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Tng quan v h thng my tnh

TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI


VIN CNG NGH THNG TIN V TRUYN THNG

Phn cng
Ton b my mc, thit b in t cu to nn my tnh

Phn mm
L chng trnh chy trn my tnh

TIN HC I CNG
Bi 2: H thng my tnh

Phn mm
H iu hnh

Phn cng
ng dng

Tho cc c vt m np hp
3

Phn cng

Phn cng
Phn cng

power supply

Mn hnh
Loa
Bn phm
Chut
CPU
...

processor

ports

memory

video card

sound card
6
5

H iu hnh

Mng my tnh

Sau khi mua my tnh

Ni dung

Ni dung

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh

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Ni dung

2.1.1. M hnh c bn ca my tnh

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh

a. Chc nng ca h thng my tnh


b. Cu trc ca h thng my tnh
c. Hot ng ca my tnh

2.1.1. M hnh c bn ca my tnh


2.1.2. B x l trung tm CPU
2.1.3. B nh
2.1.4. H thng vo-ra
2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (buses)
2.1.6. Tng kt

2.2. Phn mm my tnh


2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
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12

a. Chc nng ca h thng my tnh

a. Chc nng ca h thng my tnh

V d:

Cui mi hc k, phng o to nhp im


thi ca SV vo my tnh, tnh ton kt qu hc
tp ca SV, in ra danh sch SV t hc bng
My tnh thc hin pht mt bn nhc, b
phim c lu tr trong my tnh. Bi ht hay
b phim ny c th c sao chp cho ngi
khc

X l d liu
Lu tr d liu
Trao i d liu
iu khin

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a. Chc nng ca h thng my tnh

a. Chc nng ca h thng my tnh

X l d liu:

Trao i d liu:
Trao i d liu gia cc thnh phn bn
trong v bn ngoi my tnh Qu trnh vo
ra (input-output)
Cc thit b vo-ra: ngun cung cp d liu
hoc ni tip nhn d liu.
D liu c vn chuyn trn khong cch
xa gi l truyn d liu (data communication).
iu khin:
My tnh cn phi iu khin ba chc nng
trn

Chc nng quan trng nht ca my tnh


D liu c th c rt nhiu dng khc nhau v
c yu cu x l khc nhau.

Lu tr d liu:
D liu a vo my tnh c x l ngay
hoc c th c lu trong b nh.
Khi cn chng s c ly ra x l.

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a. Chc nng ca h thng my tnh


INPUT
THIT B VO

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT


B X L TRUNG TM

b. Cu trc ca h thng my tnh

OUTPUT
THIT B RA

STORAGE
THIT B LU TR

Cc thnh phn chnh ca h thng my tnh


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b. Cu trc ca h thng my tnh

c. Hot ng ca my tnh

B x l trung tm CPU (Central Processor


Unit)

Hot ng c bn ca my tnh l thc


hin chng trnh.
Chng trnh gm mt tp cc lnh c
lu tr trong b nh

iu khin cc hot ng ca my tnh v thc


hin x l d liu.

B nh chnh (Main Memory)


Lu tr chng trnh v d liu.

H thng vo ra (Input-Output System):


Trao i thng tin gia my tnh v th gii bn
ngoi

Lin kt h thng (System Interconnection):


Kt ni v vn chuyn thng tin gia CPU, b
nh chnh v h thng vo ra ca my tnh vi
nhau.
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Ni dung

2.1.2. B x l trung tm - CPU

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh

2.1.1. M hnh c bn ca my tnh


2.1.2. B x l trung tm CPU
2.1.3. B nh
2.1.4. H thng vo-ra
2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (buses)
2.1.6. Tng kt

2.2. Phn mm my tnh


2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
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Control Unit (CU)


Arithmetic Bus
Logic
Unit (ALU)
Interface
Unit (RF)
Register File
iu khin hot ng ca
Internal
bus
Thc hin
cc
toni
sthng
hc tin
Kt
niphp
v
trao
Lu
tr
cc thng
tin tm thi
my tnh theo Kt ni cc
thnh
phn
bn
v cc
php
ton
logic
trn
cc
dvi
gia
ccvbus
bn
trong
phc
cho
hot
ng
ca CPU
chng trnh nh sn trong CPU vi nhau
liu
cbn
th ngoi vi nhau
cc
bus

2.1.2. B x l trung tm - CPU


Chc nng
iu khin hot ng ca ton b h thng my tnh
X l d liu

Nguyn tc hot ng: CPU hot ng theo


chng trnh nm trong b nh chnh, bng
cch:

Bus bn trong

Nhn lnh t b nh chnh


Gii m lnh v pht cc tn hiu iu khin thc thi
lnh
CPU c th trao i d liu vi b nh chnh hay h
thng vo-ra.
Thc hin lnh
Ghi kt qu

Bus bn ngoi

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2.1.2. B x l trung tm - CPU

2.1.2. B x l trung tm - CPU


Cc thnh phn c bn
Khi iu khin (Control Unit CU)
iu khin hot ng ca my tnh theo chng trnh
nh sn
Khi tnh ton s hc v logic (Arithmetic Logic Unit ALU):
Thc hin cc php ton s hc v cc php ton
logic trn cc d liu c th
Tp cc thanh ghi (Register File - RF)
Lu tr cc thng tin tm thi phc v cho hot ng
ca CPU
Bus bn trong (Internal Bus)
Kt ni cc thnh phn bn trong CPU vi nhau
n v ghp ni bus (Bus Interface Unit BIU)
Kt ni v trao i thng tin vi nhau gia cc bus
bn trong vi cc bus bn ngoi.

