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Body Works in Physiology

Title of Unit
Curriculum Area
Developed By

Body works
Grade Level
Time Frame
M. Penarroyo (adapted from HASPI Medical Curriculum)

1 year

Identify Desired Results (Stage 1)

Content Standards
CA State Standards- Investigation & Experimentation, CA State Life standards 1b, 1h, 4e, 4f, 9a-e
CCSS ELA-Literacy RST 11-12.1, 11-12.2, 11-12.3, 11-12.7-12.10


Essential Questions

The human body is based on organ systems that work

together to keep the body healthy and alive.
Homeostasis is maintained in the human body. If that
homeostasis is not maintained, then the body will not
function properly and will result in illness and disease.
The structure of an organ affect its function.
Technology has improved human lives.

1. What does the body do to maintain life?

2. How does the different body parts/systems work
3. How do lifestyle changes affect the proper functioning of
human body systems?
4. How does technology contribute in understanding the
well-being of each system?
5. What are some ethical implications of developing

Knowledge & Skills

(1) The student conducts laboratory investigations and fieldwork using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The
student is expected to:
(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory investigations and in fieldwork; and
(B) make wise choices in the conservation and use of resources and the disposal of materials.
(2) The student uses scientific methods during fieldwork and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:
(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting
equipment and technology;
(B) make observations and measurements in collecting data in various ways;
(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and
(D) communicate valid conclusions.
(3) The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze, review, and critique hypotheses and theories as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and

(B) make choices in selecting everyday products using scientific research findings;
(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;
(D) gather information about future careers using a variety of sources; and
(E) research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.
(4) The student knows the energy needs of the human body and the processes through which these needs are fulfilled. The student is
expected to:
(A) analyze and explain the chemical reactions that provide energy for the body;
(B) identify the means, including the structure and function of the digestive system, by which energy is processed and stored within
the body; and
(C) analyze the effects of energy deficiencies in malabsorption disorders such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and Crohn's disease.
(5) The student knows the responses of the human body to internal and external forces. The student is expected to:
(A) interpret normal and abnormal contractility conditions such as in edema, glaucoma, aneurysms, and hemorrhage;
(B) analyze and describe the effects of pressure, movement, torque, tension, and elasticity on the human body;
(C) conduct an investigation to determine causes and effects of force variance, and communicate findings;
(D) survey and report the uses of various diagnostic and therapeutic technologies; and
(E) explain how coordination of muscles, bones, and joints allows movement of the body.
(6) The student knows the body processes that maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:
(A) investigate and describe the integration of the chemical and physical processes, including equilibrium, temperature, pH balance,
reactions, passive and active transport, and biofeedback, that contribute to homeostasis; and
(B) predict the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.
(7) The student knows the electrical conduction processes and interactions. The student is expected to:
(A) illustrate conduction systems such as nerve transmission or muscle stimulation;
(B) research and describe the therapeutic uses and effects of external sources of electricity on the body system; and
(C) evaluate the application of advanced technologies such as electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), bionics,
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and cardioversion.
(8) The student knows the body's transport systems. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of transport systems including circulatory, respiratory, and excretory;
(B) identify and describe the factors that alter the normal functions of transport systems; and
(C) compare the interactions among the transport systems.
(9) The student knows environmental factors that affect the human body. The student is expected to:
(A) identify the effects of environmental factors, such as climate, pollution, radioactivity, chemicals, electromagnetic fields,
pathogens, carcinogens, and drugs on body systems; and
(B) research and evaluate measures to minimize harmful environmental factors on body systems.
(10) The student knows how to compare anatomical structures to physiological functions. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze the relationships between the anatomical structures and physiological functions of systems such as integumentary,

reproductive, nervous, and digestive;

(B) evaluate the cause and effect of disease, trauma and congenital defects on the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs,
and systems;
(C) research and evaluate technological advances and limitations in the treatment of system disorders; and
(D) identify characteristics of the aging process on body systems.
(11) The student knows the process of reproduction, growth, and development. The student is expected to:
(A) research and describe embryological development of tissues, organs, and systems;
(B) identify the functions of the male and female reproductive systems; and
(C) summarize the human development cycle.

