Zhy߃ ChbmWv.
511

{]Imikn‘p

tPymXnjvaXn
{XmbamW
A`b
A]cmPnX
Poh
hntizicn
]mTm
kawKm
hnPb
kl

kltZh
]q¿ÆtImi
iXmhcn
AcnjvSnI
inhm
`{Zm
APm
t£am
{_mlvan
k¿Δ_oPw
Im©\w
AXmXp {]tZiØp e`n°p∂ awKe{Zhy߃, Huj[߃, ck
߃, cXv\߃, k¿Δhn[K‘{Zhy߃,
_neyw
]nI¶Xw
{]ikvXßfmbn´p≈ Huj[ßfpw kz¿Æhpw awKe{Zhyßfpw
sIm≠v Iei߃ \nd™ncn°p∂p.
43. BZmh\Upl›m¿Ω Pcbm kwlrZmbpjx
{]ikvX e£W`rXx {]mNo\ {Koh amkvXtcXv.
Bbpjvam\mbn hfsc Imew Pohn®v hr≤\pw, {]ikvX e£W
ßtfmSp IqSnbh\pamb {]mNo\ {Koh\mb hrj`N¿Ωw BZyw ]ncn
°p∂p.
44. XtXm hrjky tbm[ky N¿Ω tcmlnXa£Xw
knwlkymY XrXobw kymZv
hym{Lky N XXx ]cw.
]ns∂ tbm≤mhmb hr£Øns‚ Nph∂ A£Xamb N¿Ωhpw
aq∂maXmbn knwlØnt‚bpw AXn\p apIfn¬ hym{LØnt‚bpw hncn
°p∂p.
45. NXzmtcyXm\n N¿ΩmWn Xkymw th[ymap]mkvXtcXv
ipt` aplq¿tØ k{ºm]vtX ]pjybpt‡ \nimItc.
512

{]Imikn‘p

Cu \mepXcw N¿Ωhpw thZnta¬ D]kvXcn°p∂p; N{μ≥ ]pjy
\£{XØn¬ FØp∂ ip`aplq¿Øw FØptºmƒ
N

hrj`w (apXpImf)
anYp\w (bphmhmb Imf)
Xangn¬ bphmhv F∂mWv
Imfbv°v A¿∞w

I¿°nSIw (]pjyw)
aIw
knwlw Equator (celestial)
I∂n

46. `{Zmk\ taIXta\ ImcnXw I\IcPX Xm{amWmw
£ocXcp \n¿ΩnXw hm hn\yiyw N¿ΩWmap]cn
47. hnhn[kvXtkym {OmtbmlkvXx ]mZm[ntImf ≤bp‡›
amfienIm\¥cPnXv kakvXcmPm¿∞n\mw ip`Zx
kz¿Æw, sh≈n, sNºv, £oc hr£w F∂nhbm¬ \n¿Ωn°s∏´
`{Zmk\߃ N¿Ω߃°p]cn hn\ykn°s∏´ncn°p∂p. Chsb Hcp
lkvXw, ap°m¬ lkvXw, AclkvXw, C{]Imcap≈ Afhn¬ Db¿
Øn∏Wn™ncn°p∂p. CXn\m¬ cmPmhmIm≥ B{Kln°p∂h¿
s°√mw ip`w kw`hn°p∂p; Ah¿ afiesØ am{Xa√, afieØn
s‚ “A\¥c”amb Du≤ztemIßtfbpw Cu Afhn¬ Pbn°p∂p.
48. A¥¿≤mb lncWyw Xt{Xm ]hnti∂tcizcx kpa\m
kNnhm]vX ]ptcmlnX ssZhs]ucIeymWm\mahrXx
kpa\ pIfmb cmPm°∑m¿ a{¥namcmepw B]vX∑mcmepw ]ptcm
lnX∑mcmepw s]uc∑mcmepw awKfmin pIƒ A¿∏n°s∏´v Ah¿°p
kz¿Æw Zm\w sNbvXv `{Zmk\Øn¬ Ccn°p∂p.
49. _μnP\]uchn{]{]LpjvS]pWyml\n¿tLmssjx
karZwK iwJ Xpcy¿awKe i_vssZ¿ lXm\njvSx
513

{]Imikn‘p

_μnP\߃, s]uc∑m¿ F∂nhcpsS D’hi_vZw, hn{]∑mcpsS
]pWyml\n¿tLmjw, arZwKiwJXpcyawKei_vZw F∂nhbm¬
k¿Δ A\njvSßfpw C√mXmbnXocp∂p.
50. AlXs£ua \nhk\w ]ptcmlnXx
Iw_te\ k©mZy
IrX_en]qPw Iessic`njnt©Xv
k¿∏njm ]q¿ssÆx
]n∂oSv IodmØ ip{`hkv{Xw [cn®v ]ptcmlnX≥ _en]qP
sNbvXv Iw_fØm¬ s]mXn™Xpw s\øv sIm≠v kºq¿ÆambXp
amb IeiØm¬ A`ntjIw sNøp∂p (s\ø`ntjIw).
51. AjvSmhjvSmhnwiXn cjvSiXw hm]nIei]cnamWw
A[ntIf [ntI KptWmØcabw N at{¥mf {Xap\nKoXx
52. BPyw tXPx kap±njvSamPyw ]m]lcw ]cw
BPyw kpcmWmamlmcmtPytemImx {]XnjvTnXmx
53. `uam¥co£w Znhyw N
btØIn¬_njamKXw
k¿Δw XZmPykwkv]¿imXv
{]Wmiap]KOXp.
\qs‰t´m, \q‰n \mev]Øn \mtem (8 x 18) Ieiw CXn\p]tbmKn
°mw. Ieiw F{X A[nItam A{Xbpw KpWhpw A[nIamWv. Cu
hnjbØn¬ ap\n ]mSnb a{¥w ]dbmw. “BPyw (s\øv) ]catXP
 mWv; G‰hpw t{ijvThpw k¿Δm]lmchpamWv. BPyØnemWv (tXP
 nemWv) k¿ΔtemIßfpw {]XnjvTn°s∏´ncn°p∂Xv. `uaw (`qan
tbmSp _‘s∏´Xv) A¥co£w, Znhyw ({]ImitemIßtfmSv- \£
{XmZnIƒ) F∂nßs\bp≈ GsX√mw amen\y߃ h∂ptN¿∂mepw,
Ah k¿Δhpw ]catXP ns\ kv]¿in°p∂ am{Xbn¬ \miw {]m]n
°p∂p”- CXv B[p\nI imkv{XZrjvSym km[phmWv.
54. Iw_e al\ob XXx ]pjykv\m\mw_pZnx k^e]pjvss]x
A`njnt©≥ a\ptP{μw ]ptcmlntXmf t\\ at{¥W.
]n∂oSv cmPmhns‚ icocØnse hkv{Xw am‰n, ^e ]pjv]klnX
amb ]pjykv\m\PeØm¬ a\ptP{μ\mb At±lsØ ]ptcmlnX≥
514

{]Imikn‘p

A`ntjIw sNøp∂p. At∏mƒ sNm√p∂ a{¥w 55 apX¬ 70 t«mIw
hsc ]dbp∂p.
55. kpcmkvXz a`njn©¥p tb N kn≤mx ]pcmX\mx
{_lvam hnjvWp › iw`p› km≤ym›m kacpZvKWmx
56. BZnXymhkthm cp{Zm Aizns\u N`njKzscu
AZnXo¿t±hamXm N kzmlm kn≤nx kckzXn.
57. Io¿Øn¿√£van¿ [rXnx {io ›
ko\n hmeo IqlqkvXYm
Z\p› kpckm ssNh
hn\Xm I{Zptch N.
58. tZh ]Xv\y› bm t\m‡
tZhamXc GhN
k¿Δkzma`njn©¥p
Znhym ›m]v kckmw KWmx
59. \£{XmWn aplq¿Ø ›
]£m tlmcm{Xk‘bx
kwh’cmZnt\im›
Iemx ImjvTmx £Wm ehmx
60. k¿tΔ Xzma`njn©¥p
Imekymhbhmx ip`mx
ssham\nImx kpcKWm
a\hx kmKsscx kl.
61. k]vX¿jbx kZmcm›
{[phÿm\m\n bm\nN
acoNn c{Xnx ]pelx
]pekvXyx {IXpcwKncmx
62. `rKpx k\Xv Ipamcm›
k\tImf Y k\μ\x
k\mX\› Z£ ›
ssPKojthym `Kμcx
515

{]Imikn‘p

63. GImX› ZznXss›h
{XntXm Pm_men Iiys]u
64. am¿°tfitbm Zo¿LX]mx
iq\x tit^mhnZqcYx
Du¿Δx kwh¿ØIss›h
Nyht\mf {Xnx]cmicx
65. ssZz]mbt\mbh{IotXm
tZhcmPx klm\pPx
GtXmNmt\yNap\tbm
thZ{hX]cmbWx
66. kinjymkvtXf `njn©¥p
kZmcm›Xt]m[\m
]¿ΔXkvXcthmh√yx
]pWym\ymbX\m\n N.
67. kcnX› alm`mKm
\mKmx Inw]pcpjkvXYm
sshJm\km alm`mKm
ZznPmsshlmb km›tb
68. {]Pm]Xn¿±nXnss›h
Kmthmhnizmky amXcx
hml\m\n N Znhym\n
k¿ΔtemIm›cmNcmx
69. AKv\bx ]nXckvXmcm
PoaqXmx kzw ZntimPew
GtX Nmt\yN _lhx
]pWyk¶o¿Ø\mx ip`mx
70. sXusscykvXzma`njn©¥p
k¿tΔmXv]mX\n_¿lssWx
IeymWw tX {]Ip¿Δ¥p
BbpcmtcmKytahN.
{_lva, hnjvWp, iw`p, acpZvKW߃, ]pcmX\cmb kn≤km≤y
∑m¿ F∂nh¿ \sΩ A`ntjIw sNøs´. BZnXy≥ hkp, cp{Z∑m¿,
`njKzc∑mcmb Aizn\nIƒ, tZhamXmhmb AZnXn, kzmlm, kn≤n,
516

{]Imikn‘p

kckzXn, Io¿Øn, e£van, [rXn, {io, ko\nhmen, Iqlp, Z\p, kpck,
hn\X, I{Zp apXemb tZh]Xv\namcpw tZhamXm°fpw Znhym]vkcKW
ßfpw \ns∂ A`ntjIw sNøs´. \£{Xw, aplq¿Øw, ]£w, Atlm
cm{X߃, k‘yIƒ, kwh’cw, Znt\i∑m¿ (Zn\\mY∑mcmb {Kl
߃), Ie, ImjvT, £Ww, ehw apXemb ip`Icßfmb Imemhbh
߃, (ImeØns‚ Ahbh߃- `mK߃- am{XamWnh) k¿Δhpw
\ns∂ A`ntjNn°s´.
ssham\nI∑mcmb kpcKW߃, kmKcßtfmSpIqSnb a\p°ƒ
(BImiØnepw ISenepw k©cn°p∂h¿) [¿Ω]Xv\namtcmSpIqSn
{[phÿm\ßfn¬ Ccn°p∂ k]vX¿jnIfmb acoNn, A{Xn, ]pel,
]pekvXy, {IXp, AwKnc v, `rKp F∂nh¿ (ChnsS k]vX¿jn{IaØn¬
hknjvT\n√ F∂v {i≤n°pI) k\Xv Ipamc≥, k\I≥, k\μ\≥,
k\mX\≥, Z£≥, ssPKojhy≥, `Kμc≥, GIX≥, ZznX≥, {XnX≥,
Pm_men, Iiy]≥, Zp¿Δn\oX≥, Zp¿Δm mhv, IWz≥, ImXymb\≥,
Zo¿LX] v, am¿°tfib≥, ip\xti^≥, hnZqcY≥, Du¿≤z≥, kwh
¿ØI≥, Nyh\≥, A{Xn, ]cmic≥, ssZz]mb\≥, bh{IoX≥, tZh
cmP\pw A\pP\pw, injy∑mtcmSpw ]Xv\namtcmSpw IqSn thZ{hXcmbn
X]kznIfmbncn°p∂ k¿Δ ap\nKWhpw, k¿Δ]¿ΔXßfpw hr£ß
fpw h√nIfpw k¿Δ]pWytZhmebßfpw \ns∂ A`ntjIw sNøs´.
alm `mKIfmb \ZnIƒ, \mK߃, Inw]pcpj∑m¿, hm\{]ÿ¿,
BImihmknIfmb alm`mK∑mcmb ZznPKW߃ (]£nIƒ) {]Pm
]Xn, ssZXyamXmhmb ZnXn, k¿Δ]ip°fpw Znhyhml\ßfpw
kakvXNcmNctemIhpw AKv\nKWhpw ]nXr°fpw, Xmcßfpw, taL
ßfpw, BImihpw k¿ΔZniIfpw Pehpw _lp]pWy k¶o¿Ø\ß
fpw, k¿ΔDev]mXtZmjßtfbpw \in∏n°p∂ ip`ZmbIamb Cu Pe
cq]Øn¬ \ns∂ A`ntjIw sNbvXv \n\°v IeymWhpw BbpcmtcmKy
ßfpw Zm\w sNøs´.
71. CtXyssXizmss\y›m]yY¿ΔIev] hnlnssXx
kcp{ZKssWx sIujvamfiamlmsculnW Ipt_c lrssZyx
kapZzbmNx
72. Bt]mlnjvTmXnkr`nI¿lncWyh¿tÆXn
NXkr`n¿÷]vXw Im¿∏mknI hkv{XbpKw
_n `rbmXv kv\msXm \cm[n]Xnx
517

{]Imikn‘p

at\mlcamb AY¿ΔIev]Øn¬ hnlnXamb {]Imcw cp{ZKW
߃, sIuivamfiw, amlmsculnW, Ipt_cmZoIƒ F∂nhcpsS a{¥
hpw Cu a{¥hpw k¿Δkar≤nItfmSpw IqSn A`ntjIw sNøs´
“BtlmlnjvTm” F∂mcw`n°p∂ aq∂p E°pIƒ, “lncWyh¿tÆ”
F∂mcw`n°p∂ \mep E°pIƒ F∂nh P]n°pI. ]n∂oSv cmPmhv
kv\m\w Ign™v ]cpØnØpWn sIm≠p≈ c≠p hkv{Xw (ap≠pw
ta¬ ap≠pw) [cn°p∂p.
73. ]pWymliwJi_vssZcmNmt¥mf ›cy
tZhKpcphn{]m≥
O{X[zPmbp[m\n N XXx
kz]qPmw {]bpRvPnX.
74. Bbpjyw h¿®kyw cmbkvt]mjm`ncyKv`ntcXm`nx
]cnP]vXw sshPbnIw \hw hnZ[ymZewImcw.
]pWymlhN\hpw iwsJmenbpw Ign™v BNan®v tZhKpcphn{]
]qP sNbvXv O{Xw, [zPw, Bbp[w F∂nh [cn®v (HSphn¬) kz]qP
bpw sNøWw.
“Bbpjyw h¿®kyw cmbkvt]mjmx” F∂ E°v P]n®v ]pXnb
“sshPb¥n Ae¶mc߃” (sshPb¥nameIƒ) [cn®v thZnta¬
Ccn°p∂p.
75. KXym ZznXobm thZnw kap]hnti®¿ΩWmap]cncmPm
tZbm\n ssNh N¿ΩmWyp]cyp ]tcyh taXm\n.
]n∂oSv ZznXob thZnbn¬ t\csØ ]d™, ta¬°pta¬ hncn®
N¿ΩßfpsS, D]cn Ccn°p∂p.
76. hrjky hrjZwiky cptcm› hrjXkyN
tXjmap]cnknwlky hym{Lky N XXx ]cw.
hrjw (Ej`w), hrjZwiw (tXƒ), cpcp (IrjvWarKw), ]rjXw
(lcnWw), knwlw, hym{Lw- Ch H∂ns\m∂p ]cnÿnXn sNøp∂p.
(Chbv°pw apIfnembn´mWv k¿ΔØn\pw aqeamb tXP ns‚
ÿm\w).
518

{]Imikn‘p

k]vX¿jn kaqlw

Celestial equator ({-[phw)

4 _p[≥
3 kqcy≥
2
6

5

4

3

2

2

3

4

5

6

2
3
4
5
6

1. CShw
2. hr›nIw
kmb\w
3. taSw
4. anYp\w
5. knwlw
6. hym{Lw

\ncb\w

(N{μ≥)
cmlp (`qan)
kqcy≥.
_p[≥ kqcy≥ tI{μw(kucbqYw)
k]vX¿jn kaqlw (Equator)
({[phw)
D{Xw, AØw, Nn{X \£{X kaqlßtfmSp
IqSnb I\ymcmin ]pen∏pdtØdnb tZhocq]w(Southern sky) apX¬ iXm`njw hscbp≈
cminN{I `mKw- ]p≈n]pensb t]mse \£{X
JPnXw. Cu `mKØv k¿∏ akv X IØnse
(hr›nIØnse A\ngw) cXv\w t]mse `qan
Dƒs∏´ \ΩpsS {]]©w Hcp sIm®ps]m´mbn
{`aWw sNøp∂p.