B vi x l (Microprocessor)
L CPU c ch to trn
mt vi mch.
C th gi CPU l b vi x l.
Tuy nhin, cc b vi x l
hin nay c cu trc phc tp
hn nhiu so vi mt CPU c
bn.

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a. B vi x l (Microprocessor)

Tc b vi x l

Tc ca b vi x l
S lnh c thc hin trong 1s
MIPS (Milliions of Intructions per Second)
Kh nh gi chnh xc (cn ph thuc b
nh, bo mch ha)

Tn s xung nhp ca b x l
B x l hot ng theo mt xung nhp (clock)
c tn s xc nh
Tc ca b x l c nh gi gin tip
thng qua tn s xung nhp

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Tc b vi x l

Intel Pentium 4

Mt s siu my tnh (06/2011):


http://www.top500.org/
#1 : K Computer (Nht Bn) AICS

68544 b vi x l 8 nhn
Tc hin ti: 8.162 petaflops (10 triu t php tnh/giy)
D kin : 10 petaflops
6 t ngi dng my tnh cm tay * 24h/ngy * 7 ngy/tun *
450 nm = 1 ngy K

#2 : Tianhe-1A, Trung Quc, 2.566 petaflops


#3 : Jaguar, Hoa K, 1.759 petaflops
#4 : Nebulae, Trung Quc, 1.271 petaflops
#5 : TSUBAME-2, Nht Bn,
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Intel Pentium D

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Intel Dual Core, Core 2 Duo

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Intel Core i3

Intel Core i5, i7

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Intel Core i7 970

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Ni dung
2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh

2.1.1. M hnh c bn ca my tnh


2.1.2. B x l trung tm CPU
2.1.3. B nh
2.1.4. H thng vo-ra
2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (buses)
2.1.6. Tng kt

2.2. Phn mm my tnh


2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
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H thng nh thng dng

2.1.3. B nh
Chc nng: Lu tr chng trnh v d
liu
Cc thao tc c bn vi b nh:
Thao tc c (read)
Thao tc ghi (write)

Cc thnh phn chnh


B nh trong (Internal Memory)
B nh ngoi (External Memory)
T tri sang phi:

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a. B nh trong

Dung lng tng dn


Tc gim dn
Gi thnh/1bit gim dn

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i. B nh chnh
L thnh phn nh tn ti trn mi h thng
my tnh
Cha cc chng trnh v d liu ang
c CPU s dng

Chc nng v c im
Cha cc thng tin m CPU c th trao i
trc tip
Tc rt nhanh
Dung lng khng ln
S dng b nh bn dn: ROM v RAM

T chc thnh cc ngn nh c nh a ch

Ngn nh thng c t chc theo Byte


Ni dung ca ngn nh c th thay i,
song a ch vt l ca ngn nh lun c
nh
Thng thng, b nh chnh gm 2 phn:

Cc loi b nh trong:
B nh chnh
B nh cache (b nh m nhanh)

ROM
RAM
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10

ROM Read Only Memory

ROM Read Only Memory

Vng b nh ch c Thng tin khng b mt i

Chc nng chnh:

khi mt ngun in
Tch hp trn cc thit b
Ni dung c ci t ti ni sn xut thit b

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Phn loi RAM theo cng ngh ch to

RAM Random Access Memory

SRAM (Static RAM): RAM tnh

B nh truy cp ngu nhin


Khng phi di chuyn tun t
c chia thnh cc nh c nh
a ch
Thi gian thc hin thao tc c
hoc ghi i vi mi nh l nh
nhau, cho d ang bt k v tr
no trong b nh
Lu tr cc thng tin thay i, v cc
thng tin c s dng hin hnh
Thng tin lu trn RAM ch l tm thi,
chng s mt i khi mt ngun in
cung cp

Cha cc phn mm thc hin cc cng vic


ca thit b (firmware).
i khi c gi: ROM BIOS (Basic
Input/Output System)

DRAM (Dynamic RAM): RAM ng


SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM):
SDR (Single Data Rate): li thi
DDR (Double Data Rate): c thay th bi
DDR2
DDR2 (Double Data Rate 2), DDR3: L th h tip
theo ca DDR, hin c s dng rng ri
RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic RAM): t ngi dng v
khng nhanh hn SDRAM l bao nhng li t hn
nhiu
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Dung lng: 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512 MB, 1GB, 2GB...

