You are on page 1of 51

O HM V VI PHN.

Bi ton: Vn ng vin chy v bi phi hp.


4m/s
x

200-x

50m
1.5m/s
200m

Hi: chy bao xa th bt u bi s v ch


nhanh nht?

O HM TI 1 IM
Cho y = f(x) xc nh trong (a, b) x0, xt t s

f ( x0 ) f ( x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 x) f ( x0 )

x
x x0
x
Nu t s trn c gii hn hu hn khi x x0
hay x 0 th f c o hm ti x0.
t

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) lim
x x0
x
( x 0)

f ( x0 )
tan
x

f(x0)

x x0
x0

tan f ( x0 )

f(x0) l h s gc tip tuyn ca ng cong


(C): y = f(x) ti tip im M(x0, f(x0))

o hm tri ti x0:

f ( x0 )
f ( x0 ) lim
x
x x0
( x 0 )

f ( x0 )
o hm phi ti x0: f ( x0 ) lim
x
x x0
( x 0 )

f c o hm ti x0

f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )

Cch tnh o hm
1.Nu f xc nh bi 1 biu thc s cp: dng
cng thc o hm v cc quy tc(tng, hiu,
tch, thng, hm hp).
2.Nu ti x0, biu thc f khng xc nh: tnh
bng nh ngha.
3.Nu hm s c phn chia biu thc ti x0: tnh
bng nh ngha.
4.Nu f(x) = u(x)v(x) hoc f(x) l tch thng ca
nhiu hm: tnh (lnf)

V d: tnh o hm ti cc im c ch ra

1 / f ( x) 2

x ln x

ti x = 1

x ln x

f ( x) 2
ln 2( x ln x)

2 x ln x ln 2(ln x 1)
f (1) ln 2

2 / f ( x) x

ti x = 0

x, x 0
f ( x)
x, x 0
f ( x) f (0) x 0

x0
x
f (0) khng tn ti

0+
1

x
x
0- 1

x 2 sin 1 , x 0

4 / f ( x)
x
0,
x0
1
f ( x) f (0) x sin x 0

x0
x
2

1
x sin
x
f (0) 0

x 0

x2 ,
x 1
5 / f ( x)
2 x 1, x >1

ti x = 1
2

x 1
f ( x) f (1)
2
lim
lim
x 1
x 1 x 1
x 1
f ( x) f (1)
2x 1 1 2
lim
lim
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
f (1) 2

o hm v lin tc
f c o hm ti x0 th f lin tc ti x0.
VD: tm cc hng s a, b f c o hm ti x 0
(Nn xt tnh lin tc ti x0 trc)
a sin x b cos x 1, x 0
f ( x)
2 x 1, x 0
Tm a, b f c o hm ti x = 0

a sin x b cos x 1, x 0
f ( x)
2 x 1, x 0
f lin tc ti x = 0

b 1 1 b 0

a sin x 1 1 a
Vi b = 0: f (0) lim
x0
x 0
2x 1 1
f (0) lim

2
x0
x 0
f c o hm ti x = 0 a = 2, b = 0

nh l
Nu f lin tc ti x0 v lim f x lim f x a
x x0

th
V d:

x x0

f x0 a

a sin x b cos x 1, x 0
f ( x)
2 x 1, x 0
a cos x b sin x, x 0
f ( x)
2 ,x 0

o hm hm ngc
Cho y = f(x): (a, b)(c, d) lin tc v tng ngt.
Khi tn ti hm ngc f 1: (c, d) (a, b) lin
tc v tng ngt.
Nu tn ti f (x0) 0, xo(a, b) th ti y0 = f(x0),
f 1 c o hm v
(f

Ta thng vit:

)( y0 )

(f

1
f ( x0 )

1
)
f

o hm cc hm lng gic ngc


1. y = arcsin x, x(1, 1) x = sin y, y ,
2 2
1
1
1
1

y( x)

2
2
cos y
x( y )
1

sin
y
1 x


2. y = arctan x, xR x = tan y, y ,
2 2

1
1
1

y( x)
2
x( y ) 1 tan y 1 x 2

Bng cng thc o hm cc hm mi

arcsin x

1
2

1 x
1

arccos x
2
1 x
1

arctan x
2
1 x
1

arccot
2
1 x

cosh x sinh x

sinh
x

cosh x
1
2
cosh x
1

coth x 2
sinh x

tanh x

o hm hm cho theo tham s


Cho cc hm s :

x x (t )

y y (t )

Nu : * x = x(t) c hm ngc t = t(x)


* x(t) v y(t) c o hm, x(t) 0

y( x) y(t ).t ( x)

y(t )
y( x)
x(t )

V d

x(t ) t.et 1
Cho :
2
y
(
t
)

t
t

y(t )
y( x)
x(t )

Tnh y(x) ti x =1

2t 1
t
e t.et

x = 1 t.et 1 = 1 t = 0

y(1) 1

O HM CP CAO
Cho f(x) c o hm cp 1 trong ln cn x 0, nu
f c o hm ti x0, t

f ( x0 ) f ( x)
C th vit:

x x0

f ( x) f ( x)

