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SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION

Q.3 .- what are the methods for under water concreting ? And give the explanation for
each method.
ANS:
Types of underwater concreting

Tremie

Pump method

Toggle bags

Bag work

1. Tremie method:

A tremie is watertight pipe


Generally 250mm in dia.
Funnel shaped hopper as its upper end and a loose plug at the bottom.
Its supported on aworking plate form above the water level.

1. Pump method:
A concrete pump is a machine used for transferring liquid concrete by pumping.
There are two types of concrete pumps.
The first type of concrete pump is attached to a truck. It is known as a trailer-mounted
boom concrete pump because it uses a remote-controlled articulating robotic arm
(called a boom) to place concrete accurately.

Boom pumps are used on most of the larger construction projects as they are capable
of pumping at very high volumes and because of the labour saving nature of the
placing boom.
They are a revolutionary alternative to truck-mounted concrete pumps.
The second main type of concrete pump is either mounted on a truck and known as a
truck-mounted concrete pump or placed on a trailer, and it is commonly referred to as
a line pump or trailer-mounted concrete pump.
This pump requires steel or flexible concrete placing hoses to be manually attached to
the outlet of the machine.
Those hoses are linked together and lead to wherever the concrete needs to be placed.
Line pumps normally pump concrete at lower volumes than boom pumps and are
used for smaller volume concrete placing applications such asswimming
pools, sidewalks, and single family home concrete slabs and most ground slabs.
3. Toggle bags:

Toggle bags are ideal for small amount of concrete placement


They are bag is filled in a dry with wet concrete
Used for repair work
The concrete is squeezed out by diver.

4. Bag work:

Bags are made of open weave material.


Diver handled bags are usually of 10 to 20 litres capacity but m3 bags can be placed using the crane

Q.4.-write short note on under water construction of diaphragm wall and basement.
ANS
DIAPHRAGM WALL

Diaphragm Wall is generally reinforced concrete wall constructed in the

ground using under slurry technique which was developed in Europe.


The technique involves excavating a narrow trench that is kept full of an

engineered fluid of slurry.


Walls of thickness between 300 and 1200 mm can be formed in this way

up to depths of 45 meters.
About Diaphragm wall:
Limited construction time where deeper than normal cantilever support

may be required.
Can be installed to considerable depth.
Formation of walls with substantial thickness.
Flexible system in plan layout
Easily incorporated into Permanent works.
Designable to carry vertical loads.
Construction time of Basement can be lowered considerably.
Economic and Positive solution for large deep basement in saturated and
unstable soil profiles.

Construction Procedure of Diaphragm wall:

Stage-1: Fixing of Alignment


Stage-2: Guide wall Construction
Stage-3: Trenching
Stage-4: Trench Cleaning
Stage-5: Stop ends fixing
Stage-6: Reinforcement Cage lowering
Stage-7: Placing of Concrete

Stage-8: Withdrawal of Stop ends

2.Basement:

BASEMENT
A basement or cellar is one or more floors of a building that are either
completely or partially below the ground floor.
Basements are typically used as a utility space for a building where such items
as the boiler, water heater, breaker panel or fuse box, car park, and airconditioning system are located; so also are amenities such as the electrical
distribution system, and cable television distribution point.

However in cities with high property prices such as London, basements are
often fitted out to a high standard and used as living space.

Q 5.- Explain tunnelling technology with respect of advance planning and equipment.
ANS

Technical aspect of construction methods and equipment along with tunnel

characteristics from the basis of tunnel design.


A properly design tunnel takes consideration both construction and end use and
thus,by adjusting one to the other maximum over economy can be attained,also from
the tunnel characteristic and as shape diameter and soil condition the tunnel technic

are establish.
Depending of end use of tunnel,the tunnel shape and diameter can be decided.for
example tunnel is used for vehicular,rail or foot transport,then horse shoes of the
tunnel are the best suited and these can be constructed efficiently with the help of
model tunnelling equipment .
Finished diameter or size of the tunnel is based on required capacity of the end use
generally the cost of smaller tunnels can be reduced by slightly increasing the site
toallow enough room for machinery and men to work with case.
Another aspect to be study in technical planning is tunnel gradient.
This will depend on the surface terrain and on the use of the tunnel.
If the grade is steep,for example addition horse power in the power unit of haulage

system will be needed for breaking and accelerating.


Aflat grade, on the other hand will hamper the flow of ground water which is
prevalent in most tunnel.
Tunnel equipment:

1. Roadheaders
2. Tunnel Boring Machines
3. Transportation & Haulage
4. Infrastructure & Surface Plant

Road headers:

ROADHEADERS
Uses and refurbished:
MEKTUNNEL are your Roadheader experts. We manage one of the largest
inventories of available used Roadheader inventories globally and can offer quality
used and refurbished Roadheaders of all brands and models to satisfy your project
and budgetary requirements.
New road houlders:
MEKTUNNEL proudly represents BBM MaschinenfabrikMeran GmbH.
BBM produces a full range of top quality German build Roadheaders and provides
excellent support and expertise to assist you in making sure your project is a success.
The BBM brand of Roadheaders was previously sold under the Westfalia.
Roadheader brand and they are world renowned for quality and reliability.
Compact Roadheading and Cross Passage Solutions:
MEKTUNNEL can supply compact continuous mining/excavation solutions in the
<10t weight class, offering reliable and proven machinery to projects requiring an
extremely compact solution.
We are able to meet project requirements down to m height and/or m width
utilizing advanced and proven Roadheader technology and can provide a complete
line of support equipment from face to surface.
2. Tunnel boring machines:
MEKTUNNEL keeps an inventory of available used TBM machines and work with
our clients on a project by project basis to source and/or supply quality used TBM
options to satisfy project and budgetary requirements.
In addition, through Agency relationships we are able to offer a complete package of
new TBM and/or support equipment.

Hard Rock TBM (open, double shield and single shield)


Soft and Mixed Ground (EPB and Slurry)
Micro TBM (<2.5m OD machines)
Pipe Jacking Machines
Operators, Technical Support: MEKTUNNEL can supply operators, technicians
and managers on a job by job basis.

3. Transportation and haulage:

Rail: Extensive selection of underground Locomotives and Rolling stock


Monorail: Extensive selection of Monorail Equipment
Shaft: Various shaft hoists and related equipment
Conveyor: Extensive range of conveyor and related technology
Load/Haul/Dump: Inventory of underground diesel loaders and trucks

4. Infrastructure and surface plant:

Power Supply
Hoist and Shaft Equipment
Concrete Plant & Segment Mold
Ground Stabilization
Ventilation & Dust/Temperature Control
Misc. Tunnelling Equipment

Q.6 - Short note: (with its sketch and components)


ANS
a . Box caisson
b. open caisson
c. pneumatic caisson
a.) box caisson:

BOX CAISSONS
A box caisson is used, bearing stratum is available at the shallow depth and
where loads are not very heavy.
The closed box caisson are used for break waters and sea walls.
The box caisson is open at top and closed at the bottom and is made of timber,
reinforced concrete or steel.
This caisson is built on land and then it is launched and floated to pier site,
where it is sunk in position.
Before placing the precast caisson, a level bearing surface is prepared by
dredging or by a drivers.
They can be founded on an irregular rock surface, if all mud or loose material
is dredge away and replaced by a blanket of sound crushed rock.
Where the depth of soft material is too deep for dredging, they can be founded
on a piled raft.
The launched caisson is then sunk, by filling it with suitable material, usually
sand or gravel.
The top of the caisson is then sealed.

b. open caisson

OPEN CAISSON
An open caisson is rectangular or square in plan and further sub-divided into smaller
section from inside forming open wells.
They are made of timber,metal,reinforced concrete or masonry, which is open both at
top and bottom.
They are used for the most common type of deep foundation for bridge piers,
abutments and other similar structure.
It consists of following components.
1. Well curb and cutting edge:
Athewell curb is designed for supporting the weight of the well with partial
support of cutting edge at bottom.
The load coming on the well curb is considerably born by skin friction.
The cutting edge should have sharp angle for knifing into the soil and strong
enough to resist various stresses induced by boulder ,bows, blasting ,etc.

2. Well staining:
The thickness of staining is designed in a such way that at all stages,the
well can be sunk under its own way.
3. Bottom plug:

The bottom plug of concrete is to be designed for an upward load equal to


soil pressure minus self-weight of bottom plug and filling.
The bottom plug is made bowl-shaped, so as to have inverted arch section.
As generally under-water concreting is to be done for bottom plug, no
reinforcement can be provided.
c. pneumatic caisson:

PNEUMATIC CAISSON
This type of caisson is closed at top and open (during construction) at the
bottom.
The water is excluded from the caisson chamber by means of compressed
air.
The construction of the pneumatic caisson is similar to the types described
above, except that, the working chamber and shaft are made air-tight.
In order that the workmen may carry out excavation work underneath the
caisson and the water may not find its way inside from below, the pressure
of the compressed air in the shaft is kept just higher than that of the water
at that depth.
Each caisson has two air locks.
Through one air lock workmen go down for working while through the
other excavated material is taken out.

An air lock essentially consists of a steel chamber having two air-tight

doors.
One door of this chamber serves as an entry for men and material from

outside into the steel chamber and the other door leads to the air shaft.
When a workman enters the airlock from outside, the pressure inside the
airlock is the same as that of outside atmosphere.
Thereafter the outside door is closed and the pressure inside the airlock is
raised slowly.
When the pressure inside the airlock becomes equal to the pressure in the
caisson, the door of the airlock which leads to the air shaft is opened and
the workman goes down the air-shaft with the help of a ladder installed
therein.
Exactly reverse procedure is followed when the workman comes out of the
caisson.
Air-shaft provides means of access for the worker from airlock down to
the working chamber.

Q 7.- Explain geo technical investigation for construction of caisson.


ANS
The nature and the characteristic(cohesive properties ,angle of internal friction,
density etc.) of the various soil horizons through which the caisson will be sunk.
The depth of the water table and the presence of aggressive ground water if any.
The presence classification and the layer thickness of identified obstruction.
The depth ,safe bearing capacities and stiffness of potential founding layers.

Q 8. Explain erection sequences of caissons.


ANS
Each caisson is built in an ascending sequence starting with the slab.

The slab reinforcement cement cage is assembled in an auxiliary floating plat

form, then cage is moved to floating dock.


A sliding form is placed and the slab is poured as a monolithic element. After the
slab is ready,construction of upper part of caisson begins,ascending to increments
of the one meter using sliding form each of these increments includes;placing
reinforcement, sliding the forms,and puring and vibrating the concrete.
This sequence is repeated until the total height caisson is reached.
One the caisson fabrication is completed, a special set of supporting and locking
bars are removed to allow the realise of caisson from the floating dock.
The caisson float by its self and its guided with the help of cable from the shore
and tow-boats.
When the caisson reaches the final position the cylinder cavities begin to be filled
with granular material.
This operation is performed by auxiliary floating platforms that carry both
material and a special crane to transfer the material.
Tractor ,dozer, loader and truck help finish the filling operation on the top of the
caisson in the floating dock.
Q.9-explains various diseases occurs to labour during the working incaisson.

ANS

When the workers returned to the atmospheric pressure after working under
compressed air, they suffered a certain type of disease. This sickness is known as
caisson sickness.
Localized deep pain, ranging from mild to excruciating. Sometimes a dull ache, but
rarely a sharp pain.
Loss of balance

Dizziness, vertigo, nausea, vomiting


Hearing loss
Dry persistent cough
Burning chest pain under the sternum, aggravated by breathing
Shortness of breath
Ascending weakness or paralysis in the legs
The main symptoms of disease were dizziness, double vision head ache,trouble to
speaking,pain in legs,etc.

Q 10 - Explain cofferdam with its components and under which construction site and
circumstances it is required?
ANS
COFFERDAM COMPONENTS:
1. Sheet piling:
Sheet piling is a manufactured construction product with a mechanical connection
interlock at both ends of the section. These mechanical connections interlock with
one another to form a continuous wall of sheeting.
Sheet pile applications are typically designed to create a rigid barrier for earth and
water, while resisting the lateral pressures of those bending forces.
The shape or geometry of a section lends to the structural strength.
In addition, the soil in which the section is driven has numerous mechanicalproperties
that can affect the performance.
2. Bracing frame

3. Concrete seal:
The typical cofferdam, such as a bridge pier, consists of sheet piles set around a
bracing frame and driven into the soil sufficiently far to develop vertical and lateral
support and to cut off the flow of soil and, in some cases the flow of water.
The structure inside may be founded directly on rock or firm soil or may require
pilefoundations.
In the latter case, these generally extend well below the cofferdam.
Inside excavation is usually done using clam shell buckets. In order to dewater the
cofferdam, the bottom must be stable and able to resist hydrostatic uplift.
Placement of an underwater concrete seal course is the fastest and most common
method.
An underwater concrete seal course may then be placed prior to dewatering in order
to seal off the water, resist its pressure, and also to act as a slab to brace against the
inward movement of the sheet piles in order to mobilize their resistance to uplift
under the hydrostatic pressure
Q.11- Explain sequential the site operation for coffer dam. And what are load
consider during the structure design?
Site operation of cofferdam:
ANS

Pre-dredge to remove soil or soft sediments and level the area of the cofferdam.
Drive temporary support piles.
Temporarily erect bracing frame on the support piles.
Set steel sheet piles, starting at all four corners and meeting at the centre of each side.
Drive sheet piles to grade.
Block between bracing frame and sheets, and provide ties for sheet piles at the top as

necessary.
Excavate inside the grade or slightly below grade, while leaving the cofferdam full of
water .
Drive bearing piles.
Place rock fill as a levelling and support course .
Place tremie concrete seal.

Check blocking between bracing and sheets.


Dewater
Construct new structure. Flood cofferdam
Remove sheet piles
Load consider during structural design:

Design load:

A typicaltremie cofferdam will experience several loading conditions as it is being


build and during the various construction stages. The significant forces are water
pressure, buoyancy, soil active loads, water current, wave impact and mooring forces.
In order to over come the displaced water buoyancy, the tremie seal thickness is about
equal to the dewatered depth.
1. Imposed loads:
A typical cofferdam will experience several loading conditions as it is being build and
duringthe various construction stages.
The significant forces are hydrostatic pressure, forces due tosoil loads, water current
forces, wave forces, ice forces, seismic loads and accidental loads.
In order to overcome the displaced water buoyancy, the tremie seal thickness is about
equal to the dewatered depth.
Hydrostatic pressure:

The maximum probable height outside the cofferdam during construction and
thewater height inside the cofferdam during various stages of construction need
to be considered.
2. Forces due to Soil Loads:
The soils impose forces, both locally on the wall of the cofferdam and globally
uponthe structure as a whole.
These forces are additive to the hydrostatic forces.
Local forces are a major component of the lateral force on sheet-pile walls,
causingbending in the sheets, bending in the wales, and axial compression in the
struts.