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11

ii. B nh m nhanh (Cache memory)

b. B nh ngoi
Chc nng v c im

Tc x l CPU >> tc truy cp d liu t RAM


S dng b nh Cache :

Lu gi ti nguyn phn mm ca my tnh,


bao gm: H iu hnh, cc chng trnh v
d liu
B nh ngoi c kt ni vi h thng di
dng cc thit b vo ra
Dung lng ln
Tc chm

Cc khi d liu t RAM c np vo Cache khi cn


CPU thao tc vi d liu trn Cache thay v trn RAM

Hin nay, CACHE c tch hp trong chip vi x l


CPU truy nhp d liu trong CACHE nhanh hn so vi
RAM nhng dung lng nh hn
CACHE thng c chia ra mt s mc: cache L1, L2,
CACHE c th c hoc khng

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b. B nh ngoi (tip)

i. a mm Floppy disk

Cc loi b nh ngoi:

Dung lng : 1.44MB

B nh t: a cng, a mm
B nh quang: a CD, DVD,
B nh bn dn: Flash disk, memory card

Kch thc : 3.5


C 2 mt a
Phm vi s dng: khng thng
dng

shutter
shell
liner

Laptop: Hu nh khng c.
Desktop: t s dng.
magnetic
coating
metal hub
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flexible thin film

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iii. cng ngoi

ii. a cng Hard disk

D dng mang t ni ny
sang ni khc.

Dung lng ln
L ni ci t HH v
cc chng trnh ng
dng

Kt ni qua cc giao tip:


USB 2.0
IEEE 1394, FireWare 800

Phm vi s dng:
rng

Ethernet

Mt my tnh PC: c
th c nhiu cng

S dng:
Lu tr d liu
Lu tr trong mng
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iii. CD ROM - Compact disc read-only memory


Thng c kch thc
700M

CD R v CD RW

Nhn nt m np.
Phi c CD -W &
phn mm h tr ghi

c gi l a quang,
c bng u c laze
Tc c chm hn
so vi a t ( cng)

CD-R (compact disc-recordable)


ch ghi 1 ln

Khng th xa
D liu trn CD

Cho a vo.
CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)
c th xa, hoc ghi li nhiu ln

Phn loi:
CD R

Nhn nt ng np.

Phi c CD-RW &


phn mm h tr
Xa & ghi

CD RW
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iv. DVD - Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc

v. Flash sticks or memory - USB


Kt ni vi my tnh qua cng USB

Phn loi:

Kch thc: a dng 1G, 2G,..

Mt mt : 4.7GB

S dng rng ri:

Hai mt : 8.5GB

Lu tr d liu c nhn

Cn c c/ghi DVD

S dng trong cc thit b nghe


nhn

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Ni dung

2.1.4. H thng vo-ra

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh

Chc nng: Trao i thng tin gia my


tnh vi th gii bn ngoi.
Cc thao tc c bn

2.1.1. M hnh c bn ca my tnh


2.1.2. B x l trung tm CPU
2.1.3. B nh
2.1.4. H thng vo-ra
2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (buses)
2.1.6. Tng kt

Vo d liu (Input)
Ra d liu (Output)

Cc thnh phn chnh:


Cc thit b vo-ra (IO devices) hay cn gi
l thit b ngoi vi (Peripheral devices)
Cc m-un ghp ni vo-ra (IO Interface
modules)

2.2. Phn mm my tnh


2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
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14

b. Cc thit b vo ra

a. Cu trc c bn ca h thng vo-ra

Chc nng: Chuyn i d liu gia bn


trong v bn ngoi my tnh
Cc thit b ngoi vi c bn:
Thit b vo: Bn phm, chut, my qut,
Thit b ra: Mn hnh, my in,
Thit b nh: Cc a,
Thit b truyn thng: Modem,

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c. M-un ghp ni vo ra

Ni dung

Cc thit b vo ra khng kt ni trc tip vi


CPU m c kt ni thng qua cc m-un
ghp ni vo-ra.
Trong cc m un ghp ni vo-ra c cc cng
vo-ra (IO Port)
Cc cng ny cng c nh a ch bi CPU,
c ngha l mi cng cng c mt a ch xc
nh.
Mi thit b vo-ra kt ni vi CPU thng qua
cng tng ng vi a ch xc nh.

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh

2.1.1. M hnh c bn ca my tnh


2.1.2. B x l trung tm CPU
2.1.3. B nh
2.1.4. H thng vo-ra
2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (buses)
2.1.6. Tng kt

2.2. Phn mm my tnh


2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
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2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (tip)

2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (buses)


CPU, b nh chnh v h thng vo-ra cn phi
kt ni vi nhau trao i thng tin
Vic kt ni ny c thc hin bng mt tp
cc ng kt ni gi l bus
Thc t bus trong my tnh kh phc tp, n
c th hin bng cc ng dn trn cc bn
mch, cc khe cm trn bn mch chnh, cc
cp ni,

rng ca bus: L s ng dy ca
bus c th truyn cc bit thng tin ng
thi.
V chc nng, bus c chia lm 3 loi
chnh: Bus a ch, bus d liu v bus iu
khin

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Bus a ch

Bus d liu

Chc nng : vn chuyn a ch xc


nh v tr d liu trn b nh chnh hay
cng vo ra.
rng bus : N-bit cho bit s lng ngn
nh ti a c nh a ch.

