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Concrete anchor bolt design - a design example through a case study, basically the same material as in the blog indicated in the document

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Part-1: Determining Steel Strength of Anchor Bolt in Tension

Anchor bolts are used extensively as foundation bolts for rotating equipments like machines and structural

members like towers. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318 Appendix D has extensive guidelines for

designing concrete anchor bolts.

This series of eight articles will cover all the design guideline of the ACI code with the help of the following

concrete anchor foundation bolt design calculation example:

Problem statement of the design example

See the above two figures (Fig.1 and Fig.2) and design the cast in place anchor bolts according to the

arrangement shown. Consider the factored tensile load as 20000 lb, factored shear load as 2300 lb and

compressive strength of the concrete as 3500 psi. Also assume that the column is mounted at the corner of a

large concrete slab.

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

Design solution

The aim of this whole exercise is to calculate the design tensile strength and design shear strength of the

group of anchor for a selected anchor bolt diameter and check if the design strengths are higher than the

applied loads. If they are then we will declare that the selected bolt size is safe or else we will go for next

higher size of the anchor bolts.

The calculation of steel strength of anchor in tension according to the ACI code goes like below:

Steel strength in tension, N sa = n A se,N futa ..D-3

Where,

Strength reduction factor and its value for ductile anchor bolt in tension is 0.75

N sa Nominal material (steel) strength of the group of anchor in lb

n Total number of anchors

A se,N Single anchor bolts effective cross section area (to be obtained from manufacturers catalog) in

square inch

f uta Specified tensile strength for a single anchor (to be obtained from manufacturers catalog) in psi

The 0.75 inch anchor typically has the following cross section and tensile strength values:

A se,N = 0.334 square inch

f uta =75000 psi

So, by putting these values, we can get the nominal material strength for the group of anchors in tension

from the equation

N sa = 0.75*4*0.334*75000 = 75150 lb

Part-2: Determining Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor in Tension

We will discuss how to calculate the concrete breakout strength according to the ACI 318 code in this part of

the concrete anchor foundation bolt design calculation example. Please refer part-1 of the calculation to

understand the design problem statement and the calculations for the anchor bolt materials strength

If you refer the Fig.1 and the Fig.2 of the problem statement then it will clear to you that the distance

between two surrounding anchors (in our case it is 6 inch) is less than three times the effective embedment

depth (in our case it is 10 inch). So, as per ACI codes, the anchor arrangement can be termed as group and

the ACI formula for calculating the concrete breakout strength for the anchor group is:

N cbg = (A Nc /A Nco ) ec,N ed,N c,N cp,N N b ..D-5

Where,

Strength reduction factor for breakout strength and its value for non-reinforcement in tension is 0.70 A

Nc Total projected area for the group of anchors of the failure surface as approximated by a rectangle with

edges bounded by 1.5h ef (1.5*10 = 15 inch in our case) and the free edges of the concrete from the

centerline of the anchors. Confused? You will be clearer while calculating it little later.

h ef Effective embedment depth of anchor (in our case it is 10 inch).

A Nco Total projected failure area approximated by a square bounded by 1.5h ef (1.5*10 = 15 inch in our

case) from the centerline of the anchors at all the sides.

ec,N Modification factor for the anchor group loaded eccentrically in tension, in our case there is no

eccentric loading , so ec,N =1.

ed,N Modification factor for edge effect for the anchor group in tension, we will calculate it later.

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

c,N Modification factor based on the presence and absence of crack in the concrete, we will calculate it

later.

cp,N Modification factor for post weld types of anchor. For cast in place anchor cp,N = 1

N b Basic concrete break out strength for a single anchor in tension, we will calculate it later.

Calculation of A Nc

or Foundation Bolt Design Calculations with Example as per ACI 318 ...

Anc

A NC =Area of the square shown in

dotted line = (15+6+5)*(15+6+5) = 676

Square Inch

Calculation of A Nco

Before going to the calculation please refer the plan view of the anchor arrangement as below:

Anco

A Nco =Area of the square shown in

dotted line = (15+15)*(15+15) = 900

Square Inch

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

Calculation of ed,N

If, C a,min (minimum distances between two anchors, 6 inch in our case) is less than 1.5 times the h ef

(1.5*10=15 inch in our case) then

ed,N = 0.7+(0.3*C a,min )/(1.5*h ef ) = 0.7+(0.3*6)/(1.5*10) = 0.82

Calculation of c,N

According to the code the value of c,N =1 where concrete crack is likely to occur.

Now, by putting all the values in D-5 we get the Concrete breakout strength for the anchor group

N cbg =(A Nc /A Nco ) ec,N ed,N c,N cp,N N b

= 0.70*(676/900)*1*0.82*1*1*48000 = 20694.6131 lb

so, finally we got the concrete break out strength of the anchor group in tension as 20694.6131 lb.

