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Kunwar et al.

Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010, 6:35
http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/6/1/35

JOURNAL OF ETHNOBIOLOGY
AND ETHNOMEDICINE

RESEARCH

Open Access

Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal:
a pharmacological appraisal
Ripu M Kunwar1*, Keshab P Shrestha2, Rainer W Bussmann3

Abstract
Background: Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal.
The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but
their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical
findings.
Methods: The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review,
comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal
plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common
phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008.
Results: The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional
knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home
herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only
survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The
present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine
is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese
medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the
common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia
catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis
paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma,
Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest
pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses.
Conclusions: Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the
medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further
pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.

Background
Current estimates suggest that, in many developing
countries, about two thirds of the population relies
heavily on traditional practitioners and medicinal plants
to meet primary health care needs [1]. Although modern
medicine may be available in these countries, traditional
herbal medicine is often been used for historical, cultural, and ecological reasons, in particular this is due to
continued availability [2], better compatibility [3] and
high acceptance [4]. Traditional herbal medicine
* Correspondence: ripukunwar@gmail.com
1
Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal, GPO Box 5220, Kathmandu, Nepal
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article

possesses greater significance in Nepal Himalaya hence
interest in herbal medicine has gradually increased in
recent years [5]. As a result, the medicine all over the
world is nowadays revalued by extensive researches on
base materials plant species and their therapeutic principles, however to date only about five percent of the
total plant species have been thoroughly investigated
[6-8] to ascertain safety and efficacy of traditional
medicines.
Plant species have long been the principal ingredients
of traditional medicine [9] and their use dates back to
the beginning of human civilization [10]. Herbal medicine has clearly recognizable therapeutic effects [11] as

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and a few other groups. Khalanga. Field surveys and data collection Four field surveys were carried out during different seasons of the year (May.14]. The largest ethnic group is the Chhetri (more than 50%). Brikham. Dalits (about 10%). Patan. and Uku (Darchula). Thakuri (7%). The study sites were Anarkholi. Pancheswor. 6:35 http://www. topography. Materials and methods The field study for primary data collection was carried out in the Baitadi. and bio-climate within the districts. Due to variations in altitude. and Rupal (Dadeldhura). Lali. Dadeldhura and Darchula districts of far-west Nepal and comparatively assessed their uses against earlier standard literature on medicinal plants of the same area. Page 2 of 18 Gokule. and Dumling.Kunwar et al. followed by Brahmin (about 20%). Khar (Figure 1). the common uses of the Ayurveda (an ancient traditional system of herbal medicine in the Himalaya) and the latest phytochemical findings.7132 m altitude. Primary data collection. Nepalese medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal properties are being screened for their active pharmacological effects [13]. March-April 2008). December 2006. Salena. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. Ethnic and disadvantaged groups have easy access opportunities provided by the government. There are a number of diverse ethnic groups in the area. The first two groups are considered privileged and the rest are considered ethnic (Janajati) and disadvantaged (Dalits). and Sera (Baitadi). The present study therefore evaluated the ethnomedicinal uses of the selected 48 second priority medicinal plants of Baitadi. Jogbudha.com/content/6/1/35 well as some toxic side-effects [12]. Magar (2 %). the diversity of medicinal plants and knowledge of utilization are vast. 80°03’ and 81°09’E longitude and 357 m . Thus.ethnobiomed. All three districts are situated along the western borders of the country and lie adjacent to India. Jhulaghat. Each survey lasted over 20 days in the field. Khodpe. Dadeldhura. The districts stretch between 29°01’ and 30°15’N latitude. and Darchula districts of farwest Nepal from 2006-2008. Darchula district. Figure 1 Study site: Khar VDC. Kulau. Jakh. Joljibi. February 2007. Dasharathchand. The subsistence use is profound particularly for home herbal healing [5. Patram. after establishing oral .

The first priority medicinal plants with quantitative ethnomedicine were already discussed [14. Raute in study area) [34]. The species enumerated in the present study were the second priority medicinal plants of the local communities with informant consensus factor less than 0. Although traditional herbal medicine is effective in treatment of various ailments with considering ritual and socio-cultural customs [39]. Medicinal plant species were collected during the day and displayed during evening meetings for discussion. Literature [28-33] of Nepal were used as reference for earlier ethnomedicinal information of the same area. customs. and vernacular names and folk uses were recorded for each specimen. this knowledge is passed on orally and therefore is endangered.ethnobiomed. Medicinal herbs are main ingredients of traditional herbal medicine. natural health care practices such as tribal lore. indigenous uses of the species and participants’ priority on species. The Amchi system is widely accepted and practiced throughout high altitude areas of Nepal [10] and is important in Darchula district. The observations of the present survey were compared to earlier observations. The common uses of the Ayurveda were taken from the following literature [21-27]. The dearth of reports of adverse effects and interactions probably . [17]. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. consisted of group discussions. It is estimated that approximately 90% of the Nepalese people reside in rural areas where access to government health care facilities is lacking [30]. Nepal. most of them were accessed from Page 3 of 18 USA. cross-checking. Most of the time. castes. Traditional medicine is made available via ancient. 3% were traditional healers. These people rely predominantly on traditional herbal medicine. About 240 research papers and articles were reviewed for analysis. The remaining unidentified species were identified and housed in Kathmandu at Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium (TUCH). mountainous and rural areas of the country where access and services are limited. Home herbal remedy and the Baidhya system are indigenous to far-west Nepal [14.Kunwar et al. Tribhuvan University. Common species and mono specific genera which were well known by their dialect names were used only for discussion and not managed as voucher specimen for further identification. and the information was sought about vernacular dialects. four group discussions and six informal meetings were held. are well established and practiced in the study area. Ranking was followed to categorize the first. latest common phytochemical findings and common uses of the Ayurveda.20]. better patience tolerance. and the traditional herbal medicine is considered as the main lifeline [36]. very often the medicine is used indigenously with indifference to the scientific knowledge and their possible side effects were overlooked. and occupations were encouraged to participate. Ayurveda and Amchi (traditional healing system of Tibet and mountain areas of Nepal) systems. and the Baidhya. In all surveys. fewer side-effects. Voucher specimens were collected. Nepal is not exempt and in mid-hills. Home herbal remedy and Baidhya system. herbal medicine is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. Specimen collection was made following Cunningham [18]. Thus. Among the respondents. 2010) and relevant journals. Both the collections and surveys/discussions were facilitated by local assistants. albeit with some modifications [29]. the knowledge base for traditional herbal medicine stems from spirituality. As communicated by Kunwar et al. Particularly the Amchi knowledge is passed down through dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi [38].15] and are partly influenced by the Ayurveda [35]. Women were active participants of the informal meetings. and plants were identified to species level. Extant of home herbal remedy in far-west Nepal is also due to relatively homogenous resource users and less encroachment from immigrants. Baidhyas are traditional medicinal practitioners particularly of the western Nepal mid-hills [15] and adjoining areas of India [16]. livelihood strategies and available nearby resources.17]. Most of the species were identified in the field using literature [19.e. 6:35 http://www. informal meetings. The former one is innate to the tribal group (i. in comparison to western medicine.com/content/6/1/35 informed consent with the participating communities. yet transformations of the Ayurveda. Informal meetings were held in villages while staying with them. and cultural acceptance and long history of use. The traditional healers (Baidhyas) and women representing major ethnic groups. Results and Discussion Traditional herbal medicine Traditional herbal medicine has been used since ancient time in many parts of the world where access to formal and modern healthcare is limited. Department of Botany. home herbal remedy. and field observations. schedule surveys. The single most common folk use of each species was valued for further discussion. and 21% were women. 12% were ethnic groups. relatively less expense.85. key informant surveys. the traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. second and third priority medicinal plant species. All plant species encountered during field observations were recorded. Matching information from at least three respondents (mentions) was counted as a common response for the analysis. the first choice [37]. in total 172 individuals were consulted. Pharmacological information was retrieved from internet sources (available till June.

