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Assignment 5

Name: Abhiram Sridhara, UCID: as2488, Course: TQM


1. Explain what is QFD, (Quality Function Deployment)?
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a specialized method for making
customer needs/wants important components of the design and
production of the product or service. There are many organizations
around the world that successfully use QFD, often in a tailored form
that best fits their specific needs. The motivation to use it is logical
everyone would agree that it is preferable to design and manufacture a
product

that

satisfactorily

addresses

the

needs

of

prospective

customers than one that doesnt. Further, in going through the QFD
process, all the functional departments of the organization are involved
from day one, and this is a primary objective of TQM.
2. Explain the WHATs in a QFD matrix.
The heart of QFD is the set of interrelated matrices known as the
House of Quality (HOQ), so named because the complete matrix takes
on the appearance of a house.
Gathering Customer Needs Input: The premise of QFD is that
before any product or service is designed, the producer should have a
good understanding of his potential customers needs in order to
improve the likelihood that the product or service will be a market
success. That the producer should be aware of customer needs seems
logical, but it sounds far easier than it is.
Refining the Customer Needs Inputs: Once the cross-functional
QFD

team

has

assembled

sufficient

information

on

what

characteristics, attributes and features customers say they need, the


information must be distilled into something useful. Typically the
problem is that the inputs invariably cover the spectrum from some

really good ideas and nuggets of information to some that are trivial or
frivolous, and the volume of information so great that the designers are
unable to cope with it. The data must be sorted into a prioritized set of
the most important customer needs.
Using the Affinity Diagram: Affinity diagrams are used to promote
creative thinking. They can be very helpful in breaking down barriers
created by past failures and in getting people to give up ingrained
paradigms
approaches.

that
This

impede our
is

ability

critical

to

element

find
in

new

and

achieving

different
continual

improvement. Affinity diagrams give structure to the creative process


by organizing ideas in a way that allows them to be discussed,
improved, and interacted with by all the participants.
Using the Tree Diagram: The next tool to be used is the Tree
Diagram. Tree diagrams can be used for countless purposes. It will be
used here simply to refine the affinity diagram results to make the list
the customer needs, or WHATs that will be placed in the HOQ. Although
a tree diagram could go all the way down into the nuts and bolts of a
new design, remember that the objective here is not to design the new
product, but to list the items to be addressed by the design team once
the entire HOQ is completed.
Customer Importance: Also coming out of the analysis is the teams
best estimate of the relative importance of each listed customer need.
Customer importance is usually based on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being
the highest priority. This information is solicited from customer sources,
but unanimity in ranking by the customers is unlikely, so the team has
to do its best to evaluate and assign priorities, as they believe the
aggregate of customers would. These importance rankings are entered
in the Customer Importance column to the right of the Needs entries.
3. Explain the HOWs in a QFD matrix.

The Technical Requirements room of the HOQ states how the company
intends to respond to each of the Customer Needs. It is sometimes
referred to as the voice of the company. We must state at the outset
that the technical requirements are not the design specifications of the
product or service. Rather, they are characteristics and features of a
product that is perceived as meeting the customer needs. They are
measurable in terms of satisfactory achievement. Some may be
measured by weight, strength, speed, and so on. Others by a simple
yes or no, for example a desired feature, appearance, test, or material
is or is not incorporated.
The technical requirements are generated by the QFD team through
discussion

and

consultation

with

the Customer

Needs and Planning matrices used as guidance. The team may use
affinity or tree diagrams to develop, sort, and rank the requirements,
similar to the Customer Needs development process. The difference
here is that the input is from within the company rather than from
external customers.
This is carried down through successive tree diagram nodes until the
technical

requirements

are

developed.

For

example,

the Authors/Editors Guideline Revision node branches into a triple node


consisting of relevant items to be addressed in the revised Guidelines:
Consistent Writing Style
Comprehensibility
Credibility Check
This general tree development pattern is repeated for the remaining
categories to form the list of items from which the Technical
Requirements to be placed in the HOWs room of the HOQ are finally
selected by the QFD team.
4. Explain the 1, or 3, or 9 interrelationship values in a QFD
matrix.

