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Paleo-Indian (late Ice Age, first peoples in Wisconsin)

Scottsbluff: One point that seems to reflect this style is

located in the framed collection. The blade is unusual, but the straight
haft and slight ears at its base seem to suggest a Scottsbluff
identification. If so, the point is between 8000 to 10,000 years old.
Early Archaic (vegetation begins to change towards modern conditions,
human population densities begin to rise).

Thebes Notched: The framed portion of the collection

contains one definite Thebes Notched point. These are very
distinctive, so identification is certain. These points are between 8000
to 10,000 years old, but your point should be closer to 8000 than
10,000 since Thebes points post-date Scottsbluff points in Wisconsin.

Kirk Corner-Notched: The framed portion of the

collection contains one point that I am fairly certain is a Kirk CornerNotched point. Other Kirks may be present, but again they are similar
enough to Hardin and Steuben points that I would like to check them
in person before making a final identification. Kirk points are
between 8900 to 9500 years old.

Hardin Barbed: Some of the points in the collection may

be Hardin Barbed points, which are similar in outline to two other
point styles (Kirk Corner-Notched and Steuben Expanding Stem). Ill
need to see these in person to check their cross-sections to tell which
are which. There is a wide range of dates for these points, but they are
usually considered to be anywhere from 7500 years old up to 10,000
years old.
Middle Archaic (first copper mining and working, establishment of
continent-wide trade routes)

Raddatz Side-Notched: The framed portion of the

collection contains a few small Raddatz Side-Notched points. These
points were manufactured between 5000 and 8000 years ago.

Matanzas Side-Notched: The cigar box contains a few

probable Matanzas points, which are a later version of the Raddatz
style. They are between 5000 to 5700 years old.
Late Archaic (increasing religious complexity, early experiments with
manipulation of plants)

Durst Stemmed: Durst points are represented in both the
framed and cigar box portions of the collection. Durst points were
made between 3800 and 5500 years ago.

Preston Corner-Notched: There is one possible Preston

point in the cigar box. If it is what it appears to be, then it was made
around 3,500 years ago.
Early Woodland (first gardens, first pottery, first burial mounds)

Kramer Stemmed: The cigar box contains at least one,

and possibly two Kramer Stemmed points. The second Kramer may
be a Waubesa with a snapped base, so Ill need to check that one in
person to tell. Kramer points were made between 2500 and 3000
years ago.

Waubesa Contracting Stemmed: If the second possible

Kramer point in the cigar box is a Waubesa point instead, then it was
made between 1800 to 2500 years ago.
Middle Woodland (widespread religious movements and trade, use of
mounds to create astronomical calendars, high levels of artistic

Snyders Cluster: Two points in the framed set fall within

a broad range of style called the Snyders cluster, but cant be
attributed to specific point types. They date to the period between
2200 and 1800 years ago.

Steuben Expanding Stem: Some of the less identifiable

points in the collection may be Steuben points and Ill have to see
them in person to tell for sure. If some are Steubens, they date to the
period between 1500 and 1700 years ago.
Late Woodland (shift towards local interests and drop-off in trade, rise
of effigy mound builders)

Honey Creek Corner-Notched: A couple of the smaller

corner-notched points in the framed case and cigar box may be Honey
Creek points. If so, they are the oldest true arrow points known in
Wisconsin and were made between 1200 and 1700 years ago.

Madison Triangular: The small, simple, triangular points

in the framed case (and one possible one in the cigar boxIll have to
check) are Madison Triangulars. These little arrow points were made
by the effigy builders and their descendants, right up to the period of
European contact (1100 to 300 years ago). One of the triangular

points in the framed case is a little too long to be an arrow point, and
may be a knife made in the same stylesometimes called a
Kolterman Knife, though it is a little too narrow compared to other
Kolterman Knives Ive seen.
The Cigar Box also contains an assortment of other stone tools and
chippings. Quite a few of the pieces in the box are chippings of stone that
were either by-products of tool manufacture or by-products that were picked
up and used as a handy and quick tool before being thrown away. The box
also contains a couple of drill bits, some hide scrapers, lots of broken tips of
spear points or knives, and some blanks/bifaces. Blanks/bifaces are pieces
of stone that were worked down into an all-purpose shape and then carried
around, ready to be made into a spearpoint, knife, or other tool as
circumstances demanded.
Most of the stone types look to be local varieties, with the exception of one
point in the framed case, which is made of orthoquartzite from northwestern
Wisconsin (it is the brownish, sparkly one that looks a little glassy).
If you have any further questions, please let me know. I will be out of the
office working with 4th graders the remainder of this week, but will check email in the evenings.
Amy L. Rosebrough
Staff Archaeologist
State Archaeology and Maritime Preservation Program
Wisconsin Historical Society
816 State Street, Madison, WI 53706
Collecting, Preserving and Sharing Stories Since 1846.

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