There were seven species in study area exhibiting hepato-protective effects. leaf. and the maximum number of medicinal plant species were used against.Kunwar et al. Use of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) as antipyretic is widely used in study area (Table 1) and throughout Nepal [46] was substantiated by the nimbidin flavonoids [47. milk/latex.48]. diarrhea & dysentery and fever were considered as common. we dealt only the primary one for further discussion in the present study. pharmacology and Ayurvedic uses concerning the following species: the crude extracts of Acacia catechu for cold and cough. Ayurveda and Baidhya systems. antibacterial [59]. shoot. leurosine) show antidiabetic effects [65]. wood. so. despite the hepatotoxic character reported due to its lignans [62]. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. fruit. Anisomeles indica for urinary affections. six species to each category and four for the latter. Pharmacology The results obtained support prior observations. However. Similar observation of maximum number of species used for fever and cuts & wounds was reported by Manandhar [34]. and about 40% species were found to have efficacy in pharmacology. Antidiabetic reports of Azadirachta indica. flower. charantine. Azadirachta Page 4 of 18 indica for fever. the traditional herbal medicine deserves a great scope of research in the light of modern science. Berberine of Tinospora sinensis (Menispermaceae) is antidiabetic [66-68]. Plant extracts of P. Aconitum spicatum as analgesic. indigenous uses of about 70% species resembled to the earlier ethnomedicinal reports. Immunostimulant [58]. hexandrum and Andrographis paniculata showed hepato-protective characters consistent with the folk use and pharmacology. Moreover inadequate modern medical resources/facilities and government subsidies also made traditional herbal medicine pertinent in Nepal. Some alkaloids (aconitine. According to Marles and Farnsworth [70].ethnobiomed.000 people whereas there is more than one healer for every 100 people in Nepal [41. and the whole plant. It is estimated that there is one physician for every 20. and the species of Meliaceae are known to have intense antimalarial characters due to highly oxygenated terpenoids [45]. Crude root extract of Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae) was used as hepatoprotective. Many of the plants most often used in study area to treat ailments are also commonly used all over Nepal. The indigenous uses of about 50% species had affinity to the Ayurveda. anisodamine. Andrographis paniculata for fever. root/rhizome. Podophyllotoxin has manifested antimitotic activity and capability of inhibiting DNA. Alkaloids are most common in flowering plants. A total of 30 ailments were reported in the present study. leaf. Fabaceae. It is known that the families Rutaceae and Meliaceae are among the richest and most diverse sources of secondary metabolites among the angiosperms [44]. Its diterpene exhibits antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties [54-57]. indica are also reported to be an in vitro antimalarial [49-51]. there are about 1. seed. Herbal medicine prescribed by healers is either preparation based on single plant part or a combination of several plant parts. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed as a result of the high cost and long travel time to health center. traditional medicine is still the mainstay of health care in the rural areas of Nepal where the majorities of the denizens are from ethnic groups and scheduled castes. Taxus wallichiana for tumor control. paniculata extract have also been demonstrated. and fruits. especially in Fabaceae. Plant parts root/rhizome. were most frequently utilized. and among these inflammation. berberine. followed by Euphorbiaceae and Lamiaceae (2 each) for herbal medicine in study area. cuts & wounds. and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes. Ranunculaceae and Solanaceae [64]. Euphorbia hirta for asthma. Carum carvi. etc. Therefore. Aconitum spicatum (Ranunculaceae) and Osmanthes fragrans (Oleaceae). Oleic acid and gedunin of A. Moraceae and Rosaceae were represented by the greatest number of species (3 each). six were pharmacology based and three were folkloric. RNA and protein synthesis [63]. Other species contributed as antipyretic in home herbal remedy in study area were Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae). The plant parts used for herbal remedies were bark. This probably explains the use of these plants by indigenous people against a number of infections as transcend from transcultural environment with following home herbal remedy.com/content/6/1/35 reflect a combination of under-reporting and the benign nature of most herbs used [40]. Medicinal plants and their uses Of the 48 species from 46 genera and 40 families (Table 1) discussed in the present study.42]. but higher doses may be antagonistic [69]. These values probably explain the use of A. Tinospora sinensis and Vitex negundo stated in the present communication were . 6:35 http://www. Among them. which strongly support the folkloric use of the plant extract. Andrographolide and neoandrographolide from Andrographis paniculata own anti-inflammatory activity [52. Aesculus indica for joint pain.53]. analgesic [60] and antiprotozoal [61] characteristics of A. Particularly the ethnic groups and scheduled caste are the major stakeholders of the traditional herbal medicine [43].000 species of plants that can act as an antidiabetic and approximately 80% of these are used in folk herbal medicine. paniculata by the indigenous people against a number of infections and fever.