3. Current Forces on Structure:


With a typical cofferdam, the current force consists not only the force acting on
thenormal projection of the cofferdam but also on the drag force acting along the
sides.
With flat sheet piles, the latter may be relatively small.
4. Wave forces:
Waves acting on a cofferdam are usually the result of local winds acting over
arestricted fetch and hence are of short wavelength and limited to height.
However, insome cases the cofferdam should have at least three feet of freeboard or
higher abovethe design high water elevation than the maximum expected wave
height. Waveforces will be significant factor in large bays and lakes where the fetch is
severalmiles.
Passing boats and ships, especially in a restricted waterway, can also producewaves.
The force generated by waves is asymmetrical and must be carried to the
ground through the sheet piling in shear and bending.
The walker system must bedesigned to transmit the wave forces to the sheet piles.
5. Ice forces:

These are of two types: the force exerted by the expansion of a closed-in
solidlyfrozen-over area of water surface (static ice force) and the forces exerted by
themoving ice on breakup (dynamic ice force).
As an example, for static ice force, avalue of 4000 lb/ft2 has been used on cofferdams
and structures on the great Lakes,whereas the value due to dynamic ice force on a
cofferdam-type structure are often taken at 12,000 to 14,000 lb/ft2 of contact area.
6. Seismic Loads:
These have not been normally considered in design of temporary structures in the
past.
For very large, important, and deep cofferdams in highly seismically active
areas,seismic evaluation should be performed.
7. Accidental loads:
These are the loads usually caused by construction equipment working alongside the
cofferdam and impacting on it under the action of waves.

Q.12 - what do you mean by embankment? Explain various cofferdams.


ANS
Embankment:
A road, railway line or canal is normally raised onto an embankment made of earth to
avoid a change in level required by the terrain, the alternatives being either to have an
unacceptable change in level or detour to follow a contour. A cutting is used for the
same purpose where the land is originally higher than required.
Types of coffer dam:

(a)

Earthen cofferdam

(b) Rock-fill cofferdam


(c)

Single-walled cofferdam

(d) Double-walled

cofferdam

(e)

Crib cofferdam

(f) Cellular cofferdam (Circular or diaphragm type)

a)Earth fill cofferdam:

EARTHFILL COFFERDAM
It essentially consists of an earthen embankment built around the area to be enclosed.
It is constructed in places where the depth of water is not much, say 13 to 18 in. and
the velocity of the current is very low.
As a precautionary measure, the earth bank is carried about one metre above the
water level.
The top width of the bank should not be less than 1 in. and the side slopes in a vary
from 1: 1 to 1: 2.
The earth embankment should be built from a mixture of clay and sand or clay and
gravel. If the estimated quantity of clay is not easily obtainable, the banks may be

constructed with a central clay wall with slopes of sand on either side.
In order to prevent the embankment from scouring due to the action of water, side
slopes of the bank on water side should be pitched with rubble boulders.

If the current of water is such that there is a danger of the earthen embankment
getting washed away, canvas bags half filled with material of embankment (mixture
of clay, sand or gravel) are stacked one over the other to form the embankment.
After the work of construction of cofferdam is over, the water from the enclosed area
is pumped out so as to leave a dry surface inside.
Excavations can then be performed to the required depth and the work of construction
of foundations carried out.

B) rock fill cofferdam:

ROCK FILL COFFERDAM


If the depth of water to be retained by the embankment of cofferdam is of order of
18 to 3 in., stone or rubble is used for the embankment.
This construction is adopted only if the stone is easily available in the nearby
areas.
The stones are assembled in the required shape of the embankment and the voids
are partially filled with earth and stone-chips.
The side slope on the water side is protected by pitching.
C) Sheet pile cofferdam:
Single wall coffer dam:

This type of cofferdam is used in places where the area to be enclosed is very small
and the depth of water is more, say 4.5 to 6 m Timber piles known as guide piles are
first driven deep into the firm ground below the river bed. Depending upon the
velocity of the current of the water in the river, the centre to centre spacing of the
piles may vary between 1.8 to 4 m. longitudinal runners called wales are then bolted
to the guide piles at suitable distance apart.
Steel or wooden sheet piles are then driven into the river bed along the wales and are
secured to the wales by bolts.
The sheets on the two faces arc braced by trussed arrangement of struts. This helps in
increasing the stability of walls against the water pressure.
Half-filled bags of sand stacked on the inside and the outside faces of the sheets help
in increasing the stability of cofferdam.
After the cofferdam is constructed, the water in the enclosed area is pumped out and
the construction work is taken up.
2. Double wall coffer dam:

DOUBLE WALL COFFER DAM


For cofferdams required to enclose larger areas in deep water, single wall type
becomes uneconomical as larger sections of trussed struts would be necessary
to resist the water pressure.
Double-walled cofferdam is provided in such situations.
Its construction is essentially the same as that of a single-walled cofferdam except
that in place of one wall, a pair of walls with a gap in between is used all along the
boundary of the space to be enclosed.

This type of cofferdam can be used in depth of water up to 12 m. As the depth of


water increases, the wall should be made wider in order to make it stable against
over4urning and sliding.

The distance between the two walls depends upon the depth of water. The thickness
of wall should be equal to the depth of water up to 3 m.
For greater depths of water, the thickness of wall should be 3 m. plus the depth of
water in excess of 3 m.

At their top, the two faces of the walls are connected by steel rods spaced at close
intervals.
To prevent the leakage from the ground below, the sheet piles are driven to a good
depth in the bed.
c) Cellular coffer dam:

This type of cofferdam is mostly used for de-watering large areas in places where the
depth of water may be of the order of 18 to 21 m.
Cellular cofferdams are mostly used during the construction of marine structures like
dams, locks, whales etc.
Cellular cofferdam is made by driving straight web steel sheet piles, arranged to from
a series of inter-connected cells.
The cells are constructed in various shapes and styles to suit the requirements of site.
Finally the cells are filled with clay, sand or gravel to make them stable against the
various forces to which they are likely to be subjected to.
The two common shapes of the cellular cofferdam are,
1. circular type:

CIRCULAR TYPE COFFERDAM

The circular type of cellular cofferdam has the advantage that each cell may be filled
completely to the top before starting the construction of the next cell without causing
any distortion to the shell of the cofferdam.
Thus, when one cell is completely filled up it can be used for placing crane or other
equipment required for the construction of other cells.
In addition, each cell acts as a self-supporting independent unit and in case one of the
cells collapses due to scour or interlock damage or some other reason, it does not
produce any adverse effect on the neighbouring cells it is found that the interlock
stresses reach their maximum permissible value when the diameter of cell is about 21
meter.
Diaphragm type cellular cofferdam:

DIAPHRAGM TYPE CELLULAR COFFER DAM


This Consists of a series of diaphragm of steel sheet piles connected as shown in the
image below.
The straight diaphragm wails are connected to each other by steel piles arranged in
the form of arches on either sides.
The radius of the connecting arcs is generally made equal to the distance between the
straight diaphragm walls.
With this arrangement, the tension in the arcs and cross wails remain equal. After the
cells are driven to the required depth, they are filled with earth, sand, gravel or other
filling material.
In this type of cofferdam, as the diaphragm which separates the two cells is a straight

wall, it is necessary to fill adjacent cells at approximately the same rate.


If this is not done, the unbalanced pressure from the fill will distort the diaphragm
(cross-walls) which may result in the failure of the interlocks.

In this respect, the circular type cofferdam has the advantage over the diaphragm
type cofferdam because in the former, it is not necessary to fill the adjacent cells at

the same time.


This type of cofferdam has the advantage that the effective width of the cofferdam
can be increased to desirable limits without increasing the interlock stresses.

d)Timber crib:

TIMBER CRIB

In deep waters where it is difficult to penetrate the guide piles or sheet piles into the
hard bed below, crib cofferdam is used.
In this type of construction, the sheet piles are supported by a series of wooden cribs.
A crib is a framework of horizontal timbers installed in alternate courses to form
pockets which can be filled with earth or stones.
The length and breadth of each crib depend upon the depth of water and the current of
flow.
The framework of the cofferdam (made from, logs of wood) is prepared on ground
and then floated to the site where the cofferdam is to be constructed.
The layers of sand and the other loose material overlying the impervious hard bed is
dredged out. Crib is then sunk to the position, the bottom of each crib is given a shape
to fit in the variation in the surface of bed rock.
The space inside the crib is then filled with stone or any other material, so as to make
it stable against sliding and overturning.

Timber or steel sheet piles are then driven around the crib.
e) Movable coffer dam:
Where there are number of repetition work in under water foundation such as in
pier of multi span river bridges or long jetties it is economical to design coffer
dam to move as single unit from one foundation to another foundation. Such
coffer dams are known as movable coffer dam.
Construction works in such that the number of identical coffer dam isrequired.
Hence if single unit of coffer dam is used several times, it may result in economy.
A cap is provide on the top of piles or caissonbelow low water and the of river

bed is more.
The movable cofferdam serves the following purpose
As working plat forms for construction plant
As guide for driving the sheet of ring piles
As form work for the underwater portion of the pier shafts.

Q. 13 - what is sealed coffer dam?


ANS
Sealed cofferdam:
The typical cofferdam, such as a bridge pier, consists of sheet piles set around a
bracingframe and driven into the soil sufficiently far to develop vertical and lateral
support and cut off the flow of soil.
The structure inside may be founded directly on rock or firm soil or may require
pilefoundations.
In the latter case, these generally extend well below the cofferdam.
Inside excavation is usually done using clam shell buckets.
In order to dewater the cofferdam, the bottom must be stable and able to resist
hydrostatic uplift. Placement of an underwater concrete seal course is the fastest and
most common method.
An underwater concrete seal course may then be placed prior to dewatering in order
toseal off the water, resist its pressure, and also to act as a slab to brace against the

inward movement of the sheet piles in order to mobilize their resistance to uplift
under the hydrostatic pressure.

Q.14 - Explain various grouting procedure and its advantages.


ANS
Procedure for cement grouting of cracks in concrete structures:
Holes are drilled in structure along cracks and in an around hollow spots. If
there are several cracks, holes can be drilled in a staggered manner at 500 to
750mm spacing in both directions covering adequately the area proposed to be
grouted. Holes spacing can be altered as per site conditions.
G.I. pieces (12 to 20mm dia x 200mm) with one end threaded or PVC
nozzles are fixed in the holes with rich cemet mortar.
All the cracks are cut open to a V shaped groove, cleaned & sealed with
rich cement mortar. All the grout holes should be sluiced with water using
the same equipment a day before grouting as per following sequence; so as
to saturate the masonry.
The same sequence as described above is adopted for injecting the cement grout.
The grout is kept fully stirred/ agitated under pressure throughout the
grouting. The grouting is carried out and/ or till grout starts flowing from
the adjacent hole. A proper record of the quantity of grout injected into every
hole should be maintained.
After grouting, curing should be done for14 days.
Tell tales are provided for checking the effectiveness of grouting.
Only such quantities of material for preparing grout should be used, as can be
used within 15 minutes of its mixing.
Grouting equipment must be cleaned thoroughly after use.
Advantage of grouting:

Non shrink
Non corrosive
Non-metallic grout
Grout offers pump ability,heat and thermal shock resistance.

Resists water and salt penetration and damage from freeze thaw cycle,and
provide control net position expansion.
Its design for precast concrete components,structural column base plate pump
and machinery bases, anchoring bolts,dowels,bearing pads,key way joints and
crane rails.

Q. 15 - Write various grouting equipment and its essential at the various stage.
Grouting Equipment:
400 ft3 Bulk Cement P-Tanks, 11 ft Diameter 12,000 lb Empty (20 tons of Bulk
Grout)
Grout Mixer (50 BBL Capacity Mixer)
Mixer Hydraulic Power Units
Grout Pumps
Grout Manifold System (Air / Water / Grout)
Air Compressor 350 psi, 960 CFM
Regulator / Dryer, Skid Mounted
Pressure Washer
2-in Non-Collapsible Grout Hose
Hydraulic Magnetic Drill Press
8 ft x 20 ft grout van, offshore unit with power and climate control, used to house
testing equipment and spares. (Grout samples can be stored and tested onsite.)
Its essential:
Our Micro grouts are fast setting 100% solid epoxy systems with
exceptionally high strength that need minimal surface preparation for

anchoring and installing heavy industrial machinery. Industries that use our
grout include food plants, pharmaceutical plants, chemical plants, battery
plants, institutional facilities and pulp and paper mills.
Equipment that use our epoxy grout are: Compressors, Lathes, Pumps,
Engines, Electric Motors, Generators, Presses, Crushers, Paper Machines, Xray Machines, Grinders, Truck Scales, Punches, Hoist and Jib-Crane Bases.
Installation is quick and trouble free, virtually eliminating costly machine
down time. Material, equipment and labour costs are greatly reduced using
our systems of machinery

DEWATERING TECHNIQUES
Q.1. Explain electro osmosis dewatering system?
ANS
Dewatering Technique of dewatering done through the use of cathodes
and anodes with passage of Electrical current.
Electro-osmosis is defined as the movement of water (and whatever is
contained in the water) through a porous media by applying a direct
current (DC) field.
It is the only effective method of dewatering in deep clay soils.

Fig.1 Principle of Electro-Osmosis


1 .Mechanism of Electro-osmosis
When electrodes are placed across a clay mass and a direct current is
applied, water in the clay pore space is transported to the cathodically
charged electrode by electro-osmosis. Electro-osmotic transport of water
through a clay is a result of diffuse double layer cations in the clay pores
being attracted to a negatively charged electrode or cathode. As these
cations move toward the cathode, they bring with them water molecules
that clump around the cations as a consequence of their dipolar nature.
In addition, the frictional drag of these molecules as they move through
the clay pores help

transport additional water to the cathode. The

macroscopic effect is a reduction of water content at the anode and an


increase in water content of the clay at the cathode. In particular, free
water appears at the interface between the clay and the cathode surface.
This excess of free water at the cathode has lubricating effects.