Vn chuyn d liu gia cc CPU v cc


thnh phn khc trong h thng
rng : M-bit
M = 8,16, 32, 64, 128

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Bus iu khin

Ni dung

Vn chuyn cc tn hiu iu khin :

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh

c/ghi d liu
Ngt
iu khin bus

2.1.1. M hnh c bn ca my tnh


2.1.2. B x l trung tm CPU
2.1.3. B nh
2.1.4. H thng vo-ra
2.1.5. Lin kt h thng (buses)
2.1.6. Tng kt

2.2. Phn mm my tnh


2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
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Mt s bus in hnh trong my tnh

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Mt s bus in hnh

Bus ca CPU-Front Side Bus : c tc nhanh nht


Bus ca b nh chnh
AGP bus ( Accelerated Graphic Port) : bus ha ni
ghp cc mn hnh tng tc
PCI bus ( Peripheral Component Interconnect) : ni ghp
vi cc thit b ngoi vi c tc trao i d liu nhanh
IDE ( Intergrated Device Electronics) : Bus kt ni vi
cng, quang
SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
USB (Universal Serial Bus) : bus kt ni a nng

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17

i. My tnh

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i. My tnh

i. My tnh

Hp my tnh (Case):

Cc thit b ngoi vi (Peripheral Devices):

Bn mch chnh (Mainboard):

Mn hnh (monitor), bn phm (keyboard),


chut (mouse), loa (speaker), my in (printer),
my qut nh (scanner), modem, ...

B vi x l
B nh h thng: chip nh ROM v cc module
nh RAM
Cc vi mch iu khin tng hp (chipset)
Cc khe cm m rng
Cc knh truyn tn hiu (bus)

Cc loi a: a cng, a mm, a


quang, ...
Cc cng vo-ra
B ngun v qut

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ii. Hp my tnh (Case)

iii. Cc loi a

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iv. Cc cng vo-ra

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v. B ngun v qut

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viii. B nh h thng

x. Cc thit b ngoi vi

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Ni dung

x. Cc thit b ngoi vi (tip)

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2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh

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Ni dung

2.2.1. Khi nim

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh

My tnh hot ng theo mt qui trnh t


ng nh sn gi l chng trnh
(program) hay cn gi l Phn mm my
tnh (Software Computer).
My tnh c th hot ng nu thiu phn
mm?
Gi ca mt s phn mm?
Lm th no vit ra phn mm?

2.2.1. Khi nim


2.2.2. Phn loi phn mm my tnh

2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh


2.4. Mng my tnh

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2.2.2. Phn loi phn mm my tnh

2.2.2. Phn loi phn mm


Phn loi theo phng thc hot ng:
Phn mm h thng:
Dng vn hnh my tnh v cc phn cng
my tnh
V d: BIOS, trnh iu khin (driver, firmware) h
iu hnh,
Phn mm ng dng:
Phn mm dng gii quyt cc vn phc v
cho cc hot ng khc nhau ca con ngi nh
qun l, k ton, son tho vn bn, tr chi.
Nhu cu v phn mm ng dng ngy cng tng
v a dng.

Phn loi theo c th ng dng v mi


trng:
Phn mm thi gian thc (Real-time SW)
Phn mm nghip v (Business SW)
Phn mm tnh ton KH&KT (Eng.&Scie. SW)
Phn mm nhng (Embedded SW)
Phn mm trn Web (Web-based SW)
Phn mm tr tu nhn to (AI SW)

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Ni dung

2.3. Ni dung
2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh
2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh

2.3.1. Cc khi nim c bn


2.3.2. H lnh ca h iu hnh
2.3.3. H iu hnh Windows

2.4. Mng my tnh

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a. H iu hnh (tip)

a. H iu hnh

H iu hnh l phn mm h thng, nn ph


thuc vo cu trc ca my tnh. Mi loi my tnh
c h iu hnh khc nhau.
V d:
My tnh ln IBM360 c h iu hnh l DOS,
TOS.
My tnh ln EC-1022 c h iu hnh l OC-EC.
My tnh c nhn PC-IBM c h iu hnh MSDOS.
Mng my tnh c cc h iu hnh mng
NETWARE, UNIX, WINDOWS-NT

L phn mm h thng
gip:
iu khin v kim sot
hot ng ca cc thit b
( a, bn phm, mn
hnh, my in).
Qun l vic cp pht ti
nguyn ca my tnh nh
b x l trung tm, b
nh, cc thit b vo ra
Sp xp s thc thi ca
tt c cc phn mm khc
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b. Tp

b. Tp (tip)

Tp l tp hp cc d liu c lin quan vi


nhau v c t chc theo 1 cu trc, thng
c lu tr bn ngoi my tnh.
Ni dung ca tp c th l chng trnh, d liu,
vn bn,...
Tn tp tin thng c 2 phn:
phn tn (name)
phn m rng (extension)
Gia phn tn v phn m rng c mt du
chm (.) ngn cch.