Hatkaudo (L). Plant is hepatoRoot extract is stimulant and purgative [147]. their chemical constituents. Root juice is taken as expectorant.ethnobiomed. radicamine.Kunwar et al. lungs disorders [147]. Plant and root extract is used for rheumatism [136]. family and voucher code Folk use found Major folk uses in in present previous studies survey Major uses in the Ayurveda Selected major chemical constituents Latest common pharmacological findings 1. Root powder is used Carotene. F. Bark paste is expectorant and used for boils [33]. used as antispasmodic [21] and sedative [25]. G. Leaves and flowers Lobeline. tannins. f. Laghupatra (N). Aqueous extract of the plant reduced germination of food crops [150]. bronchitis and fever [31].com/content/6/1/35 Page 5 of 18 Table 1 Major uses of the medicinal plants. May apple (E). virgata Wall. Plant is used for sciatia and back pain [21]. Leaves are used as snuff for smoking and are given internally to relieve pain and swelling [27]. C. for diarrhea. are antispasmodic and they are used as an expectorant. Wood paste is applied for skin diseases (no other information given). P. & Thomson Root juice is taken for liver complaints (no other information given). Fruits act as demulcent and laxative and are useful for lungs. spleen and bladders [136]. indica Lam. Phosre (L). ⊗Scutellaria discolor Colebr. and podophyllotoxin is antitumour. Syn.31]. aryltetralin is antifungal [148]. emodi Wall. Lamiaceae Ratpatya (L). Cannabaceae Hemp (E). eaten as Rosaceae Himalayan dentifrice. podophyllotoxin. . •⊗Lobelia pyramidalis Wall. coumarins. ex Hook. purgative [15. serrulata DC. Cinquefoil (E). 3. 5. control bleeding and stomachache [32]. ♥⊗Grewia disperma Rottb. ⊗Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Berberidaceae Podophyllum. lungs and bladders diseases [33]. Campanulaceae Lobelia (E). Syn. Eklebir (S).31]. Hansapadi. indica Blume Whole plant Plant juice is useful for and leaf paste is headache and fever useful for cuts [28] and wounds and wounds. Aryltetralin. Lectins possess haemagluttinating properties [38]. 2. Fruits are valued as cardiotonic [136]. vomiting and diarrhea [38]. nicotianaefolia Roth Juice of leaves and flowers is rubbed on body parts during body ache. Plant is applied in bleedings and bronchitis. Syn. expel the spines [30]. polyphenols. 6. L. 583/ 00. Tiliaceae Viywal (L). for toothache [25]. lignan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. local name. Plant is efficacious Cannabigerol. Syn. 569/00. Lobeline may cause nausea. Leaf juice is useful for healing wounds. Root juice is given in indigestion and wogonin exerts anxiolytic effects [135]. Bhang (S). Syn. Leaves and inflorescence are antispasmodic [30] and used for asthma. S. Syalpuchre (N). Dampate (N) KU 07263. astragalin. ⊗Ficus palmata Forssk. Root juice is taken during cough and cold. cannabidiol. Plant lignan is hepatotoxic [62]. Bajradanti (N). Plant latex is used to Fruits are taken for Friedelin. Ex Hook. picropodophyllin. •⊗Potentilla fulgens Dried roots are Wall. Syn. 6:35 http://www. Root paste is applied on ulcer. Laghupatra (S). sterols [25]. Fruits are used for constipation. Moraceae Bedu (N). Plant milk is useful for taking out the thorns from wounds. Kanthamun (S). and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references) SN Scientific name. healing [30]. 7. 93/00. cuts and wounds [32]. flavonoids. Root used as tooth powder for toothache [30. Aqueous extract of plant has antitumor effects [149]. Leaf juice is applied to control bleeding. lectins [32]. 4. Plant juice is used for rheumatism [147]. quercetin [27]. Syn. ♥⊗Cannabis sativa L. It is also friedelin. Aklebir (N). siemersiana Lehm. P. Wogonin Root juice is used for – controlling bleeding and bronchitis [147]. Ganja (N).