2. Effectiveness of Electro-osmosis
Electro-osmosis provides the following benefits when properly applied:
First, electro-osmosis provides uniform pore water movement in most types of soil.
Since the boundary layer movement towards the cathode provides the motive force
for the bulk pore water, the size of the pore is not important.

Unlike hydraulic conductivity, electro-osmotic flow rate is NOT sensitive to pore


size. Electro-osmotic flow rate is primarily a function of applied voltage. The electroo
-5
osmotic permeability for any soil at 20 C is around 1 x 10 cm/s at 1 volt/cm.The
entire soil mass between the electrodes is basically treated equally.

Q.2. Explain slurry trench method for dewatering system?


ANS
Introduction:

The slurry trench method is used for creating impermeable groundwater barriers or
cut off walls they are also used to contain contaminated ground water. Diaphragm
walls are used in cases of trouble some dewatering and excavation support problems,
which

involves constructing an impervious barrier beneath the ground surface

utilizing termite concrete method.


In recent years, the slurry trench method has been successfully developed to deal with
particularly troublesome dewatering and ex cavation support problems. These
methods involve constructing an impervious barrier beneath the ground surface.
Slurry Trench Method :
The slurry trench method is used for creating impermeable groundwater barriers and
has been used for decades to create economical and positive cutoff walls in the core
or foundation soils beneath dams and dikes of many types and sizes. Slurry walls are
also used to contain contaminated ground water, divert contaminated ground water
from the drinking water intake, divert uncontaminated ground water flow, and/or
provide a barrier for the ground water treatment system. The betonies or drilling mud
clays are generally formed from volcanic mineral (montmorillonite) clays, the highest
grade being found in Wyoming.
The bentonite is supplied to the site in a powdered form. When added to water in its
dry powder form the bentonite is blended to form a viscous (thick and sticky) fluid.
When the clay particles are thoroughly mixed and hydrated or soaked, this causes the

particles to bond to each other evenly and swell to form a gel. If the bentonite is left
to stand for a period of time it forms a gel or bonding of the swollen clay particles.
This increases the stabilizing quality of the fluid in the excavation. One could imagine
a freshly mixed jelly poured into a mould which then gains strength over a period of
time. However, bentonite once in motion again reverts back to its fluid state a process
that can be repeated indefinitely. Bentonite is sensitive to many chemicals and has
different qualities when blended with each.
Just raising or lowering the pH (acidity/alkalinity) can cause the thickening of the
fluid till it becomes almost a solid, or on the other hand it can be made to separate
into a sludge on the bottom of the tank with clear water on top. By manipulating
viscosity the designer of the mix can suspend particles e.g. sand in the mud. Further
into construction concrete is used to displace the bentonite.
These subsurface barriers consist of a vertically excavated trench that is filled with
slurry. The slurry hydraulically shores the trench to prevent collapse and forms a filter
cake to reduce ground water flow. The slurry trenchtechnique uses an engineered
fluid for support of trench walls. Usually the fluid is bentonite slurry that coats the
trench walls and permanently blocks the free flow of water. Most slurry walls are
constructed with a mixture of soil and bentonite that provides an impermeable, but
non-structural barrier.
The bentonite slurry is used primarily for wall stabilization during trench excavation.
A soil-bentonite backfill material is then placed into the trench (displacing the slurry)
to create the cutoff wall. Walls of this composition provide a barrier with low
permeability and chemical resistance at low cost. In some cases, a material with
moderate structural strength is desirable. A mixture of soil, cement and bentonite
(SCB) has recently seen increasing acceptance. SCB is stronger and more
impermeable than cement-bentonite grout, but flexible enough to allow for
deformation, and usually less costly. Other wall compositions, such as
cement/bentonite,

pozzolan/bentonite,

organically

modified

bentonite,

or

slurry/geomembrane composite may be used if greater structural strength is required


or if chemical incompatibilities between bentonite and site contaminants exist.
Slurry walls are typically placedat depths up to 100 feet (30 meters) and are generally
2 to 4 feet (0.6 to 1.2 meters) in thickness. The most effective application of the slurry

wall for site remediation or pollution control is to base (or key) the slurry wall 2 to 3
feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters) into a low permeability layer such as clay or bedrock. This
"keying-in" provides for an effective foundation with minimum leakage potential.

Figure - Construction sequence of a slurry trench


Q.3. What is grouting. Discuss grouting materials. Describe various grouting methods.
ANS
Grouting:
Grouting technology has become a common ground improvement method used
frequently for underground and foundation constructions. The process of grouting
consists of filling pores or cavities in soil or rock with a liquid form material to
decrease the permeability and improve the shear strength by increasing the cohesion
when it is set. Cement base grout mixes are commonly used for gravelylayers or
fissure rock treatment. But the suspension grain size may be too big to penetrate sand
or silty-sand layers. In this case, chemical or organic grout mixes are also used. In
recent years, the availability of ultrafine grout mixes has extended the performance of
hydraulic base grout for soil treatment.
Grouting materials:

Various grouting methods:

a. Penetration grouting
b. Displacement grouting
c. Compaction grouting
d. Grouting of Voids
e. Jet grouting

Q.4. Suggest and describe a suitable method for soil densification(compaction) of


loose granular soil?
ANS
1. Dynamic Compaction
The process involves dropping a heavy weight on the surface of the ground to compact soils
to depths as great as 40 ft or 12.5 m.The method is used to reduce foundation settlements,
reduce seismic subsidence and lique-faction potential, permit construction on fills, densify
garbage dumps, improve mine spoils, and reduce settlements in collapsible soils.

(a)

(b)

Fig. Deep dynamic compaction: (a) schematic, (b) field implementation.


Applicable soil types: Dynamic compaction is most effective in permeable, granular
soils. Cohesive soils tend to absorb the energy and limit the techniques effectiveness.
The ground water table should be at least 6 ft below the working surface for the
process to be effective. In organic soils, dynamic compaction has been used to
construct sand or stone columns by repeatedly filling the crater with sand or stone and
driving the column through the organic layer.
Equipment: Typically a cycle duty crane is used to drop the weight, although
specially built rigs have been constructed. Since standard cranes are typically not
designed for the high cycle, dynamic loading, the cranes must be in good condition
and carefully main-tained and inspected during performance of the work to maintain a
safe working envir-onment..
Procedure: The procedure involves repetitively lifting and dropping a weight on the
ground surface. The layout of the primary drop locations is typically on a 10 to 20 ft
(3.1 to 6.2 m) grid with a secondary pass located at the midpoints of the primary pass.
Once the crater depth has reached about 3 to 4 ft (about 1 m), the crater is filled with
granular material before additional drops are performed at that location.The process
produces large vibrations in the soil which can have adverse effects on nearby
existing structures. It is important to review the nearby adjacent facilities for vibration
sensitivity and to document their preexisting condition, especially structures within
500 ft (154 m) of planned drop locations. Vibration monitoring during DC is also
prudent. Extreme care and careful monitoring should be used if treatment is planned

within 200 ft (61.5 m) of an existing structure.


Materials: The craters resulting from the procedure are typically filled with a clean,
free draining granular soil. A sand backfill can be used when treating sandy soils. A
crushed stone backfill is typically used when treating finer-grained soils or landfills
2.Vibro Compaction
The process involves the use of a down-hole vibrator (vibroflot), which is lowered
into the ground to compact the soils at depth . The method is used to increase bearing
capacity, reduce foundation settlements, reduce seismic subsidence and liquefaction
potential, and permit construction on loose granular fills.
Applicable soil types: The VC process is most effective in free draining granular
soils.

Equipment: The vibroflot consists of a cylindrical steel shell with and an interior
electric or hydraulic motor which spins an eccentric weight (). Common vibrator
dimen-sions are approximately 10 ft (3.1 m) in length and 1.5 ft (0.5 m) in diameter.
The vibration is in the horizontal direction and the source is located near the bottom
of the probe, maximizing the effect on the surrounding soils.
Procedure: The vibrator is lowered into the ground, assisted by its weight, vibration,
and typically water jets in its tip. If difficult penetration is encountered, predrilling
through the firm soils may also be performed.
Materials: Backfill usually consists of sand with less than 10% silt and no clay,
although gravel size backfill can also be used. A coarser backfill facilitates production
and densi-fication.

Fig. vibro compacation process


Design: The design will begin with an analysis of the planned construction with the
existing subsurface conditions (bearing capacity, settlement, liquefaction, etc.
Quality control and quality assurance: Production parameters should be documented
for each probe location, such as depth, compaction time, amperage increases, and
estimated volume of backfill added. If no backfill is added, the reduction in the
ground surface elevation should be recorded. The degree of improvement achieved is
typically measured with penetration tests performed at the midpoint of the probe
pattern.
3. Compaction Grouting
This technique densifies soils by the injection of a low mobility, low slump mortar
grout. The grout bulb expands as additional grout is injected, compacting the
surrounding soils through compression. Besides the improvement in the surrounding
soils, the soil mass is reinforced by the resulting grout column, further reducing
settlement and increasing shear strength. The method is used to reduce foundation
settlements, reduce seismic subsidence and liquefac-tion potential, permit
construction on loose granular fills, reduce settlements in collapsible soils, and reduce
sinkhole potential or stabilize existing sinkholes in karst regions.

Fig. compaction grouting


Applicable soil types: Compaction grouting is most effective in free draining granular
soils and low sensitivity soils
Equipment: Three primary pieces of equipment are required to perform compaction
grouting, one to batch the grout, one to pump the grout, and one to install the
injection pipe. In some applications, ready-mix grout is used eliminating the need for
on-site batching. The injection pipe is typically installed with a drill rig or is driven
into the ground. It is important that the injection pipe is in tight contact with the
surrounding soils.
Procedure: Compaction grouting is typically started at the bottom of the zone to be treated
and precedes upward. The treatment does not have to be continued to the ground surface and
can be terminated at any depth. The technique is very effective in targeting isolated zones at
depth. It is generally difficult to achieve significant improve-ment within about 8 ft (2.5 m)
of the ground surface. Some shallow improvement can be accomplished using the slower and
more costly top down procedure. In this procedure, grout is first pumped at the top of the
treatment zone. After the grout sets up, the pipe is drilled to the underside of the grout and
additional grout is injected. This procedure is repeated until the bottom of the treatment zone
is grouted.

Fig. Compaction grouting process.

Materials: Generally, the compaction grout consists of Portland cement, sand, and
water. Additional fine-grained materials can be added to the mix, such as natural finegrained soils, fly ash, or bentonite (in small quantities).
Design: The design will begin with an analysis of the planned construction with the
existing subsurface conditions (bearing capacity, settlement, liquefaction, etc.). Then
the same analysis is performed with the improved soil parameters (i.e., SPT N value,
etc.) to determine the minimum parameters necessary to provide the required
performance.
Quality control and quality assurance: Depending on the grout requirements, grout
slump and strength is often specified. Slump testing and sampling for unconfined
compressive strength testing is performed during production.
4. Surcharging with Prefabricated Vertical Drains
Surcharging consists of placing a temporary load (generally soil fill) on sites to preconsolidate the soil prior to constructing the planned structure . The process improves
the soil by compressing the soil, increasing its stiffness and shear strength. In partially
or fully saturated soils, prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) can be placed prior to
surcharge placement to accelerate the drainage, reducing the required surcharge time.
Applicable soil types: Preloading is best suited for soft, fine-grained soils. Soft soils
are generally easy to penetrate with PVDs and layers of stiff soil may require
predrilling.
Equipment: Generally, a surcharge consists of a soil embankment and is placed with
standard earthmoving equipment (trucks, dozers, etc). Often the site surface is soft
and wet, requiring low ground pressure equipment.The PVDs are installed with a
mast mounted on a backhoe or crane, often with low ground pressure tracks. A
predrilling rig may be required if stiff layers must be penetrated.
Procedure: Fill soil is typically delivered to the area to be surcharged with dump

trucks. Dozers are then used to push the soil into a mound. The height of the mound
depends on the required pressure to achieve the required improvement.
Design: Generally, a surcharge program is considered when the site is underlain by
soft fine-grained soils which will experience excessive settlement under the load of
the planned structure. Using consolidation test data, a surcharge load and duration is
selected to preconsolidate the soils sufficiently such that when the surcharge load is
removed and the planned structure is constructed, the remaining settlement is
acceptable.PVDs are selected if the required surcharge time is excessive for the
project..
Quality control and quality assurance: The height and unit weight of the surcharge
should be documented to assure that the design pressure is being applied. The PVD
manufacturers specifications should be reviewed to confirm that the selected PVD is
suitable for the application. During installation, the location, depth, and verticality are
important to monitor and record. The settlement monitoring program is critical so that
the completion of the surcharge program can be determined
5. Infrequently-Used Compaction Techniques
Blast-Densification and Vacuum-Induced Consolidation
Blast-densification densifies sands with underground explosives. The technique was
first used in the 1930s in the former Soviet Union and in New Hampshire. The below
grade explosion causes volumetric strains and shearing which rearranges of soil
particles into a denser configuration. The soils are liquefied and then become denser
as the pore pres-sures dissipate. Soils as deep as 130 ft (40 m) have been treated. A
limited number of projects have been performed and generally only for remote
location where the blast-induced vibrations are not a concern.
Vacuum-induced consolidation (VIC) uses atmospheric pressure to apply a
temporary surcharge load. A porous layer of sand or gravel is placed over the site
and it is covered with an air tight membrane, sealed into the clay below the

ground surface. The air is then pumped out of the porous layer, producing a
pressure difference of 0.6 to 0.7 atm, equivalent to about 15 ft (4.6 m) of fill. The
process can be accelerated by the use of PVDs. The process eliminates the need
for surcharge fill and avoids shear failure in the soft soil; however, any sand
seams within the compressible layer can make it difficult to maintain the vacuum.

Q 5. Explain well-point system in details.


ANS
Well points
Small pipes, 50-80 mm in diameter, connected to screens at the bottom and to
a vacuum header pipe at the surface constitute a well point system.
Details of Well points:

Small well-screens of sizes of 50 to 80 mm in diameter and 0.3 to 1 m length.

Either made with brass or stainless-steel screens

Made with either closed ends or self jetting types

Plastic (nylon mesh screens surrounding flexible riser pipes) well point system
used in situations requiring long period presence ground (e.g., for dewatering
dry dock excavation).

a) Well point assembly

b) Details of well point assembly

Fig. Well point system


Well-point system
A well point system consists of a number of well points spaced along a trench or
around an excavation site.
These well points in turn are all connected to a common header that are attached to
one or more well point pumps.