Tng qut: o hm cp n l o hm ca o
hm cp (n 1)

(n)

( n 1)

( x) f
( x )

V d

1
Tm o hm cp 2 ca f ti x = 1: f ( x ) arctan
x
1 1
1
1
1

2
f ( x)

2
2
2
x
x
1

x
1
1 x

1
2
x
x

f ( x)
2
1 x
1
f (1)
2

2x

1 x

2 2

o hm cp cao cc hm c bn

x ( n)

ax b

( n )

(n)

ax b

ln(ax b)

( n)

ln a

ax b ( n )

n ax b

a e

a ( 1)L ( n 1) ax b
n

(1) n!
(1)

n 1

(ax b)

(n 1)!

n 1

(ax b) n

o hm cp cao cc hm c bn

sin(ax b) a sin ax b n
2

( n)

n
cos(ax b) a cos ax b n
2

(n)

Cng thc o hm cp cao

o hm cp cao
ca tng hiu:
o hm cp cao
ca tch:

Lu

: f x f x

f g

f .g

( n)

(n)

k 0

k
Cn

( n)

(n)

(k ) (n k )

(cng thc
Leibnitz)

V d
1.Tnh o hm cp 7 ti x = 1.

f ( x)

2x 3
2

x x2

5 1
1 1

3 x 1 3 x 2

7
7
5
(

1)
7!
1
(

1)
7!
(7)
f ( x)

3 ( x 1)8 3 ( x 2)8
7
7

5
(

1)
1
(

1)
7! 5
(7)
f (1) 7!

8 1
8
8
3 2
3 (1 1) 3 (1 2)

2.Tnh o hm cp 7 ti x = 1: f ( x ) ( x x).e
f

(7)

( x)

k 0

C70 ( x 2

x)

2 2
C7 ( x

C7k ( x 2

(0)

x)

x)

(k )

(2)

2 x (7)

1.( x 2 x)27 e2 x

2 x (7 2)

2x

2 x (7 k )

C71 ( x 2
C73 ( x 2

x)

(1)

(3)

x)

7(2 x 1)26 e 2 x

2 x (7 1)
2 x (7 3)

21.2.25 e 2 x 0

o hm cp cao ca hm tham s
y(t )
y( x)
x(t )

x x(t )

Cho cc hm s :
y y (t )

y (t )
x(t )

t
y( x) y( x) x
x(t )
y(t ) x(t ) y(t ) x(t )
y( x)
3
x(t )

(n)

y( x) t
x(t )

( x)

( n 1)

( x)

x(t )

V d
Cho y(t) = t2 + 1, x(t) = t3 t + 2, tnh y(x).
y(t )
2t
y( x)
2
x(t ) 3t 1

y( x)

y( x) t
x(t )

2t
2
3t 1 t
2(3t 2 1) 6t.2t

2
2
3
3t 1
(3t 1)

2 6t 2
2
3
(3t 1)

Cch 2: y(t) = t2 + 1, x(t) = t3 t + 2, tnh y(x).

y(t ) x(t ) y(t ) x(t )


y( x)
3
x(t )
2

2.(3t 1) 6t.2t 2 6t

2
2
3
3
(3t 1)
(3t 1)

S KH VI V VI PHN
f kh vi ti x0 nu tn ti mt hng s A sao cho

y f ( x) f ( x0 ) A.( x x0 ) o( x x0 )
hay f ( x0 x ) f ( x0 ) A.x o(x )
Khi i lng:

dy df ( x0 ) A.x

gi l vi phn ca f ti x0 .

Quan st
y

o x
M ( x0 , y0 )

y0

x0

y
tan .x dy

V d
Cho f(x) = x2 , chng minh f kh vi v tm df(1).
f ( x) f (1) x 2 1

( x 1)( x 1)
( x 1)( x 1 2)

2( x 1) ( x 1) 2 2x x 2
df(1)

o(x)

Quan st

M ( x0 , y0 )

dy

f ( x0 )x
x
dx

o hm v vi phn
f kh vi ti x0 f c o hm ti x0 .

df ( x0 ) f ( x0 ).x
Cch vit thng thng: df ( x0 ) f ( x0 ).dx
Cch vit khc ca o
hm:
df ( x0 )
f ( x0 )
dx

V d
1.Cho f(x) = 3x2 x, tm s gia f v vi phn
df ti x = 1 vi x =0.01.
f (1) f (1 x) f (1)
2

3(1 x) (1 x) (3.1 1)
5x 3(x)

5 0.01 3(0.01)
df 1

0.0503

2.Tm vi phn ca f(x) = xex ti x = 0.

df (0) f (0).dx
x

f ( x) ( x 1)e f (0) 1

df (0) 1.dx dx

3. Tnh gn ng ln(1,02) nh vi phn


f ( x) f ( x0 ) f x0 .( x x0 ) o( x x0 )
f ( x) f ( x0 ) f x0 .( x x0 ) 0

p dng vi f(x) = lnx, x = 1.02, x0 = 1


f 1.02 f 1 f 1 . 1.02 1
1
ln 1.02 ln 1 1.02 1 0.02
1

4. Cnh ca khi lp phng tng ln 1cm th


vi phn th tch l 12cm3 . Tm di ban u
ca cnh.
Gi x l cnh khi lp phng v V l th tch.
V x