Assessment Evidence (Stage 2)

Performance Task Description
Lab 01 Anatomical Language
a. Using Anatomical Language
Students will use an interactive internet resource from Wisc-Online, a digital library of web- based learning resources. Students will
have the opportunity to learn and review anatomical terminology including relative positions, body sections, divisions of the abdominal
pelvic cavity, and regional body parts. The analysis requires students to apply what they have learned by choosing and defining
terminology used in the medical field.
b. Anatomical Language Activity
Students will review the regional body parts and anatomical positions through an interactive activity that involves placing labels on a
student model. The analysis will require students to further label diagrams with the body regions and identify the organs in abdominal
quadrants and regions. Students will also apply this knowledge to patient treatment directions.
c. Medical Terminology Basics
Students will familiarize themselves with the basics of using medical terminology including common medical prefixes, root words, and
suffixes. Students will practice combining and breaking down medical terms using pre-made cards. Students can also choose to play a
review game with the cards. The analysis will allow students to apply the medical terminology deciphering techniques they have
learned by creating a medical story, translating a medical description, and translating an emergency room report.
d. Body System Poster
Students will create a life-size poster of a chosen or assigned body system. Following the poster creation, students will have the
opportunity to collect basic information (function, organs, organ function, and medical conditions) for each body system from posters
created by classmates.
Lab 02 Autopsy, Surgery, & Suturing
a. Surgery & Suturing Technique
Students will learn about common surgical procedures and suturing techniques. The students are part of a surgical team that conducts
an appendectomy, removal of the kneecap, a cesarean section, and open-heart surgery on a model patient.
b. Pathology & Autopsy
A video-based activity using The Autopsy Files by the renowned medical examiner Dr. Baden. Students learn about how forensic

pathology and autopsy can be used in criminal investigations to identify a victim and solve crimes.
Lab 03 Homeostasis
a. Cell Tonicity
Students take the role of a patient educator. A dehydrated patient is refusing the 0.9% saline IV solution, and it is the students job to
explain with a visual example why it must be 0.9% saline. The students will be required to create an experiment with limited supplies.
This activity focuses on osmosis as well as experimental design.
b. pH of the Body
Students will test their own salivary pH over a 24-hour period. Following the 24-hour period, data will be collected for the class and a
histogram created for data analysis. The importance of maintaining a healthy body pH for normal bodily functions will be discussed.
Lab 04 Histology
a. Epithelial Tissues
Students learn to identify basic epithelial tissues including simple, stratified, squamous, cuboidal, columnar, pseudostratified,
transitional, and keratinized. The activity is separated into three parts. Part A introduces students to the function, location, and
structure of epithelial tissues. Part B is a practice activity to identify various slide images of epithelial tissues. Part C has students look
at actual organ and tissue slides to find and identify epithelial tissues.
b. Connective Tissues
Students learn to identify basic connective tissues including loose areolar, adipose, reticular, dense regular, dense irregular, hyaline
cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage, bone, and blood. The activity is separated into three parts. Part A introduces students to the
function, location, and structure of connective tissues. Part B is a practice activity to identify various slide images of connective tissues.
Part C has students look at actual organ and tissue slides to find and identify connective tissues.
c. Muscle & Nervous Tissues
Students learn to identify basic muscle and nervous tissues including skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, neurons, and
neuroglia. The activity is separated into three parts. Part A introduces students to the function, location, and structure of muscle and
nervous tissues. Part B is a practice activity to identify various slide images of muscle and nervous tissues. Part C has students look at
actual organ and tissue slides to find and identify muscle and nervous tissues.
d. Tissue Biopsy
Students prepare a biopsy tissue sample collected from a patient. Preparation will include fixation, embedding, sectioning, and
staining of the biopsy sample. Students then view the slides.
Lab 05 Cytotoxicity
a. Cytotoxicity & LD50
Students will design an experiment to test the cytotoxicity and/or LD50 level of differing concentrations of sugar, salt, or ethanol
(alcohol) on California blackworms. The emphasis is on experimental design, conduction, and revision.
Lab 06 The Integumentary System
a. The Integumentary System
Station lab activity that has students investigate the organs, histology, diseases, and characteristics of the integumentary system.