Well point assemblies-are made up of a well point, screen, riser pipe, and
flexible hose swinger and joint with tuning.

These are generally installed by jetting.

They provide for entry of water into the system by creation of a partial
vacuum.

The water is then pumped off through the header pipe.

Well point arrangement

2. Single Stage Well-point system

Fig. Single-stage well-point system


Depth of lowering water table through well point system

Well point systems are frequently the most logical and economical choice
for dewatering construction sites where the required lowering of ground water
level is approximately 6 m (20 feet) or less. However, greater lifts are possible
by lowering the water in two or more stages.

The 20-foot lift restriction results from the fact that the water is lifted by

difference between ambient air pressure and the lowered pressure created by the
pump.

Fig. Depth of lowering water table through well point system

3. Multi - Stage Well Point System


Greater lifts are possible by lowering the water in two or more stage

Multi-stage well point arrangement


General guidelines

In fine to coarse sands or sandy gravels 0.75 to 1 m is satisfactory


Silty sands of fairly low permeability 1.5 m is suitable

In highly permeable coarse gravels as close as 0.3 m centres


In a typical system, well points are spaced at intervals of from 3 to 10 feet

Well point system


In general a well point system comprises 50 to 60 well points to a
single 150 or 200 mm pump with a separate Jetting pump. The well
point pump has an air/water separator and a vacuum pump as well as
the normal centrifugal pump
Suitability of well point system

Practical and effective under most soil and hydrological conditions.


Suitable in shallow aquifers where the water level needs to be
lowered no more than 15 or 20 feet.

Site is accessible

Most effective in sands and sandy gravels of moderate permeability

Situations where other systems of dewatering of are preferred

to Well

point

system
Where water levels must be lowered greater distance than
can be practically handled by the well point systems
where greater quantities of water must be moved than is practical
with well points
where the close spacing of well points and the existence of the
above-

ground

header

might

physically

interfere

with

construction operations.

Capacity of well point system


The capacity of a single well point with a 50 mm riser is about 10
litres/min. Depending on their diameter and other physical characteristics, each
well point can draw from 0.1 to 25 gallons and more per minute. Total systems
can have capacities exceeding 20 000 gallons per minute (Gallon is a measure
of capacity equal to eight pints and equivalent to 4.55 litres (British);
equivalent to 3.79 litres (U.S); used for liquids).
Design considerations of well-point system of dewatering

When designing a well point system, it is necessary to give first


consideration to the physical conditions of the site to be dewatered.
Following is the list of information to be collected:
The physical layout
Adjacent areas
Soil conditions
Permeability of the soil
The amount of water to be pumped
Depth to imperviousness
Stratification
Advantages of well point system
Installation is very rapid
Requires reasonably simple and less costly equipment
Water is filtered and carries little or no soil particles.
There is less danger of subsidence of the surrounding ground than with opensump pumping
Limitations of well point system
A lowering of about 6 m (20 ft) below pump level is generally possible
beyond which excessive air shall be drawn into the system through the
joints in the pipes, valves, etc., resulting in the loss of pumping efficiency.
If the ground is consisting mainly of large gravel, stiff clay or soil
containing cobbles or boulders it is not possible to install well points.

Q. 6. Write short note on Methods of chemical grouting


ANS
a). General:-. The ultimate goal of grouting is to place a specified amount of
grout at some predetermined location. Grout placement down hole can be

accomplished by several means. The simplest grouting situation is to pump or


pour the grout directly onto surface or into an open hole or fracture. The simplest
down hole method using pressure for placement involves the use of one packer to
prevent the grout from coming back up the hole while it is being pumped.
b). Packers.:- Selective down hole grouting, for use in a competent hole, can be
accomplished by placing two packers, one above and one below the area to be
treated, and then injecting the grout. Another selective grout placement method is
by use of "tubes man chattels." This method entails using a tube with a smooth
interior that is perforated at intervals and sealed into the grout hole. The
perforations are covered by rubber sleeves, "man chatters," which act as one-way
valves. Selective grout placement is obtained by a double-packer arrangement that
straddles the perforations.
c.) Other methods:-. Other methods include driving a slotted or perforated pipe
into a formation; grouting, or driving, an open-end pipe to a desired elevation; and
then grouting. The pipe can be kept open by temporarily plugging the open end
with a rivet or bolt during driving. When the desired elevation is reached, the pipe
is raised several inches to allow the rivet or bolt to work free from the open end
when pressure is applied by grouting. The pipe may also be unplugged by placing
a smaller rod inside the injection pipe to the total hole depth and slightly beyond.
The rod is withdrawn from the pipe, and grout is injected. Another method, which
can be used with the two-solution process, is to drive a perforated pipe a certain
distance and inject the grout solution. This process is continued until the total
depth is reached; then, grout solutions of the remaining chemicals are injected to
complete the grout hardening reactions as the pipe is extracted.

Q.7.ExplainFreezing/Thermal Technique in details:ANS


The principle of ground freezing is to change the water in the soil into a solid wall
of ice. This wall of ice is completely impermeable. Ground freezing is used for
groundwater cutoff, for earth support, for temporary underpinning, for
stabilization of earth for tunnel excavation, to arrest landslides and to stabilize

abandoned mineshafts. The principals of ground freezing are analogous to


pumping groundwater from wells. To freeze the ground, a row of freezepipes are
placed vertically in the soil and heat energy is removed through these pipes(Figure
). Isotherms (an isotherm is a line connecting locations with equal temperature)
move out from the freezepipes with time similar to groundwater contours around a
well.Once the earth temperature reaches 32 F (0 C), water in the soil pores turns
to ice. Then further cooling proceeds. The groundwater in the pores readily freezes
in granular soils, such as sands. For instance, saturated sand achieves excellent
strength at only a few degrees below the freezing point. If the temperature is
lowered further, the strength increases marginally. In cohesive soils, such as clays,
the ground water is molecularly bonded at least in part to the soil particles. If soft
clay is cooled down to freezing temperature, some portions of its pore water to
begin to freeze and it causes the clay to stiffen. With further reduction in
temperature, more pore water freezes and consequently more strength gain is
achieved. When designing for frozen earth structures in cohesive soils, it may be
necessary to specify substantially lower temperatures to achieve the required
strength, than in cohesionless soils. A temperature of +20 F may be sufficient in
sands, whereas temperatures a low as 20 F may be required in soft clays. The
design of a frozen earth barrier is governed by the thermal properties of the
underlying soils and related response to the freezing system. Formation of frozen
earth barrier develops at different rates depending on the thermal and hydraulic
properties of each stratum. Typically, rock and coarse-grained soils freeze faster
than clays and silts (Figure)

Figure 11 Formation of frozen earth barrier in different soils

When soft clay is cooled to the freezing point, some portion of its pore water
begins to freeze and clay begins to stiffen. If the temperature is further reduced,
more of the pore water freezes and the strength of the clay markedly increases.
When designing frozen earth structures in clay it may be necessary to provide for
substantially lower temperatures to achieve the required strengths. A temperature
of +20 F may be adequate in sands, where as temperatures as low as 20 F may
be required in soft clay. Referring to the Figure 12, the frozen earth first forms in
the shape of a vertical cylinders surrounding the freeze pipes.

Pipes prior to freezing


Following initiation of freeze

Closure of frozen earth wall

Complete frozen earth wall

Figure Freeze pipes


If the heat extraction is continued at a high rate, the thickness of the frozen wall
will expand with time. Once the wall has achieved its design thickness, the freeze
plant is operated at a reduced rate to remove the heat flowing toward the wall, to
maintain the condition.
Freezing Equipment and Methods

The most common freezing method is by circulating brine (a strong saline solution
as of calcium chloride). Chilled brine is pumped down a drop tube to the bottom
of the freeze pipe and flows up the pipe, drawing heat from the soil (Figure 13).

The liquid nitrogen (LN2) process has been applied successfully to ground
freezing. The cost per unit of heat extracted is much higher than with circulated
brine. Nevertheless for small,
short term projects, particularly in emergencies, the method can occasionally be
competitive
Freezing Applications
The freezing method is remarkably versatile, and with ingenuity it can be adapted to a
great many project conditions. The penetration of a freeze does not vary greatly with
permeability, so it is much more effective as a cutoff than grout. In stratified soils,
cutoff by freezing encounters fewer problems than drainage by dewatering. Freezing
can perform the dual function of water cutoff and earth support, eliminating sheeting
and bracing.
Q.8.Write advantages & disadvantages of the slurry trench method for dewatering
system:ANS
Advantages
Effective groundwater control if properly constructed and keyed into bedrock
Can be applied in appropriate any environments .
The slurry trench method create economical and positive cut off walls in the
core or foundation soils beneath dams and dikes of many types and sizes.
Slurry walls are also used to contain contaminated ground water, divert
contaminated

ground

water

from

the

drinking

water

intake,

divert

uncontaminated ground water flow, and/or provide a barrier for the ground water
treatment system
Disadvantages
If not keyed into bedrock, groundwater inflow will occur at the soil/rock interface

Larger area needed for shaft construction


Expensive
Q. 9. Enlist and explain dewatering technique based on ground. OR
Enlist & explain any one dewatering system in details.
Explain:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Open dewatering system


Sumps and ditches system
Multi well point system
Single well point system
Deep well system
Vacuum system
Electro osmosis system
Freezing method

ANS
1. Open dewatering system: A sump is merely a hole in the ground from which water is being pumped for the
purpose of removing water from the adjoining area . They are used with ditches
leading to them in large excavations. Up to maximum of 8m below pump
installation level; for greater depths a submersible pump is required. Shallow
slopes may be required for unsupported excavations in silts and fine sands.
Gravels and coarse sands are more suitable. Fines may be easily removed from
ground and soils containing large percent of fines are not suitable. If there are
existing foundations in the vicinity pumping may cause settlement of these
foundations. Subsidence of adjacent ground and sloughing of the lower part of a
slope (sloped pits) may occur. The sump should be preferably lined with a filter
material which has grain size gradations in compatible with the filter rules. For
prolonged pumping the sump should be prepared by first driving sheeting around
the sump area for the full depth of the sump and installing a cage inside the sump
made of wire mesh with internal strutting or a perforating pipe filling the filter
material in the space outside the cage and at the bottom of the cage and
withdrawing the sheeting. Two simple sumping details are shown in Figures 2 and
3.

2. Sumps and ditches system: Open excavations. An elementary dewatering procedure involves installation of
ditches, French drains, and sumps within an excavation, from which water
entering the excavation can be pumped . This method of dewatering generally
should not be considered where the groundwater head must be lowered more than
a few feet, as seepage into the excavation may impair the stability of excavation
slopes or have a detrimental effect on the integrity of the foundation soils. Filter
blankets or drains may be included in a sump and ditch system to overcome minor
raveling and facilitate collection of seepage. Disadvantages of a sump dewatering
system are slowness in drainage of the slopes; potentially wet conditions during
excavation and backfilling, which may impede construction and adversely affect
the subgrade soil; space required in the bottom of the excavation for drains,
ditches, sumps, and pumps; and the frequent lack of workmen who are skilled in
the proper construction or operation of sumps.
b. Cofferdams. A common method of excavating below the groundwater table in
confined areas is to drive wood or steel sheet piling below subgrade elevation,
install bracing, excavate the earth, and pump out any seepage that enters the coffer

dammed area. (1) Dewatering a sheeted excavation with sumps and ditches is
subject to the same limitations and serious disadvantages as for open excavations.
However, the danger of hydraulic heave in the bottom of an excavation in sand
may be reduced where the sheeting can be driven into an underlying impermeable
stratum, thereby reducing the seepage into the bottom of the excavation. (2)
Excavations below the water table can sometimes be successfully made using
sheeting and sump pumping. However, the sheeting and bracing must be designed
for hydrostatic pressures and reduced toe support caused by upward seepage
forces. Covering the bottom of the excavation with an inverted sand and gravel
filter blanket will facilitate construction and pumping out seepage water.

Fig . Dewatering by ditch and sump


Advantages of Open Sump and Ditches

Widely used method

Most economical method for installation and maintenance

Can be applied for most soil and rock conditions

Most appropriate method in situation where boulders or massive obstructions


are met with in the ground

Note: Greatest depth to which the water table can be lowered by this method
is about 8 m below the pump.
Disadvantages of Open Sump and Ditches

Ground water flows towards the excavation with high head or a steep slope and
hence there is a risk of collapse of sides.

In open or timbered excavations there is risk of instability of the base due to


upward seepage towards pumping sump
3. Multi well point system:Greater lifts are possible by lowering the water in two or more stage

Plate . Multi-stage well point arrangement

Depends on the permeability of the soil.

Availability of time to effect the drawdown

General guidelines

In fine to coarse sands or sandy gravels 0.75 to 1 m is satisfactory


Silty sands of fairly low permeability 1.5 m is suitable
In highly permeable coarse gravels as close as 0.3 m centres
In a typical system, well points are spaced at intervals of from 3 to 10 feet
4. Single well point system:-

Fig. Single-stage well-point system

Depth of lowering water table through well point system

Well point systems are frequently the most logical and economical choice
for dewatering construction sites where the required lowering of ground
water level is approximately 6 m (20 feet) or less. However, greater lifts are
possible by lowering the water in two or more stages. The 20-foot lift
restriction results from the fact that the water is lifted by difference between
ambient air pressure and the lowered pressure created by the pump
5. Deep well system: A typical deep well consists of a drilled hole within which is a lower
screened casing which admits water to the pump; an upper casing which
prevents soil from reaching the pump and, within the casing, the pump
and its discharge pipe.
The discharge pipe supports the pump to which it is attached. Electrical
wiring for the pump motor runs between the discharge pipe and the
casing.
The space between the drilled hole and the casing is normally packed
with filter material (for example, coarse sand and/or gravel) to minimize
the pumping of solid material from the soil surrounding the well

Spacing of deep well point system


Normally, individual wells are spaced at an approximate distance of 15
m (50 feet) apart. However, depending upon soil conditions and the
dewatering plan the spacing may need to be just a few meters apart.
Dewatering Capacity of deep well point system
Individual well capacities are from 21 to 3 000 gallons per minute and with total
systems the capacities can be as high as 60 000 gallons per minute. Deep well
pumps can lift water 30 m (100 feet) or more in a single stage and the variation
of the typical deep well system is a pressure within an aquifer. Deep well points
require no pump as the water is forced to the surface by its own pressure. To
boost the water flow a vacuum pump is frequently used.
Design considerations of deep well-point system of dewatering
When designing a deep well point system, it is necessary to take into
consideration the following:
The soil investigation report
The grain size analysis and permeability tests
The hydrology of the area
The topography
The space limitations of the site and surrounding structure.