77. apJyÿmt\ PplqbmXv ]ptcmlntXmf Kv\nw kanØn
eLrXmssZyx
{Xn\b\ i{I_rlkv]Xn¿∂mcmbW\nXyKXn¿EKv`nx
thZnbpsS apJyÿm\Øv {Xn\b\, C{μ, _rlkv]Xn, \mcmbW,
\nXyKXn (hmbp) F∂nhcpsS Et°mSp IqSn kanØpw Xnehpw LrX
hpw AKv\nbn¬ ]ptcmlnX≥ tlman°p∂p.
519

{]Imikn‘p

78. C{μ [zP \n¿±njvSm\y Kv\nanØm\n
ssZhhnXv {_qbmXv
IrXzmtijkam]vXnw ]ptcmlnXx
{]mRvPen¿{_pbmXv.
79. bm¥p tZhKWmx k¿tΔ
]qPmamZmb ]mYhmXv
kn≤nw ZXzm kphn]pemw
]p\cmKa\mbssh.
C{μ [zPm≤ymbØn¬ AKv\n\nanØ߃ \n¿t±in®sXms°
ssZhhnØpIfm¬ e£Ww t\m°n B kabØv ]dbs∏Sp∂p. k¿Δ
{Inbm kam]vXnbn¬ ]ptcmlnX≥ ARvPen Iq∏n]dbp∂p. “tl, tZh
KWßtf, \nßsf√mhcpw ]qP ssIsIm≠v hn]peamb kn≤nIƒ
\¬IpI. C\nbpw hcm\mbns°m≠v, Ct∏mƒ bm{X Xncn°pI”. (“t]mbn
hcnI”).
80. \r]XnctXm ssZh⁄w ]ptcmlnXw
Nm¿®tbZzss\¿ _lp`nx
A\ymw › Z£nWo bm≥ bYm¿lXx
t{imXob {]`rXo≥.
ssZh⁄∑m¿, ]ptcmlnX∑m¿ F∂nhsc [mcmfw [\w \¬In
]qPn®v, bYm¿lamb Z£nW \¬In timXob∑msc ]qPn® cmPmhv
bm{XbmIp∂p.
81. ZXzm`bw {]Pm\mamLmXÿm\ Km\znkrPy]iq≥
_‘\tam£w IpcymZm`y¥c tZmjIrZvh{Pw.
h[ÿm\ßfn¬ sI´nbn´ ]ip°tfbpw (i{Xp]£Øn¬ \n∂p
]nSn®psIm≠ph∂p XShnem°nbhtcbpw) hn´b®v {]PIƒ°v A`bw
\¬Ip∂p. B`y¥ctZmj߃ (cmPyØns‚ AIØp s]m´n∏pds∏´
{]Xntj[mZnIƒ) Cu alZvIrXyw sIm≠v ASßnt∏mIp∂p. {]PIƒ
`bclnXcmbnØocp∂p.
82. GXXv {]bqPyam\w]vcXn]pjyw
kpJbtimf ¿∞ hr≤nIcw
]pjyw hn\m¿≤ ^eZms]ujoim¥ox
]pcm t{]m‡m.
520

{]Imikn‘p

Hmtcm ]pjy\£{XØnepw kpJhpw bi pw A¿∞hpw h¿≤n
°p∂ Cu I¿Ωw sNømhp∂XmWv. ]ujamkØnse ]u¿Æan \mƒ
]qbw \£{XØne√ N{μ≥ \n¬°p∂sX∂p hcpIn¬ A∂v A\pjvSn
°p∂ ap≥]d™ im¥nI¿Ωw A¿≤^ew Xcpw (]ujØn¬ ]qbw
\£{XØn¬ N{μ≥ \n¬°ptºmgp≈ ]ujkv\m\w ]q¿Æ^ew
Xcpw)- (kqcy≥ aIccminbn¬ DØcmb\w XpSßp∂p. N{μ≥
I¿°nSI cminbn¬ ]qbØn¬ \n¬°p∂p- DØaamb ]ujkv\m\
Zn\w).
83. cmjvt{SmXv]mtXm]k¿ss§jp
cmtlm! tItXm ›Z¿it\
{Klmha¿±t\ssNh
]pjykv\m\w kamNtcXv.
cmjv{SØn¬ DXv]mXw, D]k¿§w, {KlWw, [qatIXpZ¿i\w
F∂nh D≠mbmepw {Klmha¿±\w D≠mbmepw ]pjykv\m\w sNtø
≠XmWv.
84. \mkvXntemtI k DXv]mtXm
tbmlyt\\ \ imayXn
awKew Nm]cw \mkvXn
bZkvamZXncnNytX.
GXp temIØn¬ DXv]mX߃ D≠mhp∂n√tbm, GXptemIw
im¥nbn¬ \n∂v Hcn°epw AIep∂n√tbm (t£m`an√mØXv) FhnsS
AawKeambn bmsXm∂pan√tbm B temIw Cu ]pjykv\m\sa∂
im¥n I¿ΩØn\XoXamWv (B temIØv Cu I¿ΩmNcWw Bhiy
an√- BZni¶cs\t∏mep≈h¿ B AXoXtemIØp\n∂psIm≠v I¿
ΩmNcWmZnIsf XnckvIcn°p∂ ‘Xpcob’∑mcmWv).
85. A[ncmPym¿∞nt\m cm⁄x
]p{XP∑ NImw£Xx
XXv]q¿Δ a`ntjIN
hn[ntc, {]ikytX.
A[ncmPyßsf B{Kln°p∂ cmPm°∑m¿°pw, ]p{X∑mcpsS
P\\w Imw£n°p∂h¿°pw ]q¿ΔmNmc{]Imcw {]ikvXamb Cu A`n
tjIw hn[n ]q¿Δw sNbvXm¬ ^ew e`n°pw.
521

{]Imikn‘p

86. atl{μm¿∞aphmtNZw
_rlXvIo¿Øn _rlkv]Xnx
kv\m\ambpx {]Pmhr≤n
ku`mKyIcWw ]cw.
_rlXvIo¿Ønam\mb _rlkv]Xn C{μ\p th≠n D]tZin®
XmWnXv. Cu ]pjykv\m\w Bbp n\pw, {]Pmhr≤n°pw, ku`mKyØn
\pw D≈XmWv.
87. At\ss\hhn[mt\\
lkvXy izw kv\m] boXbx
Xkym`bhn\n¿ap‡w
]cmw kn≤nahm]v\pbmXv
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
]pjykv\m\w \mamjvT NXzmcnwtimf ≤ymbx
Cu hn[nb\pkcn®v Bcv AiztØbpw (Aizw- IpXnc F∂pw
]q¿Δ `{Z]mZw apX¬ AizXn hscbp≈ cmin`mKw F∂pw) lkvXntb
bpw (B\ F∂pw, lkvXw \£{Xw apX¬ tNmXnhscbp≈ cmin`mKw
F∂pw) kv\m\w sNøn°p∂pthm (tZhnbptSbpw KW]XnbptSbpw \na
÷\w) Ah¿ `bap‡cmbn, ]ca kn≤n ASbp∂p.

522

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 49

]´e£Ww
1. hnkvXctim \n¿±njvSw ]´m\mw e£Ww bZmNmsscyx
XXvkw£]x {InbtX abm{X kIem¿∞ kº∂x
BNmcy∑m¿ hnkvXcn®v ]d™ ]´ßfpsS e£Ww kIem¿∞
kº∂amWv. Rm≥ AXv kwt£]n® ]dbmw.
2. ]´x ip`tZmcm⁄mw at≤yf jvSmhw Kpem\n hnkvXo¿Æx
k]vX\tc{μalnjymx jUvbphcmPky \n¿±njvSx
a≤y`mKØv 8 AwKpew hnkvXo¿Æap≈ ]´_‘w (IncoSw) cmPm
°∑m¿°pw, 7 AwKpeap≈Xv cmPmhns‚ ]´alnjn°pw, 6 AwKpeap
≈Xv bphcmPmhn\pw \n¿t±in°s∏´ncn°p∂p.
3. NXpcwKpe hnkvXmcx ]´x
tk\m]tX¿`hXn at≤y
tZzN {]kmZ ]´x
]ss© tX Io¿Ø\mx ]´mx
a≤yØn¬ 4 AwKpew hnkvXmcap≈Xv tk\m]Xnbv°mWv. 2
AwKpew hnkvXmcap≈ ]´bv°v “{]kmZ”sa∂p t]cv. C{]Imcw 5 hn[w
]´Iƒ {]Io¿ØnXambncn°p∂p.
4. k¿tΔ ZznKpWmbmam a≤ym Z¿t≤\ ]m¿izhnkvXo¿Æmx
k¿tΔN ip≤Im©\ hn\n¿ΩnXmx t{ibtkmhrss≤yx
k¿Δ apIpSßfpw a≤y`mKsØ hnkvXmcØn¬ ZznKpWßfpw,
]m¿izhnkvXo¿ÆØn¬ A¿≤ßfpamWv. F√mw ip≤kz¿Æ \n¿
ΩnXamsW¶n¬ t{ib p h¿≤n∏n°pw.
5. ]© intJm `qan]tX kv{Xn intJm
bphcmP]m¿∞nhalntjymx
GIinJx ssk\y]tXx {]kmZ
]t´mhn\m inJbm.
523

{]Imikn‘p

cmPIncoSØn\v 5 inJ. cm⁄nbptSXpw bphcmPmhnt‚Xp aq∂p
inJ. ssk\y]XnbptSXv GIinJ: km[mcW°m¿ [cn°p∂ {]kmZ
Øn\v inJbn√ (hn.]n. knwlnt‚Xp t]mesØ sXm∏n).

6. {InbamWmw bZn]{Xw kpsJ\ hnkvXmctaXn ]´ky
hr≤n Psbu `qan]tX kvXYm{]Pm\mwN kpJkºØv.
IncoSw \n¿Ωn°p∂ ]{Xw (XInSv) hnkvXmcap≈Xpw kpJw Xcp
∂XpamsW¶n¬ cmPmhn\p Pbhpw, {]PIƒ°v, kpJkºØpw
D≠mhpw.
7. PohnXcmPyhn\miw ItcmXn at≤y{hWx kapXv]∂x
at≤ykv^pSnXkvXymtPym hnLv\Icx ]m¿iztbmxkv^pSnXx
a≤yw apdn™Xv cmPyhpw PohnXhpw \in∏n°pw. a≤yw apdn™
Xns\ XyPn°Ww. ]m¿izw apdn™Xv hnLv\ap≠m°pw.
8. Aip` \nantØmXv]sØu imkv{X⁄x
im¥namZnti{Zm⁄
ikv{X\nanØx ]t´m
\r]cmjv{S hnhr≤tb `hXn
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXvkwlnXmbmw
]´e£Ww \mssatIm\]©miX tamf ≤ymbx
C{]Imcap≈ Aip`\nanØßsf°pdn®v imkv{X⁄∑m¿ ]dbp
∂X\pkcn®v “im¥n” A\pjvTn°Ww. GsXmcp IncoSØn¬ Hcp hn[
ap≈ Aip`Nnlv\hpw C√tbm, AXv [cn°p∂Xp hgn cmPmhn\pw
cmjv{SØn\pw A`nhr≤n D≠mhpw.

524

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 50

JUvK e£Ww
1. AwKpeiXm¿≤ apØaw Du\x
kymXv ]©hnwiXnw Jfix
AwKpeam\mt⁄tbm {htWmf
ipt`mhnja ]¿Δÿx
AºXv AwKpew \ofap≈ JUvKw DØaw. AXn¬ Ipdhp≈Xv
A[aw. AwKpenIƒ tcJs∏SpØnbXn¬ hnja]¿Δßfn¬ (3,5,7,9
apXemb tcJIfn¬) apdnhp I≠m¬ Aip`amWv.
2. {io hr≤h¿≤am\mX]{X inhenwKIpfiem_vPm\mw
kZrim{hWmx {]ikvXm ZzPmbp[kzkvXnIm\mw N.
{io hr£w, h¿≤am\w, BX]{Xw, inhenwKw, Ipfiew, Xmac,
[zPw, Bbp[w, kzkvXnIw apXembhbv°p kZriamb BIrXnIƒ
({hW߃) ip`amWv.
3. IrIemk ImIIw K{IhymZI _‘ hr›nImIrXbx
JUvtK{hWm \ ip`Zmhwim\pKmx {]_qXm›
Hm¥v, Im°, sIm‰n, amwk`p°mb ]£n, I_‘w, tXfv F∂n
hbv°p kZriamb {hWtam, hmfpsIm≠p≈ {hWtam ip`a√.
4. kv^pSntXm{lkzx Iptfim hwi
Ont∂m\ZrMvat\mf \pKXx
Aiz≥ CXn Nm\njvSx t{]m‡
hn]cykvX CjvS^ex
kv^pSnXhpw {lkzhpw Ipgn™Xpw hwiOn∂hpw, ZrjvSn°pw
a\ n\pw cpNn°mØXpw, i
- _vZclnXhpamb JUvK߃ Aip`w. hn]
coXambXv ip`w.
5. IzWnXw acWmtbm‡ ]cmPbmb {]h¿Ø\w tImimXv
kzbapZvKo¿Æ bp≤w PzentX hnPtbm `hXn JUvtK.
525

{]Imikn‘p

shdptX hmƒ i_vZw tI´m¬ acWw. ISISm F∂v Ddbv°IØn
cp∂v H® sh®m¬ ]cmPbw. kzbw Ddbn¬ \n∂v Ducnbm¬ bp≤w. {]
Imiam\ambn Pzen®m¬ hnPbw.
6. \mImcWw hnhrWpbm∂ hnL´tb©]tiy∂
X{XhZ\w \ htZ©aqeyw
tZiw \ Nmky IYtbXv {]Xnam\tb©
ss\hkv]rti ∂r]Xn c{]btXm knbjvSnw.
ImcWw IqSmsX hmƒ Ddbn¬ \n∂v DucpItbm, AXns\ XShp
Itbm, ImWpItbm, AXn¬ apJw t\m°pItbm, AXns‚ aqeyw ]dbp
Itbm, AXp≠m°nb tZiw ]d™psImSp°pItbm, AXns\ A]hn
{Xambn [cn°pItbm sNøcpXv.
7. tKmPn lzm kwÿmt\m \otemev]e hwi]{XkZrim©
Ichoc]{X ipem{K afiem{Kx {]ikvXmx kypx
]iphn≥ \mhv, \otemev]ew, apfbne, IchocØns‚ Ce, iqem
{Kw, afiem{Kw F∂nh t]mencn°p∂ hmfpIƒ DØaßfmWv.
8. hnjv]t∂m\tOtZym\nIssjx Imcyx {]amWbp‡x kx
aqte{anbtX kzmanP\\o Xkym{KX Ont∂.
taev]d™ JUvKßfn¬ ]co£Ww \SØp∂Xpw AXpsIm≠v
tOZn°p∂Xpw DNnXa√. AXns‚ A‰w apdn™m¬ hmfns‚ DSaÿ
\pw, aqew apdn™m¬ AbmfpsS AΩbv°pw acWw kw`hn°pw.
9. bkvan≥ ’cp{]tZti {htWm `thØ ZztZhJUvKky
h\nXm\manh XnetIm KrtlyhmtNymaptJZrjvSzm.
F{]Imcw kv{XobpsS apJØnse XneIw sIm≠v AhfpsS
Kply`mKsØ Nnlv\߃ ]dbmtam, AtXt]mse hmfns‚ aqeyØn
se {hWw t\m°n hmfnse {hWw ]dbmw.
10. AYhm kv]riXn bZwKw {]jvSm \nÿnwi`rØZh
[mcytImiÿkym tZtiym{htWmkvXn imkv{XwhnZntXzZw.
Hcp JUvK[mcn “Cu JUvKØns‚ GXwKØnemWv apdnhp≈Xv”
F∂v Ichebw sXm´v tNmZn®m¬, imkv{Xw {Kln® ssZh⁄\v JUv
526

{]Imikn‘p

Kw Ddbnembncp∂m¬ t]mepw FhnsShnsS apdnhps≠∂v ]dbm≥ km
[n°pw.
11. inckn kv]rjvtS {]Ytaf wKpte ZznXotb
eemS kwkv^p¿tkm`qat≤y N XrXotbt\t{X
kv]rjvtS NXp¿t∞ N.
inc p kv]¿in®m¬ BZysØ AwKpeØnepw, s\‰n sXm´m¬
c≠mw AwKpeØnepw `qa≤yw sXm´m¬ 3 --mw AwKpeØnepw, IÆp
sXm´m¬ 4 -mw AwKpeØnepw apdnhp≠v.
12. kmtkmjvT It]me l\p{ihW{Kohmw ktIjp ]©mZymx
DcknZzmZi kwivXkv{X tbmZtiI£tbm¿t⁄bx
\mknI, Np≠v, Ihnfv, XmSnsb√v, sNhn, IgpØv F∂nh sXm´m¬
{IaØn¬ 5,6,7,8,9,10 AwKpeØn¬ apdnhp≠v. tXmfp sXm´m¬ 11 -mw
AwKpeØnepw, Dc v sXm´m¬ 12 -mw AwKpeØnepw I£w sXm´m¬
13 -mw AwKpeØnepw apdnhp≠v.
13. kvX\lrZtbmZcIp£n\m`ojp NXp¿±imZtbmt⁄bmx
\m`oaqte ISymw Kptly ssN tIm\hnwiXnXx
kvX\w, lrZbw, DZcw, Ip£n, \m`n F∂nh sXm´m¬ {IaØn¬
14,15,16,17,18 AwKpeØn¬ apdnhp≠v. \m`oaqew, ISn, KplytZiw F∂nh
sXm´m¬ 19,20,21 AwKpeØn¬ apdnhv.
14. Du¿tΔmZzmhnwsikym Zp¿Δm¿Ωt≤y {hWmkv{Xtbmhnw tim
Pm\p\nN
NXp¿Δnwtim PwLmbmw ]©hnwtimN.
Ducp sXm´m¬ 22, Ducp a≤yw sXm´m¬ 23, Pm\p sXm´m¬ 24,
PwL sXm´m¬ 25 AwKpe `mKØv apdnhv.
15. PwLmat≤y Kp¬t^]mjvWcymw]mtZXZw Kpeojz ]nNx
jUvhnwiXnIm≤yh{XnwiZoXn atX\ Km¿§ky.
PwLma≤yw, Kp¬^w, ]mZw, ]mZmwKpen Ch sXm´m¬ 26 apX¬
30 hsc AwKpeØn¬ apdnhpImWpsa∂v Km¿§aXw.
527

{]Imikn‘p

16. ]p{XacWw [\m]vXn¿≤\lm\nx kºZ› _‘›
GImZyw KpekwkvssY{hssWx ^ew \n¿±ntiXv {Iaix
H∂papX¬ 5 AwKpew hscbp≈ apdnhns‚ ^ew- {IaØn¬
]p{XacWw, [\m]vXn, [\lm\n, kºØv, _‘\w.
17. kpXem`x IetlmlkvXne_v[bx ]p{XacWm[\ems`u
{Iaim hn\mi h\nXm]vXn
NnØZpxJm\n jUv{]`rXn.
6 AwKpew apX¬ {IaØn¬ ]p{Xem`w, Ielw, lkvXne_v[n,
]p{XacWw, [\em`w, hn\miw, kv{Xo{]m]vXn, NnØZpxJw.
18. e_v[n¿lm\n kv{Xne_v[tbm ht[m
hr≤n acW ]cntXmjmx
t⁄bm›Xp¿±imZnjp [\lm\nss›IhnwtikymXv.
em`w, lm\n, kv{Xoem`w, h[w, hr≤n, acWw, kt¥mjw F∂nh
14 AwKpew apXep≈ ^e߃. 21 -mw AwKpeØn¬ {hWap≠mbmepw
[\lm\n.
19. hnØm]vXnc\n¿ΔmWmw [\mKtamarXypkw]tZf kzXzw
sFizcy arXypcmPm\n N{Iamkv{XnwiZoXnbmhXv.
[\em`w, A\n¿ΔmWmw, [\mKaw, arXyp, kºØv, \n¿≤\Xzw,
sFizcyw, arXyp, cmPyw F∂nh 22 apX¬ 30 AwKpew hscbp≈
^e߃.
20. ]ctXm\ hntij^ew hnjakap∞mkp ]m]ip` ^eXm
ssI›nZ^emx {]ZnjvSmkv{XnwiXv ]ctXmf {KanXn bmhXv
CXn\∏pdw hntij^ew ]d™n´n√. hnjakwJybn¬ {hWap
≠mbm¬ Aip`w; kakwJybnse¶n¬ ip`w. 30 AwKpeØn\∏pdw
{hWap≠mbm¬ hntij^esam∂pan√.
21. Ichotcmev]e KPaZLrXIp¶pa IpμNºIkpKt‘x
ip`tZmf \njvtSm tKmaq{X ]¶taZx kZriK‘x
528

{]Imikn‘p

Ichocw, Dev]ew, B\bpsS aZPew, s\øv, Ip¶paw, Ipμw, Nº
Iw ChbpsS K‘ap≈ hmƒ ip`ZmbnbmWv. tKmaq{Xw, Nfn, amwkw
ChbpsS K‘w han®m¬ Aip`amWv.
22. Iq¿Ω hkmkr£mtcm]a› `bZpxJtZm `hXn K‘x
sshZqcy I\IhnZypXv {]t`mPbmtcmKy hr≤nIcx
Iq¿Ωw, hk, c‡w, £mcw ChbpsS K‘w `bw, ZpxJw F∂nh
D≠m°pw. sshUqcyw, I\Iw, hnZypXv{]` F∂nh Pbw, BtcmKyw
A`nhr≤n ChXcpw.
23. CZ saui\kwN imkv{X]m\w cp[ntcW
{inbanOXx {]Zo]vXmw
lhnjmKpWmh’pXm`nen]vtkmx
kente\m£ban›Xiz hnØw.
e£vansb {]m]n°m≥ COn°p∂h≥ Xs‚ hmfns\ c‡]m\w
sNøn°p∂p (bp≤w sNøp∂p). KpWhm\mb ]p{Xs\ e`nt°≠h≥
Xs‚ hmfns\ s\øv IpSn∏n°p∂p. A£bhnØw e`nt°≠h≥ Xs‚
Bbp[sØ sh≈Øm¬ Ipfn∏n°p∂p.
24. hUthmjvSItcWp ZpKv≤]m\w bZn ]mt]\
kaoltXf ¿t∞kn≤nw Qj]nØarKmiz hkvXp
ZpKvss≤x IcnlkvXOnZtb
kXmeK¿ss`x
_Uhm, H´Iw, ]nSnbm\ F∂nhbpsS ]mep IpSn∏n®m¬ ]m]w
sIm≠pkºmZn® [\w e`n°pw. a’yØns‚ ]nØw, arKw, IpXnc,
am≥ F∂nhbpsS ]men¬ XmeK¿`w tN¿Øv IpSn∏n®m¬ B\bpsS
Xpºn°øp tOZn°mhp∂{X aq¿® hmfn\p≠mhpw.
25. B¿°]tbmlpUphnjmW ajoktaXw
]mcmhXm JpiIrXmNbpXw {]te]x
ikv{Xky ssXeaYnXky XtXmf ky
]m\w ]›m OnXky \ inemkp `thZznLmXmx
BZyw hmfn¬ FÆ ]pc´n, ]n∂oSv A¿° hr£Øns‚ ]mhv,
B´n≥ sImºns‚ `kvaw, {]mhns‚tbm FenbptStbm \Jw F∂nh
529

{]Imikn‘p

Ac®ptN¿ØXv AXn¬ ]pc´pI. ]n∂oSv I´nbp≈ ineta¬ sh´nbm
epw IqSn hmƒ apdnbpIbn√.
26. £mtc IZeym aYn tX\ bpt‡
Znt\mjntX ]mbnX ambkwbXv
kayIv OnXw Nmiva\n ss\Xn`wKw
\Nm\y temtl jz]n Xky ssIuWvTyw
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv kwlnXmbmw
JUvK e£Ww \ma ]©iXtamf ≤ymbx
IZfnhr£Øns‚ £mchpw aYnXhpw tN¿Øv HcpZnhkw sh®n
cn°pI. ]n∂oSv teml\n¿ΩnXamb JUvKw AXn¬ ap°n sh°pI.
AXpsIm≠v inetbtbm temltØtbm XmUn®m¬ t]mepw apdn™p
t]mIbn√.