Part-3: Determining Pullout Strength of Anchor in Tension

Please refer the problem statement and the part-1, part-2 of this cast in place concrete anchor bolt design

calculation example so that you will be in phase with this part (part-3) of the calculation. Here we will

calculate the pull out strength of the concrete anchor according to the ACI 318 Appendix D codes.

What is Anchor Pullout Strength?

As the name suggests, it is the force required to uproot a anchor out of the concrete.

Calculation

According to ACI codes, the pull out strength of the group of anchors is given by

N pn =8n c,P A brg f c ..D-14

Where, Strength reduction factor for pull out strength and its value for non-reinforcement in tension is

0.70 c,P Modification factor for pullout strength based on the presence of concrete cracks, for the

concrete with cracks at service load level c,P =1.

n Number of anchor bolts, in our case n=4.

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

A brg Net bearing area of the head of anchor bolt in square inch, in our case A brg =0.654 Square inch.

f c The concretes specified compressive strength in psi, in our case f c =4000 psi.

So, by putting all the values in D-14, we get the pullout strength of the anchor group as

N pn =0.7*8*4*1*0.654*4000 lb = 58598.4 lb

In the next part (Part-4) of the foundation anchor bolt design calculation example, we will discuss about

calculating the concrete blow out strength in tension.

Part-4: Determining Side-face Blowout Strength of Anchor in Tension

In this part we will calculate the side-face blowout strength of the concrete anchor according to the ACI 318

Appendix D codes and also consolidate the results of the different types of anchor strengths in tension we

have calculated so far.

Please refer the problem statement and the part-1, part-2, part-3 of this cast in place concrete anchor bolt

design calculation example so that you will be in phase with this part (part-4) of the calculation.

What is Side-face Blow Out Strength?

In simple term, it is the failure of the concrete due to the closeness of an anchor bolt with the side surface of

the concrete foundation. When the anchor bolt is too close to the side then the possibilities are there that

before breaking out the top concrete surface, the side surface get broken. While calculating side-face

blowout the depth of the anchor bolt and the distance of the anchor from the closest edge are considered.

Calculation

According to ACI codes, you need to calculate the side face blowout only for the anchors which has the

distance from the edge lesser than 0.4 times the depth of the anchor, or

C a1 < 0.4*h ef 4.1

Where

C a1 Minimum distance from the anchor to the foundation edge (in our case it is 5 inch)

h ef Effective embedment depth of anchor (in our case it is 10 inch).

So, from equation 4.1, 0.4**h ef is 4 which is less than C a1 so we need to calculate side-face blowout

strength for this example.

Summary of Calculated Strength Values in Tension

Through the part-1, Part-2, part-3, and this part we have come out with the following strength values:

Nominal material strength for the anchors ( N sa ) = 75150 lb

Concrete breakout strength for the anchor group ( N cbg ) = 20694.6131 lb

Pullout strength of the anchor group ( N pn ) = 58598.4 lb

Side-face blowout strength = NA

Out of these three strength values the smallest one will be the design strength.

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

So, the design strength in tension = 20694.6131 lb

If you refer the problem statement for this foundation anchor bolt design calculation example then you can

observe that tensile load (20000 lb) applied is lower than the calculated design strength in tension

(20694.6131 lb), so, the design is safe under tensile load.

Part-5: Determining Steel Strength of Anchor Bolt in Shear

In this part (part-5), we will see the concrete anchor bolt design calculation example for calculating anchor

material (steel) strength in shear according to the ACI 318 appendix D codes. But before that, please go

through the problem statement and part-1, part-2, part-3 and part-4 of this series

Calculation

The formula for determining the steel strength in shear given in the American Concrete Institute code is:

Steel strength in shear, N sa = nA se,N f uta ..D-19

Where,

Strength reduction factor and its value for ductile anchor bolt in shear; the value of it is 0.65

N sa Nominal shear strength of the group of anchor in lb

n Total anchor number in the group, in our case the value is 4

A se,N Effective cross sectional area of a single anchor, the value of it for the 0.75 inch anchor bolt is 0.334

square inch

f uta Specified tensile strength for a single anchor (to be obtained from manufacturers catalog) in psi, in

our case the value is 75000 psi.

Now, by putting the values in the equation D-19 explained above, we can obtain the value of the steel

strength for the group of anchor is:

N sa = 0.65*4*0.334*75000 = 65130 lb

You might have already observed that only difference between calculating the cast in place anchor bolt

material strength in shear and in tension is the strength reduction factor. For shear it is 0.65 and for tension

0.75. Also, please remember that in both the cases we used Specified tensile strength.

Part-6: Determining Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchor in Shear

Before diving into the concrete anchor bolt design calculation example for calculating anchor breakout

strength in shear, please go through the problem statement and part-1, part-2, part-3, part-4 and part-5 of

this series. The calculation exercise is carried out according to the ACI 318 appendix D codes.