Students investigate the inflammatory response, observe the microscopic parts of their own integumentary system, and learn how the
skin is able to maintain an internal temperature when the external temperature fluctuates.
b. Sunscreen & Skin Cancer
Students learn about UV radiation and its impact on the occurrence of skin cancer. Different SPF sunscreens are tested on UV sensitive
paper to compare their ability to screen or block UV radiation. Students follow up by performing a patient analysis for three patients,
and determining whether the patients moles may be indicative of melanoma.
c. Investigating the Skin
Students learn about thermoregulation, glands, and dermal nerves. Four activities have students investigate special characteristics of
their own skin. In the first activity students use iodine and cornstarch-soaked sheets to locate sweat glands in the palm. The second
activity has students observe the cooling sensation caused by evaporative cooling produced by sweat. The third activity has students
map the location of mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors in a small area of the forearm. In the fourth activity students
determine the two- point touch distance on several locations of their bodies.
Lab 07 The Skeletal System
a. The Skeletal System
Station lab activity that has students investigate the organs, histology, diseases, and characteristics of the skeletal system. Students
investigate the construction and strength of long bones, how to determine height from long bone length, and how to determine
different skeletal proportions.
Lab 08 The Muscular System
a. The Muscular System
Station lab activity that has students investigate the organs, histology, diseases, and characteristics of the muscular system. Students
have the opportunity to measure muscle fatigue. Students perform a manual muscle test on a patient (partner). Students also have the
opportunity to determine the relationship between muscle contraction and muscle size.
b. Muscle Contraction
Students have the opportunity to obtain a better understanding of the steps of a muscle contraction through an internet animation in
Part A. In Part B, students use fresh muscle to observe muscular contraction and determine whether glucose or ATP actually causes
muscular contraction.
Lab 09 The Nervous System
a. The Nervous System
Station lab activity that has students investigate the organs, histology, diseases, and characteristics of the skeletal system. Students
investigate whether they have any nerve damage in their forearm, test their visual acuity, and determine their reaction time.
b. Cranial Nerves
Lab activity in which students test the function of their cranial nerves. This activity is set-up to be conducted with a partner and each
cranial nerve test is followed by a short description of disorders that may affect the function of that cranial nerve.
c. Brain Anatomy
Students dissect a sheep brain and place labeled dissecting pins to identify important internal and external structures of the brain.

Students follow up by identifying the function of each brain structure.

d. Smell & Taste
Lab activity that has students investigate characteristics of smell and taste. Station activities will allow students to determine their
olfactory acuity, observe sense accommodation, how taste and smell are linked, and taste sensations.
Lab 10 The Endocrine System
a. Endocrine Glands, Hormones, & Imbalances Game
Students will play the review game Endocrine Smarts to become better acquainted with the glands, hormones, and hormone
imbalances. The Endocrine Smarts game is a review game that gives 5-7 clues for each card, starting at the most vague and
becoming easier as the clues are read. In this way, many facts about the endocrine gland, hormones, and imbalances are covered. The
game is fairly comprehensive and also covers hormones produced by organs other than endocrine glands.
b. The Stress Response
Students will expose a member of their lab group to different types of stress to observe and record how that stress affects the heart
rate and blood pressure. The stressors that may be tested include orthostatic, pain, exercise, and noise.
c. Hormones & Body Temperature Regulation
Students will test body temperature over a 3-5 day period to observe the slight fluctuation better known as a circadian rhythm. These
rhythms are under hormonal control, primarily by melatonin, and a relationship between these biological rhythms and seasonal
affective disorder will be reviewed.
Lab 11 The Cardiovascular System
a. The Cardiovascular System
Station lab activity that has students investigate the organs, histology, diseases, and characteristics of the cardiovascular system.
Students have the opportunity to use a stethoscope to listen to specific valves of the heart and locate the pulse at several pulse points.
Students practice taking blood pressure measurements using a manual sphygmomanometer. Students measure and determine whether
the hematocrit of their patients is within the normal range.
b. Complete Blood Cell Count
Students learn about the contents of blood and what can be diagnosed through a complete blood cell count. They then perform a
simulated complete blood cell count on four patients to determine whether the patients RBC, WBC, and platelet levels are high, low, or
normal. Students follow up by looking at all of the patients test results to formulate a diagnosis.
c. ECG Activity
Students learn how to interpret electrocardiograms. Part A has students go through a step-by- step guide that teaches ECG reading.
Part B allows students to put the internet lesson to practice interpreting electrocardiograms.
d. Heart Surgery & PPE
Students learn about congenital heart defects, heart surgery, and heart anatomy. In Part A they assemble as a surgical team to treat a
patient (sheep heart) with an atrial septal defect and a ventricular septal defect. Students learn how a surgical team would prepare and
suit up in personal protective equipment (PPE) including scrubbing in, gown, hairnet, facemask, and sterile gloves. In Part B students
use the sheep heart to identify major internal heart structures.