530

{]Imikn‘p

A≤ymbw 51

AwKhnZy
1. ssZht⁄\ ip`mip`w ZnKpZnXivYm\mlrXm\o£Xm
hmNyw {]jvS\nPm]cwKLS\mw NmtemIyw Imew[nbm.
k¿Δt⁄mlnNcmNcmXvaIXbmskuk¿Δ Z¿tim
hn`pctNjvSmhymlrXn`nx ip`mip`m^ew
kμ¿ibXy¿∞n \mw.
imkv{X t{]m‡amw hn[w ZniIƒ, DZb _nμp apXembhbpsS
⁄m\w e`n® ssZh⁄≥ tNmZyI¿Ømhnt‚bpw a‰p≈hcptSbpw
Xs‚ Xs∂bpw AwKLS\sb \nco£n®v ip`mip` ^ew {]hNn°p∂p.
NcmNcmflI {]]©sØ \∂mbn´v Adn™h\pw, k¿ΔZ¿inbpw,
k¿Δ⁄\pw hn`phpw (\mcmbW Xpeyw) BWv ssZh⁄≥. tNjvS
Ifmepw hymlrXnIfmepw A¿∞w Adnbm≥ hcp∂hcpsS ip`mip`
^e߃ At±lw Z¿in°p∂p≠t√m.
2. ÿm\w ]pjv] kplmkn `qcn^e`rXv kpkv\nKv[ IrØnOZmkXv]£nNypXiivX kw⁄nXXcp Omtbm]KqVwkaw.
tZh¿jnZzpNkm[pkn≤\nebwkXv ]pjv]ktkym £nXw
kXv kzmZqZI\n¿ΩeXz P\nXmÀmZw N kOmwKzew.
]pjv]߃ ]qØp Nncn°p∂Xpw, [mcmfw ^eßfp≈Xpw, kp
kv\nKv[hpw, NoØ ]£nIfn√mØXpw, \√ ]£nIfncn°p∂ hr£
ßfpsS \ng¬ ]Xn™Xpw, ka\nc∏pw, tZh¿jn, {_mlvaW¿, km[p
kn≤P\߃ F∂nhcpsS hmkÿm\hpw \√ ]pjv]kky߃ hfcp
∂Xpw, kzmZp≈ \n¿ΩePeØm¬ BÀmZ`cnXambn ]®∏p√p hfcp∂
Xpamb ÿm\amWv {]iv\ hnNmcØn\v DØaw.
3. On∂`n∂ IranJmX IWvTIn πpjvS cq£IpSnsse¿∂ kXvIpssPx
{Iqc]£nbpX\n‘\ma`nx ipjvIio¿Æ _lp]¿Æ a¿Ω`nx
On∂`n∂amb IranIƒ Xn∂p∂Xpw, ap≈p≈Xpw, cq£hpw, IpSn
ehpambn, {Iqc]£nIƒ hkn°p∂ Zp¿_ehpw Po¿Æhpamb hr£
ßfp≈ ÿe߃ h¿÷n°Ww.
531

{]Imikn‘p

4. ivaim\ iq\ymbX\w NXpjv]Yw XYm at\m⁄w hnjaw
ktZmjcw
AhkvIcmwKmcI ]me`kva`n›nXw Xrssjx ipjv°
XrssW¿∂tim`\w
GXp ÿeØv ivaim\ iq\yXt]msebp≈ Krlßfpt≠m,
FhnsS a\ n\v kt¥mjw tXm∂p∂n√tbm, FhnsS Ft∏mgpw hnja
hpw DujcXbpw tXm∂p∂pth, FhnsS Bcpw hkn°p∂n√tbm, Fhn
sS Icn, XetbmSv, `kvaw F∂nh ImWp∂pthm, FhnsS ipjv°n®v
]p√pIƒ ImWp∂pthm, B ÿe߃ tim`\ßf√.
5. {]{hPnX\Kv\ \m]nXcn]p_‘\ kq\n ssIkvXYmiz ssNx
InXhbXn ]oVnssX¿øpX ambp[ am≤znIhn{Issb¿\ ip`w.
k\ymknIƒ, \mK∑m¿, i{Xp°ƒ, _‘\w, iq\yhmZnIƒ, iz]
N∑m¿ (\mbvamwkw Xn∂p∂h¿), iw\vam¿, ]oVnX∑m¿ F∂nhcp≈
ÿehpw Bbp[hpw aZyhpw hn{Ibw sNøp∂ ÿeßfpw ip`a√.
6. {]mKpØtcim›Znix {]ikvXmx
{]jvSy¿∂ hmbzw_pbamKv\nc£x
]q¿Δmlv\ Imtef kvXn ip`w \ cms{Xu
k‘ymZztb {]iv\IrtXmf ]cmlvt\.
]q¿Δw, DØcw, Cuim\tIm¨ F∂nh {]iv\ I¿Ømhn\v ÿnXn
sNøm≥ t{ijvTamWv. hmbptIm¨, ]›na, Z£nW, ss\cyXntIm¨
F∂nh \∂√. cm{Xn k‘yIƒ A]cmlv\w F∂nh {]iv\w tNmZn
°m≥ \∂√. ]q¿Δmlv\w \√XmWv.
7. bm{Xmhn[mt\lnip`mip`w bXv
t{]m‡w \nanØw XZnlm]nhmNyw
ZrjvSzm ]ptcm hm P\XmlrXw hm
{]jvTpx ÿnXw ]mWnXtef Yhkvt{X
bm{Xmhn[m\Øn¬ ]d™ ip`mip`\nanØ߃ t\m°nbpw,
{]iv\I¿Ømhv Iøn¬ sIm≠ph∂ hkvXp°ƒ, hkv{X Nnlv\߃,
F∂nh t\m°nbn´pw ip`mip`w {]hNn°mw.
8. AYmwK\yp¿tΔmjvT kvX\ hrjW]mZw
NZi\m`pssPu lkvsXu
532

{]Imikn‘p

Ks‘uINKe\Jmw KpjvSa]nbXv
k iwJw I£mwk{ihW KpZk‘oXn ]pcptj kv{Xobmw
{`q\m kmkv^nKv henISn kpteJmwKpenNbw.
Ducp, HmjvTw, kvX\w, hrjWw, ]mZw, Zi\, `pPw, lkvXw,
Kfiw, INw, Kfw, \Jw, AwKpjvTw, iwJw, I£w, {ihWw, KpZw,
k‘n F∂nh ]pcpjhmNnkw⁄IfmWv. {`q, \mkm, kv^nIv (amwkf
]nfiw), hen, ISn, kpμcteJItfmSpIqSnb AwKpen Ch kv{Xo \ma
hmNnIfmWv.
9. Pnlzm{Kohm]nfintI]m¿jvWnbpKvaw PwtL\m`nx
I¿Æ]men IrImSn
h{‡w ]rjvTwP{Xp Pm\zÿn]m¿izw lrXzmez
£otalt\mc ÿcnIw N.
10. \]pwkImJyw N intcmeemS
amkyZy kwss⁄]scu›ntcW
kn≤n¿`thXp \]pwkssI¿∂m
cq££ssX¿`Kv\Irssi›]q¿sshΔx
Pnlz, {Kohw, ]nfinI, ]m¿jvWn bpKvaw, PwL, \m`n, I¿Æ]men,
IrImSn, h{‡w, ]rjvTw, P{Xp, Pm\p, Aÿn]m¿izw, lrZbw, Xmep,
A£n, talw, Dc nse aq∂p tcJIƒ, inc v, eemSw, Bkyw- Ch
\]pwkIßfmWv. Chbn¬ cq£w £Xw, `Kv\w, Iriw apXemb e£
Ww I≠m¬ ^ekn≤n°v ImeXmakw hcpw. kv{Xo ]pcpjhmNnI
fmb AwKßfnemWv CØcw e£Ww I≠sX¶n¬ ^ew In´pItb
C√.
11. kv]jvtSthm NmentXhm]n]mZmwKpjvtTf £ncpKv `thXv
AwKpeymw ZplnXpx timIw intcmLmtX \r]mZv `bw
]mZmwKpjvTØn¬ apdnthm NXthm Ds≠¶n¬ {]iv\ I¿Øm
hn\p t\{X tcmKw D≠mhpw. AwKpeobnemsW¶n¬ ]p{Xn timIw.
inc nemsW¶n¬ cmPmhn¬ \n∂p `bw.
12. hn{]tbmK apckn kzKm{XXx
I¿∏SmlrXnc\¿∞Zm `thXv
kymXv {]nbm]vXn c`nKrly I¿∏Sw
]r›XizcW]mZtbm PnXpx
533

{]Imikn‘p

kzKm{XØns‚ Dc p sXm´p\n∂v {]iv\w tNmZn®m¬ {]nbhntbm
Khpw hkv{Xw Agn®p tNmZn®m¬ A\¿∞hpap≠mhpw. F∂m¬ AtX
hkv{Xw ]n∂n¬ sI´n\n∂v tNmZn®m¬ {]nb{]m]vXn ^ew.
13. ]mZmw KpjvtT \ hnentJXv `qanw
t£t{Xm ∞Nn¥bm
lkvtX\ ]msZu IfiqtbkvXky
Zmknabm N km.
Im¬hnc¬sIm≠v `qanbn¬ hc®p tNmZn®m¬ t£{XsØ (`qanhb¬) °pdn®mWv Nn¥. ssIsIm≠p Im¬ XShn tNmZn®m¬ Abm
fpsS Nn¥bn¬ “Zmknabw” BWv.
14. Xme`q¿÷ ]SZ¿it\wf ipIw
Nn¥tbXv IN Xpjm ÿn`kvaKw
hym[n cm{ibXn c÷p PmeIw
h¬°ew N ka th£y _‘\w
]\tbme, `q¿÷]{Xw F∂nhbpsS Z¿i\w sIm≠v ‘hkv{X
Nn¥’ ]dbmw. apSn, \Jw, `kvaw, Ibdv sI´v F∂nh I≠m¬ hym[n
Nn¥bmWv ]dtb≠Xv. h¬°ew I≠m¬ _‘\w.
15. ]n∏en acoN ipWvTn hmcnssZ
tcm{[ IpjvT hk\mw_p PmcssIx
K‘amwkn iX ]pjv]bmhtZXv
]rOXkvX KctIW Nn¥Xw
{]iv\ kabØv ]n∏en, acnNw, ipWvTn, hmcnPw, tKm{[, IpjvTw,
hkv{Xw, Pew, PocIw, K‘amwkn (PSam©n), iX ]pjv] F∂nhsb
ImWpItbm ]dbpItbm sNbvXm¬ Xmsg ]dbpw {]Imcw {IaØn¬
Nn¥n°Ww.
16. kv{Xo ]pcpj tZmj ]oVnX k¿Δm≤z kpXm¿∞ [m\yX\bm\mw
ZznNXpjv]Z £nXn\mw hn\miX Io¿ØnX ZpjvssSx
kv{XotZmj\miw, ]pcpjtZmj\miw, ]oVnX\miw, k¿Δ\miw,
am¿§\miw, ]p{Xo\miw, A¿∞\miw, [m\y\miw, ]p{X\miw, Ccp
Imen\miw, \m¬°men\miw, `qan\miw.
534

{]Imikn‘p

17. \yt{Km[ a[pIXnμpI Pw_qπz£m{a_Zco PmXn^ssex
[\ I\I ]pcpj temlmwipI cqt]ymZpw_cm]vXn c]nIcsKux
\yt{Km[w, a[pIw, XnμpIw, Pw_p, π£w, B{aw, _Zcn, PmXn
F∂nhbpsS ^e߃ Iøn¬sh®p {]iv\w tNmZn°pItbm {]iv\thf
bn¬ Ch ImWpItbm sNbvXm¬ {IaØn¬ [\w, I\Iw, ]pcpj≥,
temlw, AwipIw, cq]yw (cq]- Ddp∏nI), DZpw_cw F∂nhbpsS {]m
]vXn ]dbmw.
18. [m\y]cn]q¿Æ ]m{Xw Ipw`x
]q¿Æx IpSpw_hr≤n Iscu
KPtKmip\mw ]qcnjw
[\ bphXn kplrZzn \miImcw.
[m\yw \nd® ]m{Xtam ]q¿ÆIpw`tam (\nd]d, ]q¿ÆIpw`w)
I≠m¬ IpSpw_m`nhr≤n, B\∏n≠n, NmWIw, \mbv°m´w Ch
I≠m¬ {IaØn¬ [\w, bphXn, kplrØv Chbv°v \miw.
19. ]iplkvXnalnj]¶P
cPXhymss{L¿√t`XvkwZrjvssSx
Ahn[\\nhk\ aebPsIutibm`cW
kwLmXw.
]ip, B\, t]mØv, Xmac, sh≈n, hym{Lw Chsb I≠m¬
{IaØn¬ BSv, [\w, \q¬hkv{Xw, Nμ\w, sIutibw, B`cW߃
Ch e`n°pw.
20. hrOmhr≤{imhI kp]mcn{hmSv Z¿it\ \r`n¿ΔnlnXm
an{X[yqXm¿∞`hm KWnIm\r]kqXn Im¿∞ IrXm.
hr≤k\ymknsb I≠m¬ an{XtØbpw ZyqXt\bpw [\tØbpw
Ipdn®pw, ]cn{hmPIs\ I≠m¬ thiym, cmPmhv, kqXnI ({]khn®
hƒ), [\w Chsb°pdn®pw Nn¥n°Ww.
21. imtIym]m≤ymbm¿lX \n¿{KŸ\nanØ \nKassIh¿Øx
Nmc›aq]Xn hWnPmw Zmko tbm≤m]Wÿh≤ym\mw.
imIy≥, D]m≤ymb≥, B¿lX≥, \n¿{KŸ≥, \nanØw, \nKaw,
ssIh¿Ø≥ ChsIm≠v {IaØn¬ Nmc≥, tk\m]Xn, hWnI≥,
535

{]Imikn‘p

Zmkn, tbm≤mhv, B]Wÿm\sØ (I®hSÿew) {Zhyw, h[n°s∏
Sm≥ hn[n®h≥ Chsc Nn¥nbv°mw.
22. Xm]tk siufintIZrjvtS
t{]mjnXx ]ip]me\w
lrZvKXw ]rOIkykymZv
DRvOhrsØu hn]∂Xm.
Xm]k≥, siufin Chsc I≠m¬ {]iv\I¿Ømhv \mSphn´hs\
°pdn®pw, ]ip]me\sØ°pdn®pamWv ({IaØn¬) Nn¥n°p∂Xv.
DRvOhrØn sNøp∂hs\ I≠m¬ GtXm hn]Øns\°pdn® Nn¥
bmWv lrZbØnep≈sX∂v A\pam\n°mw.
23. COman{]jvTpw`W ]iyXzm¿øx
kamZntiXypt‡
kwtbmKIpSpwt_m∞m
emss`iz¿tømZv KXmNn¥m.
“Rm≥ Hcp tNmZyw tNmZn°m≥ COn°p∂p”, “]dbpI”,
“t\m°q”, “Bcym, B⁄m]n°pI”- Cu hmIyßtfmSpIqSn
Bcw`n ®m¬ {IaØn¬ kwtbmKw, IpSpw_Øn¬ \n∂p≈Xv, em`w,
sFizcyw Chsb°pdn®mWv Nn¥.
24. \n¿±ntiXn KZntX Pbm≤zKm {]Xyth£y aa Nn¥nXw hZ
Bip k¿Δ P\a≤yKw Xzbm ZriyXmanXn_‘p ssNucPm.
“\√hÆw Nn¥n®v Fs‚ at\mcYw ]dbpI”. “\n¿t±in°pI”,
apXembhbmWv ]dbp∂sX¶n¬ PbsØ°pdn®pw AXn\p≈ am¿§
sØ°pdn®pamWv Nn¥ F∂dnbWw. k¿ΔP\ßfpsSbpw \Sphn¬
\n∂psIm≠v “AhnSp∂v thKw t\m°n ]dbpI” F∂mWv ]d™sX
¶n¬ _‘p°sf°pdnt®m I≈∑msc°pdnt®m BWv Nn¥.
25. A¥x tÿwf tK kzP\pZntXm _mlytP_mlytP _mly Ghw
]mZmw KpjvTmwKpen Ie\bmZmk ZmkoP\x kymXv
PwtL t{]tjym `hXn `Kn\o\m`ntXm lrZvkz`mcym
]mWywKpjvTmw KpenN bIrXkv]¿i\w ]p{XIt\y.
{]iv\I¿Ømhv A¥¿`mKØv AwKßsf sXm´psIm≠p tNmZn
®m¬ kzP\ßsf°pdn®pw, _mlymwKßsf sXm´m¬ ]pdsabp≈hsc
536