Phn tn:
K t ch t A n Z
Ch s t 0 n 9,
K t khc nh #, $, %, ~, ^, @, (, ), !, _, khong
trng.
Lu : Nn t tn mang tnh gi nh.
VD:
Tn file hp l: dulieu100101.txt,
dulieu$100101.dat
Tn file khng hp l: dulieu100101.txt, ?abc.dat

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b. Tp (tip)

c. Qun l tp tin ca h iu hnh

Phn m rng:

Cu trc a t

Thng l 3 k t hp l.
Chng trnh ng dng to ra tp tin t t.
VD:
COM, EXE : Cc file kh thi chy trc tip
TXT, DOC, ... : Cc file vn bn.
BMP, GIF, JPG, ... : Cc file hnh nh.
MP3, DAT, WMA, : Cc file m thanh, video.

a t gm nhiu a (Platter) gn ng
trc

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c. Qun l tp tin ca h iu hnh (tip)

c. Qun l tp tin ca h iu hnh (tip)

A - Rnh t (track)

T chc ghi thng tin trn a

Rnh ng trn ng tm, nh s t ngoi vo trong


bt u t 0

B - Di Cung t (Sector track)


C - Cung t (Sector)

Thng tin lu tr trn a di dng cc tp.


Mi tp chim 1 hoc nhiu sectors.

H iu hnh cho php chia a thnh cc


phn vng. Mi vng cha:

Kch thc: 512B

Thng tin qun l phn vng


Thng tin ca tp tin
Tp c lu tr cc vng, c t chc lu
tr ny c dng cy (Tree)

D - Lin cung (Cluster)


Cylinder: cc rnh c cng
bn knh nm trn cc mt
a khc nhau
93

c. Qun l tp tin ca h iu hnh (tip)

94

c. Qun l tp tin ca h iu hnh (tip)


Cch xc nh tn y ca tp
Tn tp y gm ni lu tr tp : ng
dn t gc n tp (Path) + tn tp
K hiu \ : ngn cch tn cc th mc

V d :

Th mc l ni lu gi cc tp tin theo mt ch
no theo ngi s dng
Trong Windows
Trn mi a c mt th mc chung gi l th mc
gc
Th mc hay cn gi l Folder
Th mc gc khng c tn ring v c k hiu l \

C:\TC\BIN\B1.C

95

96

24

2.3. Ni dung

2.3.2. H lnh ca h iu hnh

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh

Thao tc vi tp: Sao chp, di chuyn,


xo, i tn, xem ni dung tp
Thao tc vi th mc: to, xo, sao chp
Thao tc vi a: to khun ( Format), sao
chp a

2.3.1. Cc khi nim c bn


2.3.2. H lnh ca h iu hnh
2.3.3. H iu hnh Windows

2.4. Mng my tnh

97

98

2.3. Ni dung

2.3.3. H iu hnh Windows

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh

S ra i v pht trin
Windows l mt b chng trnh do hng
Microsoft sn xut.
T version 1.0 ra i vo nm 1985 n nay

2.3.1. Cc khi nim c bn


2.3.2. H lnh ca h iu hnh
2.3.3. H iu hnh Windows

2.4. Mng my tnh

99

100

25

a. Cc loi i tng trong HH Windows

a. Cc loi i tng trong HH Windows


Hp thoi
L mt ca s nh giao tip gia ngi s dng v
chng trnh
Nt
Cung cp cho ngi s dng mt cch n gin
kch hot mt thao tc

Bng chn (Menu)


Tp cc thao tc c hin th trn mn hnh m ngi
s dng c th la chn.
Mc (Item)
Mt thao tc trn menu
Thanh menu

Nt ng

Menu ko
xung

Mc
Nt n

Nt n

Nt n

101

102

a. Cc loi i tng trong HH Windows

a. Cc loi i tng trong HH Windows

Cc loi i tng trong Windows

Ca s
Thng l mt hnh ch nht, hin th u ra
hoc cho php nhp d liu...

Tp tin
Mt tp cc thng tin c lin quan vi
nhau m my tnh c th truy nhp
thng qua tn.

