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1. Explain what is QFD, (Quality Function Deployment)?

Quality function deployment (QFD) is a specialized method for making

customer needs/wants important components of the design and

production of the product or service. There are many organizations

around the world that successfully use QFD, often in a tailored form

that best fits their specific needs. The motivation to use it is logical

everyone would agree that it is preferable to design and manufacture a

product

that

satisfactorily

addresses

the

needs

of

prospective

customers than one that doesnt. Further, in going through the QFD

process, all the functional departments of the organization are involved

from day one, and this is a primary objective of TQM.

2. Explain the WHATs in a QFD matrix.

The heart of QFD is the set of interrelated matrices known as the

House of Quality (HOQ), so named because the complete matrix takes

on the appearance of a house.

Gathering Customer Needs Input: The premise of QFD is that

before any product or service is designed, the producer should have a

good understanding of his potential customers needs in order to

improve the likelihood that the product or service will be a market

success. That the producer should be aware of customer needs seems

logical, but it sounds far easier than it is.

Refining the Customer Needs Inputs: Once the cross-functional

QFD

team

has

assembled

sufficient

information

on

what

information must be distilled into something useful. Typically the

problem is that the inputs invariably cover the spectrum from some

really good ideas and nuggets of information to some that are trivial or

frivolous, and the volume of information so great that the designers are

unable to cope with it. The data must be sorted into a prioritized set of

the most important customer needs.

Using the Affinity Diagram: Affinity diagrams are used to promote

creative thinking. They can be very helpful in breaking down barriers

created by past failures and in getting people to give up ingrained

paradigms

approaches.

that

This

impede our

is

ability

critical

to

element

find

in

new

and

achieving

different

continual

by organizing ideas in a way that allows them to be discussed,

improved, and interacted with by all the participants.

Using the Tree Diagram: The next tool to be used is the Tree

Diagram. Tree diagrams can be used for countless purposes. It will be

used here simply to refine the affinity diagram results to make the list

the customer needs, or WHATs that will be placed in the HOQ. Although

a tree diagram could go all the way down into the nuts and bolts of a

new design, remember that the objective here is not to design the new

product, but to list the items to be addressed by the design team once

the entire HOQ is completed.

Customer Importance: Also coming out of the analysis is the teams

best estimate of the relative importance of each listed customer need.

Customer importance is usually based on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being

the highest priority. This information is solicited from customer sources,

but unanimity in ranking by the customers is unlikely, so the team has

to do its best to evaluate and assign priorities, as they believe the

aggregate of customers would. These importance rankings are entered

in the Customer Importance column to the right of the Needs entries.

3. Explain the HOWs in a QFD matrix.

The Technical Requirements room of the HOQ states how the company

intends to respond to each of the Customer Needs. It is sometimes

referred to as the voice of the company. We must state at the outset

that the technical requirements are not the design specifications of the

product or service. Rather, they are characteristics and features of a

product that is perceived as meeting the customer needs. They are

measurable in terms of satisfactory achievement. Some may be

measured by weight, strength, speed, and so on. Others by a simple

yes or no, for example a desired feature, appearance, test, or material

is or is not incorporated.

The technical requirements are generated by the QFD team through

discussion

and

consultation

with

the Customer

Needs and Planning matrices used as guidance. The team may use

affinity or tree diagrams to develop, sort, and rank the requirements,

similar to the Customer Needs development process. The difference

here is that the input is from within the company rather than from

external customers.

This is carried down through successive tree diagram nodes until the

technical

requirements

are

developed.

For

example,

consisting of relevant items to be addressed in the revised Guidelines:

Consistent Writing Style

Comprehensibility

Credibility Check

This general tree development pattern is repeated for the remaining

categories to form the list of items from which the Technical

Requirements to be placed in the HOWs room of the HOQ are finally

selected by the QFD team.

4. Explain the 1, or 3, or 9 interrelationship values in a QFD

matrix.

the HOWs and the WHATs. At each intersection cell of the interrelationship matrix the team must assess the degree of relationship

between the WHAT and the corresponding HOW. This is usually done

using scales of significance of 1 to 5 or 1 to 9, with the higher number

indicating a stronger relationship. Sometimes these numbers are

entered, but often symbols are used.

Lets see how this works. Refer to Figure above, and consider the first

customer need, Comprehensible text. Now look at each of the

intersections on that row to see which HOWs have a relationship

with Comprehensible text. Authors/ Editors Guide seems to offer a

relationship. Certainly the publishers guidance to the author, and the

level and effectiveness of the editing process will impact the quality

and comprehensibility of the text. We have identified an interrelationship, but how strong is it? The team has to decide, and the

result may not be very exact, but rather is a well- discussed estimate.

Lets say that the strength is high. We should enter either a 9 or the

double-circle

symbol

Text relationship

cell

in

that

appears

cell.

to

be

The

next Comprehensible

under Text

Clarity.

The

double-circle symbol is entered. All cells must be checked for

relationship must be evaluated.