{]Imikn‘p

°pdn®pw, ]mZØnse hncepIsfsb¶n¬ ZmkZmkoP\ßsf°pdn®pw,
PwLbn¬ sXm´m¬ t{]jy]pcpj∑msc°pdn®pw, \m`nsXm´m¬ ktlm
Zcnsb°pdn®pw lrZbw sXm´m¬ kz`mcysb°pdn®pw Iønse hncep
Iƒ sXm´m¬ ]p{X≥, ]p{Xn F∂nhsc°pdn®pamWv AbmfpsS Nn¥.
26. amXcw PTtc aq¿≤v\n Kpcpw Z£nWhmasIu
_mlp {`mXmY XXv ]Xv\okv]rjvSz h ssNucamZntiXv.
PTcw sXm´m¬ AΩtbbpw, aq¿≤mhp sXm´m¬ Kpcphnt\bpw,
Z£nWhpw hmahpamb _mlp°ƒ sXm´m¬ {`mXmhnt‚bpw AbmfpsS
]Xv\nbptSbpw I≈{]hrØnItfbpw Ipdn®pamWv Nn¥.
27. A¥cwK ah apNy _mlyKkv]¿i\w bZnItcmXn ]rOIx
t«jva aq{X iIrXkvXy P∂Yx ]mXtbXvIcXeÿ hkvXptNXv.
28. `riah\anXmwK]mcntamS\tXm ]yYhm
P\LrXcn‡ `mfihtemIy N sNucP\w
lrX]XnX £XmkvarX hn\jvS `Kv\tXm\varjnX arXm`y\njvSchtXm e`tX \ lrXw.
Ah\an® AwKtØmSpIqSntbm, I^w, aq{Xw, ]pcojw F∂nh
hogvØptºmtgm, Iønencn°p∂ hkvXp Xmsg C´nt´m, A¥cwKw hn´v
_mlymwikv]¿i\w sNbvtXm, BekytØmSpIqSntbm, GsX¶nepw
HcmfpsS Iøn¬ s]m´nb ]m{Xw Z¿in°ptºmtgm, I≈s\ ImWptºm
tgm, lcn°pItbm, ]Xn°pItbm, £Xw ]‰pItbm, hnkvarXnbpw
\jvShpw D≠mhpItbm, arXyp apXemb A\njvT i_vZ{ihWw D≠m
hpItbm sNøptºmtgm {]iv\I¿Ømhns‚ \jvShkvXp Hcn°epw
Xncn®pIn´pIbn√ F∂dnbWw.
29. \nK`nXanZw bØXv k¿Δw Xrjmÿn hnjmZnssIx
klarXnIcw ]oVm¿Øm\mw kaw cpZnX£ssXx
Ahbha]nkv]rjvSzm¥x ÿw ZrVw acpZmltc ZXn_lp
XZm`p‡zm∂w kwÿnXx kplntXm`hXv.
taev]d™ kakvX Nnlv\ßtfmsSm∏w Xrjw, Aÿn, hnjw,
apXembh ImWpItbm, ]oV sIm≠v B¿Ø\mbn Icbp∂Xp tIƒ
°pItbm sNbvXm¬ tcmKnIfpsS acWw kw`hn°pw. {]iv\I¿Ømhv
Ahbh߃ kv]¿in®v Zo¿Lizmkw hen®mtem, \∂mbn´v `£Ww
Ign®mtem, Abmƒ {]k∂\mbncn°p∂p F∂v ssZh⁄≥ {Kln°Ww.
537

{]Imikn‘p

30. eemSkv]¿i\mOpI Z¿i\mOmensPuZ\w.
Dckv]¿imXv jjvSnIm∂w {Kohmkv]¿ti N bmhIw.
s\‰n sXmSpItbm iqI[m\yw Z¿in°tbm sNbvXm¬ imens\√n
s‚ tNmdpIn´pw. Dc p kv]¿in®m¿ jjvTnIm∂hpw, IgpØpsXm´m¬
bmhIhpw In´pw.
31. Ip£nIpSPw cPm\p kv]¿ti amjx ]bkvXenb hmKzx
BkzmZ bXt›mjvsTuenltXm a[pcw ckw kwt⁄bw.
Ip£n, IpSw, PTIw, Pm\pw Chsb kv]¿in®m¬ a[pcckw e`n
°psa∂dnbpI.
32. hkv]rt° kvt^mStb÷nlz amtæ h{‡w hn{IqWtbXv
ISp Xn‡ IjmtbmjvsWulnt°Xv jvTothivO ssk‘th
hn°ns°mt≠m, s]m´nsØdn°pw t]msetbm, apJw tImWn®p
sImt≠m {]iv\w tNmZn®m¬ ISpXn‡w, Ijmbw, DjvWw, D∏n√mØXv
apXembhbmWv In´pI.
33. t«jvaXymtK iqjv° Xn‡w XZev]w {iqXzm{IhymZw
t{]£yhm amwkan{iw
`qKsfiu jpkv]¿t\imIp\w XZv `p‡w tXt\Xy]‡
taX∂nanØw
I^w Xp∏nbn´v {]iv\w tNmZn®m¬ iqjv°hpw Xn‡hpw Aev]
hpamb `£Ww In´pw. amwk`p°mb ]£nbpsS \maw tI´nt´m, AXn
s\ I≠nt´m Ccn°ptºmƒ {]iv\w tNmZn®m¬ amwkw tN¿∂ A∂
amWv In´pI. ]pcnIw, Ihnƒ, Np≠v F∂nh kv]¿in®p tNmZn®m¬
]£namwkw In´pw. AXv ]dbmw.
34. apZvKetIi l\p iwJI¿Æ PwLw _kvXnwN kv]rjvSzm
KPalnj taj iqIc tKmiarK amwkbpKv `p‡w.
akvXIw, IgpØv, apSn, XmSn, sNhn°p‰n, PwL, _kvXn, F∂nh
sXm´m¬ B\, t]mØv, BSv, ]∂n, ]ip, apb¬, am≥ ChbpsS `£
Ww Ign®n´mWv ({IaØn¬) {]iv\I¿Ømhv h∂ncn°p∂Xv.
35. ZrjvtS{iptXf ]yiIpt\ tKm[makvXymanjw htZZv`p‡w
K¿`nWymK¿`ky N \n]X\ taw {]Iev]tbXv {]ivt\.
36. ]pwkv{Xn \]pwkImtJy ZrjvtSf \pantX ]pcxÿntX kv]rjvtS
X÷∑ `hXn ]m\m∂ ]pjv]^eZ¿it\ ip`w.
538

{]Imikn‘p

K¿`{]iv\Øn¬ ]pcpj≥, kv{Xn, \]pwkIw F∂nhsc Z¿in®m
epw, Ahsc kv]¿in®p tNmZn®mepw A\pam\nt°≠Xv XZ\pkmcamb
{]P P\n°psa∂mWv. ]m\w, A∂w, ]pjv]w, ^ew, F∂nh Z¿in°p∂
XmWv ip`w.
37. AwKpjvtT\ {`qZcw hmwKpenw hmkv]rjvSz]ptOZv K¿`
Nn¥m XZmkymXv
a≤zmPy ss[¿tl tacXv\ {]hmssXckvssY¿hm amXr
[m{XymXvassP›.
AwKpjvT, {`q, DZcw, AwKpen F∂nh kv]¿in®p tNmZn®m¬ K¿`
Nn¥bmWv F∂dnbpI. a[p, BPyw, kz¿Æw, cXv\w, {]hmfw F∂nh
tbm AΩ, [m{Xn, ]p{X≥ F∂nhtctbm sXmt´m apºn¬ \n¿Øntbm
tNmZn®mepw K¿`Nn¥bmWv.
38. K¿`bpXm PTtc IctK kymZv ZrjvT\nanØ himØ ZpZmkx
I¿jXn X÷Tcw bZn]otTmXv ]oV\Xx IctK NItcf ]n.
39. {LmWmbmZ£ntWZzmtc kv^rjvtT am tkmØcw htZXv
hmta sZzu I¿ÆGhw hm ZznNXp¿∞x {ipXnkvXt\.
K¿`ap≈ DZcØn¬ sXm´ptNmZn®m¬ K¿`ap≈hfmsW¶nepw
ZpjvS\nanØßfm¬ K¿`\miw kw`hn°pw. PTcsØ X´ns°mt≠m,
IøpsIm≠v Iøns\ sRcSns°mt≠m tNmZn®mepw K¿`]oV D≠v.
\mknIbpsS Z£nWZzmcw sXm´ptNmZn®m¬ Hcp amkØn\Iw
K¿`[mcWap≠mhpsa∂v ]dbmw. hma`mKsØ Zzmctam CcpsNhnItfm
sXm´ptNmZn®m¬ \mepamkØn\Iw ]dbmw.
40. thWo aqte {Xn≥ kpXm≥ I\ytI tZz
I¿tÆ ]p{Xm≥ ]©lkvtX{Xbw N
AwKpjvTmt¥ ]©Iw Nm\p]q¿hym
]mZmwKpjvtT ]m¿jvWnbpKvtaf ]n I\ymw.
apSnbpsS aqew sXm´m¬ aq∂p ]p{X∑mcpw c≠p I\yIamcpw P\n
°pw. I¿Æw sXm´m¬ A©pa°fp≠mhpw. IøpsXm´m¬ aq∂pa°ƒ.
{]iv\I¿Ømhv Imens‚ X≈hnc¬ sXm´m¬ H‰ I\yI D≠mhpw.
C{]Imcw X¿÷\nsb sXm´m¬ c≠pw, a≤yasb sXm´m¬ aq∂pw,
A\manIsb sXm´m¬ \mepw sNdphnc¬ sXm´m¬ A©pw I\yIam¿
°pw P∑w \¬Ipw.
539

{]Imikn‘p

41. khymkthymcpkw kv]¿ti kqtX It\ykpXZzbw
kv]rjvtT eemSa≤ymt¥ NXpkv{Xn X\bm `thXv.
CSØpw heØpap≈ Ducp°ƒ sXm´m¬ {IaØn¬ 2 I\yIam
cpw c≠p ]p{X∑mcpw D≠mhpw, eemSa≤yw sXm´m¬ \mepw eemSØn
s‚ tij`mKw sXm´m¬ aq∂pw I\yIam¿ P\n°pw.
42. intcmeemS {`qI¿Æ Kfiz l\pcZmKew
khym] khy kvI‘ › lkvXu Nn_pI\meIw.
inc v, eemSw, ]pcnIw, sNhn, Ihnƒ, XmSn, IgpØv, hesØ
tXmƒ, CSsØ tXmƒ, CcplkvX߃, apSn \mfw-,
43. Dcx IpNw Z£nWa]ykhyw lrXv ]m¿iztahw PTcw ISn›
kv^nIv]mbp k‘ypcp bpKw N Pm\pPwtLf Y
]mZmhnXn IrØnImsZu
Dc v, IpNw, Z£nWhpw hmahpamb lrXv]m¿iz߃, PTcw, ISn,
kv^n°v, ]mbp, k‘n, DucpbpKfw, Pm\p, PwL, ]mZ߃ F∂nh
Im¿ØnI \£{Xw apX¬ {Iam\pkmcambn hn\ykn®ncn°p∂p.
44. CXn \nKZnXtaXZv Km{X kwkv]¿i e£va
{]IS a`nXm]vssXy ho£yimkv{XmWn kayIv.
hn]pe aXncpZmtcm thØn bx k¿Δ taX∂c]Xn P\Xm`nx ]qPytXf sku kssZh.
CXn {io hcmlanlnc IrXu _rlXv
kwlnXmbmawKhn\mssaI ]©miØtamf ≤ymbx
k¿Δ imkv{Xßtfbpw kay°mbn \nco£n® tijw ]finX∑m
cpsS A`naXa\pkcn®v Cu Km{Xkv]¿ie£Ww {]ISam°nbncn°p
∂p. AXy¥ hn]peaXnbpw DZmcioe\pw Bb hnZzm≥ Cu k¿Δhpw
{Kln®v cmPmhn\mepw P\XIfmepw kZm ]qPnX\mbnØocp∂p.

540

{]Imikn‘p

`mKw aq∂v

]ctaizchncNnXm
{KlW\ymbZo]nI

541

]ctaizchncNnXm
{KlW \ymbZo]nI
awKfmNcWw
1. \ax khnt{X {KltW {InbtX \ymbZo]nIm
I¿Ω{IakvXp X{X {]mMv afi\msZu {]Z¿inX
khnXmhn\v \akv°mcw. I¿Ω{Iaw t\csØ {KlWafi\mZn
Ifn¬ {]Z¿in∏n®p. C\n {KlWØns‚ \ymbw (XØzw) {]Imin∏n
°p∂Xn\mbn “\ymbZo]nI” cNnbv°p∂p.
`qa≤ymZv chniint\mc¥cw
(`qtI{μØn¬ \n∂v kqcya≤yØntebv°pw N{μa≤yØntebv°p
ap≈ Zqcw).
2. ]©hiznjvSct{‘jvTkmKcm tbmP\{ipXnx
cth¿, Ctμm¿{iKm‘Kv\nthZcmamx Ipa≤yXx
3. Ahntij{ipXnLvs\m sXu {XnPym`IvsXu kv^pSasXmu
kzI£yma≤y`qa≤ymZv bXx kzm¥y^em¥tc.
`qa≤yØn¬ \n∂v kqcy\nte°v 459585 tbmP\; N{μ\ntebv°v
34377. Chsb {IaØn¬ I¿Æw sIm≠v (AXmXns‚ {`aW]YØns‚
A¿≤hymkw) KpWn®v {XnPym (3438) sIm≠v lcn®m¬ kqcyN{μ∑mcn
te°v `qanbn¬ \n∂p≈ bYm¿∞ Zqcw (AXmXp kabtØbv°-v `qan
bpsS {`aW]YØnse ÿm\w A\pkcn®v) e`n°pw. ImcWw, Ch
ChbpsS {`aW]Yw tI{μambn k¶ev]n°s∏´ `qanbptSbpw, Ah
cpsS kzm¥y^eØnt‚bpw (maximum value) CSbn¬ FhnsSsb¶nepw
ÿnXn sNøWw.
3438 {XnPy. CXv an\p´nemWv. CXns\ 60 sIm≠v lcn®m¬ 23
tlmc 58 an\p´v In´pw (Zn\ssZ¿Lyw). C¥y≥ tPymXnimkv{XØn¬
Cu kwJy N{μhymkambn D]tbmKn°p∂Xv F¥n\msW∂v 18 -mw
\q‰m≠phsc bqtdm]y≥ ]finX¿°v Adnhp≠mbncp∂n√. Ct∏mƒ,
B[p\nI imkv{Xw N{μhymkambn 34375 F∂v IW°m°p∂p. C¥y
°m¿ 3437.5 F∂v ZimwiamsbSpØv Zimwiw Hgnhm°n 3438 Fs∂Sp
Øncp∂p F∂ hyXymkta D≈p.

{]Imikn‘p

`qanbn¬ \n∂v N{μ\nte°pw kqcy\nte°pap≈ ZqcØns‚ A\p
]mXw 1:13.
34377: 459585
459585 tbmP\ x 8.8 = 4044348
34377 x 8.8
= 3025176
3438 sIm≠v lcn®m¬ {IaØn¬ 1176.3 & 87.9
(87.9 s\ Zimwiÿm\w If™m¬ 88).
{]Imicivan, Imew, Zqcw, civanbpsS KXn, Omb F∂nh Af
°p∂XmWs√m {KlWKWnXw.
chniin`qhymkw:
(kqcy≥, N{μ≥, `qan ChbpsS hymkw)
4. ]Mv‡y_v[nkmKcm `mt\m¿ hymkb, XnYy\tbmhntμmx
tkzjVssbImx £ntXm k¿tΔkztKmem¥ÿ tbmPss\x
5. kv^pStbmP\ I¿Æm]vtXm {XnPymltXm \nPx
en]vXm hymtkm chotμmxkymXv, {XnPymlnkymXv Iem{ipXn.
kqcyhymkw 4410; N{μhymkw 315; `qhymkw 1050; AhchcpsS
tKmfm¥ÿambn tbmP\Ifn¬ kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS kv^pStbmP\
I¿Æw I≠v AXns\ {XnPym sIm≠v KpWn°pI. kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS
hymkw IeIfn¬ e`n°pw. {XnPym (I¿Æw) IeIfnemWv.
tbmP\sb Iebm°m≥:
4410 x 3438 kqcy≥
459585
315
x 3438 N{μ≥
34377
N{μ≥: `qan: kqcy≥ A\p]mXw 315: 1050: 4410. N{μt\°mƒ 3.3
Cc´n hymkw `qanbv°v; 1:3.3. 14 Cc´n hymkw kqcy\v. 1:14. 1:3.3:14 F∂v
hep∏Øns‚ A\p]mXw Xcp∂p. Cßs\ 3 tKmfßfpsS Zqchpw
_nw_hpw XΩn¬ A\p]mXw:
Zqcw:- `qan: N{μ≥ 1, `qan: kqcy≥ 13
_nw_w:- N{μ≥: `qan: kqcy≥ 1:3.3:14.
544

{]Imikn‘p

{KlWØn¬ kqcyN{μcivanIfpsS KXnbpw, Imehpw IW°m
°p∂ kabØv Cu kwJyIƒ C∂p \mw D]tbmKn°p∂ {]Imi
h¿jØns‚ bqWn‰pIƒ (KPC, MPC- Kilo parsec, Mega parsec )
Xs∂bmWv F∂v \mw {i≤n°pI.
Hcp parsec = 3.1 x 1013
= 3.3 h¿jw
Hcp Kpc = 3.1 x 1016
= 3.3 Bbncw h¿jw
= 3.3 aney≥ h¿jw
Hcp Mpc = 3.1 x 1019
Cßs\ “ap∏Ønapt°mSn” tZh ({]Imi) ∑mcpsS KWnXw.
Nn{Xw 3.1: 15 XnYn
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

kqcy≥
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 cmin
(24 tlmc)
n
`qa

N{μ≥ tI{μØn¬. kqcy≥ ]cn[nbn¬. CXv Diagrammatic Bbn
ZqcØns‚ A\p]mXw ImWn°p∂ Nn{XamWv. CXns\, {KlW\nbaw
H´pw AdnbmØh¿ N{μtI{μ/`qtI{μ hyhÿbmbn sX‰n≤cnbv°m≥
CSbp≈XmWv. tSmfanbv°v Cu sX‰p ]‰n.
6. k¿ssΔjz]n N hrtØjp hymkm¿≤ky Xpen]vXnImx
{XnPym kwJymk, XXkv{XnPym k¿ΔhrØ Iem{ipXn.
k¿ΔhrØßfnepw hymkm¿≤Ønse IeIƒ {XnPybnse
kwJy°v (3438) XpeyamWv. AXn\m¬ F√m hrØ߃°pw Ie 3438
545

{]Imikn‘p

Xs∂ (I¿Æw an\p´n¬). \mw \nco£n°p∂Xv `qanbnencp∂mbXp
sIm≠v `qanbpsS Zn\ssZ¿Lyw (23 aWn. 58 an\p´v) BWv Ft∏mgpw
\ap°v. AXpsIm≠v F√m KWnXhpw `qanZn\ssZ¿Lyamb 3438 sh®p
Xs∂ sNøWw. C°mcWØmemWv `qtI{μÿnXn ]dbp∂Xv. `qan
tI{μambncn°p∂Xv `qanbnencp∂v \nco£n°p∂ a\pjy\mWv; kuc
bqYØn\√. hnZym`ymkØns‚ {]mYanI ]mTamWXv, JtKmf imkv{X
Øn¬! `qanbnencp∂v, AXns\ B[mcam°n CXc tPymXn¿KWßfpsS
]T\w \SØpI F∂ hyhÿbnemWv `qtI{μhyhÿnXn.
15 [XnYn] x 24 [aWn°q¿] = 360
kwJy

kwJy

XnYnkwJybpw tlmcmkwJybpw KpWn®m¬ 360,
XnYnkwJybpw cminkwJybpw KpWn®m¬ 180.
XnYnkwJysb 23.58 sIm≠p KpWn®m¬ 359.5 Ft∂ In´q (360
A√). IrXyambn KWnbv°p∂Xn\mWv {XnPym Xs∂ D]tbmKn®ncp∂
sX∂¿∞w (hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nI- N.B.S {]kn≤oIcWw
t\m°pI).
`qOmb
7. `mt\m¿ hymkZew Zot]m∂Xnx i¶q∂Xn¿`phx
i¶pZo]m¥cmte `qx kym{ZthtZymP\{ipXn.
kqcys‚ hymkZew Zo]Øns‚ DbcamWv. `qanbptSXv i¶phns‚
Dbcw; kqcys‚ AIew (tbmP\bn¬) Xcp∂Xv i¶phn\pw Zo]Øn\pw
CSbnep≈ ZqcamWv.
8. i¶pZo]m¥cmte `qx i¶pLv\, i¶pZo]tbmx
t`tZ\m]vXmlnXOmbm, OmbmssZ¿Lyw £ntX›XXv.
i¶pZo]m¥cmfw x i¶p =i¶pOmb. CXv `qOmb ssZ¿Lyw
i¶pZo]ßfpsS DbchyXymkw
9. aqte `qan kahymkm kmf Lvt\ tKm]pOkΩnXm
btXmf ¿°civanx ]XXn {ItaWm[yka¥Xx
aqeØn¬ Omb `qhymkØn\p Xpeyw. A‰Øv tKm]pOwt]mse
\o≠ncnbv°pw. ImcWw, A¿°civan F√mbnSØpw kaambn ]Xn
bv°p∂p.
546

{]Imikn‘p

kqcy≥ 12 ASn Dbcap≈ Hcp Zo]kvXw`tam sImSnactam bq]tam
F¶n¬ `qan 12 AwKpeap≈ Hcp iwJv (i¶p) F∂v k¶ev]n°Ww.
H∂v {]Imiw; H∂v \mZw. {iob¥ambn {XntImW/]ncanUv cq]Øn¬
i¶phns\ D≠m°mw. sImSnacw, tKm]pcw, XqWv, kvXq]w, hr£w
Ch {Kmaa≤yØn¬ \m´n `qan, kqcy≥, `qOmb apXembh Af°mw.