Th mc
L mt vng lu tr cc tp tin.
Mt th mc c th c nhiu th mc
con

Biu tng
L nhng hnh nh nh biu din tp
tin, th mc, phn cng....
103

104

26

b. Mt s thao tc c bn

i. Khi ng/tt my

Khi ng/tt my tnh


S dng chut
Khi ng chng trnh

Khi ng my tnh

Nt ngun

V my
105

106

i. Khi ng/tt my

i. Khi ng/tt my

Khi ng my tnh (2)

Tt my tnh theo cch thng thng (Shut down/Turn


Off)
Lu tt c cc tp tin, ng tt c cc chng trnh ng
dng ang m

Ch cho ti khi hin th mn hnh ng nhp


Chn tn ngi dng v g mt khu tng ng

Stand By: Tm ngh


Turn Off: Tt my
Restart: Khi ng li my

107

108

27

i. Khi ng/tt my

i. Khi ng/tt my

Tt my tnh theo cch p t


Bm v gi nt ngun Power trong khong 5-10
giy

Thot ra khi ngi dng hin ti (Log off)


Lu tt c cc tp tin, ng tt c cc chng
trnh ng dng ang m

Log Off: Thot khi phin


lm vic ngi dng hin ti

Nt ngun

Switch User: i ngi dng

V my
(case)

109

ii. S dng chut

110

ii. S dng chut


Cc thao tc c bn vi chut

L thit b vo
C th c dy hoc khng dy

Cun chut

iu khin con tr chut tng tc vi cc i tng


C hai phm bm:

Nhp chut phi


(nhn vo nt
tri chut)

Nt tri thng dng chn i tng; r i

Nhp chut
tri
(nhn vo nt
n
phi chut)

tng...
Nt phi thng dng hin th danh sch cng vic

Nhp p Nhp 2 ln lin


tip nt tri chut

tng ng vi vng hoc i tng c chn.


111

112

28

ii. S dng chut

ii. S dng chut


Chn nhiu i tng

Chn i tng

Chn cc i tng lin tip


C1: Nhp chut tri, gi v
ko con tr chut ph ht b
mt cc i tng cn chn
C2: Nhp chn i tng u,
va nhn gi phm Shift va
nhp chn i tng cui
Chn cc i tng khng lin
tip nhau
Va nhn gi phm Ctrl va
nhp chn tng i tng mt

Di chuyn chut n i tng


cn thao tc ri nhp tri chut
chn

Ko th (drag and drop)


Chn i tng
Gi chut v dch chuyn
i tng n v tr cn th
Nh chut tri

113

ii. S dng chut

iii. Khi ng chng trnh

Cc hnh dng thng dng ca chut


Biu tng

114

Start All Programs


Chn chng trnh
cn khi ng

Tn
Hnh dng thng thng - Normal Select
ang bn - Busy
Thay i kch c theo chiu dc - Vertical Resize
Thay i kch c theo chiu ngang - Horizontal Resize
Thay i kch c cho Diagonal Resize
Chn on vn bn Text Select
Chn m lin kt Link Select

1
115

116

29

iii. Khi ng chng trnh

c. Lm vic vi Desktop

Mt s chng trnh c sn trong HH Windows: Start


All Programs Accessories

Biu tng

Paint: Chng trnh v n gin


Calculator: My tnh tnh ton cc php ton n gin
Notepad: Son tho vn bn n gin

Mn hnh desktop

Nt Start

117

i. Biu tng

Thanh khi ng nhanh


(Quick Launch)

Khay h thng

Thanh cng vic (Task bar)


118

ii.Thanh khi ng nhanh (Quick Launch)

Ta c th vo cc chng trnh hoc cc ca s bng


cch nhp p chut vo cc biu tng tng ng

Gip lin kt nhanh ti cc chng trnh c biu tng nm trn


thanh Quick Launch
Nhp tri chut vo biu tng trn thanh Quick Launch khi
ng chng trnh tng ng

Biu tng th mc
Biu tng ca h iu hnh
Chng trnh nghe nhc
Windows Media Player
Trnh duyt Internet Explorer

Biu tng tp tin

Hin th mn hnh desktop

Biu tng ng dng


120
119

30

iv. Thay i nh nn ca mn hnh

iii. Sp xp cc biu tng trn mn hnh

Nhp chut phi vo khong trng trn mn


hnh, chn Properties
Chn Desktop Browse Chn nh

Nhp chut phi vo


khong trng trn
mn hnh Desktop
Sp xp theo tn
Sp xp theo kch c

Sp xp theo loi

Sp xp theo ngy sa i
Sp xp t ng

122
121

iv. Thay i nh nn ca mn hnh

iv. Thay i nh nn ca mn hnh


C th chn cc hnh nh c sn trong phn
Background ri chn OK.

Chn Stretch trong Position, nhn OK.

Kqu

123

124

31

d. Lm vic vi ca s

d. Lm vic vi ca s

M mt ca s
Nhp p chut vo mt biu tng ca mt
chng trnh no trn mn hnh desktop
vo ca s ca chng trnh.
Nhp p chut vo biu tng
trn mn hnh Desktop vo ca s qun l
cc a ca my tnh.