Calculation

The code gives the following formula for finding out the break out strength in shear for a group of anchor

bolts

V cbg = (A Vc /A Vco ) ec,V ed,V c,V cp,V V b ..D-22

Where,

Strength reduction factor for breakout strength and its value for non-reinforcement in tension is 0.70

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

Avc projected concrete failure area of the group of anchors, for calculation of strength in shear (in inch 2 vc

) as approximated by a rectangle with edges bounded by 1.5*Ca1 (1.5*5 = 7.5 inch in our case) and the free

edges of the concrete from the centerline of the anchors. We will calculate it little later.

Ca1 Distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of concrete in one direction (in inch). Refer

Fig.1 below.

A vco Total projected shear failure area approximated by a square bounded by 1.5*Ca1 (1.5*5 = 7.5 inch in

our case) from the centerline of a anchor at all the sides. We will calculate it little later.

ec,V Modification factor for the anchor group loaded eccentrically in shear, in our case there is no

eccentric loading , so ec,V =1.

ed,V Modification factor for edge effect for the anchor group in shear, we will calculate it later.

c,V Modification factor based on the presence and absence of crack in the concrete, in our case value of

it = 1..

cp,V Modification factor for post weld types of anchor. For cast in place anchor cp,V = 1

V b Basic concrete break out strength for a single anchor in shear, we will calculate it later.

Calculation of A Vc

or Foundation Bolt Design Calculations with Example According to A...

and Avco for Anchor Group

calculating Avc

Refer the above two figure (Fig.1 and

Fig.2), it should be clear by now that

A VC = 16.5*(5+6+16.5) = 453.75 inch 2

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

Calculation of A Vco

By referring the above figure (Fig.3), we can calculate

Where,

d a = Diameter of the anchor bolt in inch., in our case it is 0.75 inch. Remember we have started with the

0.75 inch anchor in the part-1 of this calculation.

l e = Length of the anchor inserted inside the concrete in inch. In our case it is 10 inch.

= A factor related to the reduced mechanical properties of concrete, for normal weight concrete =1.

C a1 = we already know it from the Fig.1. Its value is 11 inch.

f c = Specified compressive strength of the concrete, in our case f c =4000 psi (refer problem statement of

part-1).

So, by putting all the values, the above equation (D-24) becomes

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

In this part of the concrete anchor bolt design calculation example we will calculate the concrete pry out

strength under shear force applied to the structural cast in place foundation anchor bolt of the column

shown in the Figure-1 and 2 of the Part-1 of this design calculation series.

What is Concrete Pryout Strength?

This is something related to the coming out of the short and stiff anchors by breaking or chipping the

concrete at the direction opposite to the applied shear force to the column.

Design Calculation

The code ACI 318 Appendix D gives the following equation:

V cpg =k cp N cbg D-31

Where,

Strength reduction factor for pryout strength and its value for non-reinforcement in tension is 0.70

V cpg Pryout strength

k cp Factor, which has value =2 for the anchor longer than 2.5 inch.

N cbg Concrete breakout strength in tension (=20694.6131 lb, Refer Part-2) for the anchor group.

Now, by putting all the values we get the pryout strength,

V cpg = 28972.45 lb

Summary of Calculated Strength Values in Shear

Through the part-5, Part-6, and this part we have come out with the following shear strength values:

Nominal material strength in for the anchors ( V sa ) = 65130lb

Concrete breakout strength for the anchor group ( V cbg ) =10821.297 lb

Pryout strength of the anchor group ( V pn ) =28972.45 lb

Out of these three strength values the smallest one will be the design strength.

All credit of good work goes to http://blog.mechguru.com/machine-design/

So, the design strength in shear = 10821.297 lb

From the problem statement (part-1), you can observe that applied factored shear force to the column =

2300 lb.

Since, design strength in shear is much lower than the factored applied shear force, so, the anchor bolts are

safe under shear

Part-8: Interaction of Tensile and Shear Forces

In this part of the concrete anchor bolt design calculation example we will see the interaction of tensile and

shear forces for the structural cast in place foundation anchor bolt of the column. Please refer the Figure-1

and 2 of the Part-1 of this anchor design series.

What the ACI 318 Codes says

If, the factored shear load (2300 lb in our case, refer part-1) > 0.2* design strength in shear (10821.297 lb in

our case, refer part-7)

And, the factored tensile load (20000 lb in our case, refer part-1) > 0.2* design strength in tension

(20694.6131 lb in our case, refer part-4)

Then, (factored shear load / design strength in shear) + (factored tensile load /design strength in tension)

<=1.2..eq.8

For our case, the left hand side of the eq.8 becomes:

(2300/10821.297) + (20000/20694.613) = 1.181, which is less than 1.2, so, we can conclude that the anchor

bolt design is safe under the interaction of tensile and shear forces.

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