Camphene. taxol [159]. ex Wall. Plant decoction is used for skin diseases and mouth and mucous defects [21]. and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references) (Continued) 8. root is used for tonsillitis. non. Wild mango (E). antipyretic [162] and digestive properties [163]. E. docetaxol. anthelminthic and carminative [151]. pinene. bronchitis. vernolic acid [160].) Pilger used for cancer Taxaceae Himalayan and bronchitis. Syn. oleanolic acid. Apium carvi L. epilepsy. cough and bodyache Syn. catechoides [32]. Flavonoids of the plant have been known to inhibit intestinal motility and hydroelectrolytic secretion. cough and cold. Amaro (L). Khadirah (S). Alanine. baccatin. an active ingrediant of Acacia catechu. Raw fruits are stomachic and carminative [31]. Nepalese Aconite (E). antipyretic and diterpenoids. dimeric procyanidine. (Roxb. Kalo jira (N). diarrhea and headache [151]. KU 07233. catechutannic acid. Syn.Kunwar et al. sore throat. Bark and leaf juice is useful for asthma.ethnobiomed. lupenoic acid. Wood decoction is 11. Carvone is anthelmintic [153] and antioxidative [154]. Aquous fruit extract is used against hypertension. paclitaxel. Plant seeds are useful in uterinal complaints [22]. rheumatism [30] plant latex is used for bilious dyspepsia [33]. caffeic acid. Plant pseudaconitine. cyanidanol. is claimed to be effective for treating liver diseases [95]. Syn. umbelliferone [100]. scopoletin. piscidal [147]. Cyanidanol. which are known to be altered for diarrhoeal conditions [168]. ♥•⊗Aconitum Root juice is spicatum (Bruhl) Stapf. Engelhardtione possesses antituberculer activities [167]. Khair toothache [30] and for (N). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010.) 12. S. Fractions of extract of leaves inhibited pregnancy in 60% female rats [22]. Yew (E). Dried leaves are Abeotaxane. Wood is used f. 10. and debility [152]. considered to be cephalomannin. Catechuic acid is valued for expectoration for chest infection [165]. lignoceric acid. 6:35 http://www. amyrin. baccata auct.100]. ♥⊗Carum carvi L. Fabaceae as local tea for applied on nosebleeds. It cures vitiation of blood [100] and inhibits tumor growth [101]. Madhuparni (S). tryptamine. abdominal pain. antipyretic and Ranunculaceae analgesic. cough and cold [166]. Lothsalla (N). epicatechin.32]. carvone. Taxifolin has antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities [164]. Caffeic acid of Aconitum species is antioxidative and antiinflammatory [138]. ex Blume Juglandaceae Mahuwa (N). useful for asthma. bronchitis and cancer [30. catechuic acid. gastritis. Bish (S). Pitavraksha (S). Kandeloto (L). Syn. isorhamnetin. •Spondias pinnata (L. quercetin.) Kurtz Anacardiaceae Bile tree. ♥•⊗Taxus wallichiana Leaf juice is (Zucc. ferox var. their chemical constituents. hiccough. A.) Willd. sabinene. myrcene. serine [27. . skin eruptions and Cutch tree (E). Catechu has hypoglycaemic [161]. Plant juice is useful for Latex is demulcent dysentery and [27]. taxifolin. Syn. Apiaceae Caraway (E). Flower juice is useful Bark is used as Flower juice is drunk for for abdominal pain [5]. Wood is useful for cough and diarrhea [25]. limonene. gonorrhoea [157] and diabetes [158]. Plant fruit juice is useful for muscular swellings [30].f. Plant latex is applied for wounds and cuts. T. ⊗Engelhardia spicata Leschen. ♥•⊗Acacia catechu (L. oleanolic acid. Fruits are applied against swelling of breast and testicles. A.com/content/6/1/35 Page 6 of 18 Table 1: Major uses of the medicinal plants. cystine. and used as antidysenteric. astringent. afzelchin. caryophyllene. 13. Acacatechin. phlebotanin. mangifera Willd. Plant tuber is Bikhaconitine. Engelhardtione. spicata Bruhl Tubers are used after detoxification [31] as antipyretic and analgesic [32]. Jangali jira (L). Bikh (N). colebrookeana Lindl. 9. 99/00. Essential oil is antibacterial [155] and antitumeric [156]. analgesic [25]. Fruits are good for painful swelling [152].

campanulin. Bark latex is used to dispel works and germs for livestock [33]. their chemical constituents. Leaves are aromatic – and used for headache and general fever [15. ♥Boehmeria platyplylla D. macrostachya Wedd. Plant is immunostimulant [58]. Linalool. Syn. kalmeghin. rubifacient and vermifuge [183]. neoandrographolide. Good amount of phenols and ursolic acid in the plant help to reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases [129. Gargalo (N). Fruit juice stimulates gadoleic acid. Linalool could possess anxiolytic effect [137]. Syn. Plant is used for fever and nerve defects [21]. Stem juice is useful for boils and pimples. Root paste is applied on the scabies. Shephali (S). Leaf juice is applied on cuts and wounds [174]. f. dysentery and liver disorders [32]. & Zucc. fever and dermatitis [31]. panicolide. oxalic acid. wounds and swollen parts [28. analgesic [60] and antiprotozoal [61]. guijaverin. Plant is useful for curing malarial and intermittent fever. Leaf infusion is taken for headache and for freshness. phenols. Plant andromedotoxin is poisonous to the livestock [136]. Latex is vesicant [147]. Verbenaceae Negunda Chaste tree (E). vitexin [100. S. anti-inflammatory [53]. ache and throat pain. 16. tartaric acid [27]. Polygonum barbata Linn. peduncularisid. oleic acid. Fruits are used for heat Seed oil is used for stroke. antibacterial [59]. casticin. Lac host tree (E).ethnobiomed. Kalmeghin increases biliary flow and liver weight [175] and aids intestinal digestion [176] and liver protection [177. ursolic acid [170. ⊗Vitex negundo L. Kamle (L). and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references) (Continued) 14.182].109] and tracheal contraction [110]. . 6:35 http://www. campesterol. phorbol esters. chlorogenic acid. Kalmegh (N). 17. Plant decoction is used to relieve pain and rheumatism [184]. Leaf extract shows antibacterial [103] and weak antifungal properties [104] and it is good for lowering blood glucose levels [105]. palmitic acid. Root juice is given for stomachache [28] and dysentery [30]. ♥⊗Skimmia anquetilia N. scopolin [179].171] and cancer [172.f.33].Don Ericaceae Chimal (N) 89/00. Milky latex is skin irritant and sprayed as fish poison in stream and tributaries. Syn. Seeds aid digestion. •Sapium insigne (Royle) Benth. f. 21. pinene. Bhunimbah (S). ex Nees Acanthaceae Creat (E). andromedotoxin. trijuga Willd Fruits are eaten as an anthelmintic. Raw plant root juice is considered as antipyretic and effective against infections.com/content/6/1/35 Page 7 of 18 Table 1: Major uses of the medicinal plants. Syn. Leaf extract is used for snake bite [180]. hentriacontane.181]. V. It is useful for inhibition of edema [108. Taylor & Airy Shaw Rutaceae Chillo pate (L). Plant is effective for dermatologial diseases [27]. 15. 18. vanilic acid. Behemin. It is useful in malarial and intermittent fevers [175]. cannabilifolia Sieb.) Wall. Root paste is applied on control bleeding. aucubin. caffeic acid. Simali (N). luteolin nishidine. Stem decoction is useful for ulcers [147]. nicotiflorin. Plant juice is used for headache [28]. Flowers are Flowers are useful for used in body skin diseases [33].Kunwar et al. hair growth [169]. R. rutin. Leaf extract is used for rheumatism and syphilis [147]. – Leaves are astringent. Andrographolide. subspathulata Clarke. Plant juice is poisonous to fish [147]. Khirro (N). Acetophenone. Kusum (N). and valued as skin diseases [27]. gallic acid. 20. Honey tree. wallichii Hook. epifriedelinol. cancer treatment [106] and acne control [107]. ♥•⊗Andrographis paniculata (Burm. geraniol.) Hara Polygonaceae Pirrhe (N).178]. Nirgundhi (L). skimmianine. Leaf juice is useful for gastric troubles [30] and used for common cold. cryptopleurine. ⊗Schleichera oleosa (Lour. Kitatikta. Leaf juice is useful in stomachache. Euphorbiaceae Tallow tree (E). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010.) Oken Sapindaceae Macassar tree.30]. secophenanthroqlinolizidine [174].Don Urticaceae Chinese grass (E). B. Narpati (N). umbelliferone [181. scopoletin.171].P. quercetin. anthelmintic and tonic [33]. Hook. Agnusid. ⊗Persicaria barbata (L. stearic acid. Syn. appetite stimulant [30]. Amyrin. A. Syn.173]. quinic acid. 19. Rhododendron campanulatum D. ex. Corilagin.

