CHAPTER 3

Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development

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Learning Goals
1.

Describe two contemporary perspectives on socioemotional development: Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and Erikson’s life-span development theory. Discuss how the social contexts of families, peers, and schools are linked with socioemotional development. Explain these aspects of children’s socioemotional development: self-esteem, identity, moral development, and coping with stress.

2.

3.

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Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development
Contemporary Theories

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory

Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory

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Describe Bronfenbrenner’s theory of socioemotional development! Critics?

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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory

Bronfenbrenner’s theory focuses on the social contexts in which people live and the people who influence their development.

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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d
Microsystem: Direct interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and others. Mesosystem: Linkages between microsystems such as family and school, and relationships between students and peers. Exosystem: Experiences in settings in which a child does not have an active role influence the child’s experiences.
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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d
Macrosystem: The broader culture in which students and teachers live. Chronosystem: The sociohistorical conditions of a student’s development.

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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Theory into Practice
Sid’s father left his family years ago and provides no support for them. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participation in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father

Q.1: What aspects of Sid’s microsystem are discussed in
the example? Explain.

Q.2: What aspects of Sid’s exosystem are discussed in
the example? Explain.
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Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Theory into Practice
Sid’s father left them years ago and provides no support for the family. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participate in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father.

Q.3: How is the mesosystem currently operating for
Sid? Explain.

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Bronfenbrenner’s Theory in the Classroom

Think about children embedded in several environmental systems and influences Attend to connections between school and families Recognize the importance of community, culture, and socioeconomic status
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What are the basic assumptions in Erikson’s theory?

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Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory

Development proceeds in stages Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisis Stages reflect the motivation of the individual
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Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Human Development
8 - Integrity vs. despair 7 - Generativity vs. stagnation 6 - Intimacy vs. isolation 5 - Identity vs. identity confusion 4 - Industry vs. inferiority 3 - Initiative vs. guilt 2 - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 1 - Trust vs. mistrust
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Erikson’s Human Development Stages
1 - Trust vs. Mistrust 0–1 years 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1–3 years 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt 3–5 years Developed through consistent love and support Independence fostered by support and encouragement Developed by exploring and accepting challenges

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Erikson’s Human Development Stages
4 - Industry vs. Inferiority 6 years–puberty 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation Early adult years Mastery comes from success and recognition Exploration of different paths to attain a healthy identity Form positive, close relationships with others

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Erikson’s Human Development Stages
7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood 8 - Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood
Transmitting something positive to the next generation Life review and retrospective evaluation of one’s past

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Strategies for Erikson’s Stages of Development
Initiative
 Encourage social play  Have children assume responsibility  Structure assignments for success

Industry
 Nourish motivation for mastery  Be tolerant of honest mistakes

Identity
 Recognize that identity is multidimensional  Encourage independent thinking  Stimulate students to examine different perspectives
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Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development

Social Contexts of Development

Families

Peers

Schools

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Describe the 4 different forms of parenting style?

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Baumrind’s Parenting Styles
Neglectful
Parents are uninvolved. Children have poor selfcontrol, don’t handle independence well, and low achievement motivation.

Authoritarian
Parents are restrictive and punitive. Children tend to be socially incompetent, anxious, and exhibit poor communication skills.

Indulgent
Parents are highly involved but set few restrictions. Children have poor self-control.

Authoritative
Parents are nurturing and supportive, yet set limits. Children are self-reliant, get along with peers, and have high self-esteem.
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The Changing Family
Working parents

Nature of parents’ work matters The quality of parental relationships, timing of divorce, use of support systems, type of custody, SES, and quality schooling all affect children. Elementary school children did best when the parent and the school environment were authoritative. Show more adjustment problems than children in intact families, especially during adolescence
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Children in divorced families

Children in stepfamilies

Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Minority students

 

Families tend to be larger; depend more on the extended family for support Single parents are more common Less educated; lower income Tend to value external characteristics such as obedience and neatness See education as the teachers’ job
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Low-income parents
 

Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Middle-class families

Often place high value on internal characteristics such as self-control and delayed gratification See education as a mutual responsibility

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School-Family Linkages
Provide assistance to families Include families as participants in school decisions Communicate effectively with families about school programs and their child’s progress

Encourage parents to be volunteers

Involve families with their children in learning activities at home

Coordinate community collaboration
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Describe the term “peer status”?