The results will be shown in the Interrelationships matrix, which links


the HOWs and the WHATs. At each intersection cell of the interrelationship matrix the team must assess the degree of relationship
between the WHAT and the corresponding HOW. This is usually done
using scales of significance of 1 to 5 or 1 to 9, with the higher number
indicating a stronger relationship. Sometimes these numbers are
entered, but often symbols are used.

Lets see how this works. Refer to Figure above, and consider the first
customer need, Comprehensible text. Now look at each of the
intersections on that row to see which HOWs have a relationship
with Comprehensible text. Authors/ Editors Guide seems to offer a
relationship. Certainly the publishers guidance to the author, and the
level and effectiveness of the editing process will impact the quality
and comprehensibility of the text. We have identified an interrelationship, but how strong is it? The team has to decide, and the
result may not be very exact, but rather is a well- discussed estimate.
Lets say that the strength is high. We should enter either a 9 or the
double-circle

symbol

Text relationship

cell

in

that

appears

cell.
to

be

The

next Comprehensible

under Text

Clarity.

The

interrelationship between this WHAT and HOW is strong, so a 9 or the


double-circle symbol is entered. All cells must be checked for

interrelation- ships, and when such exists, the strength of the


relationship must be evaluated.
As we have mentioned, either numbers or symbols may be used. If you
use numbers, use only 1, 3, and 5 or 1, 3, and 9 rather than 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, and so on. Remember, we are only estimating the interrelationships
strength: Is it strong, medium, weak, or nonexistent? There is little to
be gained by trying to be precise in an area where the result is a best
guess or an estimate.
5. Explain how you calculate the technical priorities in the
design target matrix.
To determine the relative importance, or priorities, of each of the
stated Technical
Needs (WANTs),

Requirements (HOWs)
the

QFD

team

in

simply

meeting
multiplies

the Customer
each

of

the

interrelationship ratings of the technical requirement (0, 1, 3, or 9)


from the Interrelationship matrix, times the corresponding customer
needs Overall Weighting value in the Planning matrix; and then sums
the columns. All of the data for these calculations are already in the
HOQ of. Starting with the technical requirement for a new and
responsive set of Authoring/Editing Guidelines, we find that its
relationship to the customer need for a Comprehensible Text was
indicated in the Interrelationship matrix as a 9. Looking across the row
to the Overall Weighting column of the Planning matrix we find a value
of 6.6. Multiplying them gives us a value of 59.4
There are three more Interrelationship values for the Authors/Editors
Guide technical requirement, so a total of four multiplications must be
done and then summed.
For the Comprehensible Text need

9 * 6.6 =

59.4
For the Accuracy need,
81.0

9*9=

For the Plausible Examples need,

9 * 5 =

45.0
For the Consistent Writing Style need,

3 * 2 =

6.0
Authors/Editors Guide Technical Priority

= 191.4

The value of 191.4 is entered in the Technical Priorities row of


the Technical Targets matrix under the column for the Authors/Editors
Guide. The technical priorities row is completed by repeating the
process for each of the other Technical Requirements.
The meaning of the resulting technical priorities numbers like 191.4
and 42.3 does not jump out at you like a percentage does. For that
reason, some QFD users translate the priority values into a percentage
scale. This is done, of course, by dividing the individual technical
priority values by the sum of all the priority values, and multiplying by
100.
% Total priority = (Technical Requirement Priority/Technical Priorities) *
100
In the case of the Authors/Editors Guide technical requirement,
% of total priority = [191.4/ (191.4 + 75.6 + 42.3 +63.6 + 19.8 + 9 +
53.1 + 49.5)] * 100
= (191.4/504.3) * 100
= 38
6. Define statistical process control.
Statistical process control (SPC) is a statistical method of separating
variation resulting from special causes from variation resulting from
natural causes in order to eliminate the special causes and to establish

and

maintain

consistency

in

the

process,

enabling

process

improvement.
Although SPC is normally thought of in industrial applications, it can be
applied to virtually any process. Everything done in the workplace is a
process. All processes are affected by multiple factors. For example, in
the workplace a process can be affected by the environment and the
machines