Lab 12 The Respiratory System

a. The Respiratory System
Station lab activity that has students investigate the organs, histology, diseases, and characteristics of the respiratory system. Students
have the opportunity to perform a spirometry test to measure tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, vital
capacity, and total lung capacity. Students practice auscultating lung sounds and taking respiratory rates. Students also have the
opportunity to perform a simulated analysis of a patient to determine what is causing the respiratory distress.
b. Respiratory Distress
Students learn how to recognize respiratory distress and the most common causes including asthma and COPD (chronic bronchitis and
emphysema). The lab activity involves students using different diameter straws to simulate constriction of airways. The students will
assess the respiratory rate and pulse of test subjects breathing through the straws at rest and during exercise.
c. Air Quality & Health
Students identify the amount of particulate matter pollution in outdoor or indoor locations of their choice. Assessment of environmental
factors and using an air quality index to determine respiratory safety is used throughout the lab. The impact of air pollution on
respiratory health is also reviewed.
Lab 13 The Digestive System
a. The Digestive System
Station lab activity that has students investigate the organs, histology, diseases, and characteristics of the digestive system. The length
of the digestive system will be simulated with string, the time from swallowing until it reaches the stomach will be measured, and a
simulated fecal occult blood test will be performed. Charts/information are provided for each station.
b. Bacteria in Food
Lab activity in which students observe the amount of bacteria that develops in yogurt or milk left out for different periods of time.
Students act as a family physician educating a patient on the importance of refrigeration to deter bacterial growth in milk products.
c. Whats in Your Food?
Lab activity that has students investigate nutritional facts, choose a favorite fast food meal, and measure out the amount of fat, salt,
and sugar in their favorite meal. Meals are then compared among the class.
Lab 14 The Reproductive System
a. Fertility
Students will act as fertility specialists for four couples seeking fertility assistance. They will compare medical backgrounds and
hormone test results to normal values to determine what may be causing the couples infertility. Students follow up with research to
create a treatment plan for each couple.
b. ELISA Pregnancy Test
The four couples from Activity 16a have returned to see if the treatment plan has been effective. Student groups will provide pregnancy
tests for each couple using the ELISA test method. This lab would also be suitable when discussing the immune system and/or antigenantibody reaction.
c. Fetal Development
Students continue as the fertility specialist for the three couples that were able to conceive from Lab 16b. Data on fetal size and

development is compared to normal values to determine whether the fetus is developing at a normal rate.
Lab 15 Global Health
a. Global Health Investigation
Students will have the opportunity to investigate the status of medicine, disease, and health access on a global scale. Interactive maps
of life expectancy, annual income, and literacy compare the occurrence and mortality rates of several infectious diseases. Students also
have the opportunity to research current investigators of global health issues. PBS videos can be purchased to supplement.
b. Epidemiology
Students role-play as healthcare workers and/or patients. The healthcare worker performs a patient exam and records pertinent history
and symptoms in order to discover the infectious agent the patient may have contracted.
Lab 16 Medical Case Studies
a. Writing a Medical Case Study
Medical case studies are an integral part of the large majority of health career training programs, and are even used by healthcare
workers in professional development and case reference. Students will review several medical case reports, and then choose a case of
interest to research and create their own medical case study.
Additional Resources: Medical Anatomy & Physiology Coloring Book

From: Wiggins, Grant and J. Mc Tighe. (1998). Understanding by Design, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
ISBN # 0-87120-313-8 (ppk)