The projected method of excavation and shoring if any


The construction schedule
6. Vacuum system: Ejector/ Educator dewatering systems are employed to control pore pressures
and to lower groundwater levels to provide stable working conditions in
excavations.

They are

particularly suited to operating in fine soil

conditions. Fig. 2.10 shows the range of permeability under which the
Educator system is applicable.
Educator systems are able to extract groundwater and generate a high
vacuum at the base of wells up to 50 m deep and of as little as 50 mm
diameter. Vacuum drainage can provide dramatic improvement in the
stability of silty fine sands and laminated silts and clays by the control of
excess pore pressures. Educator wells have been successfully installed in
raking boreholes to dewater beneath inaccessible areas such as railway lines
and canals.
8. Electro-Osmosis system: Dewatering Technique of dewatering done through the use of cathodes
and anodes with passage of Electrical current.
Electro-osmosis is defined as the movement of water (and whatever is
contained in the water) through a porous media by applying a direct current
(DC) field at is the only effective method of dewatering in deep clay soils

Fig. Principle of Electro-Osmosis


8. Freezing method:-

The principle of ground freezing is to change the water in the soil into a solid wall
of ice. This wall of ice is completely impermeable. Ground freezing is used for
groundwater cutoff, for earth support, for temporary underpinning, for
stabilization of earth for tunnel excavation, to arrest landslides and to stabilize
abandoned mineshafts. The principals of ground freezing are analogous to
pumping groundwater from wells. To freeze the ground, a row of freezepipes are
placed vertically in the soil and heat energy is removed through these pipes(Figure
). Isotherms (an isotherm is a line connecting locations with equal temperature)
move out from the freezepipes with time similar to groundwater contours around a
well.Once the earth temperature reaches 32 F (0 C), water in the soil pores turns
to ice. Then further cooling proceeds. The groundwater in the pores readily freezes
in granular soils, such as sands. For instance, saturated sand achieves excellent
strength at only a few degrees below the freezing point. If the temperature is
lowered further, the strength increases marginally. In cohesive soils, such as clays,
the ground water is molecularly bonded at least in part to the soil particles. If soft
clay is cooled down to freezing temperature, some portions of its pore water to
begin to freeze and it causes the clay to stiffen. With further reduction in
temperature, more pore water freezes and consequently more strength gain is
achieved. When designing for frozen earth structures in cohesive soils, it may be
necessary to specify substantially lower temperatures to achieve the required
strength, than in cohesionless soils. A temperature of +20 F may be sufficient in
sands, whereas temperatures a low as 20 F may be required in soft clays. The
design of a frozen earth barrier is governed by the thermal properties of the
underlying soils and related response to the freezing system. Formation of frozen
earth barrier develops at different rates depending on the thermal and hydraulic
properties of each stratum. Typically, rock and coarse-grained soils freeze faster
than clays and silts (Figure)

Figure 11 Formation of frozen earth barrier in different soils


When soft clay is cooled to the freezing point, some portion of its pore water
begins to freeze and clay begins to stiffen. If the temperature is further reduced,
more of the pore water freezes and the strength of the clay markedly increases.
When designing frozen earth structures in clay it may be necessary to provide for
substantially lower temperatures to achieve the required strengths. A temperature
of +20 F may be adequate in sands, where as temperatures as low as 20 F may
be required in soft clay. Referring to the Figure 12, the frozen earth first forms in
the shape of a vertical cylinders surrounding the freeze pipes.

Pipes prior to freezing


Following initiation of freeze

Closure of frozen earth wall

Complete frozen earth wall

Figure Freeze pipes


If the heat extraction is continued at a high rate, the thickness of the frozen wall
will expand with time. Once the wall has achieved its design thickness, the freeze
plant is operated at a reduced rate to remove the heat flowing toward the wall, to
maintain the condition.
Freezing Equipment and Methods
The most common freezing method is by circulating brine (a strong saline solution
as of calcium chloride). Chilled brine is pumped down a drop tube to the bottom
of the freeze pipe and flows up the pipe, drawing heat from the soil (Figure 13).

The liquid nitrogen (LN2) process has been applied successfully to ground
freezing. The cost per unit of heat extracted is much higher than with circulated
brine. Nevertheless for small,
short term projects, particularly in emergencies, the method can occasionally be
competitive
Freezing Applications
The freezing method is remarkably versatile, and with ingenuity it can be adapted
to a great many project conditions. The penetration of a freeze does not vary
greatly with permeability, so it is much more effective as a cutoff than grout. In
stratified soils, cutoff by freezing encounters fewer problems than drainage by

dewatering. Freezing can perform the dual function of water cutoff and earth
support, eliminating sheeting and bracing

Q.10. Write advantages & disadvantages on Freezing/Thermal Technique for


dewatering system:ANS
Advantages
Ground freezing may be used in any soil or rock formation regardless of structure,
grain size or permeability
Freezing may be used for any size, shape or depth of excavation and the same
cooling plant can be used from job to job.
No extraneous materials need to be injected and apart from the contingency of
frost heave, the ground normally reverts to its normal state
Chemicals for settling and thickening are widely used in materials with a high
amount of fines. The additives are used both in passive dewatering (lagooning or
geotubes) and in active mechanical dewatering (presses, screws or centrifuges).
Thermal treatment as freezing and evaporation can be both a natural feature if
outside temperature is high or low, and an artificially induced process.
Disadvantages
Knowledge on the sediment/sludge properties are important predict the impact and
select the system for thermo chemical methods.
Natural freezing or drying only influence the surface of the sediments.
The method may be costly and is time-consuming
every job needs care in installation and operation and cannot be left to a general
contractor without expert help
Costs
Chemical additives and natural freezing or drying are low cost alternatives.
Artificial drying or freezing are high cost options.
Q.11. Describe hydro-vibration method for soil densification of loose granular soil:-

ANS
Hydro Vibro Compaction (desification)
Vibro compaction (VC), also known as VibroflotationTM was developed in the
1930s in Europe. The process involves the use of a down-hole vibrator (vibroflot),
which is lowered into the ground to compact the soils at depth. The method is used
to increase bearing capacity, reduce foundation settlements, reduce seismic
subsidence and liquefaction potential, and permit construction on loose granular
fills.
Applicable soil types: The VC process is most effective in free draining granular
soils. The expected improvement achieved in specific soil types . The typical
spacing is based on a 165-horsepower (HP) (124 kW) vibrator. Although most
effective below the groundwater table, VC is also effective above.

(a)

(b)

Vibroflotation: (a) schematic, (b) field implementation.


Equipment: The vibroflot consists of a cylindrical steel shell with and an interior
electric or hydraulic motor which spins an eccentric weight Common vibrator
dimen-sions are approximately 10 ft (3.1 m) in length and 1.5 ft (0.5 m) in
diameter. The vibration is in the horizontal direction and the source is located near
the bottom of the probe, maximizing the effect on the surrounding soils. Vibrators
vary in power from about 50 to over 300 HP (37.7 to 226 kW). Typically, the
vibroflot is hung from a standard crane, although purpose built machines do exist.
Extension tubes are bolted to the top of the vibrator so that the vibrator can be
lowered to the necessary treatment depth.Electric vibrators typically have a remote
ammeter, which displays the amperage being drawn by the electric motor. The
amperage will typically increase as the surrounding soils densify.
Procedure: The vibrator is lowered into the ground, assisted by its weight,
vibration, and typically water jets in its tip. If difficult penetration is encountered,

predrilling through the firm soils may also be performed. The compaction starts at
the bottom of the treatment depth. The vibrator is then either raised at a certain
rate or repeatedly raised and lowered as it is extracted . The surrounding granular
soils rearranged into a denser configuration, achieving relative densities of 70 to
85%. Treatment as deep as 120 ft (37 m) has been performed.Sand added around
the vibrator at the ground surface falls around the vibrator to its tip to compensate
for the volume reduction during densification. If no sand is added, the in situ sands
will fall, resulting in a depression at the ground surface. Loose sand will
experience a 5 to 15% volume reduction during densification. Coarser backfill, up
to gravel size, improves the effectiveness of the technique, especially in silty soils.
The technique does not densify the sands within 2 to 3 ft (0.6 to 0.9 m) of the
ground surface. If necessary, this is accomplished with a steel drum vibratory
roller.
Materials: Backfill usually consists of sand with less than 10% silt and no clay,
although gravel size backfill can also be used. A coarser backfill facilitates
production and densi-fication.

Fig. vibro compacation process


Design: The design will begin with an analysis of the planned construction with
the existing subsurface conditions (bearing capacity, settlement, liquefaction, etc.).
Then the same analysis is performed with the improved soil parameters (i.e., SPT
N value, etc.) to determine the minimum soil parameters necessary to provide the
required performance. And finally, the vertical and lateral extent of improved soil
necessary to provide the required performance is determined. In the case of
settlement improvement for spread footings, it is common to improve the sands
beneath the planned footings to a depth of twice the footing width for isolated
column footings and four times the footing width for wall footings. Area
treatments are required where an area load is planned or in seismic applications.
For treatment beneath shallow foundations for nonseismic conditions, it is
common to treat only beneath the foundations .The degree of improvement
achievable depends on the energy of the vibrator, the spacing of the vibrator

penetrations, the amount of time spent densifying the soil, and the quantity of
backfill added (or in situ soil volume reduction).
Quality control and quality assurance: Production parameters should be
documented for each probe location, such as depth, compaction time, amperage
increases, and estimated volume of backfill added. If no backfill is added, the
reduction in the ground surface elevation should be recorded. The degree of
improvement achieved is typically measured with penetration tests performed at
the midpoint of the probe pattern.
Q.12. Enlist and explain dewatering technique based on direct pumping:ANS
1. Open dewatering system
2. Dewatering - Open Excavation by Ditch and Sump
3. Well points
1. Open dewatering system: A sump is merely a hole in the ground from which water is being pumped for the
purpose of removing water from the adjoining area . They are used with ditches
leading to them in large excavations. Up to maximum of 8m below pump
installation level; for greater depths a submersible pump is required. Shallow
slopes may be required for unsupported excavations in silts and fine sands.
Gravels and coarse sands are more suitable. Fines may be easily removed from
ground and soils containing large percent of fines are not suitable. If there are
existing foundations in the vicinity pumping may cause settlement of these
foundations. Subsidence of adjacent ground and sloughing of the lower part of a
slope (sloped pits) may occur. The sump should be preferably lined with a filter
material which has grain size gradations in compatible with the filter rules. For
prolonged pumping the sump should be prepared by first driving sheeting around
the sump area for the full depth of the sump and installing a cage inside the sump
made of wire mesh with internal strutting or a perforating pipe filling the filter
material in the space outside the cage and at the bottom of the cage and
withdrawing the sheeting.
2. Dewatering - Open Excavation by Ditch and Sump:-

Open excavations. An elementary dewatering procedure involves installation of


ditches, French drains, and sumps within an excavation, from which water
entering the excavation can be pumped (fig. 2-1). This method of dewatering
generally should not be considered where the groundwater head must be lowered
more than a few feet, as seepage into the excavation may impair the stability of
excavation slopes or have a detrimental effect on the integrity of the foundation
soils. Filter blankets or drains may be included in a sump and ditch system to
overcome minor raveling and facilitate collection of seepage. Disadvantages of a
sump dewatering system are slowness in drainage of the slopes; potentially wet
conditions during excavation and backfilling, which may impede construction and
adversely affect the subgrade soil; space required in the bottom of the excavation
for drains, ditches, sumps, and pumps; and the frequent lack of workmen who are
skilled in the proper construction or operation of sumps.
b. Cofferdams. A common method of excavating below the groundwater table in
confined areas is to drive wood or steel sheet piling below subgrade elevation,
install bracing, excavate the earth, and pump out any seepage that enters the coffer
dammed area. (1) Dewatering a sheeted excavation with sumps and ditches is
subject to the same limitations and serious disadvantages as for open excavations.
However, the danger of hydraulic heave in the bottom of an excavation in sand
may be reduced where the sheeting can be driven into an underlying impermeable
stratum, thereby reducing the seepage into the bottom of the excavation. (2)
Excavations below the water table can sometimes be successfully made using
sheeting and sump pumping. However, the sheeting and bracing must be designed
for hydrostatic pressures and reduced toe support caused by upward seepage
forces. Covering the bottom of the excavation with an inverted sand and gravel
filter blanket will facilitate construction and pumping out seepage water.

Fig . Dewatering by ditch and sump


3. Well points:Small pipes, 50-80 mm in diameter, connected to screens at the bottom and
to a vacuum header pipe at the surface constitute a well point system.
Details of Well points

Small well-screens of sizes of 50 to 80 mm in diameter and 0.3 to 1 m length.

Either made with brass or stainless-steel screens

Made with either closed ends or self jetting types


Plastic (nylon mesh screens surrounding flexible riser pipes) well point system
used in situations requiring long period presence ground (e.g., for dewatering
dry dock excavation).

A well point system consists of a number of well points spaced along a trench or
around an excavation site.
These well points in turn are all connected to a common header that are attached
to one or more well point pumps.
Well point assemblies-are made up of a well point, screen, riser pipe, and flexible
hose swinger and joint with tuning.
These are generally installed by jetting.
They provide for entry of water into the system by creation of a partial vacuum.
The water is then pumped off through the header pipe.

Q.13. What is de watering technology and why it is required:ANS

What is Dewatering?
Dewatering or construction dewatering are terms used to describe the action of
removing groundwater or surface water from a construction site.
Normally dewatering process is done by pumping or evaporation and is usually
done before excavation for footings or to lower water table that might be causing
problems during excavations.
Dewatering can also be known as the process of removing water from soil by wet
classification.
Why Dewatering?
Construction dewatering is used on most construction sites due to accumulated
water in trenches and excavations, places with inadequate slope or due to high
water table.

In construction projects, this water should be removed to keep working as


scheduled or to provide a safe workplace.

Normally, builders tend to use water pumps to dewater these areas but are not
paying attention to the place where water is discharge, causing erosion and other
problems.
It is important to follow best management practices when water is being pumped
to lakes, wetlands or directly to storm sewer inlets.