employed,

the

materials

used,

the

methods

(work

instructions) provided, the measurements taken, and the manpower


(people) that operate the processthe Five Ms. If these are the only
factors that can affect the process output, and if all of these are perfect
meaning the work environment facilitates quality work; there are no
miss-adjustments in the machines; there are no flaws in the materials;
and there are totally accurate and precisely followed work instructions,
accurate and repeatable measurements, and people who work with
extreme

care,

following

the

work

instructions

perfectly

and

concentrating fully on their workand if all of these factors come into


congruence, then the process will be in statistical control. This means
that there are no special causes adversely affecting the processs
output.
SPC does not eliminate all variation in the processes, but it does
something that is absolutely essential if the process is to be consistent
and if the process is to be improved. SPC allows workers to separate
the special causes of variation (e.g., environment and the Five Ms)
from the natural variation found in all processes. After the special
causes have been identified and eliminated, leaving only natural
variation, the process is said to be in statistical control (or simply in
control). When that state is achieved, the process is stable, and in a 3sigma process, 99.73% of the output can be counted on to be within
the statistical control limits.
7. Explain

control

charts

mathematical example.

for

variables,

with

simple

Consider an example using x-charts and R-charts. These charts are


individual, directly related graphs plotting the mean (average) of
samples (x) over time and the variation in each sample (R) over time.
The basic steps for developing a control chart for data with measured
values are these:
1. Determine sampling procedure. Sample size may depend on the
kind of product, production rate, measurement expense, and likely
ability to reveal changes in the process. Sample measurements are
taken in subgroups of a specific size (n), typically from 3 to 10.
Sampling frequency should be often enough that changes in the
process are not missed but not so often as to mask slow drifts. If the
object is to set up control charts for a new process, the number of
subgroups for the initial calculations should be 25 or more. For existing
processes that appear stable, that number can be reduced to 10 or so,
and sample size (n) can be smaller, say, 3 to 5.
2. Collect initial data of 100 or so individual data points in k subgroups
of n measurements.
The process must not be tinkered with during this timelet it run.
Dont use old datathey may be irrelevant to the current
process.
Take notes on anything that may have significance.
Log data on a data sheet designed for control chart use.
3. Calculate the mean (average) values of the data in each subgroup x.

4. Calculate the data range for each subgroup (R).


5. Calculate the average of the subgroup averages x. This is the
process average and will be the centerline for the x -chart.

6. Calculate the average of the subgroup ranges R. This will be the


centerline for the R-chart.
7. Calculate the process upper and lower control limits, UCL and LCL
respectively. UCL and LCL represent limits of the process averages and
are drawn as dashed lines on the control charts.
8. Draw the control chart to fit the calculated values.
9. Plot the data on the chart.
We calculate the mean (average) values for each subgroup. This is
done by dividing the sum of x1 through x10 by the number of data
points in the subgroup.

Where n = the number of data points in the subgroup. The x values are
listed in the Mean Value column.
The average x of the subgroup average x is calculated by summing the
values of x and dividing by the number of subgroups (k):

The range (R) for each subgroup is calculated by subtracting the


smallest value of x from the largest value of x in the subgroup.
R = (maximum value of x) (minimum value of x)

From the R values, calculate the average of the sub-group ranges.

8. Explain

control

charts

for

attributes,

with

simple

mathematical example.
The p-Chart Attributes data are concerned not with measurement but
with something that can be counted. For example, the number of
defects is attributes data. Whereas thex- and R-charts are used for
certain kinds of variables data, where measurement is involved, the pchart is used for certain attributes data. Actually, the p-chart is used
when the data are the fraction defective of some set of process output.

