A hard problem on quadratic equation

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A hard problem on quadratic equation

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Question

x2 1

x 2 (3 k ) x 3k

Let

(a)

Find a necessary and sufficient condition on k if y can take all real values for all real x .

(b)

Solution

x2 1

x 2 (3 k ) x 3k

y x 2 (3 k ) x 3k x 2 1

(a)

(1) is a quadratic if the coefficient of x2 term is non-zero. If this coefficient is zero, it is a linear

(1)

(i)

y=1

3k 1

,0

3k

(ii)

(3 + k)yx = 3k + 1

3k 1

3 k

(2)

if k 3 .

y 1,

For real x, x of (*) 0 .

3 k y 2 4 y 1 3ky 1 0

k 2 y 2 6ky 2 9 y 2 12ky 2 12ky 4 y 4 0

(3)

In order that y can take all real values, then from (1), k 3.

Now consider the LHS of (2) as quadratic expression in y, g(y) = (k 3)2 y2 + 4(3k 1)y + 4

k3

k3

k3

(k + 1) (k 1) 0

k3

-1 k 1

-1 k 1

(b)

If k = 3, then y

x2 1

x 2 6x 9

3(3) 1 5

x3

3

(i)

(ii)

4

1

32

8

Hence the least integral value that y can take is 0 as it is the first integer

1

.

8

(1)

k = 2

(2)

k = 1

(3)

k=0

(4)

k=1

(5)

k = 1.2

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