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Conservation Ethics

Conservation Ethics

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Published by Hafiz Amirrol
Presentation for Architecture Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Studies, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, 2010
Presentation for Architecture Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Studies, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, 2010

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Published by: Hafiz Amirrol on Feb 24, 2010
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HUKUM DAN ETIKA DALAM PROFESI ARSITEKTUR

ETHICS IN BUILDING ON CONSERVATION AREAS
the case of Majapahit Information Center, Trowulan (Baskoro Tedjo) and the New Acropolis Museum, Athens (Bernard Tschumi)

CASE STUDIES

Project: Location: Type:

Majapahit Information Center Trowulan, East Java, Indonesia New building on heritage site

Project: Location: Type:

New Acropolis Museum Acropolis, Athens, Greece New building on heritage site

Architect: Baskoro Tedjo

Architect: Bernard Tschumi

ETHICS IN BUILDING ON CONSERVATION SITE

1. The intervention must be the minimum necessary. 2. The intervention should be reversible if technically possible. This is more likely to be achievable with traditional methods. 3. The intervention should not prejudice future intervention. 4. The intervention should not hinder later access to all the evidence incorporated in the structure. 5. The intervention should be totally directed by dedicated respect for aesthetics, and historical and physical integrity. 6. The intervention should allow the maximum amount of existing material to be retained.

ETHICS IN BUILDING ON CONSERVATION SITE

7. The intervention should be harmonizing in color, tone, texture, form and scale. 8. Restoration should not be attempted unless there is adequate archaeological evidence or there is good photographic or drawn evidence for the items to be replaced. In addition the items must be essential to reinstate the original design concept. 9. Restoration in order to re-instate the original design concept is only done in exceptional circumstances and where the restoration is absolutely necessary for the structure to be fully understood and appreciated by the observer. Archaeological curiosity should not be engaged in, so as to attempt to retrieve the evidence, especially if this will result in unnecessary intervention in the structure.

REQUIREMENTS IN BUILDING ON CONSERVATION SITE

1. The historical development of the building must be fully documented. (No decisions regarding intervention should be made in isolation of the full knowledge of all the building phases). 2. The condition of the building and the condition of any materials must be fully documented before the intervention has taken place. 3. The methods and materials used must be fully documented. 4. The intervention must be taken by a conservator/contractor who is fully trained and experienced in this field of work.

KEY PROCESSES

PROCESSES

MAJAPAHIT INFORMATION CENTER

NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM

Site Survey

YES

YES

Open Competition

NO

YES

Archeological Research

YES

YES

Design Presentation (to authority)

YES

YES

Design Presentation (to archeologist)

NO

YES

Design Presentation (to public)

NO

YES

KEY PROCESSES

PROCESSES

MAJAPAHIT INFORMATION CENTER

NEW ACROPOLIS MUSEUM

Public Voting

NO

YES

Appointment of Archeological Experts

NO

YES

Appointment of
NO YES

Specialist Contractors

Design Evaluation Team (design revision)

YES

YES

Continuous Archeological Supervision
NO YES

ETHICS CODE REFERENCES

Ref: Ikatan Arsitek Indonesia
Standar Etika 1.4 WARISAN ALAM, BUDAYA DAN LINGKUNGAN Arsitek sebagai budayawan selalu berupaya mengangkat nilai-nilai budaya melalui karya, serta wajib menghargai dan membantu pelestarian, juga berupaya meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan hidupnya yang tidak semata-mata indah dengan menggunakan pendekatan teknis-ekonomis, tetapi juga menyertakan asas pembangunan berkelanjutan. Kaidah Tata Laku 1.401 Arsitek berkewajiban berperan aktif dalam pelestarian bangunan/ arsitektur dan/ atau kawasan bersejarah yang bernilai tinggi. Kaidah Tata Laku 1.402 Arsitek berkewajiban meneliti secara cermat sebelum melakukan rencana peremajaan, pembongkaran bangunan/ kawasan yang dinilai memiliki potensi berdasarkan peraturan yang berlaku dan/ atau penilaian pakar. Kaidah Tata Laku 1.403 Arsitek berkewajiban memberitahukan dan memberikan saran kepada Pengurus IAI Daerah/ Cabang untuk diteruskan kepada yang berwenang, apabila mengetahui ada rencana perombakan, peremajaan, pembongkaran bangunan dan/ atau kawasan yang perlu dilestarikan di daerahnya. Kaidah Tata Laku 1.403 Arsitek mengusahakan penggunaan sumber daya secara efisien, meningkatkan mutu sumber daya manusia, mempertahankan dan memperkaya keanekaan hayati serta kelestarian lingkungan.

ETHICS CODE REFERENCES

Ref: American Institute of Architects
CANON 1: General Obligations: Natural and Cultural Heritage E.S 1.3 Members should respect and help conserve their natural and cultural heritage while striving to improve the environment and the quality of life within it.

Ref: Royal Institute of British Architects
Principle 2 - Competence 2.1 Members are expected to apply high standards of skill, knowledge and care in all their work. They must also apply their informed and impartial judgement in reaching any decision…. 2.2 Members should realistically appraise their ability to undertake and achieve any proposed work. They should also make their client aware of the likelihood of achieving the client’s requirement and aspirations. If members feel they unable to comply, they should not quote for, or accept, the work. 2.3 ……Members should maintain appropriate records throughout their engagement.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Archeological Institute of America, Code of Ethics (2007) Ikatan Arsitek Indonesia, Kode Etik Arsitek dan Kaidah Tata Laku Profesi Arsitek (2007) American Institute of Architects, Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct (2007) Royal Institute of British Architects, Code of Professional Conduct (2005) US Department of Interior, Natural Historic Preservation Act 1966 (2008)

FURTHER READINGS

1. 2. 3.

http://heptadesain.wordpress.com/2009/01/17/baskoro-tedjo-dan-kontroversi-trowulan/ http://www.newacropolismuseum.gr/eng/ http://www.archaeological.org/pdfs/AIA_Code_of_EthicsA5S.pdf

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