Q.14. Explain pile technology with its innumerable application:ANS

Many factors prevent the selection of surface foundation as a suitable foundation


such as the nature of soil and intensity of loads, we use the piles when the soil
have low bearing capacity or in building in water like bridges and dams
A pile foundation consists of two components: Pile cap and single or group of
piles. Piles transfers the loads from structures to the hard strata, rocks or soil with
high bearing capacity. These are long and slender members whose length can be
more than 15m.
Piles can be made from concrete, wood or steel depending on the requirements.
These piles are then driven, drilled or jacked into the ground and connected to pile
caps. Pile foundation are classified based on material of pile construction, type of
soil, and load transmitting characteristic of piles.
The use of pile foundations as load carrying and load transferring systems has
been for many years. Timber piles were used in early days, driven in to the ground
by hand or holes were dug and filled with sand and stones. The use of steel pile
started since 19th century and concrete piles since 20th century.
With the change in technology and industrial revolution, many advance systems
have been devloped for pile driving from the invention of steam and diesel pile
driving machines.
The use of pile foundations is increasing day by day due to non-availability of
land for construction. Heavy multi-storyed building are being constructed, and
load from these structures can not be directly transferred to ground due to low
bearing capacity issue and stability issues of building during lateral load
application. So, demand for use of pile foundations are increasing day by day. Due
to this demand for piles, there have been many improvements in piles and pile
driving technology and systems. Today there are many advanced techniques of
pile installation.

Function of Pile Foundation:


As other types of foundations, the purpose of pile foundations is:
To transmit the buildings loads to the foundations and the ground soil layers
whether these loads vertical or inclined
To install loose cohesion less soil through displacement and vibration.
To control the settlements; which can be accompanied by surface foundations.
To increase the factor of safety for heavy loads buildings
The selection of type of pile foundation is based on site investigation report. Site
investigation report suggests the need of pile foundation, type of pile foundation to
be used, depth of pile foundation to be provided. The cost analysis of various
options for use of pile foundation should be carried out before selection of pile
foundation types.
Unless the ground condition is rocks, for heavy construction and multi-storied
buildings, the bearing capacity of soil at shallow depth may not be satisfactory for
the loads on the foundation. In such cases, pile foundation has to be provided. The
number of piles in a pile groups required is calculate from the pile capacity of

single pile and the loads on the foundation. Piles are a convenient method of
foundation for works over water, such as jetties or bridge piers.

Q. 15. Explain:1. Box jacking


2. Pipe jacking
ANS
1) Define box jacking
The box shaped tunnel structures are pre-fabricated units which are pushed into
soil by hydraulic jack
Excavation ahead of the cutting is avoided as the cutting head is moved forward in
small increments.
2) Differentiate pipe jacking and box jacking.
Pipe jacking
Pipe Jacking is a method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to
push specially made pipes through the ground. This technique is commonly used
to create tunnels under existing structures, such as roads or railways.
Tunnels constructed by pipe jacking are normally small diameter tunnels with a
maximum size of around 3.2m.
Box jacking
Box jacking is similar to pipe jacking, but instead of jacking tubes, a box shaped
tunnel is used.
Jacked boxes can be a much larger span than a pipe jack with the span of some
box jacks in excess of 20m.
Box jacking is jacking a large precast reinforced concrete box horizontally through
the ground, usually beneath a road or railroad that must not be interrupted. The
major advantage of the process is its essential simplicity. Only the exact prism of
earth that will be filled by the jacked box is excavated. No intermediate ground
supports are needed. The structure is built away from the roadway, in the clear,

without the constraints of shoring and traffic controls. When the structure is ready,
a shield is fitted to the front, hydraulic jacks are installed behind, and the box is
pushed into final position while simultaneously the earth is excavated from within.
The actual jacking generally takes only a few days to a week. During that time,
traffic is proceeding overhead normally, unaware of the construction below. The
non-disruptive nature of the process together with its inherent safety, simplicity
and economy make box jacking a useful tool for the practicing civil engineer. This
paper intends to bring a greater familiarity with the box jacking process to the
reader and then give some considerations and guidelines to assist engineers in
designing a project that can be built using the box jacking method.

Applications
Some examples of potential box jacking projects include storm drains, bike or
pedestrian trails, livestock or wildlife under crossings, conveyors, pipe ways and
other industrial uses, small bridges, and roadways up to 4 lanes wide. Basically,
applications of box jacking depend only on the creativity of the civil engineer
designing the project.
Box Jacking - A Useful Construction Tool
These systems, acting in concert, can propel the heaviest concrete structure straight into
the ground, producing a complete installation with maximum ease and economy. To
realize these potential benefits it is very helpful if the project is originally designed with
box jacking in mind.
PIPE JACKING: Pipe jacking is a technique for installing underground pipelines, ducts and
culverts. Powerful hydraulic jacks are used to push specially designed pipes
through the ground behind a shield at the same time as excavation is taking place

with the shield.


Pipe diameters 0.45m to 2.4m commonly available in the UK
Larger diameters regularly used overseas
The term micro-tunnelling is used for the diameters 0.45m to 1m
Jacks in excess of 1km in length undertaken in the UK

Common Applications
Sewerage and potable water construction

Gas and water utilities


Industrial pipelines (e.g. oil, chemical etc)
Electricity and _ telecoms utilities
Pedestrian subways

Comparison with Open Trench / Segmental Tunnelling


Technical
Comparison with Open Trench
Minimal surface disruption and reinstatement
Fewer utility diversions
Comparison with Segmental Tunnelling

Inherent strength of pipeline


Smooth internal finish
No secondary lining
Less joints
Watertight
Control of settlement

FIG.PIPE JACKING
Q-18: Explain pile construction in brief and also explain various types of piles
with its significance.

ANS:
A pile is a long, columnar element made of timber, steel, concrete, or a
combination of these materials.
Piles transmit foundation loads to deeper strata that sustain the loads safely
and prevent settling of the supported structure.
Piles derive their support from a combination of skin friction along the
embedded lengths and end bearing at the tips or bottoms.
Piles are used as follows
To transfer the structural load through material or strata of poor bearing

capacity to one of adequate bearing capacity.


To eliminate objectionable settlement.
To resist lateral loads.
To serve as fenders to absorb wear and shock.
To improve load-bearing capacity of soil and reduce potential settlement.
To transfer loads from overwater structures below the depth of scour.

Types of Pile
Based on Function

End Bearing Pile


Friction Pile
Compaction Pile
Tension Pile
Anchor Pile
Fender pile and dolphins

End Bearing Pile:- End Bearing Pile are used to transfer load through water or soft
soil to a suitable bearing stratum

Friction Pile:- Friction piles are used to transfer loads to a depth of a friction load
carrying material by means of skin friction along the length of the piles
Compaction Piles:- Compaction pile are used to compact loose granular soil thus
increasing their varying capacity. The compaction pile themselves do not carry any
load. Hence they may be of weaker material sometimes of sand only. The pile tube
driven to compact soil in granular.

Based on material and composition:


1 Concrete piles:
(a) Precast.

(b) Cast in situ.


1. Driven piles: cased or uncased.
2. Bored Piles: pressure pile and undernamed pile
2 Timber piles
3 Steel piles
(a) H piles.
(b) Pipe piles.
(c) Sheet piles.
4 Composite piles
(a) Concrete and Timber.
(b) Concrete and Steel.
The precast concrete piles are generally used for a maximum design load of
about 80 tonnes, except for large prestress piles. they must be reinforced to
withstand underneath stresses. They require space for casting and storage,
more time to set and cure before installation and heavy equipment for handling
and driving. They also incure large cost in cutting of extra length or adding
more length.
The cast in situ piles are generally used for maximum design load of 75 tones,
except for compacted, pedestrian piles. They are install by pre - excavation,
thus eliminating vibration due to driving and handling stresses cast in place

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

piles may be classes: driven pile and bored piles.


The common types are as follows:
Raymond standard piles.
Raymond stepped tappered piles.
Union metal pile of monotube.
Macarthur compressed piles.
Macarthur cased piles.
Frankie standard piles.

Undreamed piles is special type of bored piles having an increased diameter or


bulb at some point in its length, to anchor the foundation in expansive soil
subjected to alternate expansion and contraction.
Concrete filled piles and steel H piles are used as long piles with high bearing
capacity. They are rarely used unless they reach a stratum of exceptionally high
supporting capacity, since there cost is very high. Timber piles have small
bearing capacity, and are not permanent unless treated. They are prone to
damage by hard driving and should not be driven through hard stratum or
boulders. Composite piles are suitable where the upper part of the pile is to
project above the water table. Such pile consists of a lower portion of untreated
timber and an upper portion of concrete. In the other type of composite piles,
steel piles are attached to the lower end of cast - in- place concrete pile. This
type is used in case where the required length of piles is
Greater than that available for the cast-in-place type.

Q-19: Explain techniques for pile testing.


ANS:
Following Different techniques are used for Pile Load Carrying Capacity.
1. Static Load Test
The static load test (SLT) involves the direct measurement of pile head
displacement in the response to a physically applied test load.
It is the most fundamental form of pile load test and is considered as the benchmark of pile performance.
Testing has been performed in the load range 100kN to 12,000 kN. The SLT
May be carried out for the following load configurations:
Compression
Lateral
Tension
For the SLT the load is most commonly applied via a jack acting against a
reaction beam, which is restrained by an anchorage system or by jacking up
against a reaction mass.The anchorage system may be in the form of cable
anchors or reaction piles installed into the ground to provide tension resistance.

The nominated test load is usually applied in a series of increments in


accordance with the appropriate Code, or with a pre-determined load testing
specification for a project.
Each load increment is sustained for a specified time period, or until the rate of
pile movement is less than a nominated value. Static load testing methods are
applicable to all pile types, on land or over water, and may be carried out on
either production piles or sacrificial trial piles.
Trial piles are specifically constructed for the purpose of carrying out load tests
and therefore, are commonly loaded to failure.
Testing of production piles however, is limited to prove that a pile will perform
satisfactorily at the serviceability or design load, plus an overload to
demonstrate that the pile has some (nominated) reserve capacity
Loading is applied to the test pile using a calibrated hydraulic jack, and where
required a calibrated load cell measures the load.
During the SLT, direct measurements of pile displacement under the applied
loading are taken by reading deflect meters (dial gauges reading to 0.01mm)
that are positioned on glass reference plates cemented to the pile head.
The deflect meters are supported by reference beams that are founded a
specified distance away from both the test pile and any reaction points.
Although SLT is generally held as the most reliable form of load testing a pile
or pile group, it is important that interaction effects are minimized.
These may result from interaction between the test pile and the anchorage

systems, or between the measuring system and reaction points.


For this reason, careful attention is given to performing the test in accordance
with proper procedures.

2. DYNAMIC PILE TESTING

Dynamic testing was pioneered by Dr. G.G. Goble and his colleagues at Case
Western Reserve University in Cleveland Ohio and is now a routine pile
capacity evaluation method
Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile
performance. Over the last 15 years, it has been the predominant means of pile
load testing worldwide.
DLT involves impacting the head of a pile with a piling hammer or drop weight
and measuring the resultant strains and accelerations. These measurements are
used to quantify the pile and soil behavior in response to the applied dynamic
force.
Some important capabilities of the DLT method are summarized as follows:
Relatively quick and economical means of quality control for pile

construction.
On-site monitoring of piling hammer performance.
Assessment of driving problems and/or pile damage.
Provides immediate estimate of mobilized pile resistances during the blow.
Can be applied to all types of pile foundation

Q-20: Explain with sketch and with its construction parameter: Pile, Pile cap.
ANS:
Pile: A pile is a long, columnar element made of timber, steel, concrete, or a
combination of these materials.
Piles transmit foundation loads to deeper strata that sustain the loads safely
and prevent settling of the supported structure.
Piles derive their support from a combination of skin friction along the
embedded lengths and end bearing at the tips or bottoms.
The following parameters to be considered, while construction
of pile:
Site conditions such as its boundaries, inclination of ground surface, access to
area, factors restricting work, etc.
Location and condition of nearby buildings, roads, railways, equipment, lines
and cables, underground structures, foundations, piles, anchors and other

obstacles in the ground, archaeological relics and structures that hamper


work such as power lines and electrical and lighting systems.
Data on soil contamination and factors that induce corrosion and other similar
drawbacks which may impact the selection of pile type or work safety.
Threshold values for environmental nuisances such as noise, vibration and
emissions as well as other statutory constraints such as time limits for
construction works.
Information on piling, other substructure construction or underground works
done on the site or nearby earlier.
Simultaneously ongoing activities which may have an impact on the work
such as a nearby excavation or lowering of the groundwater level.
Location of bench marks.
Allowable deformations in adjacent buildings and structures.
Required control measurement system and inspections.
Pile cap: A pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on concrete or timber piles that
have been driven into soft or unstable ground to provide a suitable stable
foundation.
It usually forms part of the foundation of a building, typically a multi-story
building, structure or support base for heavy equipment.
The cast concrete pile cap distributes the load of the building into the piles.

Design: A geological survey must be carried out first to establish the stability of the
proposed site for the support cap.
The cap thickness will be determined by the load that it has to support and the
number of piles used to distribute the load into the underlying soil. Other

considerations, such as any localized loading that any part of the mat must
support are taken into account.
Some soil is so fluid in nature (such as clay and sand), that screw shaped piles
are used, these resist the tendency for the pile to sink under the added weight
of the cap and the load placed upon it. Standard engineering practice is
followed with regard to the square area of the cap, thickness, and its design
loading. From a set of appropriate calculations the sizes will be determined
and the quantity of concrete required calculated.
Construction:
The mat is made of concrete which is an aggregate of small rocks and cement.
This mixture has to be supported by a framework to avoid sagging and
fracture whilst setting.
This process is known as shuttering and reinforcing.
The materials used are long twisted steel bars between the piles held in shape
by thinner tie wires.
Once this steel mat is laid, timber is attached around the perimeter to contain
the wet concrete mixture.
Once poured, (usually as a series of small loads), the concrete is stirred to
remove any air pockets that might weaken the structure when set.
The concrete undergoes a chemical change as it hardens and this produces a
lot of heat.
Sometimes, if the mass of concrete is very large, pipes carrying refrigerant
coolant are used in the mass to assist the setting process to prevent the
concrete from cracking.
Q-21: Short note
1. Drilled pile
2. Auger pile
ANS:
Drilled Pile: Drilled piles are also called caissons, drilled shafts, drilled piers, Cast-indrilled-hole piles (CIDH piles) or Cast-in-Situ piles. Rotary boring techniques
or larger diameter piles than any other piling method and permit pile
construction through particularly dense or hard strata.