As we have mentioned, either numbers or symbols may be used. If you

use numbers, use only 1, 3, and 5 or 1, 3, and 9 rather than 1, 2, 3, 4,

5, and so on. Remember, we are only estimating the interrelationships

strength: Is it strong, medium, weak, or nonexistent? There is little to

be gained by trying to be precise in an area where the result is a best

guess or an estimate.

5. Explain how you calculate the technical priorities in the

design target matrix.

To determine the relative importance, or priorities, of each of the

stated Technical

Needs (WANTs),

Requirements (HOWs)

the

QFD

team

in

simply

meeting

multiplies

the Customer

each

of

the

from the Interrelationship matrix, times the corresponding customer

needs Overall Weighting value in the Planning matrix; and then sums

the columns. All of the data for these calculations are already in the

HOQ of. Starting with the technical requirement for a new and

responsive set of Authoring/Editing Guidelines, we find that its

relationship to the customer need for a Comprehensible Text was

indicated in the Interrelationship matrix as a 9. Looking across the row

to the Overall Weighting column of the Planning matrix we find a value

of 6.6. Multiplying them gives us a value of 59.4

There are three more Interrelationship values for the Authors/Editors

Guide technical requirement, so a total of four multiplications must be

done and then summed.

For the Comprehensible Text need

9 * 6.6 =

59.4

For the Accuracy need,

81.0

9*9=

9 * 5 =

45.0

For the Consistent Writing Style need,

3 * 2 =

6.0

Authors/Editors Guide Technical Priority

= 191.4

the Technical Targets matrix under the column for the Authors/Editors

Guide. The technical priorities row is completed by repeating the

process for each of the other Technical Requirements.

The meaning of the resulting technical priorities numbers like 191.4

and 42.3 does not jump out at you like a percentage does. For that

reason, some QFD users translate the priority values into a percentage

scale. This is done, of course, by dividing the individual technical

priority values by the sum of all the priority values, and multiplying by

100.

% Total priority = (Technical Requirement Priority/Technical Priorities) *

100

In the case of the Authors/Editors Guide technical requirement,

% of total priority = [191.4/ (191.4 + 75.6 + 42.3 +63.6 + 19.8 + 9 +

53.1 + 49.5)] * 100

= (191.4/504.3) * 100

= 38

6. Define statistical process control.

Statistical process control (SPC) is a statistical method of separating

variation resulting from special causes from variation resulting from

natural causes in order to eliminate the special causes and to establish

and

maintain

consistency

in

the

process,

enabling

process

improvement.

Although SPC is normally thought of in industrial applications, it can be

applied to virtually any process. Everything done in the workplace is a

process. All processes are affected by multiple factors. For example, in

the workplace a process can be affected by the environment and the

machines

employed,

the

materials

used,

the

methods

(work

(people) that operate the processthe Five Ms. If these are the only

factors that can affect the process output, and if all of these are perfect

meaning the work environment facilitates quality work; there are no

miss-adjustments in the machines; there are no flaws in the materials;

and there are totally accurate and precisely followed work instructions,

accurate and repeatable measurements, and people who work with

extreme

care,

following

the

work

instructions

perfectly

and

congruence, then the process will be in statistical control. This means

that there are no special causes adversely affecting the processs

output.

SPC does not eliminate all variation in the processes, but it does

something that is absolutely essential if the process is to be consistent

and if the process is to be improved. SPC allows workers to separate

the special causes of variation (e.g., environment and the Five Ms)

from the natural variation found in all processes. After the special

causes have been identified and eliminated, leaving only natural

variation, the process is said to be in statistical control (or simply in

control). When that state is achieved, the process is stable, and in a 3sigma process, 99.73% of the output can be counted on to be within

the statistical control limits.

7. Explain

control

charts

mathematical example.

for

variables,

with

simple

individual, directly related graphs plotting the mean (average) of

samples (x) over time and the variation in each sample (R) over time.

The basic steps for developing a control chart for data with measured

values are these:

1. Determine sampling procedure. Sample size may depend on the

kind of product, production rate, measurement expense, and likely

ability to reveal changes in the process. Sample measurements are

taken in subgroups of a specific size (n), typically from 3 to 10.

Sampling frequency should be often enough that changes in the

process are not missed but not so often as to mask slow drifts. If the

object is to set up control charts for a new process, the number of

subgroups for the initial calculations should be 25 or more. For existing

processes that appear stable, that number can be reduced to 10 or so,

and sample size (n) can be smaller, say, 3 to 5.

2. Collect initial data of 100 or so individual data points in k subgroups

of n measurements.

The process must not be tinkered with during this timelet it run.

Dont use old datathey may be irrelevant to the current

process.

Take notes on anything that may have significance.

Log data on a data sheet designed for control chart use.

3. Calculate the mean (average) values of the data in each subgroup x.

5. Calculate the average of the subgroup averages x. This is the

process average and will be the centerline for the x -chart.

centerline for the R-chart.

7. Calculate the process upper and lower control limits, UCL and LCL

respectively. UCL and LCL represent limits of the process averages and

are drawn as dashed lines on the control charts.

8. Draw the control chart to fit the calculated values.

9. Plot the data on the chart.

We calculate the mean (average) values for each subgroup. This is

done by dividing the sum of x1 through x10 by the number of data

points in the subgroup.