♥•Bauhinia variegata L.) Schott Araceae Banko (N). sprains. M. Meliaceae Neem tree. liver complaint and diabetes [32]. Methanolic tuber asparagine.31]. niacin.Don Myricaceae Box myrtle Bay berry. Both raw and dried leaves are used for fever and blood disorders (no other information given). anticholinergic. Kovidarah (S). (E). limonoids. antipyretic [49]. Syn. B. cysteine. Bark decoction is useful for asthma. vegetable. Kaidaryama (S). Methanolic extract of stem bark is useful for memory longevity [187] and used as an analgesic [188]. •⊗Myrica esculenta Buch. Flower and floral buds are eaten regularly to cure leucorrhoea and mumps. Azadirachtin. They are used for malarial and intermittent fever. Koiralo (N). lupeol. Root paste is applied for eye inflammation. tannins. linoleic acid. and used for hemorrhage and healing external wounds [21]. Ficus religiosa Linn. Phytosterolin. sinusitis [31] and chronic bronchitis. Kachnar. silic acid [101. folic acid. fractures. Arisaema flavum (Forsk. Root paste is useful for – wounds [30]. •⊗Equisetum diffusum Plant stem juice D. 23. taraxerol [181]. antiviral property [194]. glycine. ex D. Aswatha paralysis. dysentery and piles [31]. (S). Neem (N). Don Equisetaceae is given for Spreading horsetail gonorrhea. Ankhle jhar (L). equisetolic acid.ethnobiomed. Kumbhi. body ache. nicotiflorin. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. oleic acid. Leaves are anthelmintic and good for cough. rhamnopyranoside. Dried flowers are given for diarrhea. asthma. ulcer protective [200] and hypoglycaemic [201]. Butein. ♥•⊗Azadirachta indica A. Fruits are eaten for dysentery and bark decoction is given for bronchitis. ascorbic acid. their chemical constituents.Kunwar et al. antihistaminic and antinicotinic effects [197]. Juss. Kurkure (N). Leaves are used for skin diseases and blood circulatory defects [21] and useful for ulcers. 562/00. myricitrin. Flower juice is taken for dysentery and diarrhea [30]. – Methanolic root extract showed moderate antiinflammatory effect [192]. and eye problems [15. Pipal (N). earache and Tubers are used for skin diseases. 26. extracts revealed weak norvaline. stearic acid [195]. nimbin. hentriacontane.com/content/6/1/35 Page 8 of 18 Table 1: Major uses of the medicinal plants. gedunin. 27. headache. 28. 0555/00. Bark is astringent. Methanolic plant extract shows good free radical scavenging activity [191]. Methanol extract of B. (E).-Ham. antiulcer. toothache. Bark juice is Moraceae Peepal tree applied for (E). diarrhea and dysentery [32]. Apigenin. myricadiol. variegata bark showed the most remarkable activity as antimicrobial [185] and anticancer [186]. Friedelin. ornithine [100]. Syn. ariseminone. Nimbidin possesses anti-inflammatory [170]. burns and scabies [33]. asthma. myricanol. Fabaceae Mountain ebony (E). dysentery and lung affections [147]. 205/00. nimbidin. – Alanine. sores. Bark is astringent. Fresh flowers are used as laxative [32]. fraquhariana Wall. Kafal (N). Bark extract is useful as antibacterial [198] and antisplasmodial [199]. piles and urinary discharge [31]. and its decoction is given for gonorrhoea and skin disease [30. . kaemferol. Syn.33]. ♥⊗Parnassia nubicola Wall. Melia azadirachta L. swellings and wounds [25]. Flowers are astringent and used for diarrhea and hemorrhage [21]. Margosa tree (E).190]. candida Ait. vitamin K. and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references) (Continued) 22. Young shoots stomachache and are cooked as chest infection [29]. Plant is diuretic and useful for gonorrhea [147]. Plant root juice is given for urinary troubles [30]. Aristha. myricanone. Parnassiaceae Mamira (N). Nimbah (S). Rhizome juice is Leaves are consumed applied on as a laxative [15]. octacosanol. 25. Leaf extract promotes wound healing. 567/00. analgesic [196]. Bark is useful for cough. 6:35 http://www. Methanolic root extract showed potent antiinflammatory effect [193]. Phytosterolin is CNS stimulant and hypoglycemic [189]. 24.