Nn{Xw 3.2: iwJcq]Øn¬ `qan
kqcyIncWw tKm]pOambn hfbp∂p

civa

12

nbps

S]

mX

i¶p
12
12

Nn{Xw 3.3

10. hntZym tømP\ I¿Æm\mw Ombm ssZ¿Lyw kamlXw
`qhymtkt\m≤yXw Ombm ssZ¿tLyW, kym∂nimIrXx
11. ÿmt\ OmbmanXnk {XnPym\nlXm km`thZvlpXm
hntZym tømP\ I¿tÆ\ Xtamhymkx IemflIx
547

{]Imikn‘p

N{μÿm\sØ OmbbpsS ssZ¿Lyw ImWp∂Xn\v:OmbmssZ¿Lyw + N{μ`q tI{μZqcw x `qhymkw
OmbmssZ¿Lyw
CXns\ {XnPy sIm≠v KpWn®v N{μ\nte°p≈ Zqcw (tbmP\)
sIm≠p lcn®m¬ OmbmhyXymkw IeIfn¬ (an\p´v) In´pw.
12. Ombm ssZ¿Lym¥tc kzm{KmXv Ombmhymtkmln`qkax
(Ctμmx ÿmt\ Xtam hymkx) Inbm\nXnμqhXvIemx
Ombm{KØn¬ \n∂p≈ OmbbpsS hymkw `qhymkØn\v ka
sa∂v hcnIn¬ N{μÿm\Øv AXns‚ hymkw F¥v F∂v ImWpI.
AXns‚ IeIƒ t\csØ N{μt‚Xp I≠t]mse ImWWw.
`qhymksa∂Xn\v Xtamhymksa∂p (Xtam{Klw- Ombm{Klw)
]d™Xpw, t\csØ `qanbv°v tKm]pOw t]mse hmeps≠∂v ]d™
Xpw {i≤n°pI. Xtam{Klw (cmlp) F∂ ‘hmep≈ `qan’ bpsS hymkw
(Omb) sIm≠v N{μ{KlWhpw N{μhymkw sIm≠v (N{μOmb) kqcy
{KlWhpw kw`hn°p∂p (_rlXvkwlnX, ]©kn≤m¥nI F∂nh
bn¬ ]d™Xv tN¿Øpsh®v hmbn°pI).
13. GIZrIv kq{XsKu bmh®{μm¿s°u {KlWw cthx
Xmh≥ \nimIrtXm bmhXv XmhXv kymXv XaknÿnXnx
`qanbn¬ \n∂pt\m°p∂ \nco£Is‚ ZrIvkq{XØn¬Øs∂
F{X t\cw N{μ kqcy∑m¿ \n¬°p∂pthm A{Xbpw kabw kqcy{Kl
Ww D≠mhpw. AXpt]mse F{Xt\cw N{μ≥ `qanbpsS XtamOmbbn¬
\n¬°p∂pthm A{Xt\cw N{μ{KlWhpw.
14. ÿnXo cntμm (kvXtam) at≤y ]¿Δmt¥ kymXviio\tbmx
bpXnx ]¿Δm¥Xx {]mKzm ]›mZzmew_\mZv `thXv.
]u¿Æan \mƒ N{μ≥ OmbbpsS a≤yØneqsS k©cn°p∂p.
kqcy N{μ∑mcpsS tbmKw Aamhmknbnse \hN{μs‚ Aev]w ap≥t]m
]n≥t]m Bbncnbv°pw. CXv ew_\w (parallax) sIm≠mWv.
15. a≤ymlv\eKv\w ZrIvt£]eKv\w N.
a≤yeKv\w \Xm√t¶m Zssbcyq\mZntImchn
ZrIvt£]eKv\w {]mIveKv\w lo\w cmin{XtbWN.
548

{]Imikn‘p

a≤ymlv\eKv\w (Point of ecliptic on meridian) \S∏p≈ et¶mZb
{]amWa\pkcn®p I≠ \S\mUnIbn¬ \n∂v kqcytcJmwiw eKv\
JfitØmSv Ipds®m Iq´nsbm In´p∂XmWv. Zrt£]eKv\w F∂m¬
{]mKveKv\Øn¬ (]q¿ΔeKv\w) \n∂v 3 cmin Ipd®Xv.
Nn{Xw 3.4 ¬ L-3 = D
N

D

S1
H

S

D1

L

Z

m

E

Nn{Xw 3.4

Ncn{XmXoXImew apX¬ 14 -mw \q‰m≠phscbpw e¶bmWv `mcXo
bcpsS “`qa≤y” sa∂Xv {i≤nt°≠ Hcp ImcyamWv. cmhnse kqtcym
ZbeKv\Øn¬ \n∂v e¶mcmioam\w D]tbmKn®v \X\mUnI ImWp∂p.
AXn∂p≈ a≤yJfiw (segment of Ecliptic) I≠v kqcytcJmwiØn¬
\n∂v Ingnbv°p∂p. sshIo´v a≤yeKv\w kqcytcJmwitØmSv Iq´p∂p.
a≤yPym
16. a≤yeKv\m]am£Pym [\ptjmtcymK t`ZXx
a≤yPym, a≤yZrKvPymkm, XO¶p¿Ω≤ykw⁄nXx
a≤yeKv\Øns‚ Pymhv (a≤yPym- MZ) a≤yeKv\Øns‚ (ME)
declination s\bpw A£mwisØbpw (A£mwiPymhns‚ Nm]w) Iq´n
tbm Ipdt®m e`n°p∂p. (ZE) a≤yPym a≤yZrKvPymhmWv (a≤yeKv\
Øns‚ D®Zqcw). AXns‚ i¶p a≤yi¶p F∂dnbs∏Sp∂p (Cos Zm).
a≤yPym= a≤yeKv\w (ME), A£mwiw (ZE) Ch Iq´ntbm Ipd
t®m In´p∂ XpIbpsS Sine of the angle
Sin L

MEtZe
or
Me-Ze
549

{]Imikn‘p

ZrIvt£]i¶p
17. ZrIvt£]i¶pc]nk Gh{XnPymltXm`thXv
a≤yeKv\hnlo\{]mKveKv\tZm¿Py hn`mPnX.
Zrt£]eK\vØns‚ (Cos ZD) i¶phmb ZrIvt£]i¶p
a≤yi-¶p x {XnPym
a≤yeKv\w - {]mKveKv\w
Cos Zm x {XnPym
ME - Sin ML

tKmeI{XntImWw MDZ katImW{XntImWw. AXn\m¬
Cos Dz = Cos Mz = Cos Mz
= Cos Mz
Cos DM Sin (90-DM) Sin Mz

18. a≤yi¶p¿Ω≤yeKv\ lcnPm¥c Pohbm
bZnIkv{XnPytbXnkymOvi¶p¿ZrIvt£]kw⁄nXx
a≤yeKv\Pym - lcnPw (ML) = a≤yi¶p
F-¶n¬ {XnPym sIm≠v F{]Imcw ZrIvt£]i¶p (Cos ZD)
ImWmw?
19. XkyOmbmln ZrIvt£]Pohmkzm]aa≤yKm
OmbmI¿Ækykm tImSoc, Zr§mXnPymNXZv`pPm
AXns‚ almOmb= ZrIvt£]Pym (D2). AXv I¿ÆØns‚ Dbc
hpw {KlØns‚ almOmbbpamWv (Sin Sz). Zr§XnPym (SD) AXns‚
`pPamWv.
20. Zr§XnPym
ZrIvt£]Pymh¿§lo\ Ombmh¿§]ZwsXx
{]mNytX Zr§XntPyXn ZrKvtZtZm∞mKXncyXx
ZrKvPymbpsS h¿§aqew (Sin Zs or Sin {KtlmZqcw)- ) Sin ZrIvt£]w
(Sin ZD) = Sin DS or Sine Zr§Xn.
\nco£Is‚ tI{μÿm\w `qtI{μØm¬ (`qXeÿm\Øm¬)
hyXymks∏Sp∂p. AXn\m¬ tcJmwiØn¬ DfhmIp∂ hyXymkamb
Zr§XnPymhv C{]Imcw IW°m°Ww.
550

{]Imikn‘p

21. ZrIvt`ZtPmbX: t£t]m ZrIvt£]tPymXntkmNytX
OmbhimZzn ZrKvt`tZm`thZv ZrKvPym XtXmf {Xkm
ZrIvt`Zw sIm≠p≠mb (`qXeØn¬ \n∂pw `qtI{μØn¬ \n∂pw
D≈ ImgvNbm¬ hcp∂ hyXymkw) A£mwiw KWn°p∂ ‘Pym’hns\
ZrIvt£]Pymhv F∂p hnfn°pw. Omb (Sin D®tZcw) sIm≠p≠mb
hyXymkØn\v XpeyamWv CXpw. AXn\m¬ ZrKvt£]Pym Xs∂bmWv
ZrIvPym (ZrIvt£]eKv\Øns‚ Pym- Sine Zenith distance of Nongesimal).
22. iq\yw Jat≤y lcntP `qhymkm¿≤antXm `thXv
ZrKvt`tZm \nPI£ymbmw A¥cmtff \p]mXXx
Ja≤yØn¬ ZrKvt`Zw iq\yamWv (Nn{X 3.5). lcnPØn¬ `qhym
kw AXns‚ Xs‚ I£ybn¬ S1 S'1. A¥cmfØn¬ SS'. ∠ZCS s‚
(Sine of Zenith distance) A\p]mXw A\pkcn®v.
Z
S1
S

C

S

E

E

S1

C

S1
S

S1
S

Z

Nn{Xw 3.5: Cu Nn{XØns‚ Hcp ]q¿Δcq]w lc∏/samlRvPmZmtcm en]nIfn¬
Cßs\ ImWmsa∂Xv Cu Adnhv C¥ybn¬ F{X]g°ap≈XmsW∂v
sXfnbn°p∂p.

23. ZrjvS`qa≤ytbmx tJStkym∂XnhrØtbmkvXptb
ZrKvt`tZmf ]nXtbm¿t`tZm, {ZjvSat≤ykNm]y[x
Hcp {KlØns‚ D®ÿm\ßfn¬ (S, S') E \nco£nI≥, C `qtI{μ
sa¶n¬ (2 tI{μw) B tI{μÿm\ßfpsS hyXymkw= ZrKvt`Zw= S S'
CXp IW°m°m\p≈ Nnlv\amWv apIfn¬. \nco£I≥ tI{μamIp
tºmƒ (local time) Zni Iotgm´mWv (ZrKvt`ZØns‚).
551

{]Imikn‘p

24. ew_\w b[y]n OmbmbimZv ZrjvSw XYm]nN
kn≤ytX Zr§XnPym XkvXZv ZrIvt£]KpWm∂Xnx
ew_\w (Parallax) almOmbbpsS hyXymka\pkcn®v (Sine
Zenith distance) ImWs∏Sp∂psh¶nepw tcJmwiew_\w Zr§XnPymhn¬
(Sine SD) \n∂p e`nbv°pw. ZrIvt£]Py Sine ZD bn¬ \n∂p≠mhp∂
ew_\w “\Xn” (Parallax in latitude, A£mwiew_\w) BWv.
25. \Xnew_t\
A]am\pKtXm tlyhew_\mw timf {Xew_\w
A]a{]XnZnIvÿ› ew_\mw tim\Xn¿ `thXv
tcJmwiØnse ew_\mwiw Ecliptic (SD') s‚ A£mwiamWv.
SS' F∂ ew_\ØnemWXv. S'D' \v ew_amb ew_\w \XnbmWv
(Nn{Xw 3.4) t\m°pI.
26. ZrIvt£] Zr§XntPy tZz `qhymkm¿≤kamlsX
{XnPym`t‡kzI£ymbmw tbmPss\¿ AXnew_t\
ZrIvt£]Pym, Zr§XnPym, F∂nhsb `qhymkm¿≤Øm¬ KpWn®v
{XnPymsIm≠v {IaØn¬ lcn®m¬ A£mwiew_\w (\Xn) tcJmwi
ew_\w (ew_\w) F∂nh {KlI£yIfn¬ tbmP\Ifn¬ In´pw.
27. ZrIvt£] Zr§Xn {XnPymantX tN∂Xnew_t\
`qhymkm¿≤antX Xm`ym anjvSm`ymw tXXptICXn.
ZrIvt£]Pymhpw Zr§XnPymhpw {XnPym°v Xpeysa¶n¬ AhbpsS
\Xnbpw ew_\hpw `qhymkm¿≤Øn\p Xpeyambncn°pw. Aßs\sb
¶n¬ \¬Is∏´ ZrIvt£] Pymbv°pw Zr§XnPymbv°pw \Xnbpw ew_
\hpw ImWpI.
28. kv^pS tbmP\ I¿tÆ\ `t‡ tX {XnPybmltX
{XnPymhrtØ{K lky tkz `htXm \Xnew_t\.
Ahsb {IaØn¬ Ahbv°v `qanbn¬ \n∂p≈ ZqcØm¬ (kv^pS
I¿Æw) lcn®v {XnPysIm≠v KpWn®m¬ A£mwitcJmwi ew_\
߃ ]dbs∏´ {KlØn\v Hcp {XnPymhrØØn¬ Xs∂ e`n°p∂
XmWv.
29. hnt[ym¿∂Xn›mtI \Xnlo\mkymZv {KltW\Xnx
kqcyÿmm\mZv hnt[ymcykvamZv KrlytX \Xnew_t\.
552

{]Imikn‘p

N{μs‚ A£mwiew_\w - kqcym£mwi ew_\w. Cßs\
In´nb \XnbmWv {KlWw KWn°m≥ D]tbmKn°p∂Xv. ImcWw
N{μs‚ A£mwi tcJmwi ew_\߃ kqcyÿm\a\pkcn®pthWw
ImWm≥.
30. A¿t° tμm¿ ew_t\ Xptey tbmPss\x kz\XnXYm
`nt∂ Gh Iem`nkvtX, en]vXm[nIyw kZmhnt[ymx
kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS ew_\hpw \Xnbpw tbmP\Ifn¬ XpeyamWv.
F∂m¬ IeIfn¬ (an\p´n¬) hyXykvXamWv. IeIfn¬ N{μt‚Xv
kqcys\°mƒ Ft∏mgpw IqSpXembncn°pw.
31. Zr§Xn PymYhm`qan hymkm¿≤Lv\m hn`mPnXm
a≤ytbmP\ I¿tÆ\ hnt[ymx jjvSymlXm ]p\x
32. a≤y`q‡ym hnt[ym¿`‡m {KltW ew_\mUnIm
Zr§Xn Pym {XnjÆmssK¿ `‡m tXm ew_\mUnIm.
60
= {KlWØns‚
Zr§XnPy x `qhymkm¿≤w x
`qanbn¬ \n∂p N{μ\n
N{μs‚ icmicn ew_\\mUnI
te°v icmicn Zqcw
Zn\KXn
∴Zr§XnPy = ew_\\mUnI

863
Sine SD bmWv Zr§XnPym
(Parallax in longitude in naadikaas)

33. a≤yI¿ÆmØptbm tZmtjm a≤y`q‡n¿ ltc±nXw
kakvX ew_\mtZmjw kakvtXμp KXn¿ltcXv.
N{μs‚ a≤yaZqcw D]tbmKn°p∂Xn\m¬ KWnXØn¬ hcmhp∂
tZmj߃ (sX‰pIƒ) ]cnlcn°s∏Sp∂Xv icmicn Zn\Ne\w sIm≠v
lcnbv°p∂Xn\memWv. kakvXew_\ tZmjhpw ]cnlcnbv°m≥ N{μ
s‚ Hcp ZnhksØ kakvXKXn sIm≠v lcn®m¬ aXn.
34. ZrIvt£] {InbtX ssI›nXv t£t]m ZrIvt£] eKv\Px
N{μt£t]m ]ssc¿ Ass\y¿√w_mt£\XntZ(?) {IamZv.
ZrIvt£] eKv\Pamb A£mwiw + ZrIvt£] eKv\Øns‚ D®
Zqcw= N{μI£ybn¬ ZrIvt£] eKv\w F∂v Nne¿ ImWp∂p. a‰p
Nne¿ N{μew_\w C{]Imcw Iq´nbn´pw, C\nbpw Nne¿ A£mwi tc
553

{]Imikn‘p

JmwißfpsS ew_\߃ {IaØn¬ I≠n´pw sNøp∂p. 3 hyXykvX
am¿§ßƒ.
35. ZrIvt£]Pym {XnjÆm ssK¿`‡m kqcyiim¶tbmx
kv^pSKXy¥c£pÆm jjvShym]vXmhm kv^pS\Xnx
ZrIvt£]Pym x kqcyN{μZn\KXnbnse hyXymkw = kv^pS\Xn
863
60
36. ]¿Δmt¥ ew_\w {]mt]y]¿Δm¥ZypKtXXv EWw
A]cmlvt\ [\w, bkvam® t{μmf ¿°mZh ew_tX
ImeØv, ]¿Δm¥w - ew_\w.
sshIpt∂cw ]¿Δm¥w + ew_\w.
ImcWw N{μ≥ kqcys\ Ahew_n®v kZm XmsgbmWv. (]¿Δm
¥w= kqcyN{μtbmKw AYhm AamhmkybpsS Ahkm\w).
37. A¿t° tμm tbmK Imeky kn≤tb b{Xew_\w
{InbtX Xv]›ntaf ¿°m›{μJw tim≤ya\yYm
kqcyN{μtbmKw \n¿Æbn°m≥ ew_\w IW°m°ptºmƒ
N{μ≥ kqcys‚ ]Sn™mdp`mKsضn¬ Iq´pI. Ings°¶n¬ Ingn
bv°pI.
38. Cl ]q¿Δmlv\m]cmlv\ i_vsZu ZrIvt£]eKv\Xx
]q¿Δm]cmitbm¿ `m\p kwÿntX¿ΔmNsIuasXu.
ChnsS ]q¿Δmlv\w, A]cmlv\w apXemb i_vZ߃ kqcyÿm
\w Zrt£]eKv\Øns‚ Ingt°m ]Sn™mtdm F∂v kqNn∏n°m\mWv
D]tbmKn°p∂Xv (Ings°¶n¬ ]q¿Δmlv\w).
39. ew_ kwkvIrX]¿Δmt¥ ew_\w Nm]n tIhte
]¿Δm¥ZypKtX IpcymZhntijm¥ap‡hXv.
ew_\ kwkvIrX {Inbbv°v tbmKthfbv°p≈ ew_\w {Ia
Øn¬ I≠psIm≠v ew_\hyXymkw H´pan√mØ thfhsc (2 ^e
߃ XΩn¬ H´pw hyXymkan√mXmhpw hsc) ImWWw
x - y = 0 F∂mhpw hsc.
AYhm x = y F∂mhpw hsc. integer G‰hpw ASpØphsc ImW
Wsa∂¿∞w.
554