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Peer Statuses
Popular
Frequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked by peers

Rejected
Seldom “best friend”; often actively disliked by peers

Neglected
Infrequently “best friend”; not disliked by peers

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Peer Statuses
Average
Receive both positive and negative peer nominations

Controversial
Frequently “best friend”; often disliked by peers

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Friendships
Reflect: What is a friend?
þÿ

Quality of Friendships Affect Outcomes

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Early Childhood and Elementary School
 Developmentally appropriate practices  Early Childhood Approaches
 Reggio Emilia  Montessori  Academic versus child-centered

 Transition to elementary schools

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Schools for Adolescents
 Transition to Middle or Junior HS  Stressful due to developmental changes  Top-dog phenomenon  Academic challenge  Carnegie Corporation 1989

Recommendations  Improving America’s High Schools
 High expectations for all students  Improve drop-out rates

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Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development

Socioemotional Development

The Self

Moral Development

Coping with Stress

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Describe the terms self-concept and self esteem.

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Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
Self-concept is a cognitive appraisal of our social, physical, and academic competence.

Academic

Social

Cognitive

Physical

Self-esteem is the affective or emotional reaction to one’s self-concept.

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Improving Children’s Self-Esteem
 Identify causes of low self-esteem and areas of competence important to the self  Provide emotional support and social approval  Help children achieve  Develop coping skills

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How can identity be described?

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Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity

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Ethnic Identity …
“is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feeling related to that membership” (Phinney, 2006) (as cited in Santrock, 2009).

Positive ethnic identity
  

Higher school engagement Lower aggression Navajo adolescents: higher self-esteem, school connectedness, and social functioning

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Which theory about moral develoment do you know?

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Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development

Preconventional

Moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments. Internal standards are imposed by others. Morality is internal, not based on external standards.

Conventional Postconventional

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice
Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, others might also do so and this could result in disorder in the classroom. Because of this, he understands that it is his duty to follow the rules.

Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is
Sam functioning?

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice
Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, he will be punished.

Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
is Sam functioning? Explain.

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice
Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, it will displease his teacher.

Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
is Sam functioning? Explain.

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Care vs. Justice Perspective
Justice perspective focuses
on rights of individuals

Care perspective
emphasizes relationships and concern for others
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Reflection & Observation
Reflection:

Recall a cheating incident. What factors influenced the decision to cheat?

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Enter the Debate
Should teachers teach students values/morality?
YES
þÿ

NO
þÿ

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Moral Education
1. Hidden Curriculum School personnel serve as models of ethical behavior. Classroom rules and peer relationships transmit positive attitudes to students. 2. Character Education Schools take a direct approach to teaching moral literacy and design an environment that rewards proper behavior.
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Moral Education
3. Values Clarification Schools design programs that allow students to clarify their own values and understand the values of others. 4. Cognitive Moral Education Schools base programs on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as moral reasoning develops.

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Moral Education
5. Service Learning Schools encourage students to be involved in the community by becoming a tutor, helping the elderly, volunteering in hospitals or day care, etc. 6. Integrative Approach Schools encourage students to be reflective moral thinkers and committed to justice, and develop children’s moral character.

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Crack the Case
The Case of the Fight
1. 2.

What are the issues in this case? At what stage of moral development would you expect these boys to be, based on the information you have? What predictions can you make regarding each boy’s sense of self and emotional development? What can you say about the boys’ mothers?

3.

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Crack the Case
The Case of the Fight
4.

5.

What do you think about the punishment that Luke received? How would you have handled this situation? What impact do you think this will have on the boys’ future relationship? What impact will it have on their attitudes toward school?

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Strategies for Coping with Stress
   

Reassure children Encourage talk Protect from re-exposure to stress Help make sense

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