Thanh tiu

Thanh menu

Thanh cng c

Vng lm vic

125

d. Lm vic vi ca s

Thanh trng thi

Thanh cun (ngang, dc)

d. Lm vic vi ca s
Di chuyn ca s
Chn thanh tiu , gi chut v ko ti v tr cn di
chuyn ri th chut

Thay i kch thc ca s

a cng

Tr chut vo cnh, gc ca ca s v ko
DVD

trng thi

My computer

CD
127

128

32

d. Lm vic vi ca s

d. Lm vic vi ca s
Phng to ca s

M rng ca s

ng ca s

Thu nh ca s

C th dng t hp
phm Alt-F4 ng
ca s

129

130

e. Control Panel

d. Lm vic vi ca s

Trong Control Panel

Thay i ca s lm vic
Dng chut chn nt
mong mun trong
thanh tc v

Tr v kch thc c

Ci t v loi b Font ch
Thay i dng hin mn hnh desktop
Ci t v loi b chng trnh
Cu hnh ngy, gi cho h thng
Thay i thuc tnh ca bn phm v chut
Thay i thuc tnh vng (Regional Settings)
Ci t / loi b my in
(Demo)
(Xem thm ti liu/slide v Control Panel)

Cc ca s hin thi

C th dng t hp
phm Alt-Tab

132
131

33

f. Windows Explorer

f. Windows Explorer

Windows Explorer: l mt chng trnh


c h tr t phin bn Windows 95
cho php ngi s dng thao tc vi
cc ti nguyn c trong my tnh nh tp
tin, th mc, a v nhng ti nguyn
khc c trong my ca bn cng nh cc
my tnh trong h thng mng

+E

click chut
phi vo
Start, chn
Explorer

133

Ni dung

g. Thao tc vi tp/th mc

134

M tp tin/th mc
Chn tp tin/th mc
To th mc
Sao chp/di chuyn
Xa/phc hi
Thay i thuc tnh
(Demo)
(Xem thm ti liu/slide v thao tc tp v
th mc)

135

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh

136

34

Ni dung

2.4.1. Lch s pht trin mng my tnh

L mt tp hp gm
nhiu my tnh hoc
thit b x l thng tin
c kt ni vi nhau
qua cc ng truyn.
Mc ch
Trao i thng tin gia
cc my tnh
Chia s ti nguyn

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
2.4.1. Lch s pht trin mng my tnh
2.4.2. Phn loi mng my tnh
2.4.3. Mng Internet

137

138

2.4.1. Lch s pht trin mng my tnh (tip)

2.4.1. Lch s pht trin mng my tnh (tip)

V d:

1960s mng my tnh bt u xut hin.


Lc u mng c dng l mt my tnh
ln ni vi nhiu trm cui (terminal).
1970s mng my tnh l cc my tnh c
lp c ni vi nhau.
Qui m v mc phc tp ca mng
ngy cng tng.

Mng ti Trung tm My tnh, Vin CNTT


&TT, Trng HBK H Ni
Mng LAN ca qun Game
Mng Internet

139

140

35

Ni dung

a. Theo mi quan h gia cc my

Mng bnh ng (peer-to-peer) cc my


c quan h ngang hng
Mng khch/ch (client/server).

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh

mt s my l server (my phc v/my ch)


chuyn phc v
cc my khc gi l my khch (client) hay
my trm (workstation)

2.4.1. Lch s pht trin mng my tnh


2.4.2. Phn loi mng my tnh
2.4.3. Mng Internet

141

b. Theo quy m a l

142

b. Theo quy m a l
Loi 2. WAN (Wide Area Network)
Mng din rng, cc my tnh c th cc
thnh ph khc nhau.
Bn knh c th 100-200 km
V d:

3 loi
Loi 1. LAN (Local Area Network)
Mng cc b trong phm vi nh: vn phng,
ta nh, mt s ta nh gn nhau(500m)
s lng my tnh khng qu nhiu, mng
khng qu phc tp.
V d: mng ti qun Game, trng hc

mng ca Tng cc thu.

143

144

36

b. Theo quy m a l

Ni dung

Loi 3. GAN (Global Area Network)


Mng ton cu, my tnh nhiu nc khc
nhau. Thng mng ton cu l kt hp ca
nhiu mng con.
V d: mng Internet.

2.1. T chc bn trong my tnh


2.2. Phn mm my tnh
2.3. Gii thiu h iu hnh
2.4. Mng my tnh
2.4.1. Lch s pht trin mng my tnh
2.4.2. Phn loi mng my tnh
2.4.3. Mng Internet

145

146

2.4.4. Mng Internet

2.4.4. Mng Internet

Khi nim v Internet :

Khi nim v Internet :

Internet l mt mng my tnh c qui m ton


cu (GAN), gm rt nhiu mng con v my
tnh ni vi nhau bng nhiu loi phng tin
truyn.