{]Imikn‘p

40. AhinjvS ew_\w ln kv^pS ew_\ apNytX
bkvam√w_\ Imtef ]n `thXv tJSky ew_\w
C{]Imcw {IaØn¬ Xpeyam°nb kwkvIrX ew_\sØ kv^pS
ew_\w F∂p ]dbpw. A√msX, tbmKthfbnse ew_\w F∂√
A¿∞w. BZyew_\ thfbn¬Øs∂ {KlØn\v ew_\ap≠v.
AX√ kv^pSew_\w (parallax A√, parallax C√msX KWns®Sp°p∂
XmWv kv^pSew_\w.
41. ew_ kwkvIrX ]¿Δmt¥ a≤y{KlW apjvWtKmx
A¿t°μp_nw_tbm¿ Ω≤ytcJm tbmKkvXssZhln.
kqcys‚ a≤y{KlWw ew_\ kwkvIrXw sNøs∏´ tbmKthf
bn¬ kw`hn°p∂p. At∏mƒ kqcyN{μtI{μßfneqsS IS∂pt]mIp∂
EPptcJ (civan) \nco£Is‚ IÆneqsSbpw EPptcJbn¬ IS∂p
t]mhp∂p.
42. a≤yImteμp hnt£]kvXXv°me \XnkwbpXx
XpeyZnIvtXzf \yYmlo\x t£] Ctμmcth {Klx
kqcy{KlWØn¬ D]tbmKnt°≠ N{μm£mwiw {KlWa≤y
thfbnse A£mwitØmSv At∏mgsØ ZrIv{`wiw Iq´nbXmWv; Ah
c≠pw Htc Znibnse¶n¬, hn]coX ZniIfnse¶n¬ Ingnbv°Ww.
43. kzÿm\mXv ew_\w lntμm¿ hnt£]m{KmXv XtXm\Xnx
a≤yPzmbmkvXp bmZnIvkm ZrIvt£]kyXtXc]n.
N{μew_\w, A£mwim{KØnse Cμpÿm\Øn¬ \n∂pw Ahn
sS \n∂p≈ A£mwiew_\ (\Xn) Øn¬ \n∂pw ImWWw. ∴ a≤y
Pymhns‚ Zni (a≤yeKv\Øns‚ ssk≥ ZM) ZrIvt£]Ønt‚bpw
A£mwiew_\Ønt‚bpw Zni Xs∂bmWv.
44. thtWmx ]¿Δkp kq{XmWmw ew_nXm\mw bYm`thXv
thWz{K t£]hXv t£]k, XYmZrIvt£]bWXn.
apfbpsS Iºn¬ sI´nb NcSv, apfbpsS A‰Øns‚ t£]a\pk
cn®v amdp∂Xpt]mse A£mwiØns‚ ew_nXw ZrIvt£]a\pkcn®v
amdns°m≠ncn°pw F∂dnbWw.
(hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nI t\m°pI. Cu \nbaßsf√mw
Xs∂ {]mNo\ kn≤m¥ßfnep≈hbmWv F∂v ImWpI).
555

{]Imikn‘p

45. bZm Xp _nw_tbmx kv]¿ikvXZm tI{μmXcwXtbmx
_nw_m¿ss≤Iyw lyXkvtX\p IrXw kº¿°afiew.
{Kln°s∏Sp∂ _nw_w, {Kkn® _nw_w ChbpsS kv]¿iw kw`
hn°ptºmƒ ChbpsS tI{μ߃ XΩnep≈ Zqcw hymkm¿≤ßfpsS
XpIbmWv. AXn\m¬ kº¿° afiew (contact circle) hcbv°p
tºmƒ Cu XpIsb A¿≤hymkam°n hcbv°Ww.
46. kº¿° afite `m\pat≤y bmhZv hnt[ymx ÿnXnx
XmhZv kymXv {KlWw `mt\mx kv]jvS t`mtKm hnt[ym¿{Ktl.
kqcy≥ tI{μÿambncnbvs°, N{μ≥ kº¿°afieØn\
IØp ÿnXn sNøp∂nStØmfw Imew kqcy{KlWamWv. N{μ{KlW
Øn¬ N{μ≥ BZykv]¿i_nμp apX¬ Ahkm\ kv]¿i _nμphsc
k©cn°p∂ ImeamWv N{μ{KlW Imew.
47. kº¿° at≤y Ievt]ymf ¿°x k¿ΔZm]n. iio]p\x
a≤yt£]m¥cmat≤y, ]cnt[ymx kv]¿itam£tbmx
kqcys\ Ft∏mgpw k¶ev]nbvt°≠Xv kº¿°afieØns‚
tI{μØnemWv (a≤yØn¬). N{μ\msW¶n¬ {KlWa≤yØn¬,
kº¿° afie tI{μØn¬ \n∂v Xs‚ tI{μm£mwiØn\p kaw
AIeØnemWv. N{μ≥ BZykv]¿i, tam£thfIfn¬ kº¿°
afieØns‚ ]cn[nbnemWv (Nn{Xw 3.1 se kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS ÿm\w
t\sc hn]coXambn ChnsS F∂v ImWpI. Ct∏mƒ kucbqYØnse
kqcytI{μ hyhÿnXnbmWv ]dbp∂Xv- Bode's law sh®v a‰p {Klß
sfbpw ]dbm\p≈ A\p]mXw hcmlanlnc ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬ ]d
™Xv t\m°pI).
48. a≤yt£]ky kº¿° hymkm¿≤ky N h¿§ tbmx
t`Z aqew KXn £w {X {]mIv (]›mXv) N{ItXmhnt[mx
N{μ≥ {KlWthfbn¬ kqcys‚ Ingt°m ]Sn™mtdm Bbn
k©cn® tImWnI Zqcw =

) (kº¿°afiem¿≤hymkw)2 - (a≤y{KlWm£mwiw)2 Or
) (Radius of contact circle)2 - (latitude of mid eclipse)2
556

{]Imikn‘p

49. t£]m{Kln ÿnXn¿Ωt≤y hnt[mx ]q¿Δm]cmKXnx
kº¿°tImSnx t£t]mf tXm, KXnt£{Xw NXZv`pPm
{KlWa≤yØn¬ N{μ≥ A£mwiØn¬ \n∂v hSt°mt´m, sX
t°mt´m Bbncn°pw. k©cn® tImWnI AIeamIs´ ]q¿Δ ]›na
Znibnepw. AXn\m¬ A£mwiw I¿ÆØn\v (kº¿° afieØns‚
A¿≤hymkhpw, tImWnI AIew `pPhpamWv) ew_ambncn°pw.

tImSn (kº¿°
afiem¿≤ hymkw

A£mwiw

90°

)
`pPw
(tImWnI AIew or I¿Æw)

Nn{Xw 3.6

50. KXy¥cm]vXw jjvTnLv\w KXnt£{Xw ÿntX¿±ew
XtZhtμm, cthx kzobew_\mwti\ X≤rXw
k©cn® tImWnI Zqcw x 60 = 1/2 {KlW Imew (\mgnIbn¬)
kqcyN{μ∑mcpsS Zn\KXn
Cu tImWnI AIew Xs∂ N{μ{KlWØn\pw kzoIcn°mw.
kqcy{KlWØn\v kqcytcJmwi ew_\w sIm≠p≈ correction
sNbvXv D]tbmKn°Ww.
51. ÿnXy¿≤lo\w ZypKXw a≤yPkv]¿iPw kvarXw
kv]¿iImte ]p\x km≤yw ew_\w k¶tS]XXv.
N{μÿnXnbpsS A¿≤w Ingn®pIn´nb a≤yPkv]¿iPw ({KlW
a≤yØn¬ \n∂v IW°m°p∂ BZykv]¿i\w) sIm≠v kv]¿iImew
ImWm≥ CSbv°nSbnep≈ ew_\w (parallax) AdnbWw.
52. kv]¿iPw ew_\w bZv, b∑≤yPw; Xz¥cwXtbm
ÿnXy¿t≤ {]£nt]Xv XZzn kv]¿i ÿnXy¿≤aocnXw.
a≤yPw, kv]¿iPw, Chbv°nSbnse ew_\w ÿnXy¿≤tØmSv
557

{]Imikn‘p

Iq´nbXns\ kv]¿iÿnXy¿≤w (first contact half duration) F∂p
]dbp∂p.
53. kv]¿i\ ZypKXw tX\, Xkvam®kv]¿iew_\w
IrXzm ew_\ tijw XpÿnXy¿t≤ tIhte £nt]Xv
CXp]tbmKn®v BZykv]¿i\ thf ImWpI. AXp]tbmKn®v
BZykv]¿i\ thfbpsS ew_\w ho≠pw ImWpI. ho≠pw ew_\
hyXymkw ImWpI. BZysØ ÿnXy¿≤tØmSv Iq´pI.
54. Ghw IrXzm hninjvSw Xp ÿnXy¿t≤ kv]¿iPw kv^pSw
tam£Pw NXYm km≤y ÿnXy¿≤ tam£ImeXx
Cßs\ ho≠pw ho≠pw Hs∂m∂mbn kv^pSKWnXw sNbvXpsN
bvXv In´nb ÿnXy¿≤w Bh¿Øn°p∂Xv bYm¿∞ ÿnXy¿≤w (true
half duration) ImWp∂Xn\mWv. CXpt]mse c≠masØ ÿnXy¿≤hpw
(tam£ImesØ) ImWWw.
55. CjvSIme{KlWw
at≤yjvStbm¿ew_\tbmx EWtaIw [\w]cw
bZm XZm ew_\tbm¿ tbmKx t£]yx ÿntX¿±te.
{KlWImew, CjvSImew, ChbpsS ew_\ßfn¬ H∂v EWw,
H∂v ]csa¶n¬ AhbpsS XpI a≤ym¿≤tØmSv Iq´pI. kv^pSKXn
In´pw.
56. bZ¥cw ew_\tbmkv X≤zn-Ime Zztbm∞tbmx
ImeZzbm¥Imtem∞ ew_\w, `n∂tbmcypXnx
c≠p hyXykvX ImesØ ew_\ßfpsS hyXymkw, AhbpsS
CSthfbpsS ew_\amWv. AXn\m¬ ew_\߃ hyXykvXsa∂p
I≠m¬ Ah Iq´pIbmWv sNtø≠Xv.
57. DZtb{]mIv ]›ntaf kvtX ew_\mZ¿°Xx iin
KXn¿ew_\tXmf tXmf [x (XXx) Imem¥tXm{Ktl.
kqtcymZbØn¬ N{μ≥ kqcys‚ Ing°p`mKØpw kqcymkvXab
Øn¬ ]Sn™mdp`mKØpw ew_\Øn¬ ImWs∏Sp∂p. AXn\m¬
558

{]Imikn‘p

Bt]£nIKXnbn¬ \n∂v ew_\w Ipdbv°Ww. CXn\m¬ {KlW
Imew h¿≤n°p∂p.
58. ÿnXy¿≤w ew_\w bXvkymXv Xkvan≥ Imte N ew_\w
kymZv `q(bm)f ]y hntijm¥aXx km≤yw ÿntX¿ ±ew.
{Kla≤yØnse ew_\w GXmbncp∂mepw AXnt\mSv _‘s∏´
ImeØv ew_\Øn¬ hyXymkw ImWmw. AXn\memWv ho≠pw
ho≠pw ASpØSpØ kab߃°v (53,54 t«mIw ImWpI) ew_\w
ImtW≠Xv (successive approximation).
59. XØXv Imtem∞ hnt£t]m KXnt£{Xky km[\w
CtXyIf t\y XznjvS a≤yImtems∞u Zzmh]oXnsXu.
AXmXv ImesØ AXmXpt£{XØnse A£mwiw sh®pam{X
ta tImWnI AIew (KXn- IemI¿Æw) ImWmhq Fs∂mc`n{]mb
ap≠v. as‰mc`n{]mbw a≤yIme{KlWØns‚ A£mwihpw CjvS
ImesØ A£mwihpw IqSn D]tbmKn°Wsa∂mWv.
60. CjvShnt£]kº¿°I¿Æ IrtXym¿øZ¥cw
at≤yjvSt£]tbm¿ t`ZIrXnbp‡w N Xpeytbmx
61. hnZntimtO t≤ymKIrXnbp‡w, Xky]Zw XpbXv
KXnt£{Xw lnXXvkv]jvS anXymlp¿bp‡n Nn¥Imx
bp‡nNn¥I¿ (imkv{X⁄¿) A`n{]mbs∏Sp∂Xv CjvSIme
sØ (A£w)2, (A¿≤hymkßfpsS XpI)2 ChbpsS hyXymkw I≠v
In´nb A£hpw, a≤y{KlWm£hpw Htc Znibnse¶n¬ (hyXykw)2
Iq´pI; hyXykvX Znisb¶n¬ (AhbpsS XpI)2 Iq´pI. CXns‚ h¿§
aqeamWv {Kla≤yØns‚ kv^pSKXn. ]ctaizc≥ Xs∂bpw, C{]
Imcw KWn® hcmlanlnct\bpw “bp‡nNn¥I” cmbn KWnbv°p
∂p≠v F∂¿∞w.
62. t£]tbmc¥cw tImSn ¿tømtKm hm, _mlpcnjvSPw
KXnt£{Xw ln, XXv I¿tÆm KXnt£{Xa]n kv^pSw.
taev]d™ kv^pSKXnbpsS {XntImWØn¬ (60-61 t«mIw)
A£hyXymkamWv ew_w. (t«mIw 48 ¬ In´nb) tImWnI AIew
{XntImW]mZw. Ct∏mƒ In´nb kv^pSKXn I¿Æw.
559

{]Imikn‘p

I¿Æw
(t«m. 62)

ew_w
(t«m. 60-61)

]mZw
(t«m. 48)

Nn{Xw 3.7

63. ÿnXy¿≤ ew_\m`mhmZv KXnt£{X `hw kv^pSw
]¿Δmt¥ a≤yantμmx kymXv kv^pSt£]› tIhew
N{μ{KlWØn\v ew_\an√. AXn\m¬ t«mIw 60-61 ¬ ]d™
{]Imcw In´nb tImWnIZqcw Xs∂bmWv kv^pSa≤yw. N{μs‚ A£w
Xs∂bmWv kv^pSm£w.
64. hna¿±x
hna¿± hrØ anμq (\Xatkmf ¿t≤\) km[nXw
KXnt£{Xw hna¿t±m¿≤Ime›m{X N ]q¿ΔhXv.
hna¿±w (Total eclipse):- ]q¿Æ{KlW hrØw hcbv°p∂ hn[w
]dbp∂p. OmbbpsS A¿≤hymkw- N{μs‚ A¿≤hymkamWv. ]q¿Æ
{KlW hrØØns‚ A¿≤hymkw. ChnsSbpw ]q¿Æ{KlW a≤y
Øns‚ tImWnI KXn, AXns‚ Imew F∂nh ap≥]d™t]mse
IW°m°nbncn°Ww.
65. he\w, A£he\w
\tXmXv {IaPym \nlXm ]ePym{XnPytbmZvLrXm
A£w kymZvhe\w skuayw, {]mlvtW, ]›m¥pZ£nWw
he\w= Znibn¬ D≈ am‰w (deviation in direction) Ct∏mƒ ‘geodesic’
F∂p ]dbp∂Xv, civan hfbp∂ {]{Inb. A£mwihe\w- A£mwi
hyXymkw sIm≠v Znibn¬ A\p`hs∏Sp∂ am‰w.
Sine of latitude x Sine of colatitude = A£he\w

3438
560

{]Imikn‘p

CXv {]`mXØn¬ hSt°m´pw kmbmlv\Øn¬ sXt°m´pw hf
™ncnbv°pw.
66. \tX XnYy[ntI XØp {XnwiOp{Z alnkv^pSw
Xncy§mXn¿\ ]mXmte XZmkt∂f ]ytXm bXmx
15 \mUnIbn¬ GsdbmsW¶n¬ 30 \mUnIbn¬ \n∂v Ipd®v
_m°nsb bYm¿∞ ImeamsbSp°mw. tI{μ`mKØv DØcZ£nW t`Z
an√ F∂dnbpI.
67. B[nIymZv lcntP Xncy§mtX cpXv {Iakw{Klx
DZtblypZK{Kw kymZv _nw_akvXatbf \yYmx
lcnP (N{Ihmf) Øn\SpØv DØcZ£nWt`Zw G‰hpw A[nIw
(maximum) BWv. DZbØn¬ DZK{Kw DØc`mKtØbv°pw, AkvXab
Øn¬ Z£nW `mKtØbv°pw BIbmemWv Cu B[nIyw (67-68 se
\ymbw sX‰msW∂v kn≤m¥intcmaWn tKmfm≤ymbw {KlWhmk\
36-¬ `mkvIcmNmcy≥ II).
68. [yphrØ (ÿ) ky _nw_ky _nw_kylyqZtb {XnKpWx {ipXnx
Xncy§Xnx ]ePym N, \ kymXv kmtXmf \p]mXXx
Zn\hrØØn¬ DZbØn¬ 3 cminIfpsS Pymhv (sine) I¿ÆamWv.
Sine of latitude hyXykw Xcp∂p. AXn\m¬ B hyXymkw Sine of
colatitude t\mSv A\p]mXØnembncn°bn√.
69. Ab\he\w
N{μtImSypXv{Ia PymLv\k {XnPym]vXx ]cam]ax
Ab\whe\w, ZnIvXp th[ymf {Xmf b\hXvkZm
70. DZMvapsJm arKv\sZu lntJtSm, bmaymbt\ \yYm
Xncy§mXnkvXp tKmemt¥f {Xm[nIym ZpXv{Ia{Klx
71. Xncy§mXn¿ln hnw_kntKmemt¥]cam]ax
{XnPym I¿Æ kvXzb\mt¥ \XzXx km\p]mXXx
DXv{IaPymsb x Cosine N{μtImSn = N{μKXnsIm≠p≈ Znimam‰w
{XnPym
DXv{IaPym (maximum declination)
Zni N{μKXn Zni Xs∂. aIcw apX¬ 6 cmin hS°v- I¿°nSIw
apX¬ 6 cmin sX°v- F∂mWv N{μKXnZni- AhnsS (sX°pw hS°pw
561