Where n = the number of data points in the subgroup. The x values are

listed in the Mean Value column.

The average x of the subgroup average x is calculated by summing the

values of x and dividing by the number of subgroups (k):

smallest value of x from the largest value of x in the subgroup.

R = (maximum value of x) (minimum value of x)

8. Explain

control

charts

for

attributes,

with

simple

mathematical example.

The p-Chart Attributes data are concerned not with measurement but

with something that can be counted. For example, the number of

defects is attributes data. Whereas thex- and R-charts are used for

certain kinds of variables data, where measurement is involved, the pchart is used for certain attributes data. Actually, the p-chart is used

when the data are the fraction defective of some set of process output.

a p-chart are the fraction (or percentage) of defective pieces found in

the sample of n pieces. Let us take the example of a pen manufacturer

and make a p-chart.

The pen makers already have gotten their defective pens down to 2%

or less. If we pick it up from there, we will need several subgroup

samples of data to establish the limits and process average for our

chart. The p-chart construction process is very similar to that of the xand R-charts discussed in the preceding section. For attributes data,

the subgroup sample size should be larger. We need to have a sample

size (n) large enough that we are likely to include the defectives. Lets

use n = 100. We want the interval between sample groups wide

enough that if trends develop, we will see them. If the factory makes

2,000 pens of this type per hour and we sample the first 100 after the

hour, in an 8-hour day we can obtain eight samples. Three days of

sampling will give us sufficient data to construct our p-chart.

Fraction Defective by Subgroup (p): The p values were derived by

the formula p = np/n. For example, for subgroup 1, np = 1 (one pen

was found defective from the first sample of 100 pens). Because p is

the fraction defective,

p = 1/100 = 0.01

For the second subgroup:

p = 2/100 = 0.02 and so on.

Process Average (p): Calculate the process average by dividing the

total number defective by the total number of pens in the subgroups:

Control Limits (UCLp and LCLp): Because this is the first time

control limits have been calculated for the process they should be

considered trial limits. If we find that there are data points outside the

limits, we must identify the special causes and eliminate them. Then

we can recalculate the limits without the special-cause data.

9. Explain how can we use control charts for continual quality

improvement?

Control charts of all types are fundamental tools for continual

improvement. They provide alerts when special causes are at work in

the process, and they prompt investigation and correction. When the

initial special causes have been removed and the data stay between

the control limits (within; 3s), work can begin on process improvement.

As process improvements are implemented, the control charts will

either ratify the improvement or reveal that the anticipated results

were not achieved. Whether the anticipated results were achieved is

virtually impossible to know unless the process is under control. This is

because there are special causes affecting the process; hence, one

never knows whether the change made to the process was responsible

for any subsequent shift in the data or if it was caused by some- thing

else entirely. However, once the process is in statistical control, any

change you put into it can be linked directly to any shift in the

subsequent data. You find out quickly what works and what doesnt.

Keep the favorable changes, and discard the others.

As the process is refined and improved, it will be necessary to update

the chart parameters. The UCL, LCL, and process average will all shift,

so you cannot continue to plot data on the original set of limits and

process aver- age.

An important thing to remember about control charts is that once they

are established and the process is in statistical control, the charting

does not stop. In fact, only then can the chart live up to its

name, control chart. Having done the initial work of establishing limits

and centerlines, plot- ting initial data, and eliminating any special

causes that were found, we have arrived at the starting point. Data will

have to be continually collected from the process in the same way they

were for the initial chart.

This discussion of control charts has illustrated only the x-chart, Rchart, p-chart, and c-chart. Lists common control charts and their

applications. The methods used in constructing the other charts are

essentially the same as for the four we discussed in detail. Each chart

type is intended for special application. You must determine which best

fits your need.

10. Explain the way control charts could be used for quality

improvements.

SPC does not start the moment a control chart is employed. Before SPC

can be fully implemented, a lot of work must be done to eliminate the

special causes of variation in the process concerned. Consequently,

several quality tools will be used before it is time to develop and

implement a control chart. When does SPC start? It starts when someone begins cleaning up the process. In the final analysis, this question

is not that important because the quality tools come into play either to

support SPC or to be part of the SPC package, depending on the

definition used.

With SPC, the total quality tools have a dual role. First, they help

eliminate special causes from the process so that the process can be

brought under control. (Remember that a process that is in control has

no special causes acting on it.) Only then can the control charts be

developed for the process and the process monitored by the control

charts. Their second role comes into play when, from time to time, the

control chart reveals a new special cause or when the operator wants

to improve a process that is in control. This is dealt with in the section

titled Implementation and Deployment of SPC.

manner. It requires the time and commitment of key personnel. It

involves training and the expenses that go with it. It may even involve

hiring one or more new people with specialized skills. There may be

expenses for consultants to help get the organization started and

checked out in SPC. The organization may have to invest in some new

tools or tooling if what is already on hand turns out to be inadequate.

But the single most important issue that must be faced when

implementing SPC is the culture change that is implicit in using SPC.

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