linalool. Fruits are eaten for common cold and pneumonia of child.Kunwar et al.131]. catechin. Turmeric (E). retinitis [30. Q. Bhuikafal (N). ovatodiolide. ⊗Osmanthes fragrans Lour.209]. Root juice is useful for dysuria and spermatorrhoea [147]. Leaf decoction is used for cough and bronchitis [32]. malabaric acid. phillyrin. ♥⊗Lichen species Lichen Lichen (E). borneol.33]. nerves and lungs [29]. Plant extract is hepatoprotective and plant coumarin and flavonoids inhibit platelet aggregation [211]. Syn. KU 07242. Alanine. Plant extract has antioxidant and melanogenesis inhibitory effects [212. sitosterol. Stem bark is valued for Leaf juice is tonic boils. Don) Mirb.208]. friedelin. b sitosterol. Ratocharpate (N). lignoceric acid [210]. ♥•⊗Anisomeles indica (L. pedallitin. pelagonodin. Rhizome paste is externally applied to bruises. carvone. acuminatus (Wall. 30. taxinine [24. Baanjh (N). Plant is astringent. antiviral [82]. Pre-flowering plant water extract is analgesic [203]. eugenol. cineole. Lichen extract and decoction is applied to treat moles.91] control blood pressure [93].com/content/6/1/35 Page 9 of 18 Table 1: Major uses of the medicinal plants. Rosaceae Alpine strawberry (E). Fruits are useful for throat pain and fever [28]. •⊗Abies spectabilis (D. – Cyclobalanone. Lichen is cardiac tonic [147]. Fruits are astringent and diuretic [147]. terpinene [100. leuropin. ellagic acid. anisomelic acid. succinic acid [100]. 36. Melothria heterophylla L. curlone. O. ovata R. Paste is used as ointment and antibiotic for cuts and wounds [31]. Oleaceae Tree Jasmine (E).) Nakai Leaf juice is taken for fever and cold. amyrin. indigestion and tuberculosis [22]. Ovatodiolide and pedallitin of Anisomeles indica is good antiinflammatory [202]. Haridra. pains and injuries [31]. cerotic acid.ethnobiomed. oleanolic acid. Pinus tinctoria Wallich ex D. Gobre Salla (L.N). vesca L. vulpinic acid [112]. 31. Leaf extract is useful for urinary complaints (no other information given). catechin. 33. anorexia. stigmasterol [27. caryoplhylene. Tuber is used for skin diseases and urinary complaints [21]. F.32].213] and neuroprotective property [214]. Siringe (N). Ellagic acid of the plant is responsible for antioxidant activity [128].S). campesterol. Kachur (L). camphene. Fagaceae Wooly oak (E). Syn. ♥⊗Fragaria nubicola Lindl. Resin is useful for soothing body ache [30]. tonic and its juice is useful for urinary affections [30. Rhizome paste is externally applied for paralysis.) Kuntze Lamiaceae Malabar catmint (E). Carotenoids. behemic acid. A. betulin. usnic acid. It is also useful for AIDS [90. Root juice is taken for fever [33]. Syn. 167/ 00. Sathi. and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references) (Continued) 29. Plant extract with the ephedrine should always be used with caution in patients with hypertension [38. ♥Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. Plant extract is antimicrobial and antiinflammatory [101. Cucurbitaceae Ban kankri (N) KU 07255. barbatic acid. curzerenone. luteolin. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. Syn. gallic acid. flavonoids [215]. Solena heterophylla Lour. Don Heart wood is taken as tea and it is laxative in nature. Syn. 6:35 http://www. Parmelia species are antimicrobial and used to treat warts [118. antispasmodic [86] and hepatoprotective [87]. Resin and bark tannin is anti-inflammatory [122.Br. Fruit paste heals Plant juice is useful for skin diseases inflammation of the and wounds. Caffeic acid. Latyaz (L). Behemic acid. Jhyau (N). abdominal lump. Plant is taken for uterine affections [147]. Pinaceae Himalayan Silver Fir (E). Haldi (N) Ban haldi. Talispatra (N. bronchitis.210]. 32. Zingiberaceae Zeodory. Syn. antifungal [83]. limonene. cough. rheumatism. Plant extract is antimutagenic [216]. nasal congestions [30]. ligustroside.33]. taxine. camphene.119] and cranial diseases [206]. stearic acid. tannins [100]. b pinene. Atranorin. their chemical constituents. KU 07244. Harita (S) KU 07259.181]. Syn. catechutannic acid. . Ethanolic leaf extract is strong antiviral [204] and anti HIV potential [205]. Dry resin is taken to treat dysentery [33]. 35. Fresh tuber juice is antiparasitic and useful for skin affections [25]. norstictic acid. ephedrine. KU 07267. Pinene of Abies leaves is anti-inflammatory and antidepressant [207]. C. Anthraquinone. Don Leaves are Plant needle oil is sniffed for valued for colds and cough and cold. longa L. apigenin. ♥⊗Quercus lanata Sm. cough and [147]. Curcumin is antiinflammatory [78-80]. lanuginosa D. curcumin curdione. 34. Plant is considered to be used for asthma. columbin.