Construction methods depend on the geology of the site. In particular, whether


boring is to be undertaken in 'dry' ground conditions or through water-logged
but stable strata - i.e. 'wet boring'.
For end-bearing piles, drilling continues until the borehole has extended a
sufficient depth (socketing) into a sufficiently strong layer. Depending on site
geology, this can be a rock layer, or hardpan, or other dense, strong layers.
Both the diameter of the pile and the depth of the pile are highly specific to the
ground conditions, loading conditions, and nature of the project.
Drilled shafts can be used to sustain high axial and lateral loads. Typical shaft
diameters range from 18 to 144 inches.

Auger Pile: An auger cast pile, often known as a continuous flight auguring (CFA) pile.
The CFA Pile is a non-displacement pile used where fast vibration free
installation is required in difficult ground conditions. The drilling process is
suitable for penetrating dense layers and is unaffected by ground water or
collapsing soil conditions.
Cement-sand grout or concrete is then injected under pressure through the
augers hollow stem as it is being withdrawn.
The grout or concrete pressure is maintained during the auger withdrawal so
that it assists the extraction as well as exerting a lateral pressure on the
surrounding soils. On completion of this operation, a reinforcing cage is
placed into the fluid column of grout or concrete.
The pile is formed by first drilling into the ground with a continuous flight
auger.

Auger cast piles are not generally suited for use in contaminated soils, due to
expensive waste disposal costs. In cases such as these however a displacement
pile may provide the cost efficiency of an auger cast pile and minimal
environmental impact.
Q-22: Write sequential procedure for pile installation.
ANS:
A variety of methods and special equipment have been used for the installation of
piles. Installation practices include consideration and utilization of appropriate field
methods for storing, handling, and accurately driving each pile to the desired final
position within established tolerances.
The installation process and method of installations are equally important factors as of
the design process of pile foundations. There are two main types of pile installation
methods
i. Pile driving methods
ii. Boring methods
Following are the basic operations carried out for pile installation.

Transporting Position
Drilling of hole
Raising of monitor
Delivery of water-cement grout and mixing with soil
Flushing of system

TUNNELING TECHNIQUES
Q-1. Explain operational sequences for tunnel.
ANS
Underground construction is a series of individual activities that must be
completed before the subsequent activities can start. This series of unique
activities is then repeated and repeated until the operation is complete. For tunnels
that employ drilling and blasting to create the tunnel opening the series is, "drill,
load, shoot, muck and support."
Each round is drilled a certain length or depth using a pre-engineered drill pattern.
Once the drilling is done the explosives are loaded into the drill holes and "wired
up". The equipment and crews are then pulled back a safe distance from the loaded
face and the blast is "shot".
Exhaust gasses produced by the explosives are removed from the face and
fresh air is sent to the heading area. After around 30 minutes the crew is brought
back into the area to scale or knock down any loose rock and remove the
excavated material or "muck".
Once the muck is removed, the initial tunnel support is installed to make the
excavated opening stable and safe for the crew to work under. The cycle is
complete and the tunnel has been advanced some distance. The next round can be
started when all of these activities have been completed.
In TBM excavated tunnels there is also a defined sequence of activities needed to
advance the heading. The TBM usually completes this series much faster that in
drill & blast tunnels but the elements remain similar. The TBM cuts into the
rock or earth a certain distance at the same time the muck is removed by conveyor
to either waiting muck cars or to a continuous horizontal conveyor, so the
TBM is able to combine these two operations thereby saving time and speeding
up the tunnel progress.
After the end of the TBM's stroke (the hydraulic pistons used to push the TBM
cutting head into the rock have a defined length) the excavation is stopped and the
TBM readied to start the next excavation cycle. While this is happening the
length of tunnel that has just been exposed most be supported to provide a stable
and safe opening.

The TBM can sometimes be configured to perform this support function


concurrently with the excavation sequence depending on the size of the tunnel
opening, the type of ground being excavated and the design of the machine.
This can be another advantage of using a TBM but does not change the fact that
this operation must be done before the next excavation cycle can begin.
Tunnels are usually stabilized for long term use by placing an internal final
concrete liner. The concrete lining operation also contains a series of individual
steps that must be completed in sequence before the next length of tunnel can be
lined.
Common

operational

steps

of

tunneling:

Setting up and drilling.


Loading holes with explosives and firing them.
Ventilation and removing the dust after explosion.
Loading and hauling muck.
Removing ground water.
Erecting supports for sides and roofs.
Placing reinforcement.
Placing concrete lining.

Q-2. Explain advantages and disadvantages for tunnel.

ANS
Advantages
It is carried out underground and hence there is no disturbance by any other

local activity.
Tunnels prevent the divisions of property.
There is no requirement of any overhead bridges, or vent ways.
The area of land to be acquired is less.
Tunnels save tearing up of expensive pavement and so lesser maintenance
costs and operating expenses by providing protection from snow, rain and

other natural calamities.


Use of explosives and Tunnel Boring Machines help in advancing a tunnel
very fast.
Tunnels provide an

effective and

efficient means for transportation,

conveyance of fluids, etc.


During aerial warfare and bombing of cities, tunnels have great intangible
values.
Disadvantages
The work has to be carried out in restricted space.
Continuous air circulation is required.
Due to the use of explosive, the temperature is high and hence effective
cooling measures have to be adopted.
The cost of explosives is high. A difficult terrain may increase the quantity of
explosives to be used, thus decreasing the overall economy of the project.
Specialized equipments and methods make Tunnels more costly than open
cuts.

Q-3. What are the factors which involves in selection of route for tunnels.
ANS
Natural features, Topography and Convenience for entrance and exit.
Easiness in securing right of way for a tunnel, from the property owners.
For Sewers, it is better to locate them under public streets, where there is little
development.
Economy and Easiness of construction is generally achieved by having
straight tunnels as far as possible.
Ground Conditions.

Q-4 . Explain special techniques and method for hard rocks in


tunnel construction.
ANS
Tunneling in hard rock is safe, easy and the cost of maintenance of tunnel is
also very small.
Tunnels are driven in hard rocks by repeating in sequence the operations of
drilling holes in the rock face, loading the holes with explosives, blasting,
removing and disposing off the broken rocks.
Hard rocks are those having sufficient cohesion to stand vertically when cut to
any depth.
Many of the primary rocks like granite, feldspar and basalt belong to this class.
Methods of Tunneling in hard rocks
Full face method
In this method, the entire cross-sectional area of the tunnel face is blown
out by one explosive blast.
This method is suitable for works on good rocks where the excavated portion
can hold itself for sufficient time to permit mucking and supporting operations
to be completed.
This method is recommended for tunnels of small size having diameter less
2
than 6m and face area less than 19m
Nowadays, this method has become popular even in large tunnels due to
development of drilling equipments shield and TBM (Tunnel Boring
Machine).
These methods are used for full face excavations in variety of ground
conditions, cross-sections, shapes and sizes.
In this method, the vertical columns are fixed at the face of tunnel to which the
drills can be fixed at any suitable height.
A series of drill holes about 10mm to 40mm diameter is drilled at about
120cm centers and preferably in two lines.
These holes are then charged with explosives.
The charge is ignited and it is essential to remove the material of the explosion
before the next set of drill holes is bored.
Heading and bench method

This method is useful where the tunnel section is very large and rock is not
structurally sound.
The heading is the top portion which will be 360cm to 450cm ahead of the
bottom portion i.e. bench.
In this method, the holes are drilled horizontally in heading, whereas,
vertically in bench.
Then the drill holes are loaded with explosives and the holes on bench are
fired an instant before the top heading holes.
The muck from the heading is usually thrown off the bench back to the floor of
the tunnel.
As the muck is removed again the next set of drill holes are bored and the
process is continued.

Drift method
This method is useful for large tunnels, where a drift of size 2m x 3m or more
is driven end to end of the tunnel prior to excavating the full bore.
The drift may be located either centrally or on the sides.
Drill holes are provided all round the drift in the entire cross-section of the
tunnel.
When these holes are filled up with explosives and ignited, the drift is
expanded to the full cross-section.
The central drift is economical than others and it also provides good
ventilation.
Pilot tunnel method
This method is useful for speeding up the driving of the main tunnel.
In this method, the pilot tunnel is driven to full size is connected to the
centerline of main tunnel can be started from a number of positions.

The pilot tunnel helps in removal of muck and the lighting and ventilation of
main tunnel very effectively and efficiently.
The pilot tunnel is of minimum cross section, about 2.4m x 2.4m and it is driven
parallel to the main tunnel at a distance of about 2m.

Q-5. Explain rock bolts for tunnel construction?


ANS
Introduction
Tunneling in weak rock presents some special challenges to the geotechnical
engineer since misjudgments in the design of support systems can lead to very
costly failures.
In order to understand the issues involved in the process of designing support
for this type of tunnel it is necessary to examine some simple basic concepts of
how a rock mass surrounding a tunnel deforms and how the support systems
acts to control this deformation. This Rock-Support Interaction or
Convergence-Confinement analysis is limited to circular tunnels in an in-situ
stress field in which all three principal stresses are equal and where the rock
mass exhibits elastic-perfectly plastic shear failure.
It should not be used for the detailed design of tunnels in more complex rock
masses and in-situ stress fields. More comprehensive analyses are available
for these situations.
Deformation around an advancing tunnel
Figure 1 shows the results of a three-dimensional finite element analysis of the
deformation and failure of the rock mass surrounding a circular tunnel
advancing through a weak rock mass subjected to equal stresses in all

directions. The plot shows displacement vectors in the rock mass, the shape of
the deformed tunnel profile and the shape of the plastic zone surrounding the
tunnel. Figure 2 gives a graphical summary or the most important features of
this analysis.
Elastic deformation of the rock mass starts about two diameters ahead of the
advancing face and reaches its maximum value at about two diameters behind
the face. At the face position about one third of the total radial closure of the
tunnel has already occurred and the tunnel face deforms inwards
Rock bolts
The action of rock bolts and cables installed in the rock mass surrounding a
tunnel can be complex. For example, fully grouted rock bolts act as
reinforcement of the rock in much the same way as reinforcing steel acts in
concrete.
As a result they change the shape of the characteristic curve rather than
provide internal support equivalent to that given by steel sets or shot Crete
linings. On the other hand, ungrouped anchored rock bolts can be considered
to resist the inward displacement of the rock mass and this is equivalent to the
application of an internal support pressure in the tunnel.

Q - 8. What are the different methods of tunneling in SOFT GROUND? Explain any
one method with its advantages.
ANS:
The choice of tunnelling method may be dictated by:
Geological and hydrological conditions,
Cross-section and length of continuous tunnel,
Local experience and time/cost considerations (what is the value of time in the
project),
Limits of surface disturbance and many others factors.
TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION METHODS:
Classical methods
Mechanical drilling/cutting
Cut-and-cover

Drill and blast


Shields and tunnel boring machines (TBMs)
New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM)
Immersed tunnels
Special methods (Tunnel jacking, etc.)

Classical Method :
Among the classical methods are the Belgian, English, German, Austrian, Italian and
American systems. These methods had much in common with early mining methods
and were used until last half of the 19th century.
Excavation was done by hand or simple drilling equipment.
Supports were predominantly timber, and transportation of muck was done on cars on
narrow gauge tracks and powered by steam.
Progress was typically in multiple stages i.e. progress in one drift, then support, then
drift in another drift, and so on.
The lining would be of brickwork.
These craft-based methods are no longer applicable, although some of their principles
have been used in combination up to present day. Nevertheless some of the worlds
great tunnels were built with these methods.

Fig: Classical method


Q - 9. Write short note on NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method).
ANS:

It required a strongly constructed central bottom heading upon which a crown heading
was constructed. The timbering for full-face excavation was then heavily braced
against the central headings, with longitudinal poling boards built on timber bars
carried on each frame of timbering. As the lining advanced, so was the timbering
propped against each length to maintain stability. The method was capable of
withstanding high ground pressures but had high demand for timber.

Q - 10. Write short note on English Method.


ANS:
(crown-bar method, figure left) started from a central top heading which allowed two
timber crown bars to be hoisted into place, the rear ends supported on a completed
length of lining, the forward ends propped within the central heading. Development of
the heading then allowed additional bars to be erected around the perimeter of the face
with boards between each pair to exclude the ground. The system is economical in
timber, permits construction of the arch of the tunnel in full-face excavation, and is
tolerant of a wide variety of ground conditions, but depends on relatively low ground
pressures.

TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY
Q - 1. Explain Rib Loc technology to rehabilitation of existing sewer lines. Discuss
briefly various methods for installation of Rib Loc profile to suit various
applications of sewer lines.
ANS:
The inliner method using resin-saturated fiber glass or needled felt sleeves has a
proven track record for sewer rehabilitation.
Three new methods using the spiral-wound pipe relining system -RIB LOCSLIPLINING, RIB LOC- EXPANDA PIPE and RIB-STEEL are making inroads
into the sewer rehabilitation market because of their many advantages compared to
the sleeve relining method.
Rehabilitation without obstructing flow in the sewer pipe up to approx. 25 % of pipe
cross-section capacity without additional over pumping Rehabilitation of all standard
diameters without limit and without additional civil engineering work Modifiable to
meet the highest structural specifications by applying system variations Endlessly
wound
The main principle behind the three methods is winding a patented endless synthetic
profile from the manhole to create a new circular sewer pipe within the old pipe. This
process involves a winding machine.
The Rib Loc systems consist of a factory manufactured continuous plastic, or
composite steel and plastic, profile strip which is spirally wound into the deteriorated
host pipe to form a lightweight liner of high stiffness.
Rib Locs winding machines are designed for use in standard sized access chambers
without the need for excavation. When the profile is manufactured from uPVC the
edges of the strip are interlocked during the installation process to produce a
watertight seal. If the profile is manufactured from HDPE the profile is welded
together to form a continuous joint less HDPE liner. One of the following four
installation systems can be employed:

Expanda produces a close-fit PVC liner in diameters from 150 mm to 750 mm.
The liner is wound through the host pipe at a smaller diameter and then radially
expanded into intimate contact.

Rotaloc produces a close-fit PVC liner in diameters from 800 mm to 1800 mm.
The Rotaloc machine traverse the host pipe and installs a liner intimate with the pipe
wall. The Rotaloc machine adjusts diameter to negotiate line conditions.