It may also be shown as percentage defective. The points plotted on


a p-chart are the fraction (or percentage) of defective pieces found in
the sample of n pieces. Let us take the example of a pen manufacturer
and make a p-chart.
The pen makers already have gotten their defective pens down to 2%
or less. If we pick it up from there, we will need several subgroup
samples of data to establish the limits and process average for our
chart. The p-chart construction process is very similar to that of the xand R-charts discussed in the preceding section. For attributes data,
the subgroup sample size should be larger. We need to have a sample
size (n) large enough that we are likely to include the defectives. Lets
use n = 100. We want the interval between sample groups wide
enough that if trends develop, we will see them. If the factory makes
2,000 pens of this type per hour and we sample the first 100 after the
hour, in an 8-hour day we can obtain eight samples. Three days of
sampling will give us sufficient data to construct our p-chart.
Fraction Defective by Subgroup (p): The p values were derived by
the formula p = np/n. For example, for subgroup 1, np = 1 (one pen
was found defective from the first sample of 100 pens). Because p is
the fraction defective,
p = 1/100 = 0.01
For the second subgroup:
p = 2/100 = 0.02 and so on.
Process Average (p): Calculate the process average by dividing the
total number defective by the total number of pens in the subgroups:

Control Limits (UCLp and LCLp): Because this is the first time
control limits have been calculated for the process they should be
considered trial limits. If we find that there are data points outside the
limits, we must identify the special causes and eliminate them. Then
we can recalculate the limits without the special-cause data.
9. Explain how can we use control charts for continual quality
improvement?
Control charts of all types are fundamental tools for continual
improvement. They provide alerts when special causes are at work in
the process, and they prompt investigation and correction. When the
initial special causes have been removed and the data stay between
the control limits (within; 3s), work can begin on process improvement.
As process improvements are implemented, the control charts will
either ratify the improvement or reveal that the anticipated results
were not achieved. Whether the anticipated results were achieved is
virtually impossible to know unless the process is under control. This is
because there are special causes affecting the process; hence, one
never knows whether the change made to the process was responsible
for any subsequent shift in the data or if it was caused by some- thing
else entirely. However, once the process is in statistical control, any
change you put into it can be linked directly to any shift in the
subsequent data. You find out quickly what works and what doesnt.
Keep the favorable changes, and discard the others.
As the process is refined and improved, it will be necessary to update
the chart parameters. The UCL, LCL, and process average will all shift,
so you cannot continue to plot data on the original set of limits and
process aver- age.
An important thing to remember about control charts is that once they
are established and the process is in statistical control, the charting
does not stop. In fact, only then can the chart live up to its
name, control chart. Having done the initial work of establishing limits

and centerlines, plot- ting initial data, and eliminating any special
causes that were found, we have arrived at the starting point. Data will
have to be continually collected from the process in the same way they
were for the initial chart.
This discussion of control charts has illustrated only the x-chart, Rchart, p-chart, and c-chart. Lists common control charts and their
applications. The methods used in constructing the other charts are
essentially the same as for the four we discussed in detail. Each chart
type is intended for special application. You must determine which best
fits your need.
10. Explain the way control charts could be used for quality
improvements.
SPC does not start the moment a control chart is employed. Before SPC
can be fully implemented, a lot of work must be done to eliminate the
special causes of variation in the process concerned. Consequently,
several quality tools will be used before it is time to develop and
implement a control chart. When does SPC start? It starts when someone begins cleaning up the process. In the final analysis, this question
is not that important because the quality tools come into play either to
support SPC or to be part of the SPC package, depending on the
definition used.
With SPC, the total quality tools have a dual role. First, they help
eliminate special causes from the process so that the process can be
brought under control. (Remember that a process that is in control has
no special causes acting on it.) Only then can the control charts be
developed for the process and the process monitored by the control
charts. Their second role comes into play when, from time to time, the
control chart reveals a new special cause or when the operator wants
to improve a process that is in control. This is dealt with in the section
titled Implementation and Deployment of SPC.

SPC is not something to go into lightly or approach in a half- hearted


manner. It requires the time and commitment of key personnel. It
involves training and the expenses that go with it. It may even involve
hiring one or more new people with specialized skills. There may be
expenses for consultants to help get the organization started and
checked out in SPC. The organization may have to invest in some new
tools or tooling if what is already on hand turns out to be inadequate.
But the single most important issue that must be faced when
implementing SPC is the culture change that is implicit in using SPC.

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