– – . Asteraceae Bhutkes (N) KU 07266. chlorophenolic acid. stearic acid [181]. Don) M. pilulifera L. latbenia (Moq. 42. quercitol. for dysentery. shikimic acid [100]. Vasicine exhibited strong respiratory stimulant. Plant extract is analgesic. – Plant extract is useful for skin disease [222]. Roem. – Vasicine. Asparagenin. 39. Sterculiaceae Sterculia. Ex Master) Corner Stem bark is considered as an astringent. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. ♥⊗Phytolacca acinosa Phytolaccaceae Pokeberry (E). Firmiana fulgens (Wall. ex D. The methanol extract of flowers has antibacterial activity [75]. sarsapogenin. parallin. Odaal (N). Plant juice is useful for boils. 44. Plant alkaloid is effective in bronchodilation [27]. tannin [126. It is used for cooking breads. Rosaceae Nepali white thorn (E). Acinosolic acid. capitata Buch. Syn. Root extract cures scabies [30] and purifies blood [33]. Root extract shows weak triosinase inhibitory activity i. Smilax aspera Wall. antifungal [226] and anti-viral effects [227]. 101/ 00.ethnobiomed. P. aphrodisiac.Kunwar et al. 38. lectins. anthelmintic and antidysenteric [217].100]. Bark juice and roasted – figs are useful for diarrhea and dysentery [28. Syn. Sterculia villosa Roxb. Odaal tree (E). pseudogenin. Pyracrenic acid is antiinflammatory [223]. engelitin. Ghangaru (N). ⊗Pyracantha Fruits are eaten crenulata (D. and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references) (Continued) 37. Plant juice is applied in asthma and diarrhea. Phorbol acid. b sitosterol. expectorant. Plant is brain stimulant.Ham. E. betaine.Don Root decoction is used for venereal disease. spergulagenic acid.e. It is useful for cardiovascular complaints. quercetin.) H.232]. burns and scabies [33]. Pusitoba (S). linoleic acid. Dudhi jhar (N). phytolaccagenin. Stem juice is used for dropsy and gout [229]. myricadol. Root infusion is taken as food adjunct [33]. Smilacaceae Rough birdweed (E). roxburghii Wall Stem juice is considered effective against diarrhea and fruits are consumed for dysentery. Timila (N). F. Ash of the plant is spread on boils and pimples [30]. friedelin [100]. oleanolic acid. 43. Root juice is taken for cough and cold [30]. •Evolvulus alsinoides (L. ♥•⊗Euphorbia hirta Linn.220] and antibacterial properties [221]. Saponin extracts from Phytolacca demonstrated antiinflammatory [225]. antiasthmatic. Walter Vegetable is consumed for body ache (no other information given). Syn. Carduus macrocephalus Wall. moderate hypotensive. Decoction of plant is taken for increase memory. Moraceae Eve’s apron (E). Syn. their chemical constituents. jailigonic acid. sorbitol.) Linn. Chopchini (L). 40. Rutinoside is cancer inhibitory [230]. smilogenin. Root decoction is taken in stomachache and diarrhea. Fabaceae Aankuri phul (N). wound healing [219. b sitosterol. and used as an antispasmodic. 6:35 http://www. evolvine. cardiacdepressant and abortifacient [233]. anticatarrhal [74. 41.228]. Kukurdaina (N). S. cuts and wounds [30] and is considered to be used in treatment of asthma and cough [32]. Galloylquinic acid. Asthma weed (E).33]. camphol. Euphorbiaceae Snake weed. Root is used for stomachache and diarrhea [29]. ♥⊗Ficus auriculata Lour. ⊗Jurinea dolomiea Bioss. tannin [223]. CNS depressant [218] and has anthelmintic. Tannins of the bark extract may reveal antiinflammatory and analgesic activities [231]. Syn. rutinoside. Fruit powder is used for blood dysentery [30. Syn. oleic acid. Plant is narcotic and – purgative in properties [30]. zonarol [32. leucocyanidol. Pyracrenic acid.30]. asthma and spleen disorders [27]. epifriedelanol. Visnukravita (S). Plant latex is applied for cuts. Jaringo (N). White exudes of the – tree is used for throat infection.com/content/6/1/35 Page 10 of 18 Table 1: Major uses of the medicinal plants. Skin whitening [224]. Plant paste is applied on scorpion sting.

genital disorders and diabetes [32]. Dilute stem juice is drunk for diabetes. isocolumbin. having ethnopharmaceutical uses [73]. Berberine. antifungal [83]. jatrorhizine. b sitosterol. ex Cambess. D. Panger. non L. Water extract (berberine) is antipyretic [234] and antidiabetic [66] due to berberine [68] but higher doses may be antagonistic [69]. Bark is used for dislocated joints and seed oil is considered to be used for rheumatism [147].Don Bark decoction Betulaceae is useful for Himalayan Birch (E). Plant is used for delaying hypersensitivity [238]. 47. their chemical constituents. antibacterial [81]. Horse 563/ 00. Menispermaceae Heart leaved Moonseed (E). and can cause severe skin irritation and are toxic to livestock and humans [72]. and its fume is used leucocyanidin. Syn. antitumor [84.ethnobiomed. Syn. = Synonymous ⊗ = Species’s use resembled with the common uses of Ayurveda. astragalin. bhojpattra Lindl. Lekhyapatrak (S). alkaloids. T. Betulinic acid is antiinflammatory [237]. Aescin is cardiostimulant and antiinflammatory [239]. Root juice is anthelmintic [240]. and latest common pharmacological findings (species are in order of references) (Continued) 45. Bark decoction is given to treat fever. Naaru (S). diabetes.30. • = Species’s use resembled with earlier reports. bronchitis cough [15.com/content/6/1/35 Page 11 of 18 Table 1: Major uses of the medicinal plants. ♥⊗Daphne bholua Buch.) Merr. ♥•⊗Aesculus indica (Colebr. Plant extract is hepatoprotective [235]. injuries. Pharmacologically. ex Wall. Rhizome extract of the plant was widely used for skin diseases (bruises. gonorrhoea [31]. palmatine. tinosporin. and hepato-protective [87]. antispasmodic [86]. Gore. Bhojpatra (N). tinosporide [27]. The folk use of Acacia catechu (Fabaceae) wood tea as an expectorant fairly corroborated the pharmacological properties because the tannin and cyanidanol [94. cancer. Stem juice is antipyretic. Karu (N). cannabina Lour. ♥ = Species’s use resembled with latest common phytochemical findings pharmacologically rationale and that of A. which is consistent with the folkloric use in treatment of respiratory complaints. antiviral [82]. for easy delivery and lupeol.75] and effective as expectorant [76. magnoflorine. N = Nepali. catechol. Daphnoside. Amritavali (S). tembeterine. 48. etc. cordifolia auct. curcumin of Curcuma species (Zingiberaceae) acts as an anti-inflammatory [78-80]. Gurjo (N). cordifol. quercetin. Sapium insigne (Euphorbiaceae) is skin irritant. Syn. Lokta. Seed oil is used for scabies and skin diseases [15. Baruwa (L). S = Sanskrit.89] thus curcumin may prove useful as a drug for arthritis. taraxerol [100]. choline. Seed oil is valued for joint pain and skin problems (no other information given). Bhurjah. ex D. They are rich in active compounds including terpenoids. ♥•⊗Tinospora sinensis (Lour. and commonly used as fish poison in study area and throughout Nepal [28]. Stem juice is valued for dysentery. Bark extract is antiseptic [100]. Root extract is used for – intestinal disorder and powered seeds are taken as an anthelmintic [28].77] and broncho-dilator [27]. Stem is used for urinary diseases and hepatitis [21]. daphnetin. Aescin. The hepato-protective and hypoglycemic properties of A. HIV [90-92] and high blood pressure [93]. Kagaj pate (N). sinensis was folk-based. Tannins are also known as antimicrobial [96] and triterpenoids are beneficial for inflammation and cancer [97].) in west Nepal [15] and in the Ayurveda [21]. Euphorbiaceae species are generally characterized by milky latex [71]. aesculuside. luteolin. Syn. epicatechin. Guduchi.95] of the plant impart astringent activity which helps to recuperate diarrhea. genkwanin.Don Thymelaeaceae Nepali paper plant (E). 46. indica and T. Seeds are taken for stomachache and anthelmintic. sore throat.33]. Both the water and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae) are antibacterial [74. Bark is used for bacterial infections. Wide range of pharmacological reports including antibacterial and antiviral complements the folk use to treat paralysis. wounds and burns [30]. Hippocastanaceae Horse chesnut (E). phenolics and fatty acids.85]. placenta expels [21]. Bark is astringent Betulin. The oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin has been implicated in its anti-inflammatory effects [88. 6:35 http://www. rutin. lupenone. and cuts. catechu could be . and sticky saps are co-carcinogenic. Bhuj pat (L). oleanolic acid.33]. ♥⊗Betula utilis D. 556/ 00. saponins [100].-Ham. B. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010.Kunwar et al. E = English. skin diseases. hypoglycaemic [67] and immunostimulant [236]. antiperiodic and alterative [25]. L = Local. decanoic acid. karachic acid.) Hook.