Cnh tng 1cm : x 1


Vi phn th tch: dV 3 x 2 x 12cm3
2
3 x .1 12 x 2

Cc php tnh vi phn

d (c. f ) cdf , c const


d f g df dg
d f .g gdf fdg

gdf fdg
f
d
2
g
g

d f g f g dx

f g dx
g dx
f dx

Vi phn hm hp
Nu y = f(x) kh vi theo x (bin c lp): dy f ( x )dx
Nu x = x(t) , y = f(x) kh vi, x = x(t) kh vi
y = f(x(t)) kh vi theo t (bin c lp):
y(t ) f ( x (t )) f ( x ).x(t )

dy y(t )dt

f ( x).x(t )dt

f ( x)dx

D x l bin c lp hay hm s, dng vi phn


ca y theo x khng i.

V d p dng
Cho y = f(x) = sin(x2),
1.Tnh dy theo dx
2. Vi x = x(t) = arctan(t), tnh dy theo dt ti t = 1.
1. dy y( x)dx 2 x cos( x 2 )dx
2. y sin( x 2 ) sin(arctan 2 t )

dy y(t )dt arctan 2 t cos arctan 2 t dt

1
2
2arctan t
cos
arctan
t
dt
1 t2

Cch khc: dng vi phn hm hp


2

dy y( x)dx 2 x cos( x )dx


2 x cos( x ). arctan t dt
2

1
2 x cos( x ) 2 dt
1 t
2

Ti t = 1, x = /4
2

dy cos dt
4
16

dx x(t )dt

VI PHN CP CAO
1.Nu x l bin c lp: dx = x : l hng s

d 2 y d dy d ydx ydx dx ydx 2


n

d yy

(n)

dx

2.Nu x = x(t): dx = xdt : l hm s

d y d dy d ydx
2

d 2 y ydx 2 yd 2 x

d ( y).dx yd dx

V d
Cho y = sin(x)
1.Tnh d2y theo dx.
2.Nu x = ch(t), tnh d2y theo dt.
2
2

1. d y y ( x)dx sin xdx


2

2. y sin cosh t
2

d y y(t )dt

cosh t cos cosh t sinh 2 t sin cosh t dt 2

2. d 2 y y( x)dx 2 y( x)d 2 x

y( x) cos x, y( x) sin x
2

dx sinh tdt dx sinh tdt


2

d x cosh(t )dt

d y sin x.sinh tdt cos x.cosh tdt

sin x.sinh t cos x.cosh t dt

o hm hm n
Hm s y = f(x) xc nh bi phng trnh
()
F ( x, y ) 0
gi l hm n xc nh bi ().
Cch tm y(x): ly o hm pt () theo x,
gii tm y theo x v y.

V d
1.Tm y(x) vi y xc nh t pt :
2

x y 1 ()
Ly o hm pt () theo x

2 x 2 y. y 0

x
y
y

So snh vi kt qu ly o hm t cc biu
thc
x
x
2

y
y 1 x
2
y
1 x

V d
2. Tm y(0) vi y = y(x) xc nh bi
y

1 y x.2 0

()

Ly o hm pt () theo x

0 y 2 y x.2 y ln 2 .y 0 ( )
T (), vi x = 0 y = 1
Thay vo ( ): y(0) 21 0 0

1
y(0)
2

3.Tm o hm ti x = 1ca hm n y = y(x) xc


nh bi pt:

( x 1)e

x y

xy 0 ()

Ly o hm () hai theo x

x y

x y

( x 1)(1 y )e y

xy 0

T (), x = 1 y = 0, thay vo ()

e 0 0 1. y(1) 0 y(1) e
1

()

2.Tm o hm cp 2 ti x = 1ca hm n y = y(x)


xc nh bi pt:
3

y x y x 1 0 (1)
Ly o hm (1) theo x
2

3 y . y 2xy x y 1 0

(2)

Ly o hm (2) theo x

6 y. y 3 y y 2( y xy) 2xy x 2 y 0
2

(3)

6 y. y

3 y y 2( y xy ) 2xy x y 0 (3)

x 1

(1)

(2)
y (1) 0

y(1) 1

Thay x = 1, y = 0, y = 1 vo (3)

0 0 2(0 1) 2 y(1) 0
y(1) 4

Tng kt.
1.Tnh o hm cho 3 loi hm s (y = f(x), hm
n, tham s).
2.Nu x l bin c lp: tnh vi phn l tnh o
hm
3. Nu x = x(t) (l hm s):
1.Vi phn cp 1 : dy = y(x)dx, sau khai
trin dx theo dt
2.Vi phn cp 2: d2y = ydx2 + yd2x
cui cng phi a v dt2(ch tnh n cp 2)