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11-9

11-20 The heating times of a sphere, a cube, and a rectangular prism with similar dimensions are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 The thermal properties of the geometries are constant. 2 The heat transfer coefficient is
constant and uniform over the entire surface.
Properties The properties of silver are given to be k = 429 W/mC, = 10,500 kg/m3, and cp = 0.235
kJ/kgC.
Analysis For sphere, the characteristic length and the Biot number are
Lc =
Bi =

Asurface

D 3 / 6 D 0.05 m
= =
= 0.008333 m
6
6
D 2

5 cm

hLc (12 W/m 2 .C)(0.008333 m)

=
= 0.00023 < 0.1
k
(429 W/m.C)

Air
h, T

Since Bi < 0.1 , the lumped system analysis is applicable. Then the time period for the sphere temperature
to reach to 25C is determined from
b=

hA
h
12 W/m 2 .C
=
=
= 0.0005836 s -1
3
c pV c p Lc (10,500 kg/m )(235 J/kg.C)(0.008333 m)

-1
T (t ) T
25 33
= e bt

= e ( 0.0005836 s )t
t = 2428 s = 40.5 min
Ti T
0 33

Cube:
Lc =
Bi =
b=

V
Asurface

L3

L 0.05 m
= 2 = =
= 0.008333 m
6
6
6L
2

hLc (12 W/m .C)(0.008333 m)

=
= 0.00023 < 0.1
k
(429 W/m.C)

5 cm
5 cm

Air
h, T

5 cm

hA
h
12 W/m 2 .C
=
=
= 0.0005836 s -1
c pV c p Lc (10,500 kg/m 3 )(235 J/kg.C)(0.008333 m)

-1
T (t ) T
25 33
= e bt

= e ( 0.0005836 s )t
t = 2428 s = 40.5 min
Ti T
0 33

Rectangular prism:
Lc =
Bi =

b=
=

V
Asurface

(0.04 m)(0.05 m)(0.06 m)

= 0.008108 m
2(0.04 m)(0.05 m) + 2(0.04 m)(0.06 m) + 2(0.05 m)(0.06 m)

=
= 0.00023 < 0.1
k
(429 W/m.C)

4 cm

hA
h
=
c pV c p Lc
12 W/m 2 .C

(10,500 kg/m 3 )(235 J/kg.C)(0.008108 m)

5 cm
= 0.0005998 s -1

Air
h, T

6 cm

-1
T (t ) T
25 33
= e bt

= e ( 0.0005998 s )t
t = 2363 s = 39.4 min
Ti T
0 33

The heating times are same for the sphere and cube while it is smaller in rectangular prism.

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