{]Imikn‘p

A¿≤tKmfßfpsS A‰w) \n∂v taSw, XpemØn¬ G‰hpa[nIw (maximum)
DXv{IaPym AYhm Znimam‰w hcp∂p. AhnsS Sine of colatitude (CosineN{μtImSn) D]tbmKn°Ww. taSw, XpemØn¬ Znibpw maximum
declination AYhm DXv{IaPymhpw H∂pXs∂ (Xpeyw) bmWv. I¿Æw,
I¿°nSIw, aIcw BZyØn¬ {XnPymbv°v XpeyamWv. AXn\m¬ Znim
am‰w B\p]mXnIa√- shtΔsdbmWv (`mkv°cmNmcy≥ N{μtImSn
D]tbmKn®Xv sXs‰∂v A`n{]mbs∏Sp∂p).
72. kv^pShe\w
XpeymXpey Zntim¿tømK t`ZmZvhe\ Nm]tbmx
Pohm (tkmam¿°) I¿Æ Lv\m {XnPym]vXm he\wkv^pSw.
c≠v he\Nm]hpw IqSn Iq´pItbm hyXymkw ImWpItbm Znim
\pkrXambn sNøpI. Poh≥ (ssk≥) I≠v N{μs‚tbm kqcys‚tbm
hymkØm¬ (GXp{KlWsa∂\pkcn®v) AXns\ KpWn®v {XnPybm¬
lcn®m¬ he\kv^pSw (total deviation) In´pw.
73. {KlW]cnteJx
kº¿°afite {KmlyK¿t` ZnIvkq{X afintX
]q¿ΔtXm he\m{KmXv kymXv {]mKmimf \ym› XZzimXv.
kº¿°afiew hcbv°pI. {Klnbv°s∏´ _nw_w AXn¬ H∂n
\IØv H∂mbn (Concentric) hc®v \mepZni tcJs∏SpØpI. Ing°v
he\m{K _nμpsh kº¿°afieØn¬ hc®v CXnt\mSv _‘nXambn
a‰pZniIƒ hcbv°pI.
74. kzt£]mt{K a[yhnμp ¿Ω≤ymXv bmtaymØtcÿnXx
bmtaymØtc\tbXv t-£s]u a≤yXx kv]¿itam£sPu.
{KlWa[y_nμp DØc Z£nWtcJta¬ a≤y{KlWm£mwi
Øn\v kaamb ZqcØn¬ InS°p∂p. kv]¿i\w XpSßp∂Xpw Ahkm
\n°p∂Xpamb A£ßƒ, tI{μØn¬ \n∂v AfshSpØv DØc
Z£nW tcJta¬ tcJs∏SpØpI.
75. kv]¿itamt£mZv`shu _nμqhnt£]{Km∂nPm∂nPmXv
kº¿°hrØ]cns[u Imtcym ]q¿Δm]cmitbmx
]q¿Δ ]›na tcJta¬ BZykv]¿i_nμphpw, tam£_nμphpw
kº¿° hrØ]cn[nbn¬ AXmXv A£mwiØn\v kaambn hc
bv°pI.
562

{]Imikn‘p

76. kv]¿i_nμqcthx ]›mXv{]mtNym_nμpkvXp tam£Px
hntZymhy¿kvXw, {KmlIXzmXv {KmlyXzmZ]n ioXtKmx
kqcy{KlWØn\v BZykv]¿i_nμp ]Sn™mdmWv. Ing°mWv
tam£_nμp. N{μ\v t\sc adn®mWv. ImcWw kqcy{KlWØn¬
{KmlI≥ ({Kkn°p∂h≥) N{μ\mWv. N{μ{KlWØn¬ N{μ≥ {Kmly
amWv ({Kknbv°
- s∏Sp∂h≥).
77. t£] ZznKzn ]coXmkymXv N{μ{KlW teJt\
N{μmXv t£]m¥tc bkvamXv Xtam_nw_w {]Iev]ytX.
N{μ{KlWw hcbv°ptºmƒ kv]¿i_nμp A£mwiZnibpsS
hn]coX ZnibnseSp°Ww. OmbmhrØw AXns‚ tI{μtØmSpIqSn
N{μm£mwiZqcØn\p kaambn´mWv BZyw hcbv°p∂Xv; AXn\m¬!
78. enJntX {KmltI kzoe (hnw_m¥c) {KlWÿnXnx
at≤y kv]¿ti N tamt£kym OnjvtS {KmlIh¿flXx
{KmlI _nw_w hcbv°ptºmƒ a≤yw, Bcw`w, tam£w F∂ 3
_nμp°tfmsS, {KlWÿnXn, {KmlIs‚ Hcp IjvWamWv. a‰p `mK
ßfn¬ (`qanbpsS) {KmlI£y (hgn) A\pkcn®v Cu `mKØns‚
hen∏s®dp∏w thsdbmWv. IqSntbm Ipdt™m Ccnbv°pw ({]mtZinI
amtb ho£n®v {]hNn°m\mhq. CX\pkcn®v a‰p `mK߃ KWns®Sp
°Ww).
79. _nμq{Xb kv]rKvhrØ (ky) Jtfi {KmlIh¿fl (Xp)
CjvSImtef `ojvS`mtK h¿fl\n{KmlIÿnXnx
_nμp{XbßfneqsS IS∂pt]mIp∂ hrØNm]amWv {KmlIs‚
hgn (am¿§w- {`aWI£y)- CjvSImeØv, A`ojvS{]tZiØv, Cu
KXnbn¬, Cu _nμphneqsS {KmlI≥ IS∂pt]mIp∂p≠v.
80. A\mtZiy {KlWw
AjvSmwtif ¿°kymjvSn`mtKf (Zrsiyu) Ot∂f ]nioXtKmx
ssX£vWymXv cth, ¿Δnt[mx siu¢ym®mk∂m¿°acoNn`nx
kqcys‚ 1/8 `mKw N{μs‚ 1/16 `mKw sIm≠v adbp∂ {KlWw
Zriya√. kqcys‚ {]ImicivanIfmepw N{μs‚ kqcycivan{]Xn^e\
ØmepamWXv. CØcw {KlW߃ {]hNn°cpXv.
563

{]Imikn‘p

81. en]vXmet¶mZbmkq\mw Nt{I kmb\Xo£vWtKmx
kZm¥cw [\¿Æw kymXv (I) emhZv [ypKXmkpjp.
kmb\ kqcys‚ et¶mZbØn¬ \n∂v F{X an\p´v D®Øn¬ Nm]
Jfiw FØntbm F{Xbpw an\p´v tcJmwiØn¬ FØntbm, ChbpsS
hyXymkw {]mW≥ (1/6 hn\mUnI) {]hNn® kabØnt\mSv Iq´pI
tbm Ipdbv°pItbm sNøWw (tcJmwiØnse an\p´v IqSpXsem Ipd
shm F∂\pkcn®v).
82. A¿°`q‡n {`aWtPm Znt\tim iinam\Xx
kat›m\m[ntImbkvamZv kwkv°mc› XZ¥cmXv.
kqcytcJmwiØn¬ AXns‚ Zn\{`aWØnep≠mhp∂ `q‡n
kaw, Du\w Bhp∂Xv D®Ønep≈ hyXymkØnemIbm¬ Chbv°\p
kcn®v kwkv°mc{Inb sNøWw.
83. b≤y]y\pt‡m _lp`nx kwkv°mtcmbw XYm]n N
Imcyx kymZv KWssIx ImeaOt{K...(?)
Cu kwkv°mcw ]ecmepw ]dbs∏´ H∂√m. ImeKWI¿ Cu
kwkv°mcw Xo¿®bmbpw sNbvXncn°Ww (sNøm™m¬ {KlWw {]h
Nn°m≥ km≤ya√. `qan ]mbt]mse ]c∂XmWv F∂v hnizkn®ncp∂,
]Tn∏n®ncp∂ {Koknse anen‰kv BZyambn {KlWw {]hNn® hy‡n
bmWv F∂v temIsaºmSpap≈ Ip´nIsf hnZym`ymk ÿm]\߃
]Tn∏n®psImt≠ Ccnbv°bmWv, C∂pw!!).
84. D]mbm¥ca]ykvXn ]¿Δ ew_mZn`n¿Δn\m
kn≤m¥Zo]nImbmw X√nJnXw tKmehnXvkvarXw
kqcy{KlWw KWnbv°m≥ N{μew_\w ImWmsX as‰mcp am¿§
ap≠v. AXv Rm≥ tKmfhnØv (kwKa{Kma am[h≥) ]Tn∏n® {]Imcw
kn≤m¥Zo]nIbn¬ FgpXnbn´p≠v.
]ctaizc≥ KWn® {KlW߃ kqcy{KlWßfmWv. N{μ{Kl
Ww hfsc km[mcWhpw kqcy{KlWw A]q¿ΔhpamIbmemWv At±
lw AXn¬ IqSpX¬ {i≤ ]Xn∏n®Xv. hcmlanlnc≥ 5 kn≤m¥ß
fn¬ ]dbs∏´ {KlW\nba߃ XmcXays∏SpØn FgpXnb ]©kn
≤m¥nIbn¬ imkv{Xobamb Hcp \ne]mSv ImWmw. ]ctaizcs‚ kao
]\hpw imkv{XobamWv. c≠pt]cpw he\w apXemb \nba߃ Zo¿L
ambn \nco£n®v ]Tn®v tcJs∏SpØnbhcmWv. Ah¿ XΩn¬ 1000 h¿jw
ImehyXykap≠v Ft∂m¿°Ww.
564

{]Imikn‘p

hcmlanlnc≥ c≠mas‚ ImeØv (AD 5 -mw \q‰m≠n¬) FgpX
s∏´ Romance of Alexander F∂ {KŸØn\v 14 -mw \q‰m≠n¬ Hcp
B¿ta\nb≥ tIm∏n h∂p. CXp{]Imcw AeIvkm≠¿ N{Ih¿Øn
P\n®Xv Hcp {KlWZn\amWv F∂v ImWn°p∂ Hcp Nn{Xap≠v. AXn¬
i¶phns‚ BIrXnbn¬ Hcp {XntImWw hc®v tase k]vX¿jnbpw,
Acp‘Xnbpw Xmsg 8 {Klßfpw \Sphn¬ kqcyN{μ∑mcpw `qanbpw
tcJs∏SpØnbncn°p∂p.

Nn{Xw 3.8

85. {KŸkam]vXn
]camZoiztcssWjm t«mIm\mw \ymbZo]nIm
IrXm]©bpXmioXym tkhyXmw KWtImØssa.
CXn ]ctaizchncNnXm {KlW\ymb Zo]nImkam]vXm. Cu {Kl
W\ymbZo]nI 85 t«mIßtfmsS KWtImØa∑m¿°v D]tbmKn°p∂
Xn\mbn ]camZoizc\m¬ sNøs∏´XmWv. C{]Imcw ]ctaizchncNnX
amb {KlW\ymbZo]nI Ahkm\nbv°p∂p.
Zr§WnX ]ctaizc≥
Ip∂Øqcv \mKet»cn hSt»cn a\bv°se ]ctaizc≥ 13-14 \q‰m
≠pIfn¬ Pohn®ncp∂ {]kn≤ tPymXnimkv{X⁄\mWv. ]clnX
KWnXhpw Zr§WnXhpw ]p\cp≤cn®v AX\pkcn®v At\Iw \nco£W
߃ \SØnb At±lw cNn® {KlW\ymbZo]nI {KlW\nba߃
hniZam°p∂p.
565

{]Imikn‘p

Bizemb\ tKm{XØn¬ `rKphwiØn¬ P\n® EtKzZnbmbncp∂p
]ctaizc≥. tIcfØn¬ sXs° ae_mdnse BeØnbqcn¬ sh®mWv
\nco£W߃ \SØnbncp∂Xv. hSt»cnbv°v hSt{iWn F∂mWv
kpμccmPs‚ hmIyIcW hymJym\Øn¬ ]dbp∂Xv (Ed. Sn.Fkv.
Ip∏Æ imkv{Xn. sI.hn. i¿Ω. a{Zmkv 1962 t]Pv 8,28,93)- tNcn, t»cn,
t{iWn F∂o ]Z߃ D®mcWØn¬ ]ckv]cw amdp∂hbmWv.
t{iWn F∂m¬ Hcp kaqlw. km¿∞hmlI/IpekwL߃°v ]≠v
Cu t]cv sImSpØncp∂p. hSt»cn/hSt®cn/hSt{iWn F∂m¬ hSs°
]IpXnbnse kaql߃, hS°≥ ]£°m¿- \nfm\ZnbpsS hS°pIc
bn¬ s]m∂m\n∏pg Ad_n°Sen¬ tNcp∂ `mKØmWv hSt»cn F∂v
]dbp∂Xn\m¬ \nfbv°v hS°p≈ tIcfob kaqlw- s]m∂m\n/
htμcn/BeØnbq¿/IqS√q¿- Cu `mKßsf tI{μoIcn®mWv IqS√q¿
a\bpsS Hcp imJbmb Ip∂Øqcv \mKet»cn hSt»cn°m¿ Xmakn®n
cp∂Xv. CXn¬ BeØnbqcmbncp∂p ]ctaizcs‚ C√w.
\nfmbmx skuayXotcf _vtZx Iqeÿx ]ctaizcx
kwt£]mZv tKmekwÿm\w h‡n_memb `m¿§hx
(tKmfZo]nI)
kactcJmbmx ]›m ZjvSmZim tbmP\m¥tc {Kmta
kzcIrXjUv Xpent\f t£ hkXm imtIf £jUv{XnN{μNntX.
(tKmfZo]nI)
18. tbmP\ katcJbn¬ \n∂v ]Sn™m´pamdn 647 A£Øn¬
(10° 51 N A£mwiw) iIh¿jw 1360 ¬ tKmfZo]nI ]ctaizc≥ cNn®p.
CXn¬ ]dbp∂ katcJ D÷bn\n F∂p ]ecpw IcpXp∂p. {KlW
\nbaßfnse√mw e¶sb katcJbn¬ D]tbmKn® ]ctaizc≥ ChnsS
bpw e¶bmhWw katcJsIm≠pt±in®sX∂v Hc`n{]mbap≠v. 9
tbmP\ (8.8-8.9 tbmP\) F∂v ]d™m¬ Hcp Un{KnbmWv tKmfØn¬.
18 tbmP\ ]Sn™m´p amdpI F∂p ]d™m¬ e¶bn¬ \n∂v 2° ]Sn
™m´v amdn (8 an\p´v kabhyXymkw) F∂mW¿∞w. AXv tKmf\nba
amWv. cp{Z≥ Fs∂mcp Kpcphns\ ]ctaizc≥ t]scSpØp ]dbp∂p≠v.
tKmfhnØv F∂dnbp∂ am[h≥ ]ctaizcs‚ Kpcphmbncp∂p. Chsc
IqSmsX \mcmbW≥ Fs∂mcp Kpcphpw At±lØn\p≠mbncp∂Xmbn
]p{X\pw injy\pamb ZmtamZc\pw, injy≥ \oeIWvT tkmabmPnbpw
tcJs∏SpØp∂p. \mcmbW≥ Bsc∂v Adnhmbn´n√. aplq¿ØcXv\
566

{]Imikn‘p

I¿Ømhmb tKmhnμs‚ injy≥ ]ctaizcs‚ apØ»\pw tPymXnjn
bpambncp∂p. At±lamtWm F∂v Xocpam\ambn´n√. tKmhnμs\°p
dn®v ]ctaizc≥ {]Io¿Øn®v FgpXnbn´p≠v.
55 h¿jw XpS¿®bmbn BImitKmfßsf \nco£Ww sNbvX
tijw 1353 iIh¿jØn¬ (AD 1431) ]ctaizc≥ Zr§WnXw cNn®p.
iIw 1365 (AD 1443) emWv tKmfZo]nI II FgpXp∂Xv. Ien 4536 (AD
1445) ¬ ]ctaizc≥ Hcp cN\ sNbvXXmbn \oeIWvT tkmabmPn
tcJs∏SpØnbn´p≠v (`m¿§h ]ctaizcs\ AkvaZv ]caKpcqWmNemw
ikvXzw CXn Iey_vtZ ]©Zimwi]q¿Øn\n¿ÆnXm). 1431 apX¬ 55
h¿jw ]n∂nte°v, AD 1375 ¬ Xs‚ \nco£Ww Bcw`n°ptºmƒ
]ctaizc≥ Hcp Ip´nbmWv (1442 ¬ \oeIWvT tkmabmPnbpsS
P\\w). AD 1360-1455 hscbmWv `m¿§h ]ctaizcs\∂ Ip∂Øq¿
hSt»cn \mKet»cn Zr§WnX ]ctaizcs‚ PohnXImew.
]ctaizcs‚ IrXnIƒ
1. Zr§WnXw
2. tKmfZo]nI I
3. tKmfZo]nI II
4. {KlWafi\w
5. {KlW\ymbZo]nI
6. {KlWmjvSIw
7. hmIyIcWw
8. `SZo]nI
9. ]ctaizc
10. I¿ΩZo]nI
11. kn≤m¥Zo]nI
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

IcW{KŸw
Spherical
Geometry

{KlWsØ°pdn®v

(Astronomical tables)
Bcy`Sob `mjyw
eLp`mkv°cob `mjyw `mkv°cmNmcy≥
alm`mkv°cob `mjyw Is‚ IrXnIƒ°v
tKmhnμkzmanbpsS alm`mkvIcob
`mjyØn\v `mjyw
apRvPehs‚ eLpam\k`mjyw
hnhcWw- kqcykn≤m¥`mjyw
hnhcWw- `mkv°c≥ 2 -mas‚ eoemhXn`mjyw
hrØn hyXo]mXmjvSIw emSssh[rXw
hrØn (tKmfZo]nI II s‚ `mjyw)
567

{]Imikn‘p

17. BNmckw{Klw
18. PmXI]≤Xn
19. aplq¿ØcXv\`mjyw
20. {io]XnbpsS PmXImtZiØn\v `mjyw
21. ]rYpbi ns‚ {]iv\kXv ]©inJm`mjyw
22. aplq¿ØmjvSIZo]nI
23. hmIyZo]nI
24. `mZo]nI

Astrology

I≠pIn´mØh

\oeIWvT tkmabmPnbpsS Bcy`Sob`mjyØn¬
“]ctaizcmNmtcyW]p\x {KlW{KltbmKmZnI bss{¥x
]©]©miZv h¿jImew kayIv]co£nXw” F∂p ImWmw.
55 h¿jw ]ctaizc≥ \nco£Ww \SØnbXv {KlW{KltemKm
ZnIb{¥ßƒ D]tbmKn®mWv. hcmlanlncs‚ ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬
At\Iw b{¥ßfpsS \n¿ΩmWhpw D]tbmKhpw \nco£Whpw ]d
™n´p≠v. KWnXhpw Zriyhpw XΩnep≈ hyXymkw _oPKWnXw
sIm≠v kv^pSw sNøm≥ hcmlanlnc≥ \n¿t±in°p∂p. CXv ]ctaiz
c\pw Adnbmw. (Imtemf t\\ N kn≤x IZmNnZ]n `n[ytX kzev]w)
F∂n´pw, apºp≈ BNmcycpsS {KlW\nba ߃ D≤cn®tijw
Xm≥ KWn®Xpw Z¿in®Xpw IqSn ]dbp∂ hcmlanlncs‚ coXnsb
hna¿in°p∂ ]ctaizc\pw AXpXs∂ sNøp∂p F∂ Imcyw {i≤n°
Ww. “kzev]” hyXymkw ]q¿ΔnIcpsS KW\Øn¬ \n∂v hcmlanlnc
\p In´n. kzev]hyXymkw ]ctaizc\pw ]q¿ΔoIcpsS KW\Øn¬ \n
∂mWv e`n®Xv. Cu kzev]hyXymkßfpsS \nbasØbpw kv^pSw
sNbvXv FSp°p∂Xv _oPKWnXamWv. c≠p ImeL´ßfnse im
kv{X⁄cpsS “imkv{Xw” kzev]w hyXymkw Im´p∂Xv Adnhn√mbva
sIm≠√, Adnhv IqSptºmgmWv. Adnhp IqSptºmƒ B hyXymkw
hcm\p≠mb ImcWsØ- hyXymkØns‚ \nbaØnse Adnhn√m
bvasb- a\pjy≥ \nco£Whnt[bam°pw. \yq´s‚ “sX‰p”Iƒ sF≥
ssÃs‚ “icn”Ifmhp∂ t]msebmWv AØcw Adnhv. Imew sIm≠v
a\pjy≥ kv^pSw sNbvsXSp°p∂XmWv ⁄m\w/imkv{Xw. \nc¥c
\nco£Ww, XeapdIfneqsS ssIamdp∂ \nco£W KthjW k{º
Zmbw, CXn∂p≈ KpcpIpe kwhn[m\w- Cßs\bmWv `mcXØn¬
tPymXnimkv{Xapƒs∏sS Hmtcm hn⁄m\imJbpw hf¿∂ph∂Xv.
568

{]Imikn‘p

iIw 1315 ¬ \nco£Wamcw`n® ]ctaizc≥ Xm≥ {]hNn® {Kl
Wßfnse Ime, _nw_, ZrKv t`ZßfpsS \nba߃ \ap°p X∂p.
am{Xa√ GXpZn\w FhnsSsh®v Xm≥ \nco£n®p F∂ Hcp enÃpw
Xcp∂p≠v. kqcyN{μ∑m¿, Nt{μm®w, cmlp ChpsS kv^pSÿm\w DZ
bØn¬ Hcp Zn\Øn¬ IW°m°n AXpapX¬ correction sNtø≠
BhiyIX ]ctaizc≥ Xs‚ ]q¿ΔoIsct∏mse FSpØp ]dbp∂p.
CXns\ “Imem¥ckwkv°mcw” F∂pXs∂bmWv 14 -mw \q‰m≠nepw
At±lw ]dbp∂Xv. Imem¥camWv Cw•ojn¬ Ie≠dmbsX∂v ]©
kn≤m¥nIbn¬ Rm≥ Nq≠n°m´pIbp≠mbn.
]ctaizc≥ Z¿in® {KlWßfpsS IenZn\ kwJyIƒ
1. k]vX\mKmKv\nKptWjpck`q

1653387 tKm
I¿Æw
1655130

2. iq\ymKv\n`qitcjzwK`q

\nfmXSw
”+kwKa
{Kmaw

3. JJiq\ym£n _mWmwKiin

1652000 \mhm
t£{Xw
4. ZznjUvctkjp ]©mwKhn[p`n
1655662 \nfmXSw
5. IrXZzn_mWcmam_v[n jUvNss{μ
1643524

6. ckXnYy{`nthZ`qjUv`qan
1647156

7. {Zhy£y{ZyjvSm_v[n jUvN{μ
1648722

8. KtWmf_v[n \mKm_v[n ]t©jzwssKI 1655484

9. Zns\uftL [y_v[njUv]©_mWmwKI 1655647

10. cmac{‘ ba{]mW _mjjUviin\n
1655293

11. thZc{‘ ckm£o £pckioXmwip`n
1652694

12. a≤zw Km_v[njp jUvNss{μ
1654614

13. {Xnkv{Xm_v[n {iojpctkμp`n
1653403

14. thmaiq\ymZnNt{μjpck`q
1651700

Chsb {IaØn¬ FgpXn 2 {KlW߃ XΩnep≈ CSthf I≠p
t\m°pI.
1.
2.
3.
4.