Lichens and their metabolites have manifold biological activity: antiviral. berberine. antiherbivore.122]. hypoglycemic [105]. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of Fragaria fruit extracts [101. Aconitum spicatum (Ranunculaceae). In the study area. ecological roles and enzyme inhibitory [113. antibiotic [112]. Ficus religiosa. anti-cancer [106]. Linalool is the main constituent of Skimmia root. Solena heterophylla and Sterculia villosa repudiated to any of the comparables. Ellagic acid of Fragaria nubicola (Rosaceae) is also responsible for antioxidant activity [128]. so it is never used alone by the local communities. 6:35 http://www. However. antifungal [104]. allergenic. plant growth inhibitory. Rhododendron campanulatum (Figure 2). spicatum as an analgesic is consistent to the anti-inflammatory activity of caffeic acid found in the plant extract [138]. vitamin C [124]. which probably rationalize the activities of wogonin. Smilax aspera. multi-component therapy has been practiced and considered as effective Figure 2 Rhododendron campanulatum D. In some cases. The indigenous uses of six species Arisaema flavum. Usnic acid and vulpunic acid (produced by mycobiont) of lichens are mitotic regulators [115] and own antibiotic properties [116]. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2010. under different medical systems and comparisons pose more research scopes.111]. The compounds which contribute to the antioxidative properties are polyphenols [123]. The unlike uses of the species after thorough scrutiny.118]. inhibitor of edema [108. the usage is yet to be verified pharmacologically. Parmelia sulcata lichen manifests antibacterial and antifungal activities [117. antitumor. vitiate blood disorders [100] and control tumor growth [101]. A paste made from its roots is applied as antipyretic and analgesic after mixing with Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae). Diterpenoid alkaloids. Linalool also possesses an anxiolytic effect [137]. antibacterial [103]. Folk uses as antipyretic and analgesic of A. it did not corroborate the folk use for stomachache but was partially complemented by earlier observations [30. Lectins of Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) possess haema-gluttinating properties [38] which corroborate the indigenous use of the leaf extract to control bleeding. Plant root extract is also useful for rheumatism [136]. anthocyanins [126]. Folk use of wood tea of Quercus lanata (Fagaceae) as a laxative may verify the actions of tannin. Antioxidants are associated with reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases [129] and many other ailments [130]. Crude leaf extract of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) is recommended as antitussive and anti-asthma [102]. Several instances are rational behind a certain function of a phytomolecule sometimes inconsistent to the pharmacology and ethnopharmacology. Further pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of those species which reveal weak pharmacological validities are needed before they can be used as therapeutic potentials. since these uses were additional to the Nepalese ethnomedicinal vault and these addition demands further research. toxicity of plants should be borne in mind. and flavonoids [127]. About 80% of plant alkaloids possesses antiinflammatory properties and among them isoquinoline (berbamine.133] and it is in accord to the Page 12 of 18 Ayurvedic uses. .140]). while advocating herbal medicine as alternative therapy. and this effect probably substantiates the folk uses of Skimmia anquetilia (Rutaceae) leaves as medicine for headache and freshness. Whole plant and leaf paste is useful for cuts & wounds. acne control [107].114]. Wogonin of Scutellaria discolor (Lamiaceae) is considered as a most potent antiviral [134] and anxiolytic [135] compound. spicatum root extract are validated by the in vitro antimicrobial properties. Use of Parmelia species to treat warts [119] is analogous to its folk use. are commonly found to have antimicrobial properties [141]. cepharanthine and tetrandine) was the most active [139.Kunwar et al. Taxus leaf juice is used for treatment of cancer and bronchitis.ethnobiomed. taken alone is poisonous. Tannins reveal activities against central nervous system disorders [120] and inflammation [121. Leaf extracts of Taxus wallichiana (Taxaceae) inhibit pregnancy in rats [22].Don (Chimal): Flowers are used in body ache and throat pain. The usage of root powder of Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) as a dentifrice is common in the study area and throughout Nepal [132. commonly isolated from the plants of Ranunculaceae family.com/content/6/1/35 attributed to the quercetin [98] and epicatechin [99] respectively. Folk use of root extract of A.109] to tracheal contraction [110]. Moreover. b carotene [125]. However.131] are consistent with the folkloric use as remedy for skin diseases and wounds.

Conclusions Validation of the ethnomedicinal uses of 48 Nepalese medicinal plants using comparative assessment with the common uses of the Ayurveda. Delves HT. 5. Taylor RSL. Tribhuvan University. 7. Thus. Abstract presented in the 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Biomedical and Therapeutic Sciences Bundelkhand University. International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). Keen RW. Warude D. Heywood V.146]. The Netherlands. Manandhar NP. Rai SK. uses and management. aromatic and dye plants of Baitadi and Darchula districts. Chettri MK. 12. Erfurt. Pushpangadan P. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications 2005. Thapa CB. 8. 70:113-114. Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. Nepal BK. Rhododendron campanulatum. Towers GHN: Antimicrobial activities of southern Nepalese medicinal plants. Nepal. RMK carried out field research. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1989. 46(3):257-261. 6. Polunin O: Flowers of the Himalaya Oxford University Press. 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