Internet khng thuc s hu ca ai c. Ch c


cc u ban iu phi v k thut gip iu
hnh Internet.
Ban u l mng ARPANET ca B Quc
phng M (DoD)

147

148

37

Internet

S pht trin ca Internet

Li ch:
H thng th in t (email)
Tr chuyn trc tuyn (chat)
My truy tm d liu (search engine)
Cc dch v thng mi v chuyn ngn, v
cc dch v v y t gio dc nh l cha bnh
t xa hoc t chc cc lp hc o.
tng ti phng th nghim
ca ARPA (9/1969)
149

150

S pht trin ca Internet (2)

Kt ni Internet ti nh

1974: khi nim Internet xut hin


1983: ARPANET tch thnh MILNET(qun
i) v NSFnet (nghin cu)
1987: NSFnet c m ca cho cc c
nhn
1988: Internet hnh thnh
1997: Vit Nam kt ni Internet

My tnh kt ni vi Modem/Router/USB3G
C thu bao kt ni Internet vi ti khon ng k vi
mt nh cung cp dch v (Internet Service Provider ISP)
Hnh thc: qua ng in thoi, ng thu ring,
ng truyn hnh cp
Nh cung cp dch v Internet: VNN, Vietel, FPT,
EVN, Truyn hnh cp Vit Nam/H Ni/TP HCM...
Ci t cc phn mm Internet thng dng

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hIQjrMHTv4

Trnh duyt web nh IE, FireFox


Yahoo! Messenger chat trn mng...
151

152

38

C bn v Word Wide Web (WWW)

Giao thc (Protocol)

Gi tt l Web

Giao thc (Protocol): Tp cc qui c truyn


thng.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol): Giao thc
c s dng truyn cc trang Web (siu
vn bn)
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure):
Giao thc bo mt cho cc giao dch b mt
(confidential)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
SMTP
POP3

L mt h thng bao gm cc ti liu siu


vn bn (hypertext) c th truy cp qua
Internet
Cc ti liu c th cha cc lin kt ti
cc ti liu khc c th trn my tnh khc
bt k ni no trn th gii
L ng dng chy trn Internet
153

Website v URL

154

Cu trc ca URL

Website: Tp hp nhiu trang web (webpage)


c t trn 1 my tnh trong mng Internet v
c chung mt a ch Internet.
V d: http://www.truongcongnghe.vn/
Mt trang web c mt a ch URL duy nht
URL (Uniform Resource Locator):
Tham chiu n cc ti nguyn trn Internet
a ch ca cc ti nguyn trn Internet

155

http://www.truongcongnghe.vn/Home/tabid/92/Default.aspx
Ti liu
ng dn (Th mc)
a ch Internet (Web site)
Giao thc
HyperText Transfer Protocol

156

39

Trnh duyt web (Web browser)

Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE)

ng dng phn mm dng hin th siu


vn bn hay duyt web
Mt s trnh duyt web ph bin

c tch hp sn trn h iu hnh Microsoft Windows


Khi ng
T mn hnh nn
T thanh Quick Launch
Start All Programs
Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer ca Microsoft


Mozilla Firefox ca Mozilla
Netscape Navigator ca Netscape
Opera ca Opera Software
157

Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE)

158

Cc vng chc nng

Nhp a ch ca website/trang web (URL) trn


thanh Address

Thanh a ch
Thanh cng c
Bng chn (menu)
Tiu trang web

Vng hin th trang web


Thanh trng thi

159

160

40

Mt s website ph bin

Bo in t

Mng gio dc: http://www.edu.net.vn


Th in t:

Cung cp cc thng tin cp nht hng


ngy v nhiu lnh vc khc nhau nh x
hi, kinh t, vn ha, th thao,...

http://www.mail.yahoo.com
http://www.gmail.com
http://www.hotmail.com

http://www.vnexpress.net
http://www.vietnamnet.vn

Din n trao i (forum):

http://www.dantri.com.vn

http://www.edu.net.vn/forum
http://www.ttvnol.com/forum

www.24h.com.vn
http://www.hanoimoi.com.vn
...
161

Nghe nhc, xem video trc tuyn

162

Tra t in trc tuyn


Cho php tra t in Anh-Vit, Vit-Anh, Php-Vit, VitPhp... trc tuyn (khng phi ci t phn mm g)
http://www.vdict.com
http://www.tratu.baamboo.com/

Nghe nhc trc tuyn


http://mp3.zing.vn
http://www.nghenhac.info
http://www.nhacso.net
http://www.vnthuquan.net

Xem video trc tuyn


http://www.youtube.com
http://clip.vn
...
163

164

41

T in bch khoa ton th m

Chia s d liu trc tuyn


Chia s nhng d liu ln cho nhiu ngi
Nu dng min ph
Dung lng ti a mi ln ti ln thng l 100MB
Thi gian chia s ti a thng l 7 n 10 ngy
Website ph bin
http://www.yousendit.com/
http://www.esnips.com/
http://www.box.net/
www.rapidshare.com
www.megaupload.com
...

Cung cp cc khi nim, gii thch v cc t hoc


cm t no c chnh nhng ngi duyt web
xy dng ni dung
www.wikipedia.org
Ting Vit: www.vi.wikipedia.org

165

Tm kim

166

Tho lun

Gip tm kim nhanh chng nhng thng tin, ti


liu lin quan n mt hoc mt vi t kha hoc
mt s tiu ch khc
http://www.google.com.vn
http://www.search.yahoo.com/
http://baamboo.com/
http://www.altavista.com/
...

167

168

42