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# University of the Philippines, Diliman

## College of Social Sciences and Philosophy

Department of Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY 1
THIRD LONG TEST
General Instructions:
-

## Use the official test booklet of the University of the Philippines as an

answer sheet. Do not write anything on the questionnaire.
Provide all the necessary information requested on the first page of
the blue book, including your signature.
Maintain proper decorum in taking the exam. If you have any
question, approach the instructor silently.
Be sure to write legibly.
Good luck! - ms.cjpa

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13.

## Ingenuity and excellence are two of her traits. (I, E)

John and Kenny are both non-Republicans. (J, K)
I will pass Philo 1 only if I pass Logic. (P, L)
In order to get an uno, it is necessary to take all the exams. (G, T)
In order to put on the show, it will be necessary to find a substitute,
if neither the leading lady nor her understudy recovers from the flu.
(P, F, L, U)
14. If the leading lady does not recover from the flu and her understudy
does not recover from the flu, then if we do not find a substitute then
we do not put on the show. (L, U, F, P)
15. If Peter will work only if Smith is fired, then we should fire Smith if
we want the job done. (P, S, F, D)
C. Convert the following statements using the rules of replacement and
inference indicated. (10 points)
E.g. ~(P v D) (Apply De Morgans Theorem, and Commutation thereafter)

I.

Formal Logic

A.

## If A, B, and C are true statements and X, Y and Z are false

statements, state which of the following are true or false. (10 points)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

(A v X) v (B Y)
~ (X ~Y) v ( B ~C)
~[~ (A B) v ~ (B A)]
[ A v (B v C)] ~ [(A v B) v C]
[ X v ( Y Z )] v ~ [( X v Y) ~ (X v Z)]
(~Y v C) Z
~ ( C Y) v ( A Z)
~ ( X Z) v (B C)
~ [( A v X) ( Y v B )]
[(X v Y) (X v Z)] -> B

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

## Ruth is tired, but shell pass. (T, P)

If Argentina mobilizes, then either Brazil will protest to the U.N. or
Chile will call for a meeting of all the Latin American states. (A, B, C)
If Alfred orders champagne, then so does Lorenzo; and if Kurt orders
champagne, then so does Alfred. (A, L, K)
If Argentina does not mobilize, then neither will Brazil protest to the
U.N. nor Chile will call for a meeting of all the Latin American states.
(A, B, C)
Alfred neither does well in the course nor loses track of the
argument. (W, L)
Paula will teach him only if Quincy pays her a big fee. (P, Q)
Quincy will pass if and only if Paula helps him and Benjamin treats
him kind. (Q, P, B)
Neither my car nor my house has been given by my parents. (C, H)

Solution:

~(P v D) ~P ~D ~D ~P
~D ~P

## 1. ~P D (Apply De Morgans Theorem, and Material Implication thereafter)

2. ~(~P v S) (Apply Material Implication and then Transposition)
3. ~P ~T (Apply Material Equivalence to get the equivalent conjunctive
statement, then apply Simplification)
4. ~P v Z (Apply Commutation, then Material Implication afterwards, and
Transposition thereafter)
5. ~S -> L (Apply Material Implication, then apply Commutation, and then
use De Morgans Theorem)
6. ~ (L ~P) -> ~S (Apply Transposition, then De Morgans Theorem, then
Commutation)
7. Liza neither attends class nor participates. (A, P) (Apply Commutation, use
Material Implication after, then apply Transposition)
8. If he does not like you, he would not care about you. (L, C) (Apply
Transposition, then use Material Implication, and then apply Commutation)
9. Only if you enroll in my class will your slot be guaranteed. (E, G) (Apply
Material Implication and Commutation)
10. (A v X) (Y v B) (Apply Simplification, Material Implication and
Transposition)

## D. Each of the following is a formal proof of validity for the indicated

argument. State the justification for each line that is not a premise. (15
points)
a.

b.

c.

## 1. C -> (~L -> Q)

2. L -> ~C
3. ~Q
4. (C ~L) -> Q
5. ~(C ~L)
6. ~C v ~~L
7. ~C v L
8. C -> L
9. C -> ~C
10. ~C v ~C
11. ~C

(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise) / :. ~C

1. (E -> A) (F -> A)
2. E v G
3. F v ~G
4. ~~E v G
5. ~E -> G
6. ~~F v ~G
7. ~F -> ~G
8. G -> F
9. ~E -> F
10. ~~E v F
11. E v F
12. A v A
13. A

(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise) / :. A

1. (F H) -> N
2. F v S
3. H
4. (H F) -> N
5. H -> (F -> N)
6. F -> N
7. ~N -> ~F
8. ~~F v S
9. ~F -> S
10. ~N -> S
11. ~~N v S
12. N v S

(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise) / :. N v S

E. Determine whether the following arguments are valid using the truth
table method and the falsification method. Use the truth table method
for the third argument and the falsification method for the rest of
the arguments. To do this, symbolize the statements first. (10 points)

1.

## If I study, I make good grades. If I do not study, I enjoy myself.

Therefore, either I make good grades or I enjoy myself. (S, G, E)

2.

## Either the tariff is lowered or imports continue to decrease and

our own industries prosper. If the tariff is lowered, then our own
industries prosper. Therefore, our own industries prosper. (T, I,
P)

3.

If either Saudi Arabia raises the price of oil or Saudi Arabia does
not raise the price of oil, then America will be in grave
difficulties. Therefore, America will be in grave difficulties. (S, A)

4.

If he uses good bait, then if the fish are biting then he catches
the legal limit. He catches the legal limit. Therefore the fish are
not biting and he does not use good bait. (G, B, C)

F.

## Construct a formal proof of validity for the following arguments. (10

points)

a.