Rib line produces a fixed diameter, fully welded, steel reinforced HDPE liner in
diameters from 300 mm to 3000 mm

Rib steel produces a fixed diameter PVC liner in diameters from 450 mm to 2500
mm. Stiffness is enhanced by a separate roll formed steel section incorporated during
the lining process.
Q - 2. Discuss advantages of Rib-Loc technology.
ANS:
This process can be done without any excavation and through the existing manhole

chamber.
Short duration of shut down period due to high installation speed.
Up to 200 meters long relining can be done without any excavation requirement.
Sewer network can be relined with up to 25% water flow.
Product design for 50 years life.
Plastic Material with smooth inner surface provides a corrosion & abrasion resistance

linear with high hydraulic efficiency.


The stainless steel reinforcement provides linear with high stiffness thus maximizing
cross section area.
No ripples or wrinkles even when the host pipe joints are having offset.
This process provides high level safety due to no open pits, no storage of large pipes
on site and nobody works inside the deteriorated pipeline.
Wind smoothly around large radius pipeline bends.

Q 3. Discuss Trenchless technology for under-ground utilities.


ANS:

The implementation of trenchless technology for laying utility services under the
ground in urban areas, the various problems affecting the structures and traffic
congestion by using traditional methods (open cut trench) can be substantially
reduced. This technology seems to be friendly to all concerns including authorities,
contractors, consultants, environmentalists, and many others.
The main objective of the paper is to provide basic information on this technology,
specifically underground directional drilling, micro tunneling, impact moling, and
pipe jacking which have been rapidly accepted all over the world.
With the greater emphasis on infrastructure development projects for economic
development in India, it is felt that the trenchless technology may poise for its
increased adoption in the growing metropolitan cities. These cities in India can no
longer afford to disrupt traffic and disturbance to public life using traditional open cut
trenching for laying underground services. The question is why we should dig the
road when we can drill it for laying the underground utilities and also why do not
adopt better alternatives and eco-friendly methods, readily available. This article in
general introduces and discusses in brief the various important methods under
trenchless technology being used for laying underground utilities.
Trenchless Technology
The trenchlesss technology is an innovative process of installing and rehabilitating the
underground utilities like water, sewer & gas pipelines, electricity & communication
cables and other underground facilities. This technique minimises or eliminates the
need for excavation of the open cut trenches. It is also referred as No Dig
Technology which is an eco-friendly, hi-tech and speedy construction technology for
construction industry.
The trenchless construction is defined as "A family of methods and equipment
capable of being used for installation of new/ rehabilitation of existing underground
infrastructure with minimum disruption to surface traffic and other activities at the
surface."
Trenchless technology, the term itself includes many generic techniques which have
been further custom developed or even patented by many advocates and developers in
this field. The techniques, as we shall call them are not just one area of engineering
and technology but integration and interfacing of various branches of engineering like
civil, electrical, mechanical, electronics, instrumentation, metallurgy, etc.. Interaction
of so many branches of engineering makes it more complex in the field of modern

urban underground utility services management.


Q 4. Write short note on Trenchless technology in pipeline construction.
ANS:
The determination of a pipeline course often follows political motivations, especially
when projects are crossing several countries, therefore it is not always bound to be the
most economical version.
This may certainly lead to technical constraints, which demand a certain analysis of
the alignment with focus on the installation technologies.
The application of trenchless methods may be technically and economically
reasonable in just these special cases. It must be the in the interest of all people
involved to keep costs low by maximizing the share of trenchless techniques.
Precise observation can be worthwhile; in pipeline construction, like in other
branches, economic constraints determine the method of action, and in many cases,
the utilization of the technical possibilities of trenchless technology result in shorter
working times coupled with a more economical Particularly the linkage of offshore
with onshore plants sees the open trench construction, due to its negative effects,
increasingly being replaced by the HDD technique.
The sensitive transition region, with shallow water zones, strips of shore and flood
protection banks, is simply undercrossed from the shore without disturbing flora and
fauna.
Q - 5.Write short note on Trenchless Technology-A modern technology for
infrastructure development.
ANS:
Trenchless technology methods are used mostly for installing utility pipes especially
those running under busy roads or rivers. Trenchless Technology can be defined as
the technology for placing new pipe, cable, or conduit in the ground between two
defined points without continuous, open cut excavation between them, or for
renovating, replacing, and rehabilitating
Trenchless technology emerged in such countries as Japan and Australia where
modern sewer networks were needed to serve increasing populations. The early
trenchless technologies used in these countries were then adapted in the UK in the
1970s and early 1980s.
Formerly, site investigations and trial pits were used to investigate ground conditions

however over the years this has evolved to virtual visualization. The use of software
tools,

visual

prototyping

and

robotic

devices

have

reduced

the

time

taken, cost and risk endured in a project.


The advantages of using trenchless technology as opposed to open cut excavation
methods include:
Minimizing the environmental effects which open cut excavation methods cause due

to disturbing the soil, organisms and water bodies.


Encountering fewer unknowns in the ground.
Saving time and costs related to surveying and design calculations.
Minimizing installation time in comparison to open cut excavation methods.
improving safety compared to steep excavations.

Q.6. Explain HDD as Trenchless technique. Give classification of HDD technique,


v/ Discuss benefits of HDD technique.
ANS
HDD is an extremely versatile trenchless technology that is used for the installation of
everything from service connections to residences and buildings, to pipes and cables
under roadways and rivers. HDD is best suited for installing pressure pipes and
conduits where precise grades are not required.
The main components of HDD are: (1) a directional drill rig sized for the job at hand;
(2) drill rods linked together to form a drill string for advancing the drill bit and for
pulling back reamers and products; (3) a transmitter/receiver for tracking and
recording the location of the drill and product; (4) a tank for mixing and holding
drilling fluid; and (5) a pump for circulating the drilling fluid. Other components of an
HDD

operation

include

bits,

reamers,

swivels

and

pulling

heads.

Larger jobs often recycle the drilling fluid using a combination of screens, centrifugal
pumps, and hydro cyclones to remove the cuttings from the fluid. Large jobs where
tracking the drill head using a walkover system is not possible due to the depth or surface
conditions

instead

use

wire

lines

to

track

progress.

Operationally, an HDD project has a launch site where the rigs is set-up and positioned to
drill a pilot bore along a planned path to an exit pit where either the product pipe, reamer
or product pipe reamer is attached and pulled back through the bore hole. The process can
be relatively simple for small diameter product pipe covering a short distance or quite
complex

when

the

product

is

large

and

the

distances

are

long.

The rig is secured by means of on-board power-rotating augers and positioned at a


distance behind the entry point to allow the drill to enter the ground at the planned
location. The entry angle of the drill string is typically 8 to 16 degrees. A pit for capturing
drilling fluids (returns) is dug at the point of entry and at the planned exit point. The drill
string, comprised of a series of drill rods, is advanced by a combination of rotation and
thrust supplied by the rig. The string is initially advanced using both rotational torque and
thrust until the drill string has enough down-hole stability to allow the operator to change
the direction that the string will advance along a planned bore path. There are many types

of bits designed to navigate through different types of soil, from clays and sands to rock.
Most drill bits have a slant-face, the orientation of which determines the direction that the
bit will advance. To move in a straight line, the rig operator both rotates and pushes the
drill string. To change direction, the operator, stops rotating the drill string and pushes the
string. The path will change in the direction that the bits slant-face is pointing. On-board
controls allow the operator to monitor the orientation of the bit and the change in general
direction

of

the

bore.

A walk-over tracking system is used to help guide and monitor the location of the bore.
The system is comprised of a transmitter and receiver. The transmitter or sonde is located
in a housing unit near the front of the drill string. The transmitter emits a continuous
magnetic signal, which is picked up by a portable hand-held receiver. Data transmitted to
the receiver allows the tracking hand to determine position and depth as well as clockface position of the drill bit. This information allows the operator to track location along
the

planned

bore

and

to

make

changes

as

needed.

Drilling fluids, pumped down through the hollow drill rods and holes in the drill bit, are
key to keeping the transmitter electronics cool, stabilizing the hole, and extracting returns
from the bore hole. The drilling fluids are mixed to address the solid conditions that are
anticipated along the planned path. During installation returns can be tested to confirm
that

the

correct

water-additive

mixture

is

being

used.

Once the pilot bore reaches the exit area, the reaming and installation the product pipe
phase begins. The hole is reamed in one or more passes to the required diameter. When
the bore is large enough to accept the product - about 1.5 times the size of the product the product is attached to the drill string with a pulling head and swivel, and pulled back
to the rig. Like drill bits reamers are designed to operate best in certain types of soil. The
larger the product, the more passes with reamers may be required to open up a hole that
can

accept

the

product.

For smaller installations, returns are removed via vacuum trucks for disposal. Cuttings
often are removed and drilling fluids recycled in larger installations using a combination
of centrifugal pumps, tanks with baffles, shaker screens, and de-sanding and de-silting
hydro cyclones. The residual material is removed for disposal.

Advantages of the HDD method:


surfaces worth conserving are neither broken up nor damaged(road surface,front
gardens etc.), restoration and repair are not required which leads to high economical

advantages
low social costs, because detours are avoided
short equipping times short drilling and construction times
very economic for river crossings
supported by the dynamic impact of the striking mechanism, the propulsion

and steerability are improved in soil qualities up to grade 5, sometimes even grade 6
wide spectrum of application
acknowledged procedure
pulling force measurement and position determination are possible

Q - 7. Define Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) for underground utilities. State


applications of HDD. Give classification of HDD.
ANS
Horizontal directional drilling is an innovative trenchless technology that enables us to
install underground utilities without conventional open trenching, as well as obtaining
sub-surface information in areas previously inaccessible. Bores from 50mm (2") diameter
to 900mm (36") diameter can be completed. The length and size of the bore varies
depending on soil type and size of product being installed with this equipment.
Application
Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is the fastest growing trenchless technology
for the installation of pipes, conduits, and cables in underground bore-path
construction. This is can be referred to the suitability of the technique for different soil
conditions (hard and loose soils), applicability in crossing natural barriers such as
rivers, lakes, and valleys, and artificial barriers such as highways and airport runways.
Also, the technique has the less construction and restoration cost of new water and
wastewater pipes and for rehabilitation of failing pipes in urban areas where
excavation is unrequited or impossible.
The 12 HDD operational units in 1984 increased to 2,000 HDD operational units in
1995. Approximately, 17,800 HDD unites were manufactured and sold during the
period between 1992 and 2001 in the North America. About 32,135 units has been

manufactured and sold worldwide including the year 2011 (projected statistics for
2011), 80% (25,708 units) were manufactured in USA. In this paper, HDD survey was
conducted to get the current market and industry position of HDD technology by
analyzing 14 responses from HDD contractors and consultants in USA. Topics studied
included observed HDD applications in different soil conditions, project parameters
(diameters, lengths, depths of boreholes, product pipe and materials), and HDD rig
size and applications.
Q - 8. Enlist and explain various Trenchless techniques for new underground
utilities.
ANS:
Trenchless methods Divided into two major categories:
- HORIZONTAL EARTH BORING
- PIPE JACKING / UTILITY TUNNELING
HORIZONTAL EARTH BORING
It includes
- Auger Boring
- Moling
- Pipe Ramming
- Water Jetting
- Microtunneling
AUGER BORING

Used for installation of steel pipes and casings, especially under railways & road

embankments.
Very economical.
It reduces damage to pavements and disruption to traffic, hence reduces social costs
associated with pipeline installations.

MOLING

Used for laying water pipes.


During moling process, a pneumatically driven machine known as a mole forces its

way through the soil along the desired path of the pipe.
Mole is a steel cylinder about 60cm long and 6cm in diameter, works as a pneumatic
cylinder with pulsed compressed air causing the head of the mole to repeatedly
hammer against the soil in front of the mole.

PIPE RAMMING / PIPE JACKING

Used for installation of steel pipes and casings over distances usually upto 30m long

and upto 1.5m in dia.


It is also used for shallow installations under railway lines and roads.
It can be applied for horizontal as well as vertical installations.
Method is pneumatic.

PIPE JACKING
Jacking Procedure:
Pipe jacking, generally referred to in the smaller diameters as microtunnelling, is a
technique for installing underground pipelines, ducts and culverts. Powerful hydraulic
jacks are used to push specially designed pipes through the ground behind a shield at the
same time as excavation is taking place within the shield. The method provides a flexible,
structural, watertight, finished pipeline as the tunnel is excavated. There is no theoretical
limit to the length of individual pipe jacks although practical engineering Considerations
and economics may impose restrictions. Drives of several hundred meters either in a
straight line or to a radius are routine. A number of excavation systems are available

including manual, mechanical and remote control. Pipes in the range 150mm to 3000mm,
can be installed by employing the appropriate system. Construction tolerances are
compatible with other tunneling methods, and the pipe jacking method generally requires
fewer over breaks than segmental tunnels, providing better ground support. Excavation
methods are similar to those employed in other forms of tunneling using either manual or
machine excavation. Shields, excavation and face support can be provided for a wide
variety of ground conditions.
WATER JETTING

Method is simple.
It uses high speed jet of water to liquefy and remove soil.
Special nozzle is attached at the end of a solid rod & extended into the bore hole.

Disadvantages:- poor control of overcut.


- disposal of large quantities of water.
- possibility of ground settlement.
MICROTUNNELING

Used to construct small tunnels for laying gravity pipe lines.


Micro tunnel boring machines are operated remotely.
Operator controls the machine from a control room on the surface of ground.
Most machines also have video cameras set up to give more information.

Q-9 Enlist and explain various Trenchless techniques for rehabilitation of existing
utilities.
ANS:
Methods including are:
1

Pipe bursting
PNEUMATIC PIPE BURSTING
STATIC PIPE BURSTING
Pipe eating

PNEUMATIC PIPE BURSTING


Air powered hammer mounted inside bursting head.
Constant tension winch designed to facilitate extraction of burst head.

Excavation cost reduced.


Bursting head bursts damaged pipeline and new pipe is pulled in.
Lubricants used for larger and longer bursts.
HDPE
pipe
is

STATIC PIPE BURSTING

Preferable in clayey soils .


Existing pipelines can be replaced without opening up ground.
Mole is used as bursting head.
Small power source is used to drive mole .

PIPE EATING

Based on micro tunneling.


Defective pipe excavated together with surrounding ground.
Consists of micro tunneling shield.
Shield has larger diameter than existing pipe.
Pipe fragment can be removed by 2 methods
1 Vacuum excavation
2 Slurry pumping

Pipe eating shield is pushed forward using hydraulic jacks.


Replacement pipes are connected to the back of tunneling shield.
This technique can be used to replace clayware, concrete, asbestos pipe etc.

used.