1643524
1647156
1648722
1651700

3632 Znhkw hyXymkw
1566 ” ”

2978


569

8176 ZnhkØn¬
4 {KlWw

{]Imikn‘p
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

1652000
1652694
1653387
1653403
1654614
1655130
1655293
1655484
1655647
1655662

3000
694
693
16
1211
516
163
191
163
15

4086 Zn\w10 {KlWw \nco£n®p

12262 Zn\w- 14 {KlWw

BsI

366 Znhkap≈ ]©h¿job ss]XmalbpKØn¬ IrXyambn
33 ImehrØw (33 x 366=12078) ]q¿Ønbm°nb tijw 284 Znhkw
Ign™p.
AD 1431 ¬ Xs‚ {KlWkw_‘ab {KŸw FgpXnbtijhpw
]ctaizc≥ {KlW߃ \nco£n®n´p≠mhWw. AD 1444 hsc At±lw
\nco£n®n´p≠v. CXv tcJs∏SpØnbXmhmw. \oeIWvT tkmabmPn
]dbp∂ 1445 se cN\. 1946 sabv 6 \v IenZn\kwJy 1843482 (bZph√
Zlmcw). CXn¬ \n∂v ]ctaizcs‚ taev]d™ IenZn\kwJyIƒ
hyXymkw I≠p t\m°nbn´mWv, Rm≥ Cu \nKa\ØnseØnbXv.
1946 sabv 6 ¬ \n∂v 502 h¿jw 328 Znhkw apºmWv ]ctaizc≥ Xs‚
Ahkm\sØ kqcy{KlWw \nco£n®n´p≈Xv. IenZn\ kwJy
sIm≠v C{X IrXyambn ]dbmw F∂ncnbvs° a‰p ]ehn[ “Imem¥c
KW\”Ifpw am‰n am‰n kzoIcn®v \Ωƒ shdpsX Confusion D≠m°n
bXmWv ]e Ncn{X]camb A_≤߃°pw ImcWw.
b{¥ßƒ
iwJw, N{Iw, KZ, ]flw, thWp (apf), {iob{¥w- -hfsc ]g°
ap≈hbmWv Cu Bkvt{SmWan°¬ b{¥ßƒ. \nbm≥U¿Xm¬ a\p
jys‚ Aÿn apcfn apX¬ Ctßm´v kn‘pen]nbnse At\Iw knw_
epIƒ hsc CXn\v sXfnhpIƒ ImWmw. AD 427 ¬ a®b{¥w, tKmf
b{¥w F∂nh hcmlanlnc≥ D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. 4500-5000 BC bn¬
kn‘q\ZoXSØnepw a’y, tKmfb{¥ßƒ D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. 1000 BC
bnse {]mNo\ kqcykn≤m¥Øn¬ Cu b{¥ßsf√mw ]dbp∂p. 700
570

{]Imikn‘p
BC bn¬ e√s‚ “injy[ohn≤nX” Øn¬ 12 b{¥ßƒ ]dbp∂p. 1072
AD bn¬ `mkv°cmNmcy\pw 1506 AD bn¬ KtWi`hymfls‚ {Klem

Lhhpw D]IcW߃ hnhcn°p∂p≠v. 6000 h¿jtØmfw `mcXØn¬
XpS¿®bmbn D]tbmKn® Cu b{¥ßƒ F∂v, Fßs\ F∂v Adntb
≠Xp≠v.
kqcykn≤m¥ImeØv ckw, Pew, FÆ, aW¬, N{Iw F∂nh
D]tbmKn® b{¥ßfmWp≠mbncp∂Xv.
]cZmcmw_p kq{XmWn ip¬_ssXePem\nN
_oPm\n ]mwkhjvtSjp{]tbmKmkvtX ]n Zp¿√`m.
BC 1000 Øn¬ ]cZmcw (ckw), Aºv, kq{X߃, ip¬_w, ssXew,
Pew, _oPw ([m\yw), ]mwkp (aW¬) F∂v 8 Xcw {]tbmKw. Mercury
(ckw) F∂Xn\v ]cZmcw (]ckv{Xob√) F∂v t]cv sImSpØncn°p∂p.
ckm\p`hw IqSpX¬ ]cZmcØnse cXnbv°msW∂ Imaimkv{X ]mTw
At∂ {]NmcØnencp∂ncnbv°mw. N{I߃°nSbn¬ ckw \nd®v Id
°p∂ tKmfb{¥w BC 1000 Øn¬Øs∂ D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. tImWpIƒ
kq£vaambn “hnIe” hsc Af°p∂ D]IcWØns‚ kqcykn≤m¥
Ønse h¿Æ\:60 hnIe
60 Ie
30 `mKw
12 cmin

=
=
=
=

1 Ie
1 `mKw
1 cmin
1 `KWw

AD 1072 ¬ eoemhXnbn¬ bthmZcw (bh[m\yw), AwKpew,

lkvXw, Zfiw, t{Imiw, tbmP\ F∂v \ofw, Zqcw Af°p∂ ‘tIm¬’
D≠v. AD 427 epw (hcmlanlnc≥) CtX Afhp≠v. ‘tbmP\’ EtKzZ
Imew apXte D≈ AfhmWv.
8 bhw
24 AwKpew
4 lkvXw
2000 Zfiw
4 t{Imiw
10 lkvXw
(400)2 hwiw

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Hcp hnc¬ (AwKpew)
1 lkvXw
1 Zfiw
1 t{Imiw
1 tbmP\
1 hwiw
1 \n¿_‘w
571

{]Imikn‘p

Imeam\w
60 hn]e
60 ]ew
150 ]ew
24 tlmc
Imew, Zqcw,
_‘n∏n®ncp∂p.

= 1 ]ew
= 1 LSn
= 1 tlmc (15 `mKw) = 1/2 cmin
= 1 Zn\w = 12 cmin = 1 `KWw
tIm¨, _nw_w F∂nhsb C{]Imcw ]ckv]cw

e√mNmcys‚ 12 D]IcW߃
tKmtem `KW ›{Iw L\LSn iwJp iISI¿Øcyx
]njvSI ]me iemI ZzmZib{¥mWn klbjvSbm
(injyZohr≤nX. 700 BC)
tKmfw (sphere), `KW (ring), N{Iw (disc), [\p v (Bow & arrow),
LSn (LSnImcw), iwJp, iISw, I¿Øcy, ]njvSIw, I]mew, iemI-

`KWw

PeLSnImcw

N{Iw

[\p v

iwJp (2 Xcw)

iISw (Compass?)

Nn{Xw 3.9
572

{]Imikn‘p
(kqNokvXw`w)
HcpXcw i¶p

hrØmIrXn
(thZn)
I¿Øcn

]njvTw

bjvSn (Zfiw)

Nn{Xw 3.10

hwikyaqew {]hntemIyNmKw XXzm¥cw XkykvarNyw N
bmw thØn bjvStbh Icÿbmsku [ob{¥thZnhZInw\thØn
(kn≤m¥intcmaWn)
hwiØns‚ (apf) aqehpw A{Khpw t\m°n Dbchpw Zqchpw \n¿
Æbn°p∂ “[ob{¥w” (]p√m¶pg¬) F∂ thWp (bjvSn). C¥ybn¬
G‰hpw ]gb i¶phpw Af°p∂ tImepIfpw D]tbmKn®p ImWp∂Xv
A®qenb≥ ]mentbmenØnIv ImeØp Pohn®ncp∂ {]mNo\ Kplm
a\pjycmWv. ChcpsS hmkÿm\Øv 12 apX¬ 20 hsc sk‚nao‰dn¬
8 IpgnIfn¬ 8 XqWpIƒ, Cucs≠Æw Htc hen∏Øn¬ ]ckv]cw
80-120 sk.ao. AIeØn¬ \m´nbncp∂Xmbn I≠p. IpgnIƒ 20-30
sk.ao. BgØn¬ Ccpºbn¿ [mcmfap≈ ]md∏pdØmWv Ipgn®ncn°p
∂Xv. _mtK¿ I se ]mentbmenØn°v a\pjy¿ (]Sn™md≥ XocØv
\mt\L´n\SpØv. Ip°ptSizc t£{X`mKØv-) 85 sk‚nao‰¿ hymk
Øn¬ I√p ]SpØ hrØmIrXnbmb thZoa≤yØn¬ 15 sk.ao. Dbcw,
6.5 sk.ao. hoXw hoXnbpw I\hpw
D≈ {XntImWmIrXnbnep≈ ]md°√v
(i¶p) {]XnjvTn®ncn°p∂p. 6.5 x 15 =
15
975. EXpk]vX\h (976) F∂
i¶p
85 cm `mcXJޯnse tPymXnj]camb
6.5
kwJybn¬ \n∂v H∂v Ipdhv (]©
kn≤m¥nI ImWpI. tUm. kph¿Æ
thZn
\me∏m´v . N.B.S. {]kn≤oIcWw).
sXm´SpØ ssIaq¿ {KmaØnse
Nn{Xw 3.11
{KmahmknIƒ CtX t]mep≈ Hcp
573

{]Imikn‘p

I√ns\ (ambn) AΩ (i‡n) ssZhambn Zfiv
Bcm[n°p∂p. AXmbXv 9000-8000 BC bn
Nm]w
se upper ]mentbmenØnIv Imew apX¬
i¶p ({iob{¥w) D]tbmKØnep≠v .
Ip∂ns\Øs∂ i¶phm°ns°m≠pw,
Nn{Xw 3.12
hr£Ombsb t\m°nbpw Cu KWnXw
{Kmaßfn¬ \SØnhcp∂p. Ip∂n≥ apIfn¬ \n∂psIm≠p≈
\£{Xho£Ww ]Xnhmbncp∂p. PeN{Ib{¥w, Pe\mfnImb{¥w
F∂nh IS¬ k©mcw, Irjn F∂nhbv°v D]tbmKn®ncp∂p. `mkv°cm
Nmcys‚ Nm]b{¥w HcpXcw Protractor BWv. [\p pw, Zfihpw
tN¿∂ H∂mWXv. Dbcw, `qhymkw, N{μ hymkw, `q]cn[n, `qN{μ∑m
cpsS Zqcw, tImWpIƒ F∂nh Af°m\pw tImWn¬ \n∂v Pymhpw,
tImSnPymhpw I≠v Dbcw KWn°m\pw (Sine & Cosine) D]tbmKn
®ncp∂p.
Pe\mfnImb{¥w
PeØns‚ {]Xew, \mfnI ChsIm≠v \£{XØns‚ tIm¨
\n›bn°p∂p. BZyw {XntImWmIrXnbn¬ D≈ i¶phns‚ Dbcw,
I¿Æw, ASnØd F∂nh IrXyambn Af∂v \n¿Ωn°p∂p. i-¶phn∂p
apIfn¬ \mfnI sh®v \£{Xw t\m°p∂p. \£{XØns‚ {]Xn
_nw_w PeØn¬ ImWpwhn[w Pe]m{XØn¬ sh≈w thWw. {Kl
Ww t\m°ptºmƒ NmWIsh≈amWv D]tbmKnt°≠Xv. CXv IÆn
s‚ c£bv°mWv.
\£{Xw

fn
p\m
t

Pe
]m{Xw

imkv{X⁄s‚
IÆv

i¶p

i¶p

hW

i¶p

Pew

{]Xew (thZn)

Nn{Xw 3.13
574

Pebm\]m{Xw
(I∏¬)

{]Imikn‘p

{ioIrjvW≥ kpZ
£nWtbbpw A¿÷p
ao≥ (a’yw). \£{Xw
\≥ ]m©mentbbpw ]m{Xw
(\nco£Is‚ IÆv)
hnhmlw Ign°pwapºv
Pea’yb{¥hnZybn eq
sS Omb t\m°n e£yw
t`Zn°p∂ Ignhv sXfnbn
\¶qcw
®ncp∂p. ew_\w (paraao≥ (a’yw)Pea’yw
llax) \nbaw AdnbmsX
CXv sNøm\mhn√. I∏
Nn{Xw 3.14: hqUq
en¬ D]tbmKn®ncp∂
Pe\mfnImb{¥Øns‚ knw_¬ 90° bn¬ Xncn®p]nSn®v hc®v
AXpt\m°n sshZyw ]dbp∂ coXn lmbvXnbnse kv{XoIƒ°nSbnep≠v.
hqUq F∂mWv Cu knw_en\p t]cv.
a’yw Cuizcs‚bpw imkv{X⁄\mb ao\hs‚bpw IÆmWv
ChnsS. a®b{¥w, bh[m\yb{¥w apXembh ]©kn≤m¥nIbn¬
hnhcn®p. `mkv°cmNmcys‚ PeN{Ib{¥Øn¬ ]cZmcw (ckw) D]tbmKn
°p∂p.
Db¿∂
Pekw`cWn
(Pe]m{Xw)

ckw
(\mfnbn¬)
Draining Tray

(Irjn\new)
Xmgv∂
Pekw`cWn
(Pe]m{Xw)

Nn{Xw 3.15

Imben¬ \n∂v sh≈w h‰nbv°m\pw, PeLSnImcambpw CXns\
D]tbmKn°mw. (ssk^¨{Inb) Pe\nc∏pw \mfnbnse ckhpw XΩn
575

{]Imikn‘p

ep≈ _me≥kpsIm≠v {]h¿Øn°p∂p (ImepsIm≠v Nhn´n {]h¿
Øn∏nt°≠). PeamWv Du¿÷w. ]m{XØn¬ c≠nepw Peans√¶n¬
ckØns‚ ÿm\w N{IØns‚ G‰hpw XmsgbmWv. Hcp ]m{XØn¬
Pew \nd™m¬ N{Iw Xncnbm≥ XpSßpw. ckw Hcp \mfnbn¬ \n∂v
as‰m∂nte°v \oßn, imbalance sIm≠v Ne\w \nc¥camhp∂p. 4 Pe
kw`cWn Ds≠¶n¬ Hmtcm∂pw N{IsØ 90° hoXw Xncn®v BsI
360° Xncnbpw. BZyIme PeLSnImcw Cßs\ {]h¿Øn®ncp∂p. s]cp
¥®s‚bpw aIs‚bpw ]mh Cu XØza\pkcn®v {]h¿Øn∏n®ncp∂h
bmWv. 1072 AD bnse kn≤m¥intcmaWnbn¬ CXns‚ ]q¿Æh¿Æ\
ImWmw. sal¿Km¿lv kwkv°mcØn¬ Irjn\ne߃ CXpt]mse
Draining tray cq]Øn¬ Xmsg sNdnb ZzmcßtfmsS D≠m°nbncp∂p.
tIcfØnse ]p©t°mƒ \neßfn¬ Cu XØza\pkcn®mWv Pe
tkN\w. Pew \nc¥cambn HgpIp∂ ]£w N{Ihpw \nc¥cw Idßpw.
N{IØnse Id°a\pkcn®v Nen°p∂ kqNn, ssk^¨ {Inbbnep≈
PehnXm\w, AXn¬ Hcp sNdph©n (float) bpsS eh¬ ({Ko°pImcpsS
BZyIme PeLSn) Chsbms°sh®v \nco£W߃ \SØnbncp∂p.
9000 BC apX¬ 1500 AD hsc ]Xn\mbncØne[nIw h¿jw C¥y
bnse a\pjy¿ CØcw At\Iw b{¥ßfpw, Xq°hpw, Afhpw sh®v
KWnXhpw, JtKmf \nco£Whpw sNbvXp. C¥y sKmμzm\m em‚ns‚
Hcp `mKambncp∂p (IºcmambWØnse sIm∂h\w). sKmμzm\m em
‚ns‚ `mKambncp∂ ImeØv ssN\bn¬ (80000-100000 h¿jw apºv)
Pohn®ncp∂ a\pjys‚ XetbmSv I≠pIn´nbn´p≠v (Xuchang man)
250000-500000 h¿jw ]gb “P\ÿm\”Øp\n∂pw s]ucmWnI a\pjy
s‚ t^mkn¬ In´n. F√m a\pjycpw 60000 h¿jw apºv B{^n°bn¬
\n∂v k©mcamcw`n® Hcp hy‡nbpsS a°fmsW∂ imkv{X\nKa\
Øn\v Cu t^mknepIƒ Hcp Xncn®SnbmWv. F√mw ]Sn™m´p \n∂v
Ingt°m´v F∂ ]m›mXyimkv{XßfpsSbpw imkv{X⁄cpsSbpw
“Bcy≥ B{IaW”anØpIƒ, C Øcw ]mentbm B{¥t∏mfPn°¬
sXfnhpIƒ°papºn¬ ]p\¿hnNn¥\w sNøs∏tS≠XmWv. a\pjys‚
imkv{X_p≤nbpsS ]q¿ÆhnImkw, Aht_m[w, akvXnjv° {]h¿
Ø\w F∂nh ]Tnbv°m≥ C¥ybpsS ]pcmW imkv{X imJIfnte
°pw Iemcq]ßfnte°pw Xncntb≠nbncn°p∂p. B{^n°sbt∏mep≈
Hcp “Ccp≠ `qJfi”Ønse kwkvIrXnbn¬ \n∂v AXv t]¿sØSp
°m\msb∂phcn√.

*
576