1. (J v F) v M
2. (J v M) -> ~P
3. ~F

(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise) / :. ~(F v P)

b.

1.
2.
3.
4.

I -> J
J -> K
L -> M
IvL

(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise) / :. K v M

c.

1.
2.
3.
4.

A v (B -> D)
~C -> (D -> E)
A -> C
~C

(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise) / :. B -> E

d.

## 1. (~M -> P) (~N -> Q) (Premise)

2. ~(M N)
(Premise) / :. P v Q

e.

1. J v ~K
2. K v (L ->J)
3. ~J

II.

(Premise)
(Premise)
(Premise) / :. (~J -> ~L) v K

Fallacies

## Determine whether the fallacies committed by the following are formal or

informal. Provide the name of the fallacy as well. (30 points)
1.

## If the Philippines wages war against China, the Philippines should

prepare itself to face a giant enemy. The Philippines, so far, has been
preparing for a war against a huge enemy in view of a number of

## soldiers being trained all over the archipelago. This seems to be an

indicator that the Philippines is about to face China in a bloody
combat.
2.

## the universe is spherical in form because all the constituent

parts of the universe, that is, the sun, moon and the planets appear
in this form. Nicolaus Copernicus

3.

If you smoke, youll die. If you dont smoke, youll also die. So why do
others discourage people from smoking?

4.

## Miracles are impossible because they simply cant happen.

5.

The computer game Sim City 3000 is a simulation wherein one must
build a new city by managing budget, zoning proper areas,
organizing raods and railways properly to get rid of traffic and run a
perfect city. Since I have mastered this game I am capable of
transforming Manila into a perfect city.

6.

7.

## I think Terence should keep the number 9 on his basketball jersey.

Last year when he changed his number from 7 to 9, his shooting
percentage went up, he dished out more assists and pulled down
more rebounds aside from making it to the Mythical Five for the first
time.
If you take these vitamin tablets regularly, you will have a healthy
body. So start saving money for these vitamins; if you wont then
youll have a weak body that is susceptible to various illnesses.

Fred: A good citizen should always protect the interest of the nation
even if he has to tell lies to do so.
13. Creationism cannot possibly be true. People who believe in a literal
interpretation of the Bible just never outgrew the need to believe in
Santa Claus.
14. Property should be returned to its rightful owner. That drunken
sailor who is starting a fight with his opponents lent you his 0.45caliber pistol, and now he wants it back. Therefore, you should
return it to him now.
15. From Narinig ko sa UP (Overheard at UP) posted by Carl Mark
Bancfort, I'm not a terror teacher, I'm a terrorist", tama nga siya. 5
ang grade ko sa kanya!! T.T.
16. Either you let me attend the concert or Ill be miserable for the rest of
my life. I know you dont want me to be miserable for the rest of my
life, so it follows that youll let me attend the concert.
17. I will not take his opinions seriously if I were you. Dont you know
that he had been in a rehabilitation center before because of drug
addiction? His older brother had been in and out of jail for theft.
18. Three and two are odd and even; but three and two are five; therefore
five is odd and even.
19. Wait a minute! says one miner. Why do you get two and I get just
one?

8.

## Mr. Ramos accuses me of being an assassin. But let me ask you:

who led the Philippine Constabulary in its countless inhumane
salvaging of the political opposition during the Marcos regime?

9.

## Dr. Reyes comes from a very reputable family of doctors. So Dr.

Reyes must be a very good and efficient doctor.

Ive got twice the gold you do, answers miner number two.

## 10. As a result of karma, the souls of corrupt government officials are

transferred to the bodies of crocodile. Nobody has ever disproved this
belief so it must be true.

20. Good students will study and learn without examinations, and bad
students wont study and will learn nothing even when there are
examinations. So exams are useless.

## 11. Armida Siguion-Reyna: [When asked to explain why she is against

MTRCB rating on the movie Lost World] These MTRCB people do not
know what it is like to be a child because they did not experience
childhood. They are simply narrow-minded.

## 21. Some triangles are obtuse. Whatever is obtuse is ignorant. Therefore,

some triangles are ignorant.

12. Fred: I believe I was justified in lying to the Congress because I was
doing so in order to protect the national interest.
Mark: How can you defend such a position?

22. John told Henry that he had made a mistake. Therefore, John has at
least the courage to admit his own mistakes.
23. Mother: Have you stopped cheating on exams?
Son: Uh. Yes. But.
Mother: See? You really cheated before.

## 24. The jigsaw puzzle is circular in shape. Therefore, each piece is

circular in shape.
25. Jean likes anchovies. She also likes chocolate and ice cream.
Therefore, she would surely like chocolate ice cream topped with
anchovies.
26. Sodium and chlorine, the atomic components of salt, are both deadly
poisons. Therefore, salt is a deadly poison.
27. How dare you call me a liar? Your argument is no good. You told me
a week ago that you, too, stole the candy when you were a kid.
28. People have been trying for centuries to provide conclusive evidence
for the claims of astrology, and no one has ever succeeded.
Therefore, we must conclude that astrology is a lot of nonsense.
29. Consumer groups that argue in favor of increased product safety are
deluding themselves. Practically any car, no matter how carefully
designed, will kill the driver and passengers when driven into a brick
wall at 90 miles per hour. Similarly, any used toy will cause injury if
a child uses it to beat another child over the head. No matter how
much these products are improved, it will be impossible to eliminate
every conceivable cause of injury.
30. Have you stopped cheating in the exams, son? Yes. Therefore it
follows that you have cheated in the past. No. Therefore, you
continue to cheat. But mom!
III.
1.

## Puzzles (5 bonus points)

After a recent spate of home improvements, four couples were having
a dinner party to discuss the additions to their houses.